Science.gov

Sample records for appl induces deterioration

  1. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  2. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete--a review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed.

  3. Appl1 and Appl2 are Expendable for Mouse Development But Are Essential for HGF-Induced Akt Activation and Migration in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinfei; Xin, Xiaoban; Coffey, Francis J; Wiest, David L; Dong, Lily Q; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Although Appl1 and Appl2 have been implicated in multiple cellular activities, we and others have found that Appl1 is dispensable for mouse embryonic development, suggesting that Appl2 can substitute for Appl1 during development. To address this possibility, we generated conditionally targeted Appl2 mice. We found that ubiquitous Appl2 knockout (Appl2-/-) mice, much like Appl1-/- mice, are viable and grow normally to adulthood. Intriguingly, when Appl1-/- mice were crossed with Appl2-/- mice, we found that homozygous Appl1;Appl2 double knockout (DKO) animals are also viable and grossly normal with regard to reproductive potential and postnatal growth. Appl2-null and DKO mice were found to exhibit altered red blood cell physiology, with erythrocytes from these mice generally being larger and having a more irregular shape than erythrocytes from wild type mice. Although Appl1/2 proteins have been previously shown to have a very strong interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (Pi3k) in thymic T cells, Pi3k-Akt signaling and cellular differentiation was unaltered in thymocytes from Appl1;Appl2 (DKO) mice. However, Appl1/2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited defects in HGF-induced Akt activation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, these data suggest that Appl1 and Appl2 are required for robust HGF cell signaling but are dispensable for embryonic development and reproduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  5. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Wei, Liangliang; Zhu, Miaochang; Sun, Hongfang; Tang, Luping; Xing, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m2, corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface. PMID:28793442

  6. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Wei, Liangliang; Zhu, Miaochang; Sun, Hongfang; Tang, Luping; Xing, Feng

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m², corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface.

  7. A metabolic profile for ‘Honeycrisp’ apple soggy breakdown, a chilling induced physiological disorder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Honeycrisp’ is an economically important apple cultivar increasing rapidly in planted acreage in many apple growing regions. Long-term cold storage can enhance value by enabling a longer window of availability, but the cultivar is highly susceptible to chilling induced disorders. Soggy breakdown ...

  8. Sucrose delays membrane deterioration of chrysanthemum flowers induced by gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, O. K.; Todoriki, S.; Hayashi, T.

    1998-06-01

    Fluidity of the flower membranes of cut chrysanthemums ( Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura) decreased soon after gamma-irradiation at 750Gy and continued to decrease during storage following irradiation. Holding chrysanthemum cut inflorescence in 2% sucrose suppressed the decrease. The results suggest that sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemum flower membranes.

  9. Antioxidant activity of apple extract protects against rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Andressa Pidone; Peres, Rogerio Correa; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Spolidorio, Luiz Carlos; Maluf, Luciana Le Sueur; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that apple (Malus sp.) has many components able to exert chemopreventive activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of apple extract following medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) by means of histopathological analysis and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as CuZnSOD, MnSOD and catalase. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were distributed into five groups, as follows (n = 6 per group): Group 1 - negative control group (non-treated group); Group 2 - received 4NQO during 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract by gavage between the 1st and 4th weeks daily (initiation phase); Group 3 - received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract by gavage between the 5th and 8th weeks daily (promotion phase); Group 4 - received apple extract by gavage for eight consecutive weeks only; and Group 5 - received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water daily. Histopathological analysis revealed that apple extract protect oral lesions induced by 4NQO at initiation or promotion phase. Higher gene expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD enzymes were noticed in groups treated with apple extract as well. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the apple extract is able to modulate medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay as a result of antioxidant activity.

  10. Quantifying Six-Minute Walk Induced Gait Deterioration with Inertial Sensors in Multiple Sclerosis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dandu, Sriram Raju; Patek, Stephen D.; Lach, John C.; Goldman, Myla D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The six-minute walk (6MW) is a common walking outcome in multiple sclerosis (MS) thought to measure fatigability in addition to overall walking disability. However, direct evidence of 6MW induced gait deterioration is limited by the difficulty of measuring qualitative changes in walking. Objectives This study aims to (1) define and validate a measure of fatigue-related gait deterioration based on data from body-worn sensors; and (2) use this measure to detect gait deterioration induced by the 6MW. Methods Gait deterioration was assessed using the Warp Score, a measure of similarity between gait cycles based on dynamic time warping (DTW). Cycles from later minutes were compared to baseline cycles in 89 subjects with MS and 29 controls. Correlation, corrected (partial) correlation, and linear regression were used to quantify relationships to walking and fatigue outcomes. Results Warp Scores rose between minute 3 and minute 6 in subjects with mild and moderate disability (p < 0.001). Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.001) to the MS walking scale (MSWS-12), modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS) physical subscale, and cerebellar and pyramidal functional system scores (FSS) were observed even after controlling for walking speed. Regression of MSWS-12 scores on Warp Scores and walking speed explained 73.9% of response variance. Correlations to individual MSWS-12 and MFIS items strongly suggest a relationship to fatigability. Conclusion The Warp Score has been validated in MS subjects as an objective measure of fatigue-related gait deterioration. Progressive changes to gait cycles induced by the 6MW often appeared in later minutes, supporting the importance of sustained walking in clinical assessment. PMID:27479220

  11. Quantifying six-minute walk induced gait deterioration with inertial sensors in multiple sclerosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Matthew M; Dandu, Sriram Raju; Patek, Stephen D; Lach, John C; Goldman, Myla D

    2016-09-01

    The six-minute walk (6MW) is a common walking outcome in multiple sclerosis (MS) thought to measure fatigability in addition to overall walking disability. However, direct evidence of 6MW induced gait deterioration is limited by the difficulty of measuring qualitative changes in walking. This study aims to (1) define and validate a measure of fatigue-related gait deterioration based on data from body-worn sensors; and (2) use this measure to detect gait deterioration induced by the 6MW. Gait deterioration was assessed using the Warp Score, a measure of similarity between gait cycles based on dynamic time warping (DTW). Cycles from later minutes were compared to baseline cycles in 89 subjects with MS and 29 controls. Correlation, corrected (partial) correlation, and linear regression were used to quantify relationships to walking and fatigue outcomes. Warp Scores rose between minute 3 and minute 6 in subjects with mild and moderate disability (p<0.001). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.001) to the MS walking scale (MSWS-12), modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS) physical subscale, and cerebellar and pyramidal functional system scores (FSS) were observed even after controlling for walking speed. Regression of MSWS-12 scores on Warp Scores and walking speed explained 73.9% of response variance. Correlations to individual MSWS-12 and MFIS items strongly suggest a relationship to fatigability. The Warp Score has been validated in MS subjects as an objective measure of fatigue-related gait deterioration. Progressive changes to gait cycles induced by the 6MW often appeared in later minutes, supporting the importance of sustained walking in clinical assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Animal feces are a suspected source of contamination of apples by disease-causing organisms such as Escherichia coli O157. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to detect different amounts of feces from dairy cows, deer, and a dairy pasture applied to Red Delicious apples. One day after application, detection for 1:2 and 1:20 dilutions was nearly 100%, and for 1:200 dilutions (<15 ng of dry matter) detection was >80%. Detection after apples had been washed and brushed was lowest for pasture feces; detection for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 dilutions of feces was 100%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. This technology may encourage development of commercial systems for detecting fecal contamination of apples.

  13. Apple extract induces increased epithelial resistance and claudin 4 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, Robert A M; van Wezel, Esther E; Ocaña-Calahorro, Francisco; Mes, Jurriaan J

    2012-01-30

    The small intestinal epithelium functions both to absorb nutrients, and to provide a barrier between the outside, luminal, world and the human body. One of the passageways across the intestinal epithelium is paracellular diffusion, which is controlled by the properties of tight junction complexes. We used a differentiated Caco-2 monolayer as a model for small intestinal epithelium to study the effect of crude apple extracts on paracellular permeability. Exposure of crude apple homogenate to the differentiated Caco-2 cells increased the paracellular resistance, determined as trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). This increase was linearly related to the concentration of apple present. The TEER-enhancing effect of apple extract was due to factors mainly present in the cortex, and the induction was not inhibited by protein kinase inhibitors. Apple-induced resistance was accompanied by increased expression of several tight junction related genes, including claudin 4 (CLDN4). Crude apple extract induces a higher paracellular resistance in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Future research will determine whether these results can be extrapolated to human small intestinal epithelia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Amygdala opioid receptors mediate the electroacupuncture-induced deterioration of sleep disruptions in epilepsy rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that sleep and epilepsy reciprocally affect each other. Previous studies indicated that epilepsy alters sleep homeostasis; in contrast, sleep disturbance deteriorates epilepsy. If a therapy possesses both epilepsy suppression and sleep improvement, it would be the priority choice for seizure control. Effects of acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on epilepsy suppression and insomnia treatment have been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints on sleep disruptions in rats with focal epilepsy. Results Our result indicates that administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced focal epilepsy and decreased both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints, in which a 30-min EA stimulation was performed before the dark period of the light:dark cycle in three consecutive days, further deteriorated pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions. The EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruption was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting the involvement of amygdaloid opioid receptors. Conclusion The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints exhibits no benefit in improving pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions; in contrast, EA further deteriorated sleep disturbances. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruptions in epileptic rats. PMID:24215575

  15. [Study on the deteriorating course of fresh milk by laser-induced fluorescence spectra].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Yu, C Q; Li, J Z; Yan, J X

    2001-12-01

    Along with the development of living standard, people's demand for food quality and food hygiene also rises. People demand food not only with rich nutrition, inexpensive price, but also with safety. So food hygiene test is paid common attention of society. Milk is a nourishing food and is loved by people. Sour milk goods from milk is also in great demand. But nourishing foods are good for growing many microbes. Fresh milk and sour milk are easy contaminated by microbes and go bad. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology is an important part of modern optics. It is broadly applied in biomedicine, diagnostics, test of food hygiene, environment protecting, owing to its high sensitivity, high speed, automation, untouched testing. In this paper, we attempted to LIF technology to test milk food quality. We used the third harmonics pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355 nm) as the exciting source, and a multi-track spectrometer as the detector and measured the intensities of apply LIF of fresh milk and sour milk during their deteriorating course. Test system and test method are introduced, fluorescence spectra of deteriorating course are also attached. The test result makes clear that there are close connection between deteriorating course and fluorescence spectra.

  16. UV/blue light-induced fluorescence for assessing apple maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyun Kwon; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been researched for assessing fruit post-harvest quality and condition. The objective of this preliminary research was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring apple fruit quality. Ultraviolet (UV) and blue light was used as an excitation source for inducing fluorescence in apples. Fluorescence spectra were measured from 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 'Red Delicious' (RD) apples by using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer after one, three, and five minutes of continuous UV/blue light illumination. Standard destructive tests were performed to measure fruit firmness, skin and flesh color, soluble solids and acid content from the apples. Calibration models for each of the three illumination time periods were developed to predict fruit quality indexes. The results showed that fluorescence emission decreased steadily during the first three minutes of UV/blue light illumination and was stable within five minutes. The differences were minimal in the model prediction results based on fluorescence data at one, three or five minutes of illumination. Overall, better predictions were obtained for apple skin chroma and hue and flesh hue with values for the correlation coefficient of validation between 0.80 and 0.90 for both GD and RD. Relatively poor predictions were obtained for fruit firmness, soluble solids content, titrational acid, and flesh chroma. This research demonstrated that fluorescence spectroscopy is potentially useful for assessing selected quality attributes of apple fruit and further research is needed to improve fluorescence measurements so that better predictions of fruit quality can be achieved.

  17. Ladder-Climbing Training Prevents Bone Loss and Microarchitecture Deterioration in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chentao; Wang, Xudan; Han, Yanqi; Zhao, Xinjuan; Chi, Aiping; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proved to be effective in improving bone quality in both animal and human studies. However, the issue about whether resistance exercise can inhibit obesity-induced bone loss has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of ladder-climbing training, one of the resistance exercises, on bone mechanical properties and microarchitecture in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to the Control, HF + sedentary (HF-S) and HF + ladder-climbing training (HF-LCT) groups. Rats in the HF-LCT group performed ladder-climbing training for 8 weeks. The results showed that ladder-climbing training significantly reduced body and fat weight, and increased muscle mass along with a trend toward enhanced muscle strength in diet-induced obese rats. MicroCT analysis demonstrated that obesity-induced bone loss and architecture deterioration were significantly mitigated by ladder-climbing training, as evidenced by increased trabecular bone mineral density, bone volume over total volume, trabecular number and thickness, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. However, neither HF diet nor ladder-climbing training had an impact on femoral biomechanical properties. Moreover, ladder-climbing training significantly increased serum adiponectin, decreased serum leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 levels, and downregulated myostatin (MSTN) expression in diet-induced obese rats. Taken together, ladder-climbing training prevents bone loss and microarchitecture deterioration in diet-induced obese rats through multiple mechanisms including increasing mechanical loading on bone due to improved skeletal muscle mass and strength, regulating the levels of myokines and adipokines, and suppressing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It indicates that resistance exercise may be a promising therapy for treating obesity-induced bone loss.

  18. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products.

  19. Conjugated triene oxidation products of alpha-farnesene induce symptoms of superficial scald on stored apples.

    PubMed

    Rowan, D D; Hunt, M B; Fielder, S; Norris, J; Sherburn, M S

    2001-06-01

    The sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene (1) and its conjugated triene oxidation products accumulate in the skin of apples after harvest and are implicated as the causal agents of superficial scald. Conjugated triene oxidation products and analogues were synthesized and applied to the surface of Granny Smith apples either as vapors or in squalane. Farnesyl hydroperoxide (2a), trienol (2b), endoperoxide (3a), dehydronerolidol (5), and cumyl hydroperoxide (4) all produced the symptoms of superficial scald when applied at nanomolar doses. Scald-inducing activity was dependent on the mode of application. Farnesyl hydroperoxide (2a) was the most active conjugated triene when applied directly to the apple skin. Trienol (2b) also induced scald symptoms and partially reversed the inhibition of scald caused by diphenylamine.

  20. Deterioration of intelligence in methamphetamine-induced psychosis: comparison with alcohol dependence on WAIS-III.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chy; Lin, Hui-Che; Pan, Chun-Hong

    2010-02-01

    Long-term use of methamphetamine could induce psychosis, but consequences with regards to intelligence have seldom been investigated. Long-term use of alcohol could also result in intellectual deterioration. The IQ of 34 methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MIP) patients (age, 28.7 +/- 6.1 years) and 34 alcohol-dependent (AD) patients (age, 40.7 +/- 7.3 years) was compared using the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). The average full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, verbal comprehension index, working memory index, perceptual organization index, and processing speed index was 82.3 +/- 10.8, 84.3 +/- 11.9, 81.9 +/- 12.1, 85.5 +/- 11.9, 84.7 +/- 12.5, 85.4 +/- 13.6, and 78.5 +/- 12.7 in MIP patients and 90.5 +/- 12.0, 95.2 +/- 11.3, 86.0 +/- 13.7, 95.5 +/- 11.0, 87.1 +/- 14.5, 96.2 +/- 13.1, and 84.5 +/- 15.0 in AD patients, respectively. There were six MIP patients (17.6%) whose full-scale IQ was <70 and 13 (38.2%) whose full-scale IQ was <85 and >70, while one AD patient had a full-scale IQ <70 (2.9%) and 10 (22%) had full-scale IQ <85 and >70. Long-term use of methamphetamine can result not only in psychosis, but also in mentality deterioration. Intelligence deterioration is more severe in clinical MIP patients than AD patients. Assessment of the mentality of MIP patients is suggested to help with the implementation of rehabilitative programs for these patients.

  1. Increased circulating estradiol in mice fed a high-fat diet does not attenuate ovariectomy-induced bone structural deterioration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency increases adiposity and induces substantial bone loss by increasing osteoclast activity. This study investigated whether obesity induced by a high-fat diet alter circulating estradiol levels, mitigates or exacerbates bone structure deterioration, and changes m...

  2. Evaluation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles for monitoring lacewings in Washington apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated five herbivore-induced plant volatiles plus a male-produced pheromone as attractants for adult lacewings in Washington apple orchards in 2008. We found that several of the attractants or combinations of attractants could be used to monitor three common lacewing species in our trials. ...

  3. Deteriorating effect of fluvastatin on the cholestatic liver injury induced by bile duct ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lotková, Halka; Staňková, Pavla; Roušar, Tomáš; Kučera, Otto; Kohoutek, Lukáš; Mičuda, Stanislav; Brčáková, Eva; Kolouchová, Gabriela; Cervinková, Zuzana

    2011-03-01

    Antiinflammatory effect of statins mediated by the reduction of cytokine IL-6 in hepatocytes have been reported. Contrary to beneficial effect, statins can increase susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction is associated with oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory response and hepatocyte mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to verify the effect of fluvastatin on cholestatic liver injury. Cholestasis was induced in Wistar rats by bile duct ligation. Fluvastatin (1 or 5 mg/kg) was administered after surgery and then daily for 7 days. The dose of 5 mg/kg led to the deterioration of hepatocellular injury. Despite lower production of IL-6, decrease in GSH content, rise of TGFß and inhibition of respiratory complex I in mitochondria were determined. The mRNA expressions of canalicular transporter Mdr1b and basolateral transporter Mrp3 increased in cholestatic liver. Fluvastatin administration then led to the attenuation of this change. Analogously, mRNA expression of conjugative enzyme Ugt1a1 was diminished by fluvastatin administration to cholestatic rats. We can conclude that decrease in the antioxidative status and mitochondrial dysfunction could at least in part participate on the deteriorating effect of fluvastatin. Whether these processes can be a consequence of the alteration in metabolism and transport of potentially toxic substances remains to verify.

  4. Fungal-Induced Deterioration of Mural Paintings: In Situ and Mock-Model Microscopy Analyses.

    PubMed

    Unković, Nikola; Grbić, Milica Ljaljević; Stupar, Miloš; Savković, Željko; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Fungal deterioration of frescoes was studied in situ on a selected Serbian church, and on a laboratory model, utilizing standard and newly implemented microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray confirmed the limestone components of the plaster. Pigments used were identified as carbon black, green earth, iron oxide, ocher, and an ocher/cinnabar mixture. In situ microscopy, applied via a portable microscope ShuttlePix P-400R, proved very useful for detection of invisible micro-impairments and hidden, symptomless, microbial growth. SEM and optical microscopy established that observed deterioration symptoms, predominantly discoloration and pulverization of painted layers, were due to bacterial filaments and fungal hyphal penetration, and formation of a wide range of fungal structures (i.e., melanized hyphae, chlamydospores, microcolonial clusters, Cladosporium-like conidia, and Chaetomium perithecia and ascospores). The all year-round monitoring of spontaneous and induced fungal colonization of a "mock painting" in controlled laboratory conditions confirmed the decisive role of humidity level (70.18±6.91% RH) in efficient colonization of painted surfaces, as well as demonstrated increased bioreceptivity of painted surfaces to fungal colonization when plant-based adhesives (ilinocopie, murdent), compared with organic adhesives of animal origin (bone glue, egg white), are used for pigment sizing.

  5. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  6. Light-induced expression of a MYB gene regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in red apples.

    PubMed

    Takos, Adam M; Jaffé, Felix W; Jacob, Steele R; Bogs, Jochen; Robinson, Simon P; Walker, Amanda R

    2006-11-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites found in higher plants that contribute to the colors of flowers and fruits. In apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), several steps of the anthocyanin pathway are coordinately regulated, suggesting control by common transcription factors. A gene encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor was isolated from apple (cv Cripps' Pink) and designated MdMYB1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene encodes an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators in other plants. The expression of MdMYB1 in both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants and cultured grape cells induced the ectopic synthesis of anthocyanin. In the grape (Vitis vinifera) cells MdMYB1 stimulated transcription from the promoters of two apple genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes. In ripening apple fruit the transcription of MdMYB1 was correlated with anthocyanin synthesis in red skin sectors of fruit. When dark-grown fruit were exposed to sunlight, MdMYB1 transcript levels increased over several days, correlating with anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. MdMYB1 gene transcripts were more abundant in red skin apple cultivars compared to non-red skin cultivars. Several polymorphisms were identified in the promoter of MdMYB1. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker designed to one of these polymorphisms segregated with the inheritance of skin color in progeny from a cross of an unnamed red skin selection (a sibling of Cripps' Pink) and the non-red skin cultivar Golden Delicious. We conclude that MdMYB1 coordinately regulates genes in the anthocyanin pathway and the expression level of this regulator is the genetic basis for apple skin color.

  7. Light-Induced Expression of a MYB Gene Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Red Apples1

    PubMed Central

    Takos, Adam M.; Jaffé, Felix W.; Jacob, Steele R.; Bogs, Jochen; Robinson, Simon P.; Walker, Amanda R.

    2006-01-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites found in higher plants that contribute to the colors of flowers and fruits. In apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), several steps of the anthocyanin pathway are coordinately regulated, suggesting control by common transcription factors. A gene encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor was isolated from apple (cv Cripps' Pink) and designated MdMYB1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene encodes an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators in other plants. The expression of MdMYB1 in both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants and cultured grape cells induced the ectopic synthesis of anthocyanin. In the grape (Vitis vinifera) cells MdMYB1 stimulated transcription from the promoters of two apple genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes. In ripening apple fruit the transcription of MdMYB1 was correlated with anthocyanin synthesis in red skin sectors of fruit. When dark-grown fruit were exposed to sunlight, MdMYB1 transcript levels increased over several days, correlating with anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. MdMYB1 gene transcripts were more abundant in red skin apple cultivars compared to non-red skin cultivars. Several polymorphisms were identified in the promoter of MdMYB1. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker designed to one of these polymorphisms segregated with the inheritance of skin color in progeny from a cross of an unnamed red skin selection (a sibling of Cripps' Pink) and the non-red skin cultivar Golden Delicious. We conclude that MdMYB1 coordinately regulates genes in the anthocyanin pathway and the expression level of this regulator is the genetic basis for apple skin color. PMID:17012405

  8. Relevance of apple consumption for protection against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Francesca; Tarozzi, Andrea; Carbone, Fabio; Marchesi, Alessandra; Hrelia, Silvana; Angeloni, Cristina; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2007-05-01

    In a single-dosing crossover study, we investigated the ability of apple fruit consumption to protect human lymphocytes against peroxide-induced damage to DNA. Six healthy, non-smoking male volunteers were placed for 2d on an antioxidant-poor (AP) diet. After 48h of AP diet, the volunteers were required to consume a homogenate obtained from 600g of red delicious unpeeled apples or water (500 ml); blood samples were collected 0, 3, 6 and 24 h post-consumption. To evaluate whether the apple intake was sufficient to restore resistance of DNA to oxidative damage, for each subject at any time point the plasma total antioxidant activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and induction of micronuclei (MN) in isolated lymphocytes following hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were measured. Results indicated a significant inhibition (58%, P <0.05) of H2O2-induced MN frequency in the plasma samples collected at 3 h after apple consumption, as compared with plasma samples collected at 0 h (4.17 (SD 1.83) v. 9.85 (SD 1.87) MN/1000 binucleated (BN) cells, respectively). A gradual return towards the value observed at 0 h was recorded starting from 6 to 24 h. MN frequency induced by H2O2 was significantly influenced by plasma total antioxidant activity (r = -0.95, P <0.05) and by the increase of intracellular ROS formation (r = 0.88, P <0.05). These findings suggest that the consumption of whole apple provides a useful dietary source of active scavengers to protect cells and tissue from oxidative stress and related DNA injury.

  9. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions). This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division (BNSTam), anterior lateral division (BNSTal) and posterior division (BNSTp) of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi). Fos expression was decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nPGi. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) via the opioidergic pathway. PMID:25755631

  10. Drought-induced xylem cavitation and hydraulic deterioration: risk factors for urban trees under climate change?

    PubMed

    Savi, Tadeja; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Branca, Salvatore; Tretiach, Mauro; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Urban trees help towns to cope with climate warming by cooling both air and surfaces. The challenges imposed by the urban environment, with special reference to low water availability due to the presence of extensive pavements, result in high rates of mortality of street trees, that can be increased by climatic extremes. We investigated the water relations and xylem hydraulic safety/efficiency of Quercus ilex trees growing at urban sites with different percentages of surrounding impervious pavements. Seasonal changes of plant water potential and gas exchange, vulnerability to cavitation and embolism level, and morpho-anatomical traits were measured. We found patterns of increasing water stress and vulnerability to drought at increasing percentages of impervious pavement cover, with a consequent reduction in gas exchange rates, decreased safety margins toward embolism development, and increased vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting the occurrence of stress-induced hydraulic deterioration. The amount of impermeable surface and chronic exposure to water stress influence the site-specific risk of drought-induced dieback of urban trees under extreme drought. Besides providing directions for management of green spaces in towns, our data suggest that xylem hydraulics is key to a full understanding of the responses of urban trees to global change.

  11. Within-plant distribution of induced resistance in apple seedlings: rapid acropetal and delayed basipetal responses.

    PubMed

    Gutbrodt, Bettina; Mody, Karsten; Wittwer, Raphaël; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Induction of plant resistance by herbivory is a complex process, which follows a temporal dynamic and varies spatially at the within-plant scale. This study aimed at improving the understanding of the induction process in terms of time scale and within-plant allocation, using apple tree seedlings (Malus × domestica) as plant model. Feeding preferences of a leaf-chewing insect (Spodoptera littoralis) for previously damaged and undamaged plants were assessed for six different time intervals with respect to the herbivore damage treatment and for three leaf positions. In addition, main secondary defense compounds were quantified and linked to herbivore feeding preferences. Significant herbivore preference for undamaged plants (induced resistance) was first observed 3 days after herbivore damage in the most apical leaf. Responses were delayed in the other leaf positions, and induced resistance decreased within 10 days after herbivore damage simultaneously in all tested leaf positions. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of the flavonoid phloridzin in damaged plants as compared to undamaged plants. This indicates that herbivore preference for undamaged apple plants may be linked to phloridzin, which is the main secondary metabolite of apple leaves. The observed time course and distribution of resistance responses within plants contribute to the understanding of induction processes and patterns, and support the optimal defense theory stating young tissue to be prioritized. Moreover, induced resistance responses occurred also basipetally in leaves below the damage site, which suggests that signaling pathways involved in resistance responses are not unidirectional.

  12. Effects of phenolics in Empire apples on hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Sang Jun; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated antioxidant and antitumor-promoting activities of major phenolic phytochemicals of apples. The contents of each antioxidant in Empire apples was quantified and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using assay for inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced superoxide radical generation in cell culture model and expressed in vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to total anitoxidant capacity of 100 g fresh Empire apples is as follows: quercetin (60.05 VCEAC) > chlorogenic acid (12.32) > phloretin (7.41) > procyanidin B2 (7.22) > vitamin C (6.61) > epicatechin (5.10) in superoxide radical scavenging assay. Recent reports suggest that the mechanism of carcinogenic process of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be associated with the inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which is involved in tumor promotion process. Apple extracts showed the protective effects against the inhibition of GJIC by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin exerted the strongest protective effects among major antioxidants in apples on H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC, following epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and vitamin C, while chlorogenic acid and phloretin had no effects. Our results indicate that cancer chemopreventive activity of apples is associated with the combined antioxidant capacity and antitumor-promoting activities of diverse antioxidants.

  13. Betaxolol-induced deterioration of asthma and a pharmacodynamic analysis based on beta-receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Miki, A; Tanaka, Y; Ohtani, H; Sawada, Y

    2003-08-01

    To report a case of deterioration of asthma associated with continuous use of oral betaxolol, a beta1-selective beta-blocking agent. We also analyzed the pharmacokinetics in this case by applying a receptor occupancy model. A 68-year-old woman taking 5 mg of betaxolol for hypertension occasionally experienced asthmatic coughing after upper respiratory tract infection. Two years after the start of betaxolol, her asthma gradually worsened. Although pharmacotherapy for asthma was introduced, betaxolol was continued. Finally, she was admitted to hospital with bronchospasm. When she was discharged after 2 months, betaxolol was discontinued and losartan potassium (25 mg/d) was initiated instead for her hypertension. Since then, she has been free from bronchospasm. We calculated the mean receptor occupancy (phiSS) of the beta1- and beta2-receptors after the usual oral dose of betaxolol by using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters obtained from the literature. We estimated the decrease in the exercise pulse rate or the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by applying the phiSS values to the model previously reported by us. Betaxolol seems less likely than other beta1-blocking agents to cause pulmonary adverse effects. However, the estimated decrease in FEV1 after oral administration of betaxolol (5 mg) was close to that after oral bisoprolol (5 mg), which has been reported to induce asthma. Oral betaxolol may induce bronchospasm, although betaxolol is considered to be highly cardioselective and seems less likely than other beta1-selective blocking agents to cause pulmonary adverse effects. Betaxolol should be administered with caution to patients with asthma or chronic pulmonary disease.

  14. Efficiency and beam quality deterioration in double-cladding fiber amplifiers induced by core misalignment of fusion splices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chen; Yan, Ping; Xiao, Qirong; li, Dan; Gong, Mali

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the efficiency and beam quality deteriorations in double-cladding fiber (DCF) amplifiers induced by core misalignment of series fusion splices are investigated. The losses of guide modes and power conversions between fundamental mode and high order modes (HOM) are well described according to mode coupling theory. Furthermore, a typical fiber amplifier with three fusion splices and bending mode-selection is established to discuss the mechanism of deteriorations in total systems. Mode competition theory is also introduced to describe different modes powers and beam quality changes with fiber length. Based on these calculations, the accumulations of deterioration caused by series fusion splices are intuitively illustrated. These simulations of laser performance show good accordance with the experimental results. An effective method to significantly enhance the performance of the fiber amplifier is also shown and discussed.

  15. Effect of daily short-duration weight-bearing on disuse-induced deterioration of musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Leung, K-S.; Li, Y-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Tam, K-F.; Chow, D.H.K.; Wan, Y.; Ling, S.; Dai, Z.; Qin, L.; Cheung, W-H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate deterioration of musculoskeletal system due to prolonged disuse and the potential of daily short-duration weight-bearing as countermeasures. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into Control Group (CG, no intervention), Tail-suspension Group (TG, tail-suspension without treatment), and Weight-Bearing Group (WBG, tail-suspension with 20 min/day, 5 days/week body weight loading). After four weeks of treatment, femur and tibia, soleus and extensor digitorum longus were evaluated for bone and muscle quality respectively. Tensile properties of bone-tendon insertion (BTI) were evaluated using patella-patellar tendon complex. Results: Disuse induced deterioration on bone, muscle, and BTI after four weeks. Compared with CG, TG and WBG showed significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of trabecular bone in distal femur (4.3-15.2%), muscle mass (31.3-52.3%), muscle cross-sectional area (29.1-35%), and failure strength of BTI (23.9-29.4%). Tensile test showed that the failure mode was avulsion of bone at the BTI. No significant difference was detected between TG and WBG for all assessments on bone, muscle, and BTI. Conclusions: Disuse caused deterioration of bone, muscle, and BTI while daily short-duration of weight-bearing did not prevent this deterioration. Mechanical stimulation with higher intensity and longer duration may be necessary to prevent musculoskeletal deterioration resulted from prolonged disuse. PMID:26032214

  16. Effect of daily short-duration weight-bearing on disuse-induced deterioration of musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Leung, K-S; Li, Y-H; Liu, Y; Wang, H; Tam, K-F; Chow, D Hk; Wan, Y; Ling, S; Dai, Z; Qin, L; Cheung, W-H

    2015-06-01

    To investigate deterioration of musculoskeletal system due to prolonged disuse and the potential of daily short-duration weight-bearing as countermeasures. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into Control Group (CG, no intervention), Tail-suspension Group (TG, tail-suspension without treatment), and Weight-Bearing Group (WBG, tail-suspension with 20 min/day, 5 days/week body weight loading). After four weeks of treatment, femur and tibia, soleus and extensor digitorum longus were evaluated for bone and muscle quality respectively. Tensile properties of bone-tendon insertion (BTI) were evaluated using patella-patellar tendon complex. Disuse induced deterioration on bone, muscle, and BTI after four weeks. Compared with CG, TG and WBG showed significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of trabecular bone in distal femur (4.3-15.2%), muscle mass (31.3-52.3%), muscle cross-sectional area (29.1-35%), and failure strength of BTI (23.9-29.4%). Tensile test showed that the failure mode was avulsion of bone at the BTI. No significant difference was detected between TG and WBG for all assessments on bone, muscle, and BTI. Disuse caused deterioration of bone, muscle, and BTI while daily short-duration of weight-bearing did not prevent this deterioration. Mechanical stimulation with higher intensity and longer duration may be necessary to prevent musculoskeletal deterioration resulted from prolonged disuse.

  17. Melatonin protects oocyte quality from Bisphenol A-induced deterioration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mianqun; Dai, Xiaoxin; Lu, Yajuan; Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Cui, Zhaokang; Liu, Honglin; Xiong, Bo

    2017-02-08

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported to adversely affect the mammalian reproductive system in both sexes. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding how BPA disrupts the mammalian oocyte quality and how to prevent it have not been fully defined. Here, we document that BPA weakens oocyte quality by impairing both oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization ability. We find that oral administration of BPA (100 μg/kg body weight per day for 7 days) compromises the first polar body extrusion (78.0% vs 57.0%, P<.05) by disrupting normal spindle assembly, chromosome alignment, and kinetochore-microtubule attachment. This defect could be remarkably ameliorated (76.7%, P<.05) by concurrent oral administration of melatonin (30 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days). In addition, BPA administration significantly decreases the fertilization rate of oocytes (87.2% vs 41.1%, P<.05) by reducing the number of sperm binding to the zona pellucida, which is consistent with the premature cleavage of ZP2 as well as the mis-localization and decreased protein level of ovastacin. Also, the localization and protein level of Juno, the sperm receptor on the egg membrane, are strikingly impaired in BPA-administered oocytes. Finally, we show that melatonin administration substantially elevates the in vitro fertilization rate (63.0%, P<.05) by restoring above defects of fertilization proteins and events, which might be mediated by the improvement of oocyte quality via reduction of ROS levels and inhibition of apoptosis. Collectively, our data reveal that melatonin has a protective action against BPA-induced deterioration of oocyte quality in mice.

  18. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  19. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of apple polyphenols against concanavalin A-induced immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Xue, Yang; Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Fang; Sun, Ying; Li, Ting; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-10-25

    Apple polyphenols (AP), a polyphenol extracted from the unripe apple, has been reported to improve acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice due to its significant antioxidant activity. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of AP against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced immunological liver injury in mice was investigated. Mice were treated with AP daily for seven days prior to a single intravenous administration of Con A. The serum levels of AST, ALT, TP, Alb and histopathological changes were determined and the A/G ratio was calculated. Potential mechanisms were further explored by measuring TNF-α and IFN-γ levels, NO content as well as changes in the levels of endogenous oxidants and antioxidants. AP significantly improved the abnormal levels of ALT, AST, TP and Alb, and the A/G ratio. AP was also associated with improvement of liver histopathological changes after Con A-induced liver injury. Moreover, AP reduced serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, decreased serum NO content, inhibited oxidative DNA single-strand breaks, and improved the abnormalities of MDA content, SOD activity and GSH level. These results suggest that AP exerts a protective effect against Con A-induced immunological liver injury through suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and activating the antioxidant system.

  1. Trientine-induced neurological deterioration in a patient with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bomi; Chung, Sun Ju; Shin, Hae-Won

    2013-04-01

    Trientine (triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride) is a copper-chelating agent used to treat patients with Wilson's disease (WD). It has been considered safe, rarely causing neurological deterioration during initial treatment. We describe a patient diagnosed with WD who became neurologically disabled after treatment with trientine. On a fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequence, brain MRI showed increased areas of high signal intensity compared with initial brain MRI. The patient's neurological signs partially resolved after cessation of trientine treatment. Our findings suggest that treatment with trientine is associated with a risk of neurological deterioration in patients with WD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meloxicam ameliorates the cartilage and subchondral bone deterioration in monoiodoacetate-induced rat osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vajda, Enikő; Vari, Camil; Sipka, Sándor; Fárr, Ana-Maria; Horváth, Emőke

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to quantify the cartilage- and subchondral bone-related effects of low-dose and high-dose meloxicam treatment in the late phase of mono-iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis of the stifle. Methods Thirty-four male Wistar rats received intra-articular injection of mono-iodoacetate to trigger osteoarthritis; 10 control animals (Grp Co) received saline. The mono-iodoacetate-injected rats were assigned to three groups and treated from week 4 to the end of week 7 with placebo (Grp P, n = 11), low-dose (GrpM Lo, 0.2 mg/kg, n = 12) or high-dose (GrpM Hi, 1 mg/kg, n = 11) meloxicam. After a period of 4 additional weeks (end of week 11) the animals were sacrificed, and the stifle joints were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for cyclooxygenase 2, in conformity with recommendations of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Serum cytokines IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 were measured at the end of weeks 3, 7, and 11. Results Compared with saline-treated controls, animals treated with mono-iodoacetate developed various degrees of osteoarthritis. The cartilage degeneration score and the total cartilage degeneration width were significantly lower in both the low-dose (p = 0.012 and p = 0.014) and high-dose (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006) meloxicam-treated groups than in the placebo group. In the subchondral bone, only high-dose meloxicam exerted a significant protective effect (p = 0.011). Low-grade Cox-2 expression observed in placebo-treated animals was abolished in both meloxicam groups. Increase with borderline significance of TNFα in GrpP from week 3 to week 7 (p = 0.049) and reduction of IL-6 in GrpM Lo from week 3 to week 11 (p = 0.044) were observed. Conclusion In this rat model of osteoarthritis, both low-dose and high-dose meloxicam had a chondroprotective effect, and the high dose also protected against subchondral bone lesions. The results suggest a superior protection of the high-dose meloxicam arresting

  3. Low molecular weight apple polysaccharides induced cell cycle arrest in colorectal tumor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhua; Mei, Lin; Niu, Yinbo; Sun, Yang; Huang, Haitao; Li, Qian; Kong, Xianghe; Liu, Li; Li, Zhiquan; Mei, Qibing

    2012-04-01

    Dietary components play an important role in cancer prevention. Many ingredients from apples have been proven to have antitumor potency. We thus made low molecular weight apple polysaccharides (LMWAP) and evaluated the effects of it on colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of LMWAP on human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) were evaluated using a microarray. Then, cell-cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometric analysis. A colitis-associated colorectal cancer mouse model was used to assess the effect of LMWAP on in vivo CRC prevention. Treatment of HT-29 cells with LMWAP resulted in 333 genes expression over cutoff values (≥2-fold). Further analysis demonstrated that pathways of cell cycle were mainly influenced. At the concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/mL, LMWAP induced a G(0)/G(1) phase block in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent way. In vivo studies revealed that administration of LMWAP could protect ICR mice against CRC effectively. The results of Western blot suggested LMWAP induced cell-cycle arrest in a p53 independent manner. These data indicate that LMWAP could inhibit the development of CRC through affecting cell cycle, and it has potential for clinical prevention for colon cancer.

  4. Attenuation of KBrO3-induced renal and hepatic toxicity by cloudy apple juice in rat.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Adamska, Teresa; Markowski, Jarosław; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a protective effect of apple juice on KBrO3-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered apple juice per os, 10 ml/kg b.w. for 28 days. On 27 day of the experiment, some rats were given i.p. a single 125 mg/kg b.w. dose of KBrO3 . Markers of oxidative damage and clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Treatment with apple juice prior to KBrO3 challenge prevented an increase in hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation by 25 and 44%, respectively, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver by 29 - 59% and decreased the plasma content of carbonyl groups by 19%. Aminotransferases activity in plasma was reduced by 19% and 36%, concentrations of plasma bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine were suppressed by 21%, 16% and 26%, respectively, in rats supplemented with juice before KBrO3 injection. No protective effect of apple juice on nuclear DNA was observed. Supplementation with cloudy apple juice to some extent attenuated oxidative damage induced by KBrO3 in the liver and kidney of rats as evidenced by alterations of certain oxidative stress markers and clinical chemistry parameters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chemopreventive activity of apple extract following medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Andressa Pidone; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Gollucke, Andrea Pitelli Boiago; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Aguiar, Odair; Spadari, Regina Celia; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of an apple extract following medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). A total of 30 male Wistar rats were distributed into five groups as follows (n=6 per group): Group 1, negative control group (non-treated group); Group 2, received 4NQO during 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract at 1% by gavage between the first and fourth weeks daily (initiation phase); Group 3, received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract by gavage at 1% between the fifth and eighth weeks daily (promotion phase); Group 4, received apple extract at 1% by gavage for 8 consecutive weeks only; and Group 5, received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water daily. Histopathological analysis revealed decreased hyperplasic lesions in Group 2 when compared with Group 5. Likewise, decreased dysplastic lesions in Group 3 were observed when compared with Group 5. In Groups 2 and 3, decreased COX-2 and TNF-alpha gene expressions were observed when compared with Group 5. Cytochrome c and caspase 3 levels increased in Groups 2 and 3 when compared with Group 5. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that apple extract suppresses rat tongue carcinogenesis as a result of anti-inflammatory activity and apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of apple fruit identifies light-induced genes involved in red color pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2014-01-15

    Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  8. Resolvin D1 reduces deterioration of tight junction proteins by upregulating HO-1 in LPS-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wanli; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Lei; Yao, Chengye; Yuan, Ruixia; Wu, Qingping

    2013-09-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by increased pulmonary permeability with high mortality. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), which has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activity, can attenuate pulmonary edema in the animal model of ALI. However, the mechanism underlying the protection of RvD1 on pulmonary edema is still unknown. Here we explore the effects and mechanism of RvD1 on the disruption of tight junction protein that results in the permeability edema in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. The severity of pulmonary edema was assessed by wet-to-dry rate and Evans blue infiltration; expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) were examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot; mRNA in lung tissue was studied by real time-PCR; the TUNEL kit was performed for the detection of apoptosis of pulmonary barrier. Twenty-four hours after LPS inhalation by mice, wet-to-dry rate and Evans blue infiltration indicated that pretreatment with RvD1 relieved the pulmonary edema and pulmonary capillary permeability. Moreover, RvD1 attenuated the LPS-induced deterioration of TJ protein ZO-1 and occludin significantly. And we found that RvD1 increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression contributed to the protection on the deterioration of TJs. In addition, we found that RvD1 could reduce pulmonary cellular apoptosis in LPS-induced mice. In conclusion, RvD1 possesses the ability that relieves the pulmonary edema and restores pulmonary capillary permeability and reduces disruption of TJs in LPS-induced ALI of mice, at least in part, by upregulating HO-1 expression.

  9. Deterioration of the coercivity due to the diffusion induced interface layer in hard/soft multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Si, Wenjing; Zhao, G. P.; Ran, N.; Peng, Y.; Morvan, F. J.; Wan, X. L.

    2015-01-01

    Hard/soft permanent magnets have aroused many interests in the past two decades because of their potential in achieving giant energy products as well as their rich variety of magnetic behaviors. Nevertheless, the experimental energy products are much smaller than the theoretical ones due to the much smaller coercivity measured in the experiments. In this paper, the deterioration of the coercivity due to the interface atomic diffusion is demonstrated based on a three dimensional (3D) micromagnetic software (OOMMF) and a formula derived for the pinning field in a hard/soft multilayer, which can be applied to both permanent magnets and exchange-coupled-composite (ECC) media. It is found that the formation of the interface layer can decrease the coercivity by roughly 50%, which is responsible for the observed smaller coercivity in both composite and single-phased permanent magnets. A method to enhance the coercivity in these systems is proposed based on the discussions, consistent with recent experiments where excellent magnetic properties are achieved. PMID:26586226

  10. Over-expression of an FT-homologous gene of apple induces early flowering in annual and perennial plants.

    PubMed

    Tränkner, Conny; Lehmann, Sandra; Hoenicka, Hans; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Fladung, Matthias; Lenhardt, Denise; Dunemann, Frank; Gau, Achim; Schlangen, Karin; Malnoy, Mickael; Flachowsky, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    The protein encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana seems to be the long-searched florigen, and over-expression of FT orthologues resulted in accelerated flower development in annual and perennial plants. In the present study, we isolated two allelic mRNA sequences of an FT-homologous gene from apple, which was designated as MdFT1. Using a SSR motif this gene was mapped on LG 12 of apple. Over-expression of MdFT1 in Arabidopsis and the commercially important tree species poplar and apple itself using the CaMV 35S or the Arabidopsis Suc2 promoter resulted in significant accelerated flowering compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic T(0) plants of Arabidopsis flowered 4-6 days on average earlier than wild-type Arabidopsis under LD conditions. Under short-day conditions Suc2::MdFT1 plants of the T(1)-generation flowered after 66 ± 18 days, while wild-type plants flowered about 22 days later. All transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a normal habit except for the early flowering phenotype. Early flowering was detected 6-10 months after transformation in transgenic polar clones containing MdFT1 driven by the CaMV 35S, whereas plants of the transgenic apple clone T780 set up its first flowers during in vitro cultivation. Based on our results we conclude that MdFT1 is responsible for inducing flowering and that the function of the apple FT1 gene is conserved in annual herbaceous species as well as perennial woody species. Furthermore, we discuss the role of MdFT1 in flower development with regard to the findings of genetic studies on apple.

  11. Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.

    PubMed

    Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals.

  12. Cashew apple extract inhibition of fat storage and insulin resistance in the diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    PubMed

    Beejmohun, Vickram; Mignon, Cyril; Mazollier, Aude; Peytavy-Izard, Marie; Pallet, Dominique; Dornier, Manuel; Chapal, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The cashew apple is an unvalued by-product from the cashew nut industry, of which millions of tonnes are simply discarded globally. Interestingly, however, cashew apple nutrients may have beneficial effects for health even if these are still poorly described. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of cashew apple (cashew apple extract; CAE; Cashewin(™)) on obesity and diabetes, in two experimental designs using the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. First, in the preventive design, mice were treated orally with the CAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight from the first day under a high-fat diet (HFD) and during 8 weeks thereafter. Second, in the curative design, the animals were first maintained under the HFD for 4 weeks and then treated with the CAE for a further 4 weeks under the same regimen. For both experimental designs, body weight, peri-epididymal adipose tissue, liver weight, food consumption, glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance were assessed. In both designs, the CAE significantly reduced body-weight gain and fat storage in both the peri-epididymal adipose tissue and the liver for mice under the HFD. This was achieved without modifying their energy consumption. Furthermore, glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) of the DIO mice were significantly lowered compared with the control group. Thus, a well-designed hydro-alcoholic extract of cashew apple could provide an attractive nutritional food ingredient to help support the management of body weight and associated metabolic parameters such as blood glucose and insulin levels.

  13. Characterization of virus-induced gene silencing in tobacco plants infected with apple latent spherical virus.

    PubMed

    Yaegashi, H; Yamatsuta, T; Takahashi, T; Li, C; Isogai, M; Kobori, T; Ohki, S; Yoshikawa, N

    2007-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-ALSV) was used for analysis of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in tobacco plants expressing GFP (GFP-tobacco). In GFP-tobacco inoculated with GFP-ALSV, small dark spots appeared on inoculated leaves at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), then expanded, and finally covered the whole area of the leaves after 12 dpi. Most of the fluorescence of upper leaves above the 12th true leaf disappeared at 21 dpi. Thus, GFP-ALSV infection efficiently triggered VIGS of a transgene (GFP gene) in tobacco plants. Analysis of GFP-silenced leaves showed that viral RNAs and proteins accumulated in all leaves where most GFP mRNA had been degraded. The siRNAs derived from ALSV-RNAs were not detected in samples from which siRNA of GFP mRNA could be easily detected. Direct tissue blot analysis showed that the spread of GFP-ALSV always preceded the induction of VIGS in infected leaves of GFP-tobacco. GFP leaf patch tests using Nicotiana benthamiana line 16c showed that Vp20, one of the three capsid proteins, is a silencing suppressor which interferes with systemic silencing.

  14. Alleviation of Rosup-induced oxidative stress in porcine granulosa cells by anthocyanins from red-fleshed apples

    PubMed Central

    He, Guifang; Li, Yapeng; Yang, Leilei; Shen, Wei; Huo, Heqiang; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Hongyi

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the polyphenolic phytochemicals which have been shown to scavenge free radicals. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthocyanins extracted from red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii) on reducing oxidative damage by Rosup in porcine granulosa cells (GCs) by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), content of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and the gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1. Apoptosis was determined with TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and apoptosis-related proteins were quantified with Western blotting. The results indicate that Rosup increases oxidative stress by inducing reactive oxygen species production in porcine GCs and the oxidative stress could be reduced by anthocyanins. The gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1 and the activities of these enzymes were increased when GCs were treated with anthocyanins and Rosup for 6 hours. Anthocyanins inhibit Rosup-induced apoptosis by increasing expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and suppressing the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Collectively, anthocyanins from red-fleshed apples reduce oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in porcine GCs in vitro. This approach indicates that antioxidants might be developed from red-fleshed apples. PMID:28850606

  15. Biologically induced concrete deterioration in a wastewater treatment plant assessed by combining microstructural analysis with thermodynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, A.; Lothenbach, B.; Hoffmann, C.

    2010-08-15

    In the nitrification basins of wastewater treatment plants, deterioration of the concrete surface can occur due to acid attack caused by a nitrifying biofilm covering the concrete. To identify the mechanism of deterioration, concrete cubes of different composition were suspended in an aerated nitrification basin of a wastewater treatment plant for two years and analyzed afterwards. The microstructural investigation reveals that not only dissolution of hydrates takes place, but that calcite precipitation close to the surface occurs leading to the formation of a dense layer. The degree of deterioration of the different cubes correlates with the CaO content of the different cements used. Cements which contain a high fraction of CaO form more calcite offering a better protection against the acid attack. The presence of slag, which lowers the amount CaO in the cement, leads to a faster deterioration of the concrete than observed for samples produced with pure OPC.

  16. Epigenetic regulation of MdMYB1 is associated with paper bagging-induced red pigmentation of apples.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Tuan, Pham Anh; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-09-01

    Paper-bagging treatment can transform non-transcribed MdMYB1 - 2 and MdMYB1 - 3 alleles into transcribed alleles through epigenetic regulations, resulting in the red pigmentation of a normally non-red apple cultivar 'Mutsu.' Anthocyanin biosynthesis in apples is regulated by MdMYB1/A/10, an R2R3-Type MYB gene. 'Mutsu,' a triploid apple cultivar harboring non-transcribed MdMYB1-2 and MdMYB1-3 alleles, retains green skin color under field conditions. However, it can show red/pink pigmentation under natural or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light exposure after paper-bagging and bag removal treatment. In the present study, we found that in 'Mutsu,' paper bagging-induced red pigmentation was due to the activation of non-transcribed MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles, which triggered the expression of downstream anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in a UV-B-dependent manner. By monitoring the epigenetic changes during UV-B-induced pigmentation, no significant differences in DNA methylation and histone modifications in the 5' upstream region of MdMYB1-2/-3 were recorded between the UV-B-treated fruit skin (red) and the fruit skin treated only by white light (green). In contrast, bag treatment lowered the DNA methylation in this region of MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles. Similarly, higher levels of histone H3 acetylation and trimethylation of H3 tail at lysine 4, and lower level of trimethylation of H3 tail at lysine 27 were observed in the 5' upstream region of MdMYB1-2/-3 in the skin of the fruit immediately after bag removal. These results suggest that bagging treatment can induce epigenetic changes, facilitating the binding of trans factor(s) to MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles, resulting in the activation of these MYBs after bag removal.

  17. A mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract improves fructose consumption-induced insulin resistance in rats: modulation of sarcolemmal CD36 and glucose transporter-4

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peng; Yao, Ling; Lin, Xuemei; Gu, Tieguang; Rong, Xianglu; Batey, Robert; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Apple pomace is a by-product of the processing of apple for juice, cider or wine preparation. Rosemary is a herb commonly used as spice and flavoring agent in food processing. Evidence suggests that both apple pomace and rosemary have rich bioactive molecules with numerous metabolic effects. To provide more information for using apple pomace and rosemary as functional foods for management of metabolism-associated disorders, the present study investigated the insulin-sensitizing effect of a mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract (AR). The results showed that treatment with AR (500 mg/kg, daily, by gavage) for 5 weeks attenuated chronic liquid fructose consumption-induced increases in fasting plasma insulin concentration, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and the adipose tissue insulin resistance index in rats. Mechanistically, AR suppressed fructose-induced acceleration of the clearance of plasma non-esterified fatty acids during oral glucose tolerance test, and decreased excessive triglyceride accumulation and the increased Oil Red O staining area in the gastrocnemius. Furthermore, AR restored fructose-induced overexpression of sarcolemmal CD36 that is known to contribute to etiology of insulin resistance by facilitating fatty acid uptake, and downregulation of sarcolemmal glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 that is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter. Thus, these results demonstrate that AR improves fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats via modulation of sarcolemmal CD36 and GLUT-4. PMID:27725859

  18. A mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract improves fructose consumption-induced insulin resistance in rats: modulation of sarcolemmal CD36 and glucose transporter-4.

    PubMed

    Ma, Peng; Yao, Ling; Lin, Xuemei; Gu, Tieguang; Rong, Xianglu; Batey, Robert; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Apple pomace is a by-product of the processing of apple for juice, cider or wine preparation. Rosemary is a herb commonly used as spice and flavoring agent in food processing. Evidence suggests that both apple pomace and rosemary have rich bioactive molecules with numerous metabolic effects. To provide more information for using apple pomace and rosemary as functional foods for management of metabolism-associated disorders, the present study investigated the insulin-sensitizing effect of a mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract (AR). The results showed that treatment with AR (500 mg/kg, daily, by gavage) for 5 weeks attenuated chronic liquid fructose consumption-induced increases in fasting plasma insulin concentration, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and the adipose tissue insulin resistance index in rats. Mechanistically, AR suppressed fructose-induced acceleration of the clearance of plasma non-esterified fatty acids during oral glucose tolerance test, and decreased excessive triglyceride accumulation and the increased Oil Red O staining area in the gastrocnemius. Furthermore, AR restored fructose-induced overexpression of sarcolemmal CD36 that is known to contribute to etiology of insulin resistance by facilitating fatty acid uptake, and downregulation of sarcolemmal glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 that is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter. Thus, these results demonstrate that AR improves fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats via modulation of sarcolemmal CD36 and GLUT-4.

  19. Two quantitative trait loci, Dw1 and Dw2, are primarily responsible for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Toshi M; Celton, Jean-Marc; Chagné, David; Tustin, D Stuart; Gardiner, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The apple dwarfing rootstock ‘Malling9’ (‘M9’) has been used worldwide both to reduce scion vigour and as a genetic source for breeding new rootstocks. Progeny of ‘M9’ segregate for rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion, indicating that this trait is controlled by one or more genetic factors. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a rootstock population derived from the cross between ‘M9’ × ‘Robusta5’ (non-dwarfing) and grafted with ‘Braeburn’ scions identified a major QTL (Dw1) on linkage group (LG) 5, which exhibits a significant influence on dwarfing of the scion. A smaller-effect QTL affecting dwarfing (Dw2) was identified on LG11, and four minor-effect QTLs were found on LG6, LG9, LG10 and LG12. Phenotypic analysis indicates that the combination of Dw1 and Dw2 has the strongest influence on rootstock-induced dwarfing, and that Dw1 has a stronger effect than Dw2. Genetic markers linked to Dw1 and Dw2 were screened over 41 rootstock accessions that confer a range of effects on scion growth. The majority of the dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstock accessions screened carried marker alleles linked to Dw1 and Dw2. This suggests that most apple dwarfing rootstocks have been derived from the same genetic source. PMID:26504562

  20. Investigation of L-leucine in reducing the moisture-induced deterioration of spray-dried salbutamol sulfate power for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Gengenbach, Thomas; Yu, Jiaqi; Gao, Ge Fiona; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of L-leucine (LL) in preventing moisture-induced deterioration in the in vitro aerosolization performance of spray-dried (SD) salbutamol sulfate (SS). Increasing mass fraction of LL (5-80%) were co-spray dried with SS, and the physicochemical properties of the powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Furthermore, the surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in vitro aerosolization performance of powders stored at different relative humidity (RH) was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI). The SD SS powders were moderately hygroscopic and amorphous, of which the uptake of moisture upon storage caused a drop in the aerosolization performance. The results showed that 40% (w/w) LL was sufficient to eliminate the effect of moisture on the aerosolization performance at 60% RH. The formulation containing 40% (w/w) LL also maximized the aerosolization performance of SD SS powders (stored in desiccator) with the emitted fraction being 90.0±1.8%, and the fine particle fraction based on the recovered dose (FPFrecovered) and emitted dose (FPFemitted) being 78.0±3.7% and 86.6±2.9%, respectively. The underlying mechanisms were that the crystalline LL increased the degree of particle surface corrugation, and reduced particle fusion and cohesiveness to facilitate dispersion. However, there is still a great challenge to prevent the moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance at 75% RH due to the recrystallization of SD SS. In conclusion, LL is a potential excipient for reducing moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance of SD amorphous powders, but still has drawbacks in preventing the recrystallization-induced deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence for a photoprotective function of low-temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation in apple and pear peel.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Willem J; Wand, Stephanie J E; Jacobs, Gerard; Rosecrance, Richard C; Roberts, Stephanie C

    2009-08-01

    The light requirement and low-temperature stimulation of anthocyanin synthesis in peel of apple (Malus domestica) and pears (Pyrus communis) and the presence of anthocyanins in immature fruits are not congruent with a visual function in dispersal. We hypothesized that anthocyanins afford photoprotection to peel during low-temperature-induced light stress and that the protection is not a fortuitous side-effect of light absorption by anthocyanin. The extent of photoinhibition at harvest and after light stress treatment in pear cultivars differing in redness decreased with increasing red color on the sun-exposed sides of fruits. Green-shaded sides of the pears showed comparable levels of photoinhibition indicating that pears did not differ in their inherent photosensitivity. Apple and pear peel show considerable short-term fluctuation in redness in response to temperature, with red color increasing rapidly in response to low temperature and just as quickly fading in response to high temperature. Briefly, shading pears and apples during cold conditions for 2 days reduced the accumulation of anthocyanin and increased the photosensitivity of peel. Subsequent shading during warm conditions did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanin or the photosensitivity of peel indicating that the response at low temperature was not due to shade adaptation. The assessment of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence between 16 and 40 degrees C indicated that 'Forelle' pear peel was particularly sensitive to photostress at low temperature. The photosynthetic system in mature 'Forelle' leaves was comparatively much less sensitive to light stress at low temperature. Results support the view that anthocyanins are adaptable light screens deployed to modulate light absorption in sensitive tissues such as fruit peel in response to environmental triggers such as cold front snaps.

  2. Apple latent spherical virus vector-induced flowering for shortening the juvenile phase in Japanese gentian and lisianthus plants.

    PubMed

    Fekih, Rym; Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Infection by apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors that promote the expression of Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T ( AtFT ) or Gentiana triflora GtFT s accelerates flowering in gentian and lisianthus plants. Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) has isometric virus particles (25 nm in diameter) that contain two ssRNA species (RNA1 and RNA2) and three capsid proteins (Vp25, Vp20, and Vp24). ALSV vectors are used for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a broad range of plant species. Here, we report the infection by ALSV vectors that express FLOWERING LOCUS T (AtFT) from Arabidopsis thaliana or its homolog GtFT1 from Gentiana triflora in three gentian cultivars ('Iwate Yume Aoi' [early flowering], 'Iwate' [medium flowering], and 'Alta' [late flowering]), and two lisianthus cultivars ('Newlination Pink ver. 2' and 'Torukogikyou daburu mikkusu') promotes flowering within 90 days post-inoculation using particle bombardment. Additionally, seedlings from the progeny of the early-flowering plants were tested by tissue blot hybridization, and the results showed that ALSV was not transmitted to the next generation. The promotion of flowering in the family Gentianaceae by ALSV vectors shortened the juvenile phase from 1-3 years to 3-5 months, and thus, it could be considered as a new plant breeding technique in ornamental gentian and lisianthus plants.

  3. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  4. Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies genes induced in response to UV-B irradiation in apple skin: isolation of a putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerase.

    PubMed

    Ban, Yusuke; Honda, Chikako; Bessho, Hideo; Pang, Xiao-Ming; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2007-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) successfully identified 11 cDNAs in apple skin with highly induced expression as a result of ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. Apart from three putative flavonoid biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (CHS; A5C), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H; B5F), and flavonol synthase (FLS; D1F), five clones (A1H, A10E, B11G, D5F, and D11H) were induced by low temperature (17 degrees C) as well, which is also known to induce anthocyanin accumulation in apple skin. Moreover, four clones (A1H, A10E, B11G, and D11H), showing higher expression levels in the skin, accumulated higher anthocyanin concentrations than their counterparts. Of the four clones, only A10E, a putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE), was deemed to play an important role in anthocyanin accumulation in apple skin based on the facts that: (i) its transcription level was higher in the deep red cultivar, 'Jonathan', than in the pale red cultivar, 'Tsugaru'; and (ii) it could reversibly catalyse UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose, and the latter molecule is a major sugar donor for cyanidin-glycoside in apple. Therefore, the full-length cDNA of A10E was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and designated as MdUGE1. Further analysis demonstrated that UGE enzymatic activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in apple skin. Thus, MdUGE1 isolated by SSH could play an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple skin in concert with other flavonoid biosynthetic genes.

  5. Bioactive compounds isolated from apple, tea, and ginger protect against dicarbonyl induced stress in cultured human retinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Chethan; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-02-15

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is known to be a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which are linked to diabetes and its related complications. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds could play an important role in countering AGEs thereby minimizing the risk associated with their formation. In this study, eight specific bioactive compounds isolated from apple, tea and ginger were evaluated for their AGEs scavenging activity using Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial (H-RPE) cells treated with MGO. Among the eight specific compounds evaluated, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) from tea, phloretin in apple, and [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol from ginger were found to be most effective in preventing MGO-induced cytotoxicity in the epithelial cells. Investigation of possible underlying mechanisms suggests that that these compounds could act by modulating key regulative detoxifying enzymes via modifying nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) function. MGO-induced cytotoxicity led to increased levels of AGEs causing increase in Nε-(Carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and glutathione (GSH) levels and over expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Data also showed that translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus was inhibited, which decreased the expression of detoxifying enzyme like heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The most potent bioactive compounds scavenged dicarbonyl compounds, inhibited AGEs formation and significantly reduced carbonyl stress by Nrf2 related pathway and restoration of HO-1 expression. These findings demonstrated the protective effect of bioactive compounds derived from food sources against MGO-induced carbonyl stress through activation of the Nrf2 related defense pathway, which is of significant importance for therapeutic interventions in complementary treatment/management of diabetes-related complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  7. Activation of the pathogen-inducible Gst1 promoter of potato after elicitation by Venturia inaequalis and Erwinia amylovora in transgenic apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Malnoy, M; Reynoird, J P; Borejsza-Wysocka, E E; Aldwinckle, H S

    2006-02-01

    Rather than using a constitutive promoter to drive transgenes for resistance against fungal and bacterial diseases in genetic engineering of apple (Malus x domestica) cultivars, a promoter induced only after infection was preferred. The ability of the Pgst1 promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to drive expression of the gusA reporter gene was determined in two genotypes of apple: the fruit cultivar Royal Gala and the M.26 rootstock. beta-Glucuronidase activity in the transgenic lines grown in a growth chamber was determined quantitatively using fluorometric assays and compared to the activity in Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-driven transgenic lines. In both apple genotypes, the Pgst1 promoter exhibited a low level of expression after bacterial and fungal inoculation compared to the level obtained with the PCaMV35S promoter (15% and 8% respectively). The Pgst1 promoter was systematically activated in apple at the site of infection with a fungal pathogen. It was also activated after treatment with salicylic acid, but not after wounding. Taken together, these data show that, although the Pgst1 promoter is less active than the PCaMV35S promoter in apple, its pathogen responsiveness could be useful in driving the expression of transgenes to promote bacterial and fungal disease resistance.

  8. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  9. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  10. Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (∼50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study.

  11. Cytokinin-induced changes in the chlorophyll content and fluorescence of in vitro apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; Mendler-Drienyovszki, Nóra

    2014-10-15

    Cytokinins (CKs) are one of the main regulators of in vitro growth and development and might affect the developmental state and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of in vitro shoots. Effects of different cytokinin regimes including different types of aromatic cytokinins, such as benzyl-adenine, benzyl-adenine riboside and 3-hydroxy-benzyladenine alone or in combination were studied on the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus and the pigment content of in vitro apple leaves after 3 weeks of culture. We found that the type of cytokinins affected both chlorophyll a and b contents and its ratio. Chlorophyll content of in vitro apple leaves was the highest when benzyl-adenine was applied as a single source of cytokinin in the medium (1846-2176 μg/1g fresh weight (FW) of the leaf). Increasing the concentration of benzyl-adenine riboside significantly decreased the chlorophyll content of the leaves (from 1923 to 1183 μg/1g FW). The highest chl a/chl b ratio was detected after application of meta-topolin (TOP) at concentrations of 2.0 and 6.0 μM (2.706 and 2.804). Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured both in dark-adapted (Fv/Fm test) and in light-adapted leaf samples (Yield test; Y(II)). The maximum quantum yield and efficiency of leaves depended on the cytokinin source of the medium varied between 0.683 and 0.861 (Fv/Fm) indicating a well-developed and functional photosynthetic apparatus. Our results indicate that the type and concentration of aromatic cytokinins applied in the medium affect the chlorophyll content of the leaves in in vitro apple shoots. Performance of the photosynthetic apparatus measured by chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves was also modified by the cytokinin supply. This is the first ever study on the relationship between the cytokinin supply and the functionability of photosystem II in plant tissue culture and our findings might help to increase plantlet survival after transfer to ex vitro conditions.

  12. The cold-induced basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene MdCIbHLH1 encodes an ICE-like protein in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant growth is greatly affected by low temperatures, and the expression of a number of genes is induced by cold stress. Although many genes in the cold signaling pathway have been identified in Arabidopsis, little is known about the transcription factors involved in the cold stress response in apple. Results Here, we show that the apple bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) gene MdCIbHLH1 (Cold-Induced bHLH1), which encodes an ICE-like protein, was noticeably induced in response to cold stress. The MdCIbHLH1 protein specifically bound to the MYC recognition sequences in the AtCBF3 promoter, and MdCIbHLH1 overexpression enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. In addition, the MdCIbHLH1 protein bound to the promoters of MdCBF2 and favorably contributed to cold tolerance in transgenic apple plants by upregulating the expression of MdCBF2 through the CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) pathway. Our findings indicate that MdCIbHLH1 functions in stress tolerance in different species. For example, ectopic MdCIbHLH1 expression conferred enhanced chilling tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Finally, we observed that cold induces the degradation of the MdCIbHLH1 protein in apple and that this degradation was potentially mediated by ubiquitination and sumoylation. Conclusions Based on these findings, MdCIbHLH1 encodes a transcription factor that is important for the cold tolerance response in apple. PMID:22336381

  13. Phenolics from purple grape, apple, purple grape juice and apple juice prevent early atherosclerosis induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Auger, Cyril; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2008-04-01

    Knowledge of the effects of processing on the antioxidant properties of fruits is limited. We investigated the processing of apple (A) and purple grape (PG) and their juices (AJ and PGJ) in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Five groups of eight hamsters each were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 wk. They received daily by gavage either 7.14 mL/(kg x day) of mashed A or PG, or the same volume of AJ or PGJ, or water as control. Plasma cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, liver superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were efficiently reduced by the fruits and their juices compared with controls, whereas plasma antioxidant capacity was increased and aortic fatty streak area was decreased from 48 to 93%. For each of these parameters, the efficacy was PGJ > PG > AJ > A. The results show for the first time that long-term consumption of antioxidants supplied by apple and purple grape, especially phenolic compounds, prevents the development of atherosclerosis in hamsters, and that processing can have a major impact on the potential health benefits of a product. The underlying mechanism is related mainly to increased antioxidant status and improved serum lipid profile.

  14. Newton's Apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-05-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his recollections of events did not always match known facts. However, one thing is certain-falling objects were to play a key part in Newton's eventual understanding of how objects move.

  15. Vitamin D Can Ameliorate Chlorhexidine Gluconate-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis and Functional Deterioration through the Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Che; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Tsai, Chu-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Chang, Min-Yu; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Ho, Li-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ching-Fang; Chen, Ho-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Liu, Kuang-Wen; Chen, Chih-I.; She, Kuan Min; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chiou, Yuan-Yow

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can induce fibrosis and functional alterations in PD patients' peritoneal membranes, due to long-term unphysiological dialysate exposure, partially occurring via triggering of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in peritoneal mesothelial cells (MCs). Vitamin D can ameliorate these negative effects; however, the mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated its possible links to MCs EMT inhibition. Methods. Peritoneal fibrosis was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, with and without 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Morphological and functional evaluation and western blot analysis of EMT marker were performed upon peritoneum tissue. In vitro study was also performed in a primary human peritoneal MC culture system; MCs were incubated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the absence or presence of 1α,25(OH)2D3. EMT marker expression, migration activities, and cytoskeleton redistribution of MCs were determined. Results. 1α,25(OH)2D3 ameliorated CG-induced morphological and functional deterioration in animal model, along with CG-induced upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin expression. Meanwhile, 1α,25(OH)2D3 also ameliorated TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-cadherin expression, increase in Snai1 and α-SMA expression, intracellular F-actin redistribution, and migration activity in vitro. Conclusion. 1α,25(OH)2D3 can ameliorate CG-induced peritoneal fibrosis and attenuate functional deterioration through inhibiting MC EMT. PMID:26495304

  16. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  17. MdCOP1 ubiquitin E3 ligases interact with MdMYB1 to regulate light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and red fruit coloration in apple.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-10-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species.

  18. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  19. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  20. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer.

  1. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation) system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS) is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation zero plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A) was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification. PMID:25426109

  2. Evidence for oil-induced oxidative stress to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Taverner, Peter D; Bailey, Peter T; Roush, Richard T

    2002-04-01

    For the purpose of understanding better the mode of action of alkanes on insects, the relationship between mortality, weight loss in oxygen enriched atmospheres and dietary antioxidants was examined using an alkane, C15 Ampol CPD and a spray oil, C23 DC-Tron NR, on lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker, (LBAM). The results showed that the surfactant blend used in CPD was an insignificant contributor to the overall toxicity of dilute oil/water emulsions. Higher weight loss occurred in CPD-dipped larvae than C23 DC-Tron NR-dipped larvae, which suggests that alkanes disrupt tracheal waxes and render insects more prone to desiccation. High levels of oxygen increased the toxicity of CPD to LBAM larvae. In addition, dietary supplements of anti-oxidant, alpha-tocopherol, fed to LBAM larvae were successful in reducing the toxicity of CPD. These results suggest that the alkane may contribute to oxidative injury. The potential role of oil-induced oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxicity in insects is discussed.

  3. Survey of conspecific herbivore-induced volatiles from apple as possible attractants for Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, foliage subjected to herbivore feeding. The volatiles released upon herbivore attack could be attractive to adult leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott when combined with acetic acid. First, volatiles relea...

  4. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-03-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf 'M.27' to the semi-invigorating rootstock 'M.116'. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified.

  5. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf ‘M.27’ to the semi-invigorating rootstock ‘M.116’. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  6. Endurance exercise training increases APPL1 expression and improves insulin signaling in the hepatic tissue of diet-induced obese mice, independently of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Marinho, R; Ropelle, E R; Cintra, D E; De Souza, C T; Da Silva, A S R; Bertoli, F C; Colantonio, E; D'Almeida, V; Pauli, J R

    2012-07-01

    Hepatic insulin resistance is the major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The protein kinase Akt plays a central role in the suppression of gluconeogenesis involving forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), and in the control of glycogen synthesis involving the glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β) in the liver. It has been demonstrated that endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 interacts with Akt and blocks the association of Akt with its endogenous inhibitor, tribbles-related protein 3 (TRB3), improving the action of insulin in the liver. Here, we demonstrated that chronic exercise increased the basal levels and insulin-induced Akt serine phosphorylation in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. Endurance training was able to increase APPL1 expression and the interaction between APPL1 and Akt. Conversely, training reduced both TRB3 expression and TRB3 and Akt association. The positive effects of exercise on insulin action are reinforced by our findings that showed that trained mice presented an increase in Foxo1 phosphorylation and Foxo1/PGC-1α association, which was accompanied by a reduction in gluconeogenic gene expressions (PEPCK and G6Pase). Finally, exercised animals demonstrated increased at basal and insulin-induced GSK3β phosphorylation levels and glycogen content at 24 h after the last session of exercise. Our findings demonstrate that exercise increases insulin action, at least in part, through the enhancement of APPL1 and the reduction of TRB3 expression in the liver of obese mice, independently of weight loss.

  7. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  8. Ectopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus × domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Bassett, Carole; Artlip, Timothy; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2011-05-01

    Low, non-freezing temperatures and/or short daylength (SD) regulates cold acclimation and dormancy in fruit trees. Regarding cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factor (CBF/DREB) transcriptional activator genes have the well-documented ability to induce the expression of a suite of genes associated with increased cold tolerance. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a peach CBF gene, designated PpCBF1 (GenBank Accession HM992943), and constitutively expressed it using an enhanced 35S promoter in apple. Unexpectedly, constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in strong sensitivity to short daylength. Growth cessation and leaf senescence were induced in transgenic lines exposed to SD and optimal growth temperatures of 25°C over a 4-week period. Following 1-4 weeks of SD and 25°C trees were returned to LD and 25°C in the greenhouse. Control (untransformed) plants continued to grow while transgenic lines receiving two or more weeks of SD remained dormant and began to drop leaves. Constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in a 4-6°C increase in freezing tolerance in both the non-acclimated and acclimated states, respectively, compared with untransformed M.26 trees. This is the first instance that constitutive overexpression of a CBF gene has resulted in SD-induction of dormancy and to our knowledge the first time apple has been shown to strongly respond to short daylength as a result of the insertion of a transgene.

  9. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2

  10. Wood anatomy and carbon-isotope discrimination support long-term hydraulic deterioration as a major cause of drought-induced dieback.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Elena; Camarero, J Julio; Gazol, Antonio; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Carrer, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Hydraulic impairment due to xylem embolism and carbon starvation are the two proposed mechanisms explaining drought-induced forest dieback and tree death. Here, we evaluate the relative role played by these two mechanisms in the long-term by quantifying wood-anatomical traits (tracheid size and area of parenchyma rays) and estimating the intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) from carbon isotopic discrimination. We selected silver fir and Scots pine stands in NE Spain with ongoing dieback processes and compared trees showing contrasting vigour (declining vs nondeclining trees). In both species earlywood tracheids in declining trees showed smaller lumen area with thicker cell wall, inducing a lower theoretical hydraulic conductivity. Parenchyma ray area was similar between the two vigour classes. Wet spring and summer conditions promoted the formation of larger lumen areas, particularly in the case of nondeclining trees. Declining silver firs presented a lower iWUE than conspecific nondeclining trees, but the reverse pattern was observed in Scots pine. The described patterns in wood anatomical traits and iWUE are coherent with a long-lasting deterioration of the hydraulic system in declining trees prior to their dieback. Retrospective quantifications of lumen area permit to forecast dieback in declining trees 2-5 decades before growth decline started. Wood anatomical traits provide a robust tool to reconstruct the long-term capacity of trees to withstand drought-induced dieback. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  12. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  13. Aluminium-induced deterioration in reproductive performance and seminal plasma biochemistry of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mokhtar I; El-Morsy, Ahmed M A; Hassan, Mervat S

    2005-11-05

    Aluminium (Al) has been proposed as an environmental factor that may contribute to some diseases, affect several enzymes and other biomolecules and induced free radical-mediated cytotoxicity. Also, Al induced reproductive toxicity and exerted a significant adverse effect on the steroidogenesis. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an important role in various physiological processes in the body including detoxification of different toxic materials. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to elucidate possible protective effects of AA in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on reproductive performance, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities in seminal plasma of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0 mg AA and 0 mg AlCl3 /kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3 /kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (P<0.05) decreased libido (by increasing the reaction time), ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm output, sperm motility (%), total motile sperm per ejaculate (TMS), packed sperm volume (PSV), total functional sperm fraction (TFSF), normal and live sperm and semen initial fructose. While initial hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and dead and abnormal sperm were increased (P<0.05). Live body weight (LBW), feed intake (FI) and relative weights of testes (RTW) and epididymis (REW) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in seminal plasma of rabbits treated with AlCl3 compared with control. While, activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Ascorbic acid alone significantly increased LBW

  14. Protection by apple peel polyphenols against indometacin-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Gotteland, Martin; Speisky, Hernán

    2010-07-01

    Exposure of Caco-2 cells to indometacin can be a useful model to assess some of the cytotoxic events that appear to underlie the gastrointestinal lesions associated with the use of this anti-inflammatory agent. Using such a cellular model, we addressed here the cytoprotective potential of a recently standardized apple peel polyphenol extract, APPE. We firstly characterized APPE in terms of its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, and subsequently investigated its potential to protect Caco-2 cells against the deleterious effects of indometacin on cellular oxidative status (redox state, malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels), mitochondrial function (ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential) and cell viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage). For comparative purposes, the free radical scavenging properties and reducing capacity of quercetin, epicatechin and rutin were also estimated. In the absence of APPE, indometacin induced mitochondrial perturbations (reducing ATP and the mitochondrial membrane potential), enhanced the oxidative status (decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing dichlorofluorescein oxidation and malondialdehyde) and lowered the cell viability (decreasing MTT reduction and increasing LDH leakage). APPE, whether pre-added or co-incubated with indometacin, concentration-dependently prevented these mitochondrial, oxidative and cell viability alterations. Prompted by the recently recognized ability of indometacin to enhance the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species, APPE was also characterized in terms of its free radical-scavenging capacity. APPE was found to actively scavenge O(2).(-), HO. and peroxyl radicals. Such free radical-scavenging activity of APPE suggests that its ability to protect mitochondria and prevent the oxidative and lytic damage induced by indometacin arises from its potent

  15. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  16. Dexamethasone-induced cardiac deterioration is associated with both calcium handling abnormalities and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Bozi, Luis Henrique Marchesi; Souza, Pâmela R; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days. After dexamethasone treatment, we analyzed cardiac function, cardiomyocyte diameter, cardiac fibrosis, and the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway. Dexamethasone-treated rats showed several cardiovascular abnormalities, including elevated blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Regarding the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling, dexamethasone increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at threonine 17, reduced protein levels of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and had no effect on protein expression of Serca2a. Protein levels of NFAT and GATA-4 were increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear faction. In addition, dexamethasone increased nuclear protein levels of calcineurin. Altogether our findings suggest that dexamethasone causes pathologic cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with impaired calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

  17. Annexin V decreases PS-mediated macrophage efferocytosis and deteriorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Minematsu, N; Chubachi, S; Nakamura, H; Miyazaki, M; Tsuduki, K; Takahashi, S; Miyasho, T; Iwabuchi, T; Takamiya, R; Tateno, H; Mouded, M; Shapiro, S D; Asano, K; Betsuyaku, T

    2012-11-15

    Efferocytosis is believed to be a key regulator for lung inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study we pharmacologically inhibited efferocytosis with annexin V and attempted to determine its impact on the progression of pulmonary emphysema in mouse. We first demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efferocytosis experiments using annexin V, an inhibitor for phosphatidylserine-mediated efferocytosis. We then inhibited efferocytosis in porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-treated mice. PPE-treated mice were instilled annexin V intranasally starting from day 8 until day 20. Mean linear intercept (Lm) was measured, and cell apoptosis was assessed in lung specimen obtained on day 21. Cell profile, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and growth factors were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells on day 15. Annexin V attenuated macrophage efferocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. PPE-treated mice had a significant higher Lm, and annexin V further increased that by 32%. More number of macrophages was found in BAL fluid in this group. Interestingly, cell apoptosis was not increased by annexin V treatment both in lung specimens and BAL fluid, but macrophages from mice treated with both PPE and annexin V expressed higher MMP-2 mRNA levels and had a trend for higher MMP-12 mRNA expression. mRNA expression of keratinocyte growth factor tended to be downregulated. We showed that inhibited efferocytosis with annexin V worsened elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, which was, at least partly, attributed to a lack of phenotypic change in macrophages toward anti-inflammatory one.

  18. Hypertension induces brain β-amyloid accumulation, cognitive impairment, and memory deterioration through activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products in brain vasculature.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Daniela; Mascio, Giada; D'Andrea, Ivana; Fardella, Valentina; Bell, Robert D; Branchi, Igor; Pallante, Fabio; Zlokovic, Berislav; Yan, Shirley Shidu; Lembo, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    Although epidemiological data associate hypertension with a strong predisposition to develop Alzheimer disease, no mechanistic explanation exists so far. We developed a model of hypertension, obtained by transverse aortic constriction, leading to alterations typical of Alzheimer disease, such as amyloid plaques, neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and cognitive impairment, shown here for the first time. The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanisms involved in Alzheimer disease of hypertensive mice. We focused on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) that critically regulates Aβ transport at the blood-brain barrier and could be influenced by vascular factors. The hypertensive challenge had an early and sustained effect on RAGE upregulation in brain vessels of the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, RAGE inhibition protected from hypertension-induced Alzheimer pathology, as showed by rescue from cognitive impairment and parenchymal Aβ deposition. The increased RAGE expression in transverse aortic coarctation mice was induced by increased circulating advanced glycation end products and sustained by their later deposition in brain vessels. Interestingly, a daily treatment with an advanced glycation end product inhibitor or antioxidant prevented the development of Alzheimer traits. So far, Alzheimer pathology in experimental animal models has been recognized using only transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor. This is the first study demonstrating that a chronic vascular insult can activate brain vascular RAGE, favoring parenchymal Aβ deposition and the onset of cognitive deterioration. Overall we demonstrate that RAGE activation in brain vessels is a crucial pathogenetic event in hypertension-induced Alzheimer disease, suggesting that inhibiting this target can limit the onset of vascular-related Alzheimer disease.

  19. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  20. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects of vescalagin from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] in high-fructose diet-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2013-01-15

    Vescalagin, an active component from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] fruit, with glucose uptake enhancing ability in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes, as shown in our previous study, was further evaluated for its hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with vescalagin from Pink wax apple daily during the last 4 weeks. The results of biochemical parameters showed that fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, fructosamine, triglyceride and free fatty acid contents decreased by 44.7%, 46.2%, 4.0%, 42.5%, and 10.8%, respectively, in the HFD-induced diabetic rats administered with vescalagin at 30 mg/kg body weight in comparison with those of control HFD-induced diabetic rats. However, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol content increased by 14.4% in the HFD rats treated with vescalagin. The present study reveals that vescalagin could have therapeutic value against diabetic progression via its anti-hypertriglyceridemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects.

  1. Alcohol-induced deterioration in primary antioxidant and glutathione family enzymes reversed by exercise training in the liver of old rats.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjuna, K; Shanmugam, K R; Nishanth, K; Wu, Ming-Chieh; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Reddy, K Sathyavelu

    2010-09-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes severe hepatic oxidative damage, particularly to old subjects by decreasing various antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we test the hypothesis that exercise training can protect the aging liver against alcohol-induced oxidative damage. Two different age groups of Wistar albino rats (3 months young, n=24; 18 months old, n=24) were evenly divided into four groups: control (Con), exercise trained (Tr, 23 m/min 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 2 months), ethanol drinking/treated (Et, 2.0 g/kg b.w. orally), and exercise training plus ethanol drinking/treated (Tr+Et). We found significantly (P<.001) lowered hepatic antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, selenium (Se)-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), Se-non-dependent glutathione peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activities in aged rats compared with young. Age-related decrease in antioxidant enzyme status was further exacerbated with ethanol drinking, which indicates liver in aged rats is more susceptible to oxidative damage because of decreased free radical scavenging system in aged/old ethanol-drinking rats. However, the decrease in liver antioxidant enzymes status with ethanol consumption was ameliorated by 2 months exercise training in old and young rats. These results demonstrate that age-associated decrease in hepatic free radical scavenging system exacerbated by ethanol drinking. For the first time, we found that this deterioration was significantly reversed by exercise training in aging liver, thus protects against alcohol-induced oxidative damage.

  2. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-04-10

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  3. Pectic-Oligoshaccharides from Apples Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in MDA-MB-231 Cells, a Model of Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Delphi, Ladan; Sepehri, Houri; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Mansoori, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    The effects of plant products on cancer cells has become a field of major importance. Many substancesmay induce apoptosis in anti-cancer treatment. Pectins, a family of complex polysaccharides, and their degradation products may for exasmple exert apoptotic effects in cancer cells. Apples and citrus fruits are the main sources of pectin which can be applied for anti-cancer research. The present study concerned an intact form of pectic-oligoshaccharide named pectic acid (poly galactronic acid). Inhibition of cell proliferation assays (MTT), light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide), DNA fragmentation tests, cell cycle analysis, annexin PI and Western blotting methods were applied to evaluate apoptosis. The results indicated that pectic acid inhibited cell growth and reduced cell attachment after 24h incubation. This did not appear to be due to necrosis, since morphological features of apoptosis were detected with AO/EB staining and cell cycling was blocked in the sub-G1 phase. Annexin/PI and DNA fragmentation findings indicated that apoptosis frequency increased after 24h incubation with pectic acid. In addition, the data showed pectic acid induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. These data indicate that apple pectic acid without any modification could trigger apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and has potential to improve cancer treatment as a natural product.

  4. Additional amphivasal bundles in pedicel pith exacerbate central fruit dominance and induce self-thinning of lateral fruitlets in apple.

    PubMed

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Dheilly, Emmanuelle; Guillou, Marie-Charlotte; Simonneau, Fabienne; Juchaux, Marjorie; Costes, Evelyne; Laurens, François; Renou, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) trees naturally produce an excess of fruitlets that negatively affect the commercial value of fruits brought to maturity and impact their capacity to develop flower buds the following season. Therefore, chemical thinning has become an important cultural practice, allowing the selective removal of unwanted fruitlets. As the public pressure to limit the use of chemical agents increases, the control of thinning becomes a major issue. Here, we characterized the self-thinning capacity of an apple hybrid genotype from the tree scale to the molecular level. Additional amphivasal vascular bundles were identified in the pith of pedicels supporting the fruitlets with the lowest abscission potential (central fruitlet), indicating that these bundles might have a role in the acquisition of dominance over lateral fruitlets. Sugar content analysis revealed that central fruitlets were better supplied in sorbitol than lateral fruitlets. Transcriptomic profiles allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in the overproduction of vascular tissues in central pedicels. In addition, histological and transcriptomic data permitted a detailed characterization of abscission zone development and the identification of key genes involved in this process. Our data confirm the major role of ethylene, auxin, and cell wall-remodeling enzymes in abscission zone formation. The shedding process in this hybrid appears to be triggered by a naturally exacerbated dominance of central fruitlets over lateral ones, brought about by an increased supply of sugars, possibly through additional amphivasal vascular bundles. The characterization of this genotype opens new perspectives for the selection of elite apple cultivars.

  5. Zinc-Excess Intake Causes the Deterioration of Renal Function Accompanied by an Elevation in Systemic Blood Pressure Primarily Through Superoxide Radical-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Takashi; Nodera, Makoto; Miyajima, Yuka; Suzuki, Takashi; Kido, Takamasa; Suka, Machi

    2014-07-01

    Using rats fed 22 g/d of a control diet containing 0.005% zinc (Zn) or 2 Zn-excess diets containing 0.05% or 0.2% Zn for 4 weeks, we examined the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of renal function induced by Zn-excess intake. An increase in Zn intake elevated mean blood pressure (BP) and reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and inulin clearance in a dose-dependent manner. This decline in inulin clearance may be derived from a fall in RBF. Administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, markedly increased mean BP and significantly decreased RBF in the 3 groups of rats. Administration of the exogenous superoxide radical (OO(-)) scavenger, tempol, significantly decreased mean BP and substantially increased RBF in all groups of rats. These observations suggest that both an elevation in systemic BP and a reduction in RBF seen in the 2 Zn-excess diet groups result from a decrease in the action of the vasodilator, NO, through the formation of peroxynitrite based on the nonenzymatic reaction of NO and increased OO(-) Indeed, the activity of the endogenous OO(-) scavenger, copper/Zn-superoxide dismutase, was significantly reduced in the vessel wall of rats fed 2 Zn-excess diets versus a control diet. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation caused by OO(-) generation was notably elevated in the kidneys of rats fed 2 Zn-excess diets relatively to rats fed a control diet. Thus, Zn-excess intake leads to the aggravation of renal function concomitantly with an increase in systemic BP predominantly through the oxidative stress caused by OO(). © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The Inexhaustible Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Raymond; Lehman, Jeffrey R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several hands-on science activities which focus on the use of apples. Suggests several ways of using apples to teach classification. Proposes a field trip to an orchard as a culminating activity. (TW)

  7. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  8. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPAR{alpha} deterioration

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Kamijo, Yuji; Hora, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Higuchi, Makoto; Nakajima, Takero; Ehara, Takashi; Shigematsu, Hidekazu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2011-05-01

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}), suggesting the benefit of PPAR{alpha} activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPAR{alpha} agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPAR{alpha} agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPAR{alpha} deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF{kappa}B activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPAR{alpha} function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities in PPAR{alpha}-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPAR{alpha}-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPAR

  9. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by apple polyphenols in Wistar rats through regulation of adipocyte gene expression and DNA methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Boqué, Noemi; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; Olivares, Mónica; Bañuelos, Oscar; Soria, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Martínez, José Alfredo; Campión, Javier

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mechanisms implicated in the beneficial effects of apple polyphenols (APs) against diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats, described in a previous study from our group. Supplementation of high-fat sucrose diet with AP prevented adiposity increase by inhibition of adipocyte hypertrophy. Rats supplemented with AP exhibited improved glucose tolerance while adipocytes isolated from these rats showed an enhanced lipolytic response to isoproterenol. AP intake led to reduced Lep, Plin, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) mRNA levels and increased aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (Aebp1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a) mRNA levels in epididymal adipocytes. In addition, we found different methylation patterns of Aqp7, Lep, Ppargc1a, and Srebf1 promoters in adipocytes from apple-supplemented rats compared to high-fat sucrose fed rats. The administration of AP protects against body weight gain and fat deposition and improves glucose tolerance in rats. We propose that AP exerts the antiobesity effects through the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation, in a process that could be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms.

  10. Refractory Cryptococcus neoformans Meningoencephalitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: Paradoxical Antifungal Therapy-Induced Clinical Deterioration Related to an Immune Response to Cryptococcal Organisms.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideto; Takayama, Ayami; Fujiki, Yohei; Ito, Takumi; Kitaoka, Haruko

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of refractory Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent woman. Her clinical symptoms did not improve with 6 months of antifungal therapy, and MRI abnormalities, indicating severe meningeal and cerebral inflammation, persisted despite a decreasing cryptococcal antigen titer. The patient continued to deteriorate despite antifungal therapy, and her condition clearly improved following treatment with adjunctive corticosteroid. We postulate that the paradoxical antifungal therapy-related clinical deterioration was due to an immune response to cryptococcal organisms, which responded to corticosteroids. These observations provide rationale for a further evaluation of corticosteroids in the management of select cases of C. neoformans central nervous system infection.

  11. Transverse rupture of ring-supported Dacron graft 10 years after axillobifemoral artery bypass: induced by graft deterioration and Fogarty thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Keisuke; Sakagoshi, Nobuo; Kitabayashi, Katsukiyo

    2016-12-01

    A 70-year-old woman underwent an axillobifemoral artery bypass using a bifurcated ring-supported Dacron graft in 2004 and then noticed a pulsatile mass in the left flank 10 years later. A Fogarty thrombectomy was performed for acute graft occlusion. Eight months later, computed tomography revealed pseudoaneurysm formation in the graft body and surgical graft interposition was performed. The operative findings showed a transverse rupture of the graft just above the bifurcation. Histological findings revealed graft deterioration with filaments broken off from the graft. Although the cause of pseudoaneurysm formation was not apparent, the combination of graft deterioration and additional damage from the Fogarty thrombectomy was highly suspicious.

  12. Deterioration + dependence = disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Halbouty, M.T.

    1987-05-01

    As a result of the impact of falling world oil prices, the worldwide oversupply of oil, the hostile raids and takeovers, and the retrenchment of the global petroleum industry, over a brief period of five years much of the US petroleum industry has slowly disintegrated. Exploration programs have been especially hard hit, and the losses incurred can be measured not only by balance-sheet assessments but by the decline in their national energy security and the devaluation of their greatest asset - the professionals who have been terminated or retired from their once world-premier manpower pool. In addition, major budgetary cutbacks in research and development programs have also necessitated reductions in people and projects. The deterioration that the petroleum industry has sustained in exploration programs and in other activities has had a ripple effect throughout all segments of the nation's industrial complex and its support structure. Their rising import levels, combined with their falling production, produce a devastating equation: Deterioration + Dependence = Disaster. Possible recommendations are made and solutions discusses to alleviate the conditions which exist in the industry.

  13. Screening of UV-B-induced genes from apple peels by SSH: possible involvement of MdCOP1-mediated signaling cascade genes in anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Ban, Yusuke; Kondo, Satoru; Liu, Ji-Hong; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-07-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify candidate genes involved in red coloration in apple peel with the ultraviolet (UV)-B-treated 'Mutsu'. After reverse Northern blotting verification, nearly 80 clones were successfully sequenced. Large portions of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are well characterized anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes, such as chalcone synthase (11A5), flavonol synthase (12F3), anthocyanidin synthase (11H5) and UDP-glycosyl transferase (14A12) whose presence proved the success of SSH. Eight ESTs were selected for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and their expressions were all elevated in 'Induction', further confirming the reliability of the SSH library. One EST, 11F4 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1: COP1) with putative function in light signal relay was further analyzed in 'Mutsu' and 'Tsugaru', along with MdHY5 (ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5: the downstream target of COP1), MdMYB22 (a possible flavonol-specific activator under the regulation of HY5, belonging to the SG7/PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES family) and MdMYBA. Results showed that MdCOP1, MdHY5, MdMYB22 and MdMYBA were all UV-B inducible genes and anthocyanin accumulation occurred after their increased expressions. Moreover, their expressions and anthocyanin content were enhanced under UV-B plus 17°C treatment. The presence of G box, a known consensus binding site of HY5, in the MdMYBA promoter region implicated that it could be regulated by MdHY5, which was verified by the result of the yeast one-hybrid analysis. Our data suggested that UV-B irradiation would induce the utmost upstream light signaling factor, MdCOP1, which activates MdHY5 signaling by binding to the promoter regions of MdMYBs, and finally leads to the red coloration of apple peels.

  14. Apple-Derived Pectin Modulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Gut Barrier Function, and Attenuates Metabolic Endotoxemia in Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Wu, Chao; Tian, Feng; Lei, Qiucheng; Bi, Jingcheng; Xie, Bingxian; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xinying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining potential effects of apple-derived pectin on weight gain, gut microbiota, gut barrier and metabolic endotoxemia in rat models of diet-induced obesity. The rats received a standard diet (control; Chow group; n = 8) or a high-fat diet (HFD; n = 32) for eight weeks to induce obesity. The top 50th percentile of weight-gainers were selected as diet induced obese rats. Thereafter, the Chow group continued on chow, and the diet induced obese rats were randomly divided into two groups and received HFD (HF group; n = 8) or pectin-supplemented HFD (HF-P group; n = 8) for six weeks. Compared to the HF group, the HF-P group showed attenuated weight gain (207.38 ± 7.96 g vs. 283.63 ± 10.17 g, p < 0.01) and serum total cholesterol level (1.46 ± 0.13 mmol/L vs. 2.06 ± 0.26 mmol/L, p < 0.01). Compared to the Chow group, the HF group showed a decrease in Bacteroidetes phylum and an increase in Firmicutes phylum, as well as subordinate categories (p < 0.01). These changes were restored to the normal levels in the HF-P group. Furthermore, compared to the HF group, the HF-P group displayed improved intestinal alkaline phosphatase (0.57 ± 0.20 vs. 0.30 ± 0.19, p < 0.05) and claudin 1 (0.76 ± 0.14 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) expression, and decreased Toll-like receptor 4 expression in ileal tissue (0.76 ± 0.58 vs. 2.04 ± 0.89, p < 0.01). The HF-P group also showed decreased inflammation (TNFα: 316.13 ± 7.62 EU/mL vs. 355.59 ± 8.10 EU/mL, p < 0.01; IL-6: 51.78 ± 2.35 EU/mL vs. 58.98 ± 2.59 EU/mL, p < 0.01) and metabolic endotoxemia (2.83 ± 0.42 EU/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.14 EU/mL, p < 0.01). These results suggest that apple-derived pectin could modulate gut microbiota, attenuate metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, and consequently suppress weight gain and fat accumulation in diet induced obese rats. PMID:26938554

  15. Apple-Derived Pectin Modulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Gut Barrier Function, and Attenuates Metabolic Endotoxemia in Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Wu, Chao; Tian, Feng; Lei, Qiucheng; Bi, Jingcheng; Xie, Bingxian; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xinying

    2016-02-29

    This study was aimed at determining potential effects of apple-derived pectin on weight gain, gut microbiota, gut barrier and metabolic endotoxemia in rat models of diet-induced obesity. The rats received a standard diet (control; Chow group; n = 8) or a high-fat diet (HFD; n = 32) for eight weeks to induce obesity. The top 50th percentile of weight-gainers were selected as diet induced obese rats. Thereafter, the Chow group continued on chow, and the diet induced obese rats were randomly divided into two groups and received HFD (HF group; n = 8) or pectin-supplemented HFD (HF-P group; n = 8) for six weeks. Compared to the HF group, the HF-P group showed attenuated weight gain (207.38 ± 7.96 g vs. 283.63 ± 10.17 g, p < 0.01) and serum total cholesterol level (1.46 ± 0.13 mmol/L vs. 2.06 ± 0.26 mmol/L, p < 0.01). Compared to the Chow group, the HF group showed a decrease in Bacteroidetes phylum and an increase in Firmicutes phylum, as well as subordinate categories (p < 0.01). These changes were restored to the normal levels in the HF-P group. Furthermore, compared to the HF group, the HF-P group displayed improved intestinal alkaline phosphatase (0.57 ± 0.20 vs. 0.30 ± 0.19, p < 0.05) and claudin 1 (0.76 ± 0.14 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) expression, and decreased Toll-like receptor 4 expression in ileal tissue (0.76 ± 0.58 vs. 2.04 ± 0.89, p < 0.01). The HF-P group also showed decreased inflammation (TNFα: 316.13 ± 7.62 EU/mL vs. 355.59 ± 8.10 EU/mL, p < 0.01; IL-6: 51.78 ± 2.35 EU/mL vs. 58.98 ± 2.59 EU/mL, p < 0.01) and metabolic endotoxemia (2.83 ± 0.42 EU/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.14 EU/mL, p < 0.01). These results suggest that apple-derived pectin could modulate gut microbiota, attenuate metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, and consequently suppress weight gain and fat accumulation in diet induced obese rats.

  16. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Dardick, Chris D; Beers, Eric P; Callanhan, Ann M; Xia, Rui; Yuan, Rongcai

    2011-10-17

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ), sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII) efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible regulatory genes involved in the induction of young fruit

  17. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Results Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ), sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII) efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. Conclusions This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible regulatory genes involved in the

  18. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Aćimović, Srđan G.; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C.; Sundin, George W.; Wise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1–2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control. PMID:25717330

  19. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes.

    PubMed

    Aćimović, Srđan G; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Wise, John C

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  20. Detection of natural and stress-induced variability in reflectance spectra of apple trees using hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delalieux, Stephanie; Keulemans, Wannes; van Aardt, Jan; Schrevens, Eddie; Coppin, Pol

    2005-10-01

    Early detection of biotic and abiotic stresses and subsequent steering of agricultural systems using hyperspectral sensors potentially could contribute to the pro-active treatment of production-limiting factors. Venturia inaequalis (apple scab) is an important biotic factor that can reduce yield in apple orchards. Previous hyperspectral research focused on (i) determining if Venturia inaequalis leaf infections could be differentiated from healthy leaves and (ii) investigating at which developmental stage Venturia inaequalis infection could be detected. Logistical regression and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to select the hyperspectral bands that best define differences among treatments. It was clear that hyperspectral data provide the contiguous, high spectral resolution data that are needed to detect subtle changes in reflectance values between healthy and stressed vegetation. The research was extended to include tree-based modeling as an alternative classification method. Results suggested that good predictability could be achieved when classifying infected plants based on this supervised classification technique. It was concluded that the spectral domain around 1600 nm was best suited to discriminate between infected and non-infected leaves immediately after infection, while the visible spectral region became more important at a well-developed infection stage. Research was focused on young leaves, because of the decreased incidence of infection in older leaves, the so-called 'ontogenic resistance'. Additional research was performed to gain a better understanding of the processes occurring during the first days after leaf unfolding and to evaluate the natural spectral variability among leaves. An undisturbed 20-day growth profile was examined to assess variations in the reflectance spectra due to physiological changes at the different growth stages of the leaves. Results suggested that an accurate distinction could be made between

  1. Survey of conspecific herbivore-induced volatiles from apple as possible attractants for Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Mattheis, James P; Basoalto, Esteban; Angeli, Sergio; Knight, Alan L

    2017-09-01

    Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple foliage untreated or sprayed with a yeast and from untreated and sprayed foliage with actively feeding larvae of Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott. Field studies then evaluated various combinations of these volatiles when paired with acetic acid as possible adult attractants. The most abundant volatiles released following herbivore feeding were four green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and acetic acid. Nineteen volatiles were found to be released in significantly higher amounts from foliage with herbivore damage than from intact leaves. The combination of yeast followed by herbivore injury increased the levels of methyl salicylate and phenylacetonitrile compared with herbivory alone. Levels of acetic acid released were not significantly different among the four treatments. Only phenylacetonitrile and 2-phenylethanol with acetic acid caught similar and significantly more total and female moths than acetic acid alone. Moth catches with 12 other volatiles plus acetic acid were not significantly higher than with acetic acid alone, and were lower than with acetic acid and 2-phenylethanol. These data show that herbivore injury does not create a unique chemical signal for adults to locate oviposition or rendezvous sites. Instead, moths may cue to the aromatic-acetic acid combination as a nutritional cue to locate sugary resources. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean seeds and the emergence stage of soybean plants with Apple latent spherical virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-09-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has great potential as a reverse-genetics tool in plant genomics. In this study, we examined the potential of VIGS in soybean seeds and the emergence stage of soybean plants using Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors. Inoculation of an ALSV vector (soyPDS-ALSV) carrying a fragment of the soybean phytoene desaturase (soyPDS) gene into soybean seedlings resulted in a highly uniform photo-bleached phenotype, typical of PDS inhibition, on the upper leaves throughout plant growth. The photo-bleached phenotype was also found on all immature pods, all seed coats, and about 50% embryos of seeds on soybean plants infected with soyPDS-ALSV. Infection with an ALSV vector (soyIFS2-ALSV) having a fragment of soybean isoflavone synthase 2 (soyIFS2) gene also led to a reduction of the levels of both soyIFS2- and soyIFS1- mRNAs and an isoflavone content in the cotyledons of about 36% mature seeds of infected soybean plants. Furthermore, VIGS of soyPDS was induced in the next generation plants by the seed transmission of soyPDS-ALSV. Thus ALSV vectors will be useful for studying gene functions in the reproductive stages and early growth stages, such as emergence and cotyledon stages, in addition to the vegetative stages of soybean plants.

  3. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  4. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  5. Addictive substances may induce a rapid neurological deterioration in fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Muzar, Zukhrofi; Adams, Patrick E.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Lozano, Reymundo

    2014-01-01

    Summary A debilitating late-onset disorder of the premutation in the FMR1 gene is the neurodegenerative disorder fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). We report two patients with FXTAS who have a history of substance abuse (opiates, alcohol, and cocaine) which may have exacerbated their rapid neurological deterioration with FXTAS. There has been no case report regarding the role of substance abuse in onset, progression, and severity of FXTAS symptoms. However, research has shown that substance abuse can have a negative impact on several neurodegenerative diseases, and we propose that in these cases, substance abuse contributed to a faster progression of FXTAS as well as exacerbated white matter disease. PMID:25606366

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

    PubMed

    Navarro Gallón, Sandra M; Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; Daudu, Dimitri; Liesecke, Franziska; Jullien, Frédéric; Papon, Nicolas; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Courdavault, Vincent; Lanoue, Arnaud; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Atehortùa, Lucia; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Besseau, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.

  7. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  8. Specific bioactive compounds in ginger and apple alleviate hyperglycemia in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity via Nrf2 mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Chethan; Rashid, Muhammed Raihan; Sang, Shengmin; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged hyperglycemia activates the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Major dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal or glyoxal are found to be the main precursors of AGEs and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) found to be predominantly higher in the diabetic population. We hypothesized that phloretin from apple and [6]-gingerol from ginger inhibit formation of AGEs and suppress the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) via nuclear factor erythroid-2-related-factor-2 (Nrf2)-dependent pathway. Phloretin and [6]-gingerol were supplemented at two different doses to C57BL/6 mice on high fat diet or standard diet for a period of 17weeks. Phloretin or [6]-gingerol supplementation significantly reduced plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, AGEs and insulin levels. Phloretin and [6]-gingerol also decreased the levels of AGEs and CML levels, via Nrf2 pathway, enhancing GSH/GSSG ratio, heme oxygenase-1 and glyoxalase 1 in liver tissue. These results suggest that phloretin and [6]-gingerol are potential dietary compounds that can alleviate diabetes-induced complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  10. Deterioration of Library Collections Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Edwin E.

    1970-01-01

    Preservation should be considered as a by-product of accessibility and continued dissemination. Several suggestions for national organization of preservation and dissemination of deteriorating books, in both original and microform, are presented. (JS)

  11. Effect of short-term air storage after removal from controlled-atmosphere storage on apple and fresh-cut apple quality.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Peter M A; Wiersma, Paul A; Hampson, Cheryl; Lannard, Brenda

    2010-03-15

    One of the realities of apple distribution for long-term stored fruit is that a controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage room will be unsealed and fruit held in air storage and marketed over several weeks. This work was conducted to determine the effect of post-CA air storage of whole fruit on potential shelf life for fresh-cut apple slices. Fresh-cut slices of 'Spartan' and 'Delicious' apples held in post-CA air storage for 2 or 4 weeks showed the least changes in cut surface color as compared with those made from apples immediately on removal from CA. Shelf life was most improved by post-CA air storage in the 'Spartan' apples, which were more advanced in maturity as compared with the 'Delicious' apples. Internal ethylene concentration, firmness, and respiration changed significantly with post-CA air storage, suggesting a relationship between physiological status of the whole fruit and shelf life of slices made from that fruit. The results support the hypothesis that apples had suppressed physiological activity in CA storage and are susceptible to accelerated deterioration upon cutting. Holding fruit for 2 weeks in air storage allowed recovery of physiological activity, which resulted in greater resistance to deterioration in response to fresh-cut processing.

  12. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  13. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  14. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037417 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  15. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037421 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  16. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  17. Protection of hydrophobic amino acids against moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaqi; Chan, Hak-Kim; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A

    2017-10-01

    Inhalable particles containing amorphous form of drugs or excipients may absorb atmospheric moisture, causing powder aggregation and recrystallization, adversely affecting powder dispersion and lung deposition. The present study aims to explore hydrophobic amino acids for protection against moisture in spray-dried amorphous powders, using disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as a model drug. DSCG powders were produced by co-spray drying with isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and methionine (Met) in various concentrations (10, 20 and 40%w/w). Particle size distribution and morphology were measured by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiochemical properties of the powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Particle surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performance was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH) for one month and three months. Ile, Val and Met significantly reduced the deleterious effect of moisture on aerosol performance, depending on the amount of amino acids in the formulation. Formulations containing 10% or 20% of Ile, Val and Met showed notable deterioration in aerosol performance, with fine particle fraction (FPF) reduced by 6-15% after one-month storage at both 60% and 75% RH. However, 40% Ile was able to maintain the aerosol performance of DSCG stored at 75% RH for one month, while the FPF dropped by 7.5% after three months of storage. In contrast, 40% Val or Met were able to maintain the aerosol performance at 60% RH storage but not at 75% RH. At 40%w/w ratio, these formulations had particle surface coverage of 94.5% (molar percent) of Ile, 87.1% of Val and 84.6% of Met, respectively, which may explain their

  18. Pathogen-Induced Leaf Chlorosis: Products of Chlorophyll Breakdown Found in Degreened Leaves of Phytoplasma-Infected Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Trees Relate to the Pheophorbide a Oxygenase/Phyllobilin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mittelberger, Cecilia; Yalcinkaya, Hacer; Pichler, Christa; Gasser, Johanna; Scherzer, Gerhard; Erhart, Theresia; Schumacher, Sandra; Holzner, Barbara; Janik, Katrin; Robatscher, Peter; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard; Oberhuber, Michael

    2017-04-05

    Phytoplasmoses such as apple proliferation (AP) and European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) cause severe economic losses in fruit production. A common symptom of both phytoplasma diseases is early yellowing or leaf chlorosis. Even though chlorosis is a well-studied symptom of biotic and abiotic stresses, its biochemical pathways are hardly known. In particular, in this context, a potential role of the senescence-related pheophorbide a oxygenase/phyllobilin (PaO/PB) pathway is elusive, which degrades chlorophyll (Chl) to phyllobilins (PBs), most notably to colorless nonfluorescent Chl catabolites (NCCs). In this work, we identified the Chl catabolites in extracts of healthy senescent apple and apricot leaves. In extracts of apple tree leaves, a total of 12 Chl catabolites were detected, and in extracts of leaves of the apricot tree 16 Chl catabolites were found. The seven major NCC fractions in the leaves of both fruit tree species were identical and displayed known structures. All of the major Chl catabolites were also found in leaf extracts from AP- or ESFY-infected trees, providing the first evidence that the PaO/PB pathway is relevant also for pathogen-induced chlorosis. This work supports the hypothesis that Chl breakdown in senescence and phytoplasma infection proceeds via a common pathway in some members of the Rosaceae family.

  19. Genetic control of pear rootstock-induced dwarfing and precocity is linked to a chromosomal region syntenic to the apple Dw1 loci.

    PubMed

    Knäbel, Mareike; Friend, Adam P; Palmer, John W; Diack, Robert; Wiedow, Claudia; Alspach, Peter; Deng, Cecilia; Gardiner, Susan E; Tustin, D Stuart; Schaffer, Robert; Foster, Toshi; Chagné, David

    2015-09-22

    The vigour and precocity of trees highly influences their efficiency in commercial production. In apple, dwarfing rootstocks allow high-density plantings while their precocious flowering enables earlier fruit production. Currently, there is a lack of pear (Pyrus communis L.) rootstocks that are equivalent to the high yielding apple rootstock 'M9'. For the efficient breeding of new Pyrus rootstocks it is crucial to understand the genetic determinants of vigour control and precocity. In this study we used quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis to identify genetic loci associated with the desired traits, using a segregating population of 405 F1 P. communis seedlings from a cross between 'Old Home' and 'Louise Bonne de Jersey' (OHxLBJ). The seedlings were grafted as rootstocks with 'Doyenne du Comice' scions and comprehensively phenotyped over four growing seasons for traits related to tree architecture and flowering, in order to describe the growth of the scions. A high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map comprising 597 polymorphic pear and 113 apple markers enabled the detection of QTLs influencing expression of scion vigour and precocity located on linkage groups (LG)5 and LG6 of 'Old Home'. The LG5 QTL maps to a position that is syntenic to the apple 'Malling 9' ('M9') Dw1 locus at the upper end of LG5. An allele of a simple sequence repeat (SSR) associated with apple Dw1 segregated with dwarfing and precocity in pear and was identified in other pear germplasm accessions. The orthology of the vigour-controlling LG5 QTL between apple and pear raises the possibility that the dwarfing locus Dw1 arose before the divergence of apple and pear, and might therefore be present in other Rosaceae species. We report the first QTLs associated with vigour control and flowering traits in pear rootstocks. Orthologous loci were found to control scion growth and precocity in apple and pear rootstocks. The application of our results may assist in the

  20. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.

  1. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of HIF-1α Prevents Deterioration of Glycolytic Pathway and Cardiac Remodeling in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wanli; Cai, Lu; Tan, Yi; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Kang, Y. James; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke

    2010-01-01

    Defective glycolysis and angiogenesis in the heart of diabetic patients and in experimental diabetic animal models have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protects from myocardial injury in diabetic mice by increasing myocardial glycolysis and angiogenesis. Cardiac-specific HIF-1α–overexpressing transgenic and age-matched wild-type control mice were treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Changes in glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, angiogenic factors and cardiac morphology were examined in the hearts by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, enzymatic assay, and histological assays. HIF-1α overexpression elevated hexokinase II (HK-II) protein level and total HK activity in nondiabetic heart and prevented the decreases in HK-II mRNA, protein, and total HK activity in diabetic heart. In addition, the reduction of glucose transporter I, but not glucose transporter 4, was restored in HIF transgenic mouse heart along with a recovery of myocardium ATP production. HIF-1α overexpression also normalized diabetes-reduced vascular endothelial growth factor concentration along with a sustained myocardial capillary density and an inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, elevation of HIF-1α provides a cardiac protection from diabetic-induced impairment in glucose metabolism and angiogenesis via up-regulation of HIF-1 target genes. PMID:20566749

  2. Apple polyphenols require T cells to ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and dampen proinflammatory cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    Skyberg, Jerod A.; Robison, Amy; Golden, Sarah; Rollins, MaryClare F.; Callis, Gayle; Huarte, Eduardo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jutila, Mark A.; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Human IBD, including UC and Crohn's disease, is characterized by a chronic, relapsing, and remitting condition that exhibits various features of immunological inflammation and affects at least one/1000 people in Western countries. Polyphenol extracts from a variety of plants have been shown to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, treatment with APP was investigated to ameliorate chemically induced colitis. Oral but not peritoneal administration of APP during colitis induction significantly protected C57BL/6 mice against disease, as evidenced by the lack of weight loss, colonic inflammation, and shortening of the colon. APP administration dampened the mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IFN-γ in the colons of mice with colitis. APP-mediated protection requires T cells, as protection was abated in Rag-1−/− or TCRα−/− mice but not in IL-10−/−, IRF-1−/−, μMT, or TCRδ−/− mice. Administration of APP during colitis to TCRα−/− mice actually enhanced proinflammatory cytokine expression, further demonstrating a requirement for TCRαβ cells in APP-mediated protection. APP treatment also inhibited CXCR3 expression by TCRαβ cells, but not B or NK cells, in the colons of mice with colitis; however, depletion of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells alone did not abolish APP-mediated protection. Collectively, these results show that oral administration of APP protects against experimental colitis and diminishes proinflammatory cytokine expression via T cells. PMID:21693591

  3. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  4. Overexpression of a peach (Prunus persica) AP2/ERF-family transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) induces growth cessation in response to short photoperiod

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change will result in extreme swings in temperature during late fall and early spring that will have a negative impact on woody plants. Apple may be especially sensitive to the predicted weather patterns since growth cessation is regulated by low temperature rather than daylength. We have ...

  5. Deterioration of white croaker (Pennahia argentata) meat thermally-induced gel products caused by proteolytic enzymes in the contaminated intestine and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Nobuhiko; Wan, Jianrong; Watabe, Shugo

    2016-05-15

    Thermally-induced gels were made from white croaker (Pennahia argentata) meat in the presence of its organ extracts by pre-heating at 40 and 65°C for 20 min and subsequent heating at 85°C for 20 min. The breaking strength of the gels decreased with increasing concentrations of the intestinal extracts accompanying decomposition of myosin heavy chains. However, no significant changes in the gel strength occurred when the kidney extract was added. The proteolytic activity in the intestinal extracts examined in the meat homogenate had a maximum at 60°C and pH 8.90. These results suggest that the intestinal rather than kidney proteolytic activities are responsible for gel softening known as a modori phenomenon. Thus, the removal of intestinal tracts is essential to maintain a high quality of surimi-based products.

  6. Cissus quadrangularis inhibits IL-1β induced inflammatory responses on chondrocytes and alleviates bone deterioration in osteotomized rats via p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Samarasinghe, Rasika M; Kumar, Kuldeep; Arya, Ramesh; Sharma, Sanjeev; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory mediators are key players in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and bone destruction. Conventional drugs suppress symptomatic activity and have no therapeutic influence on disease. Cissus quadrangularis and Withania somnifera are widely used for the treatment of bone fractures and wounds; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulated by these herbals are still unclear. Methods We established an in vitro OA culture model by exposing human chondrocytes to proinflammatory cytokine and interleukin (IL)-1β for 36 hours prior to treatment with the herbals: C. quadrangularis, W. somnifera, and the combination of the two herbals. Cell viability, toxicity, and gene expression of OA modifying agents were examined. In addition, expression of survivin, which is crucial for cell growth, was analyzed. In vivo work on osteotomized rats studied the bone and cartilage regenerative effects of C. quadrangularis, W. somnifera, and the combination therapy. Results Exposure of chondrocytes to IL-1β induced significant toxicity and cell death. However, herbal treatment alleviated IL-1β induced cell toxicity and upregulated cell growth and proliferation. C. quadrangularis inhibited gene expression of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, known to aggravate cartilage and bone destruction, and augmented expression of survivin by inhibiting p38 MAPK. Interestingly, osteotomized rats treated with C. quadrangularis drastically enhanced alkaline phosphatase and cartilage tissue formation as compared to untreated, W. somnifera only, or the combination of both herbals. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate for the first time the signaling mechanisms regulated by C. quadrangularis and W. somnifera in OA and osteogenesis. We suggest that the chondroprotective effects and regenerative ability of these herbals are via the upregulation of survivin that exerts inhibitory effects on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings thus validate C

  7. Cissus quadrangularis inhibits IL-1β induced inflammatory responses on chondrocytes and alleviates bone deterioration in osteotomized rats via p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Samarasinghe, Rasika M; Kumar, Kuldeep; Arya, Ramesh; Sharma, Sanjeev; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are key players in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and bone destruction. Conventional drugs suppress symptomatic activity and have no therapeutic influence on disease. Cissus quadrangularis and Withania somnifera are widely used for the treatment of bone fractures and wounds; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulated by these herbals are still unclear. We established an in vitro OA culture model by exposing human chondrocytes to proinflammatory cytokine and interleukin (IL)-1β for 36 hours prior to treatment with the herbals: C. quadrangularis, W. somnifera, and the combination of the two herbals. Cell viability, toxicity, and gene expression of OA modifying agents were examined. In addition, expression of survivin, which is crucial for cell growth, was analyzed. In vivo work on osteotomized rats studied the bone and cartilage regenerative effects of C. quadrangularis, W. somnifera, and the combination therapy. Exposure of chondrocytes to IL-1β induced significant toxicity and cell death. However, herbal treatment alleviated IL-1β induced cell toxicity and upregulated cell growth and proliferation. C. quadrangularis inhibited gene expression of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, known to aggravate cartilage and bone destruction, and augmented expression of survivin by inhibiting p38 MAPK. Interestingly, osteotomized rats treated with C. quadrangularis drastically enhanced alkaline phosphatase and cartilage tissue formation as compared to untreated, W. somnifera only, or the combination of both herbals. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the signaling mechanisms regulated by C. quadrangularis and W. somnifera in OA and osteogenesis. We suggest that the chondroprotective effects and regenerative ability of these herbals are via the upregulation of survivin that exerts inhibitory effects on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings thus validate C. quadrangularis as a potential therapeutic for

  8. Beneficial effects of fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates on hypercaloric diet induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and deterioration of kidney function in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jemil, Ines; Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Aristoy, Maria-Concepción; Salem, Rabeb Ben Slama-Ben; Kallel, Choumous; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) obtained by two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6), on hypercaloric diet (HCD) induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in rats. Effects of FSPHs on blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, α-amylase activity and hepatic glycogen content were investigated, as well as their effect on the oxidative stress state. Biochemical findings revealed that, while undigested sardinelle proteins did not exhibit hypoglycemic activity, oral administration of FSPHs to HCD-fed rats reduced significantly α-amylase activity as well as glycemia and hepatic glycogen levels. Further, the treatment with FSPHs improved the redox status by decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and the level of glutathione in the liver and kidneys, as compared to those of HCD-fed rats. FSPHs were also found to exert significant protective effects on liver and kidney functions, evidenced by a marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity and a modulation of creatinine and uric acid contents. These results indicated the beneficial effect of FSPHs on the prevention from hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

  9. Apple mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  10. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  11. Bacterial diseases affecting apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial diseases of plants are usually difficult to control and often require a combination of control measures to successfully manage the disease. There are often stark differences between the means available to control bacterial diseases in annual crops versus a woody tree crop, such as apple. ...

  12. Evaluating Freeze-Thaw Deterioration with Tensile Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, A. J. K.; Boyd, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Freeze-thaw damage is one of the leading contributors to infrastructure deterioration in temperate northern climates. Deterioration caused by freeze-thaw cycling is primarily induced by hydraulic pressures within the hydrated cement paste matrix that cause tensile cracking. Such damage should, therefore, be more effectively detected with tensile testing. This work presents the detection and evaluation of ongoing freeze-thaw (F/T) damage in plain concrete cylinders using the pressure tensile strength test, as it compares to compressive strength evaluation. Pressure tension test results exhibited significantly higher levels of deterioration compared to compression testing, with the samples losing up to 90% of their undamaged tensile capacity. Moreover, it was shown that tensile strength testing is far more sensitive to freeze-thaw deterioration, evidenced by a significant drop in the tensile to compressive strength ratio to below 5%.

  13. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    PubMed Central

    Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice. PMID:26784345

  14. Marie Ménard apples with high polyphenol content and a low-fat diet reduce 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats: effects on inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Bianchini, Francesca; Salvadori, Maddalena; Salvianti, Francesca; Pinzani, Pamela; Dolara, Piero; Calorini, Lido; Caderni, Giovanna

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation may increase cancer risk, therefore, we studied whether polyphenol-rich Marie Ménard (MM) apples with reported anti-inflammatory activity prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and, likewise whether high-fat (HF) diet promoting carcinogenesis, may affect inflammation. DMH-induced rats were fed for 15 weeks with: an HF diet (23% corn oil w/w); an HF diet containing 7.6% w/w lyophilized MM (apple diet (AD)); a low-fat (LF) diet and an HF diet containing piroxicam (PXC) (0.01% w/w) as control. Mucin depleted foci (MDF), precancerous lesions in the colon, were dramatically reduced in the AD, LF, and PXC groups compared with the HF. Peritoneal macrophage activation, an index of systemic inflammation, was significantly decreased in the AD, LF, and PXC groups. TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6 m-RNA expression in the colon, as well as CD68 cells and plasmatic PGE2 were lower in the AD, but not in the LF group. Apoptosis in the MDF of both the AD and LF-fed rats was significantly higher than in HF rats. In conclusion, AD has a strong chemopreventive effect, reducing inflammation, and increasing apoptosis, while the chemopreventive effect of the LF diet seems mediated mainly by increased apoptosis in MDF.

  15. Additional Amphivasal Bundles in Pedicel Pith Exacerbate Central Fruit Dominance and Induce Self-Thinning of Lateral Fruitlets in Apple1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Dheilly, Emmanuelle; Guillou, Marie-Charlotte; Simonneau, Fabienne; Juchaux, Marjorie; Costes, Evelyne; Laurens, François; Renou, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) trees naturally produce an excess of fruitlets that negatively affect the commercial value of fruits brought to maturity and impact their capacity to develop flower buds the following season. Therefore, chemical thinning has become an important cultural practice, allowing the selective removal of unwanted fruitlets. As the public pressure to limit the use of chemical agents increases, the control of thinning becomes a major issue. Here, we characterized the self-thinning capacity of an apple hybrid genotype from the tree scale to the molecular level. Additional amphivasal vascular bundles were identified in the pith of pedicels supporting the fruitlets with the lowest abscission potential (central fruitlet), indicating that these bundles might have a role in the acquisition of dominance over lateral fruitlets. Sugar content analysis revealed that central fruitlets were better supplied in sorbitol than lateral fruitlets. Transcriptomic profiles allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in the overproduction of vascular tissues in central pedicels. In addition, histological and transcriptomic data permitted a detailed characterization of abscission zone development and the identification of key genes involved in this process. Our data confirm the major role of ethylene, auxin, and cell wall-remodeling enzymes in abscission zone formation. The shedding process in this hybrid appears to be triggered by a naturally exacerbated dominance of central fruitlets over lateral ones, brought about by an increased supply of sugars, possibly through additional amphivasal vascular bundles. The characterization of this genotype opens new perspectives for the selection of elite apple cultivars. PMID:24550240

  16. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  17. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  18. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  19. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  20. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  2. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  3. [Stereo Vision Deterioration by Artificially Induced Aniseikonia].

    PubMed

    Veselý, P; Synek, S

    Main purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of aniseikonia on the stereo vision. We had together 90 subjects without eye pathology with or without habitual correction. Five of them were excluded due to important anisometropia or bad visual acuity (V < 0.5 on worse eye). All 85 subjects every in 4 cases (without size lens, with size lens on OD 1, 3 and 5 %) undergone measuring of their stereoscopy parallax. This was evaluated by Random dot stereo test. The level for stereoscopy vision was set bellow 60 arc seconds. This criterion was not achieved naturally by 6 subjects, so final number of all cases was 316 (100 %). As a whole 48 subjects (15.2 %) fail after using the test with size lens on OD 1, 3 or 5 %. All 268 cases (84.8 %) had not impaired stereoscopy parallax with size lens over chosen critical level. size lens, anisometropia, aniseikonia, heterophoria, stereoscopy vision.

  4. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  5. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  6. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  7. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measurements on which you base the deterioration factor. (2) If you determine your deterioration factors based...-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. Apply these deterioration factors to determine... on emission measurements from similar highway, stationary, or nonroad engines (including...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test... engineering judgment. For example, it would not be consistent with good engineering judgment to use... multiplicative deterioration factor if good engineering judgment calls for the deterioration factor for a...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test... engineering judgment. For example, it would not be consistent with good engineering judgment to use... multiplicative deterioration factor if good engineering judgment calls for the deterioration factor for a...

  10. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  11. [Cognitive deterioration in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Perea-Bartolomé, M V

    Whether there are mental changes in Parkinson s disease (EP) or not, has been a confused and contradictory subject since the earliest studies and semiological definition of the disorder. James Parkinson himself, in his study An essay on the shaking palsy (1817), stated that in the condition he described, the sense and intellect were not damaged. Thanks to the development of cognitive neuropsychology, at the present time there are rather more precise concepts regarding this fascinating area of neurology. We give a summary, as schematic as possible, of theory relating to the known data. 1. The presence or absence of cognitive deterioration in EP 2. The neuropsychological characteristics of cognitive involvement in EP, cognitive defects in incipient EP and in established EP. 3. The risk factor involved in the occurrence of cognitive deterioration. This knowledge should be used for better understanding of the patient s mental state at every stage of the disease, during follow up studies and for the neuro conductual therapeutic and socio familial approach in each case.

  12. Recognition of the deteriorating patient.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Laura; Singh Mohal, Jagdeep; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Greenlee, Hannah; Carmichael, Juliet; Busher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Following Sir Bruce Keogh's review of 14 NHS Trusts, Buckinghamshire NHS Trust was found to have higher mortality rates than the England average. As part of a series of implementations and investigations to address this, a quality improvement project looking at clinical responses to the deteriorating patients was designed. Buckinghamshire NHS Trust utilises the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) metric for observations and escalation, and this was the standard used for the project. Episodes were eligible for inclusion if the NEWS score was increased to 5 or above. Data was collected by junior doctors from acute wards across the trust using notes and charts available. The initial cycle identified that in 57% of cases the high NEWS was escalated for review. Only half of cases were reviewed by a doctor; only a third were reviewed within an hour. In only 20% of cases were all criteria of the NEWS guidelines met. The first intervention was through education. After this, the project was completed on a monthly basis for 6 months with additional interventions introduced, including increased medical staff availability, grand round presentations, and increased outreach provision. Over this 6 month period, there was an increase to 87% of cases being reviewed by a doctor of appropriate seniority. Whilst this is a surrogate for reducing mortality and improving the clinical care given in the hospital, these results suggest successful interventions for improving clinical response to deteriorating patients across the trust. The project has recruited a new cohort of juniors to continue the quality improvement cycle.

  13. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented.

  14. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  15. [Neuropsychological deterioration in Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Deus-Yela, J; Pujol, J; Espert, R

    1997-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative illness, autosomal dominantly inherited, that produces characteristic involuntary muscle movements (chorea) with cognitive abnormalities and personality. Neuropathological studies report premature cell death principally affecting the basal ganglia. The disease most commonly begins in the fourth or fifth decade of life, although in some cases, abnormalities have been documented in early childhood and as late as 50 years of age. Early cognitive deterioration in HD is not uniform, and patients with recently diagnosed HD may evidence selective deficits in learning and visuospatial/visuomotor ability, along with a relatively consistent pattern of impairment on subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Neuroimaging reports of basal ganglia function have described striatal abnormality in HD and related with neuropsychological impairment. This paper provides the clinical-phenomenologic definition of the neuropsychological impairment and its associated features related with its neuropathological significance and to review the subject in the light of present day reports.

  16. Effect of flight loads on turbofan engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.; Kafka, P. G.; White, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A significant percentage of high bypass ratio, turbofan engine performance deterioration was caused by an increase in operating clearance between fan/compressor and turbine blades and their outer air seals. These increased clearances resulted from rubs induced by a combination of engine power transients and aircraft flight loads. An analytical technique for predicting the effect of quasi-steady state aircraft flight loads on engine performance deterioration was developed and is presented. Thrust, aerodynamic and inertia loads were considered. Analytical results are shown and compared to actual engine test experience.

  17. Effect of flight loads on turbofan engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.; Kafka, P. G.; White, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A significant percentage of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine performance deterioration is caused by an increase in operating clearance between fan/compressor and turbine blades and their outer air seals. These increased clearances result from rubs induced by a combination of engine power transients and aircraft flight loads. An analytical technique for predicting the effect of quasi-steady state aircraft flight loads on engine performance deterioration has been developed and is presented. Thrust, aerodynamic and inertia loads are considered. Analytical results are shown and compared to actual engine test experience.

  18. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  19. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  20. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  1. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  2. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kd allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y

    1995-12-01

    Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.

  4. Modelling the interactions between free phenols, L-ascorbic acid, apple polyphenoloxidase and oxygen during a thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Aka, Jean-Pierre; Courtois, Francis; Louarme, Loïc; Nicolas, Jacques; Billaud, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    The kinetics of degradation of chlorogenic acid (CG), (-) epicatechin (EPI), L-ascorbic acid (AA) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity from Marie-Ménard apple in pH 3.8 solutions at 20 and 50°C were investigated to provide information on the impact of the presence of CG, EPI and/or AA on PPO thermostability. The effect of the heat treatment on their degradation by enzymatic and/or nonenzymatic ways was also studied. Stoechiokinetic reactions on the basis of experimental data and literature and determination of the kinetic constants (k) at 20 and 50°C were elaborated before modelling the interaction among reactants, by fitting the reaction curves to predictive model. Apple PPO was thermolabile, denaturing after 10min at 70°C. Losses of PPO activity were favoured by the presence of EPI in model solutions, compared with CG, due to the formation of o-quinones of EPI (QEPI) lowering PPO stability. Temperature quickened both enzymatic phenol oxidations before PPO deteriorated and the whole set of the chemical reactions, including the production of secondary oxidation products and CG or EPI regeneration. Results also confirmed that AA in excess induced a fast regeneration of CG and EPI from the corresponding o-quinones formed enzymatically via redox chemical reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bruising profile of fresh apples associated with tissue type and structure. Applied Engineering in Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important to understand how apples bruise in order to prevent or reduce bruising. Tissue from ‘Golden Delicious’ apples was analyzed to determine the bruising mechanism at different maturity levels. Bruising was induced by an artificial finger attached to an Instron machine applying an exter...

  7. Does job insecurity deteriorate health?

    PubMed

    Caroli, Eve; Godard, Mathilde

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - that is, the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach on the basis of the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law and more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding; that is, in induastries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that, when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an instrumental variable model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes; namely, suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels.

  8. How to Prevent Microfilm from Deteriorating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrie, Milton I.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests optimum environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), microfilm reader specifications, and handling, cleaning, repairing, and storing procedures to prevent the early deterioration of microfilm. (MBR)

  9. How to Prevent Microfilm from Deteriorating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrie, Milton I.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests optimum environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), microfilm reader specifications, and handling, cleaning, repairing, and storing procedures to prevent the early deterioration of microfilm. (MBR)

  10. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  11. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Bonasera, Jean M; Kim, Jihyun F; Beer, Steven V

    2006-01-01

    Background In the past decade, much work has been done to dissect the molecular basis of the defence signalling pathway in plants known as Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR). Most of the work has been carried out in model species such as Arabidopsis, with little attention paid to woody plants. However within the range of species examined, components of the pathway seem to be highly conserved. In this study, we attempted to identify downstream components of the SAR pathway in apple to serve as markers for its activation. Results We identified three pathogenesis related (PR) genes from apple, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8, which are induced in response to inoculation with the apple pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, but they are not induced in young apple shoots by treatment with known elicitors of SAR in herbaceous plants. We also identified three PR-1-like genes from apple, PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c, based solely on sequence similarity to known PR-1 genes of model (intensively researched) herbaceous plants. The PR-1-like genes were not induced in response to inoculation with E. amylovora or by treatment with elicitors; however, each showed a distinct pattern of expression. Conclusion Four PR genes from apple were partially characterized. PR-1a, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8 from apple are not markers for SAR in young apple shoots. Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank. PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c are not involved in defence response or SAR in young apple shoots; this conclusion differs from that reported previously for young apple seedlings. PMID:17029637

  12. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect the...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... deterioration factors for Category 1 and Category 2 engines, either with an engineering analysis, with pre... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... deterioration factors for Category 1 and Category 2 engines, either with an engineering analysis, with pre... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... deterioration factors for Category 1 and Category 2 engines, either with an engineering analysis, with pre... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not...

  16. Ultrasound Transmission Times in Biologically Deteriorated Wood

    Treesearch

    Christopher Adam Senalik; Robert J. Ross; Rodney DeGroot

    2015-01-01

    The use of a variety of stress wave transmission techniques for the in-service condition assessment of deteriorated wood is well documented. This paper summarizes results from an extensive study designed to examine the relationship between ultrasound transmission times and the deterioration of exposed wood. Two hundred seventy (270) southern pine lumber specimens were...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect...

  19. Functional identification of MdPIF1 as a Phytochrome Interacting Factor in Apple.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jie; Mao, Ke; Qiao, Yu; Jiang, Han; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Light plays a central role in regulating both apple plant yield and fruit quality formation; however, the Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), which are the main components of Phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in apple, have rarely been characterized. Here, we isolated and identified a PIF-like protein(MdPIF1) in apple, which is similar to AtPIF1. MdPIF1 was constitutively expressed at different levels in various apple tissues, and the transcription level of MdPIF1 was significantly induced during seed germination. A functional complementation assay in the Arabidopsis PIF1-deletion mutant pil5 suggested that MdPIF1 was a negative regulator in the Phy-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation under far-red light conditions. MdPIF1-overexpression promoted hypocotyl elongation, while inhibiting seed germination and PIF1 deletion-induced the bleaching phenotype in the pil5 mutant. In addition, expression analysis indicated that MdPIF1 was involved in the germination of apple seeds and dormancy breaking of apple buds. Moreover, MdPIF1 inhibited the growth of apple calli via Phy-mediated pathways. These findings build a solid foundation for studies on Phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction and molecular breeding in apple. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. APPL1-Mediating Leptin Signaling Contributes to Proliferation and Migration of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Youming; Cao, Yingkang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yemin; Zhang, Deling; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Leptin has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, particularly in obese patients. As a multifunctional adaptor protein, APPL1 (containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and a leucine zipper motif 1) plays a critical role in regulating adiponectin and insulin signaling pathways. Currently, high APPL1 level has been suggested to be related to metastases and progression of some types of cancer. However, the intercourse between leptin signaling pathway and APPL1 remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the protein levels and phosphorylation statues of APPL1were highly expressed in tissues from human hepatocellular carcinoma and triple-positive breast cancer. Leptin stimulated APPL1 phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner in both human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell and breast cancer MCF-7 cell. Overexpression or suppression of APPL1 promoted or attenuated, respectively, leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2, and Akt in the cancer cells, accompanied with enhanced or mitigated cell proliferation and migration. In addition, we identified that APPL1 directly bound to both leptin receptor and STAT3. This interaction was significantly enhanced by leptin stimulation. Our results suggested that APPL1 positively mediated leptin signaling and promoted leptin-induced proliferation and migration of cancer cells. This finding reveals a novel mechanism by which leptin promotes the motility and growth of cancer cells. PMID:27820851

  1. Furan formation in sugar solution and apple cider upon ultraviolet treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Geveke, David J

    2007-09-19

    Furan is a possible human carcinogen induced by thermal processing of food. While ultraviolet C (UVC) is used to decontaminate apple cider and to sterilize sugar solutions, it is unknown whether UVC induces furan formation in cider or solutions of its major components. This study was conducted to investigate the possible formation of furan by UVC in apple cider and in solutions of common constituents of apple cider. Our results showed that UVC treatment induced furan formation in apple cider, and the major source of furan was apparently fructose. UVC treatment (at incident doses up to 9 J/cm (2)) of fructose solutions produced a higher amount of furan, while very low concentrations of furan were induced by UVC in glucose or sucrose solutions, and virtually no furan was induced by UVC from solutions of ascorbic acid or malic acid. When an isotope (d(4)-furan) of furan was treated with UVC, d(4)-furan was destroyed rapidly even at low doses in fructose solution, suggesting that the accumulation of furan is the balance between destruction and formation. The UV sensitivity of E. coli K12 (a surrogate of E. coli O157:H7) in two sources of apple cider was also determined. At UVC doses that could inactivate 5-log of E. coli, very low concentrations (<1 ppb) of furan were induced. Our results suggest that UVC could induce furan formation, but when used for the purpose of juice pasteurization, little furan was induced in apple cider.

  2. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction.

  3. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  4. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  5. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice.

  6. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  7. Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

  8. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned. PMID:16704822

  9. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  10. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  12. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  13. Placental immune response to apple allergen in allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Enke, Uta; Varosi, Frauke; Hoyer, Heike; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Jenmalm, Maria C; Markert, Udo R

    2014-12-01

    The immunological milieu in the placenta may be crucial for priming the developing foetal immune system. Early imbalances may promote the establishment of immune-mediated diseases in later life, including allergies. The initial exposure to allergens seems to occur in utero, but little is known about allergen-induced placental cytokine and chemokine release. The release of several cytokines and chemokines from placenta tissue after exposure to mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or apple allergen in placentas from allergic and healthy mothers was to be analysed. Four placentas from women with apple allergy and three controls were applied in a placental perfusion model with two separate cotyledons simultaneously perfused with and without apple allergen (Mal d 1). Two control placentas were perfused with compound 48/80. In outflow, histamine was quantified spectrophotofluorometrically, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ by a cytometric multiplex bead array and IL-13 and CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22 with an in-house multiplex Luminex assay. Compound 48/80 induced a rapid release of histamine, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22, but not of the other factors. Apple allergen induced a time-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF, but not of histamine, in placentas of women with apple allergy compared with the unstimulated cotyledon. CCL17 levels were slightly increased after allergen stimulation in control placentas. Allergens can induce placental cytokines and chemokines distinctly in allergic and healthy mothers. These mediators may affect the prenatal development of the immune system and modify the risk of diseases related to immune disorders in childhood such as allergies.

  14. Biocalcifying Bacillus subtilis cells effectively consolidate deteriorated Globigerina limestone.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Roderick; Vella, Daniel; Sinagra, Emmanuel; Zammit, Gabrielle

    2016-07-01

    Microbially induced calcite precipitation occurs naturally on ancient limestone surfaces in Maltese hypogea. We exploited this phenomenon and treated deteriorated limestone with biocalcifying bacteria. The limestone was subjected to various mechanical and physical tests to present a statistically robust data set to prove that treatment was indeed effective. Bacillus subtilis conferred uniform bioconsolidation to a depth of 30 mm. Drilling resistance values were similar to those obtained for freshly quarried limestone (9 N) and increased up to 15 N. Treatment resulted in a high resistance to salt deterioration and a slow rate of water absorption. The overall percentage porosity of treated limestone varied by ±6 %, thus the pore network was preserved. We report an eco-friendly treatment that closely resembles the mineral composition of limestone and that penetrates into the porous structure without affecting the limestones' natural properties. The treatment is of industrial relevance since it compares well with stone consolidants available commercially.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  17. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  18. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  19. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  20. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Too Short All About Puberty What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A You're at the ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  1. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  2. Developing kairomone-based lures and traps targeting female Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with ex pheromones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) can be a serious pest of organic apples in British Columbia. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develo...

  3. In vivo antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of fresh and processed cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juices.

    PubMed

    Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho; Dantas, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura; Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; e Sousa, João Marcelo de Castro; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; da Silva, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast Brazil. In vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. These juices contain vitamins, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. This in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. The comet, micronucleus, and chromosome aberrations tests were used. Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (5 animals per group) and received the following by gavage, 0.15 mL/10 g body weight: group 1, water; group 2, cashew apple juice; group 3, cajuina juice; group 4, cashew apple juice and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg); group 5, cajuina juice and cyclophosphamide; group 6: cyclophosphamide. Both drinks significantly reduced DNA damage of peripheral blood cells (P<.001), with modulation percentages of 60.82% (cashew apple juice) and 82.19% (cajuina) when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. Cashew apple juice and cajuina modulated cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus frequency, with up to 80.0% inhibition. Cashew apple juice and cajuina decreased the average number of cells with chromosome aberrations in bone marrow of mice by 53% and 65%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the high antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of cashew apple juice and cajuina in vivo, which can be related to the antioxidant compounds found in both drinks.

  4. RECOGNISING AND RESPONDING TO THE DETERIORATING PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Kim

    2015-06-01

    The timely and appropriate identification of, and response to, a patient's deteriorating condition by health professionals is essential for optimal patient outcomes and the avoidance of preventable harm. National regulatory authorities, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, State, Territory and federal health departments, health care facilities and institutions have all recognised the importance of implementing frameworks, standards and processes to facilitate the prompt recognition of the deteriorating patient and appropriate mechanisms for responding to and escalating such matters. Factors that may affect identification and response include the level of knowledge and skill of the health professionals, the culture of the organisation and the parameters of the assessment and audit tools. The 2014 findings of the Coroner in the inquest into the death of Graeme Barry Gulliver highlights the significance to nursing practice of recognising and responding to the deteriorating patient in an appropriate and timely manner.

  5. Dry bin filler for apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  6. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042112 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Currently docked to the station, a Russian Progress resupply vehicle (left) and a Soyuz spacecraft along with Earth's horizon are visible in the background.

  7. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042121 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. The bright sun and Earth's horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  8. Apple polyphenol extracts prevent damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Graziani, G; D'Argenio, G; Tuccillo, C; Loguercio, C; Ritieni, A; Morisco, F; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; Fogliano, V; Romano, M

    2005-02-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables exert multiple biological effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa. To assess whether apple extracts counteract oxidative or indomethacin induced damage to gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo. Apple extracts were obtained from freeze dried apple flesh of the "Annurca" variety. Cell damage was induced by incubating MKN 28 cells with xanthine-xanthine oxidase or indomethacin and quantitated by MTT. In vivo gastric damage was induced by indomethacin 35 mg/kg. Intracellular antioxidant activity was determined using the (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) method. Malondialdehyde intracellular concentration, an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. (1) Apple extracts decreased xanthine-xanthine oxidase or indomethacin induced injury to gastric epithelial cells by 50%; (2) catechin or chlorogenic acid (the main phenolic components of apple extracts) were equally effective as apple extracts in preventing oxidative injury to gastric cells; and (3) apple extracts (i) caused a fourfold increase in intracellular antioxidant activity, (ii) prevented its decrease induced by xanthine-xanthine oxidase, (iii) counteracted xanthine-xanthine oxidase induced lipid peroxidation, and (iv) decreased indomethacin injury to the rat gastric mucosa by 40%. Apple extracts prevent exogenous damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to the rat gastric mucosa in vivo. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of apple phenolic compounds. A diet rich in apple antioxidants might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species.

  9. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  10. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  11. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  12. Deterioration of muscle function in the human esophagus with age.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Pedersen, Jan; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2008-12-01

    Most studies on the effect of aging on esophageal motor function have shown that peristaltic function deteriorates with age. Esophageal motor function is traditionally studied by means of manometry and radiography. Distension of the esophagus with evaluation of active and passive mechanical parameters have become available during recent years. In this study, we did a manometric swallow analysis and used the distension method to study esophageal properties and function during aging. An impedance planimetric probe with a bag for distension was placed in the distal esophagus of 25 healthy volunteers with a median age of 35 (range 23-86) years. Distensions were done at an infusion rate of 25 ml min(-1) with and without relaxation of neuromuscular activity with butylscopolamine. The infusion was reversed when moderate pain was experienced by the subjects. Swallow-induced contraction amplitudes decreased as function of age for persons older than 40 years (P < 0.05). The total and passive tension showed an exponential increase as function of the change in radius, whereas the active tension increased until it reached a local maximum point. The maximum active tension deteriorated as a function of age after the age of 40 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, esophagus became stiffer with age. In conclusion, age-related changes of increased stiffness and reduced primary and secondary peristalsis were found in the human esophagus with a deterioration of esophageal function after the age of 40 years. Such changes may contribute to the high prevalence of reflux disease in elderly.

  13. Sewer deterioration modeling with condition data lacking historical records.

    PubMed

    Egger, C; Scheidegger, A; Reichert, P; Maurer, M

    2013-11-01

    Accurate predictions of future conditions of sewer systems are needed for efficient rehabilitation planning. For this purpose, a range of sewer deterioration models has been proposed which can be improved by calibration with observed sewer condition data. However, if datasets lack historical records, calibration requires a combination of deterioration and sewer rehabilitation models, as the current state of the sewer network reflects the combined effect of both processes. Otherwise, physical sewer lifespans are overestimated as pipes in poor condition that were rehabilitated are no longer represented in the dataset. We therefore propose the combination of a sewer deterioration model with a simple rehabilitation model which can be calibrated with datasets lacking historical information. We use Bayesian inference for parameter estimation due to the limited information content of the data and limited identifiability of the model parameters. A sensitivity analysis gives an insight into the model's robustness against the uncertainty of the prior. The analysis reveals that the model results are principally sensitive to the means of the priors of specific model parameters, which should therefore be elicited with care. The importance sampling technique applied for the sensitivity analysis permitted efficient implementation for regional sensitivity analysis with reasonable computational outlay. Application of the combined model with both simulated and real data shows that it effectively compensates for the bias induced by a lack of historical data. Thus, the novel approach makes it possible to calibrate sewer pipe deterioration models even when historical condition records are lacking. Since at least some prior knowledge of the model parameters is available, the strength of Bayesian inference is particularly evident in the case of small datasets.

  14. Protective effects of vescalagin from pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] fruit against methylglyoxal-induced inflammation and carbohydrate metabolic disorder in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2013-07-24

    The unbalance of glucose metabolism in humans may cause the excessive formation of methylglyoxal (MG), which can react with various biomolecules to form the precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Vescalagin (VES) is an ellagitannin that alleviates insulin resistance in cell study. Results showed that VES reduced the value of oral glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular risk index, AGEs, and tumor necrosis factor-α contents while increasing C-peptide and d-lactate contents significantly in rats orally administered MG and VES together. The preventive effect of VES on MG-induced inflammation and carbohydrate metabolic disorder in rats was thus proved. On the basis of the experiment data, a mechanism, which involves the increase in d-lactate to retard AGE formation and the decrease in cytokine release to prevent β-cell damage, is proposed to explain the bioactivities of VES in antiglycation and in the alleviation of MG-induced carbohydrate metabolic disorder in rats.

  15. Options for Replacing and Reformatting Deteriorated Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jennifer

    This resource guide focuses on handling library materials that are too deteriorated to benefit from other preservation treatments. Hopeless case items, that would require an unreasonable amount of conservation work to fix, can be resolved through a process of reselecting items by replacing them or reformatting them. The reselection integrates…

  16. Acute fatal deterioration in putaminal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, E F; Fulgham, J R

    1995-10-01

    Clinical deterioration in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage has rarely been studied. It has been previously thought that intracranial hematomas bleed in a monophasic fashion. Recent studies have demonstrated continuous active bleeding within hours after the event, resulting in enlargement of the hematoma. However, acute sudden and fatal deterioration suggesting a rebleed is rarely reported. An 84-year-old man was admitted with a moderate-size hemorrhage in the putamen and was treated for hypertension during the first day of admission. He acutely demonstrated extensor posturing and light-fixed pupils. Repeat CT scan showed massive enlargement of the intracranial hematoma and extension into the ventricles causing acute hydrocephalus. A 72-year-old man was admitted with a mid-size hemorrhage in the putamen. Acute deterioration with loss of all brain stem reflexes except for cornea reflexes was associated with a large increase in volume of the hematoma, 7 hours after the initial hemorrhage. An 85-year-old woman was admitted with a small hemorrhage in the putamen and recovered to be able to walk unassisted. She suddenly died from a recurrent massive putaminal hemorrhage 2 weeks after the ictus. Patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the putamen may die acutely from fatal catastrophic enlargement of the initial hematoma hours to days after the ictus. In some patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and clinical deterioration, rebleeding may be a possible mechanism.

  17. Cognitive Deterioration and Associated Pathology Induced by Chronic Low-Level Aluminum Ingestion in a Translational Rat Model Provides an Explanation of Alzheimer's Disease, Tests for Susceptibility and Avenues for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Walton, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    A translational aging rat model for chronic aluminum (Al) neurotoxicity mimics human Al exposure by ingesting Al, throughout middle age and old age, in equivalent amounts to those ingested by Americans from their food, water, and Al additives. Most rats that consumed Al in an amount equivalent to the high end of the human total dietary Al range developed severe cognitive deterioration in old age. High-stage Al accumulation occurred in the entorhinal cortical cells of origin for the perforant pathway and hippocampal CA1 cells, resulting in microtubule depletion and dendritic dieback. Analogous pathological change in humans leads to destruction of the perforant pathway and Alzheimer's disease dementia. The hippocampus is thereby isolated from neocortical input and output normally mediated by the entorhinal cortex. Additional evidence is presented that Al is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaques, granulovacuolar degeneration, and other pathological changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The shared characteristics indicate that AD is a human form of chronic Al neurotoxicity. This translational animal model provides fresh strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. PMID:22928148

  18. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  19. Deep sequencing analysis of apple infecting viruses in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deep sequencing of viruses isolated from eight symptomatic apple trees in Korea has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV) and Apricot lat...

  20. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental methods are studied by which freeze-dried foods of improved quality are produced. Considered are: (1) Factors effecting the loss of butanol from frozen aqueous food solutions during storage; (2) a freeze-drying microscope system for observing solidification processes in organic mixtures and aqueous inorganic salt solutions; (3) browning of high quality freeze-dried foods with minimal organoleptic and nutritional detoriation; (4) retention of PVP-n-propanol in freeze-dried food models; and (5) effects of freezing rate and sucrose immersion on taste and texture of freeze-dried apple slices.

  1. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  2. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  3. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  4. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut "Granny Smith" apples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-03-01

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. "Granny Smith" apple slices, dipped for 5 min in CP solutions at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) either alone or in combination with 0.05% (w/v) SC, were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C for up to 14 d. Color, firmness, and microflora population were measured at 1, 7, and 14 d of storage. Results showed that CP alone had no significant effect on the browning of cut apples. Even though SC significantly inhibited tissue browning initially, the apple slices turned brown during storage at 10 degrees C. The combination of CP and SC was able to inhibit apple browning during storage. Samples treated with the combination of SC with CP did not show any detectable yeast and mold growth during the entire storage period at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C, yeast and mold count increased on apple slices during storage while CP reduced the increase. However, high concentrations of CP reduced the efficacy of SC in inactivating E. coli inoculated on apples. Overall, our results suggested that combination of SC with 0.5% and 1% CP could be used to inhibit tissue browning and maintain firmness while reducing microbial population. Practical Application: Apple slices, which contain antioxidants and other nutrient components, have emerged as popular snacks in food service establishments, school lunch programs, and for family consumption. However, the further growth of the industry is limited by product quality deterioration caused by tissue browning, short shelf-life due to microbial growth, and possible contamination with human pathogens during processing. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop treatments to reduce microbial population and tissue browning of "Granny Smith" apple slices. Results showed that an antimicrobial

  5. Chorea disclosing deterioration of polycythaemia vera

    PubMed Central

    Nazabal, E. R.; Lopez, J. M.; Perez, P. A.; Del Corral, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Neurological manifestations occur frequently in polycythaemia. Chorea, however, is a rare complication of the disease. A case of chorea in a patient previously diagnosed with polycythaemia vera is reported. Choreic movements started after measurement of haematological variables showed deterioration. It was considered that this was caused by inappropriate treatment with iron because the chorea was markedly reduced after the two first venesections and normalisation of the packed cell volume and haemoglobin parameters.


Keywords: chorea; polycythaemia vera PMID:11009585

  6. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  7. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  8. Identification and molecular properties of a 306 nucleotide viroid associated with apple dimple fruit disease.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, F; Aparicio, F; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Flores, R

    1996-11-01

    A new viroid associated with an apple fruit disorder similar to, but more severe than, the dapple apple disease induced in some varieties by apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) has been found. The new viroid, tentatively termed apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd), is a circular RNA of 306 nucleotides which adopts a quasi-rod-like conformation of minimum free energy. It contains the core nucleotides of the central conserved region (CCR) of the ASSVd group as well as the terminal conserved region (TCR) present in all members of the ASSVd and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) monophyletic groups. ADFVd has the highest sequence similarity with ASSVd and the 294 nucleotide citrus viroid CVd-IIIb sharing with the latter an almost identical left terminal domain. The right- and left-hand termini of ADFVd are formed by almost perfect duplications of sequences found in the CCR upper and lower strands, respectively, of PSTVd and closely related viroids.

  9. Search for low-allergenic apple cultivars for birch-pollen-allergic patients: is there a correlation between in vitro assays and patient response?

    PubMed

    Asero, R; Marzban, G; Martinelli, A; Zaccarini, M; Machado, M Laimer da Camara

    2006-03-01

    Due to the cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and proteins present in vegetable foods, birch pollen allergic patients frequently develop allergy to fruits and vegetables, mostly apples. Since many apple cultivars exist some of them might contain sufficiently low amounts of Mal d 1 to be tolerated by most allergic patients. To assess whether apple cultivars containing low amounts of Mal d 1 are better tolerated by apple-allergic patients. Mal d 1 content was determined in many apple cultivars by ELISA. Selected cultivars containing high (Golden Delicious) or low (Orim, G 198 and Vienna) amounts of Mal d 1 were compared in apple allergic patients both by SPT and oral challenges. The 3 different apple cultivars induced wheals of similar size in most patients. Upon oral challenges no patient reported the total absence of oral symptoms following the ingestion of either high or low allergenic apples. Golden Delicious and G-198 elicited OAS of similar severity 3/7 cases. The 2 cultivars induced significantly more severe symptoms in 2 cases each. Allergy to Mal d 1 is characterized by significant inter-patient variability. Moreover, marked inter-apple and intra-apple variability exists. As a consequence, the amount of Mal d 1 in apples classified as containing low concentrations of allergen may be sufficient to induce both clinical symptoms and skin reactivity in birch pollen-allergic patients. The search for low allergenic apples therefore should be continued and extended to other germplasm accessions, be it cultivars, breeding lines or wild species.

  10. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used. PMID:26698061

  11. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    PubMed

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  12. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W; Jenkins, D J; Southgate, D A; Houston, H; James, W P

    1978-01-07

    Approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, and guar gum was added to the controlled basal diet of nineteen healthy volunteers. Faecal weight increased by 12% on bran, 69% on cabbage, 59% on carrot, 40% on apple, and 20% on guar gum. These changes in faecal weight were correlated with an increased intake of pentose-containing polysaccharides from the fibre. On the basal diet there were pronounced individual differences in faecal weight, and from these the response of subjects to the fibre preparations could be predicted. Addition of fibre shortened mean transit-time through the gut and significantly diluted an inert marker in the faeces. Diet-induced changes in colonic function may explain international differences in the prevalence of colonic disease, whilst personal variation in the response to dietary fibre may determine individual susceptibility to large-bowel disease within a community.

  13. Stimulation of Ethylene Production in Apple Tissue Slices by Methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Morris; Kunishi, Alice; Mapson, L. W.; Wardale, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Methionine can induce more than a 100% increase in ethylene production by apple tissue slices. The increased amount of ethylene derives from carbons 3 and 4 of methionine. Only post-climacteric fruit tissues are stimulated by methionine, and stimulation is optimum after 8 months' storage. Copper chelators such as sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and cuprizone very markedly inhibit ethylene production by tissue slices. Carbon monoxide does not effect ethylene production by the slices. These data suggest that the mechanism for the conversion of methionine to ethylene, in apple tissues, is similar to the previously described model system for producing ethylene from methionine and reduced copper. Therefore, it is suggested that one of the ethylene-forming systems in tissues derives from methionine and proceeds to ethylene via a copper enzyme system which may be a peroxidase. PMID:16656267

  14. GIPC Is Recruited by APPL to Peripheral TrkA Endosomes and Regulates TrkA Trafficking and Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Varsano, Tal; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Niesman, Ingrid; Gacula, Hyacynth; Lou, Xiaojing; Ma, Tianlin; Testa, Joseph R.; Yates, John R.; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2006-01-01

    GIPC is a PDZ protein located on peripheral endosomes that binds to the juxtamembrane region of the TrkA nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and has been implicated in NGF signaling. We establish here that endogenous GIPC binds to the C terminus of APPL, a Rab5 binding protein, which is a marker for signaling endosomes. When PC12(615) cells are treated with either NGF or antibody agonists to activate TrkA, GIPC and APPL translocate from the cytoplasm and bind to incoming, endocytic vesicles carrying TrkA concentrated at the tips of the cell processes. GIPC, but not APPL, dissociates from these peripheral endosomes prior to or during their trafficking from the cell periphery to the juxtanuclear region, where they acquire EEA1. GIPC's interaction with APPL is essential for recruitment of GIPC to peripheral endosomes and for TrkA signaling, because a GIPC PDZ domain mutant that cannot bind APPL or APPL knockdown with small interfering RNA inhibits NGF-induced GIPC recruitment, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and neurite outgrowth. GIPC is also required for efficient endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA because depletion of GIPC slows down endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA and APPL to the early EEA1 endosomes in the juxtanuclear region. We conclude that GIPC, following its recruitment to TrkA by APPL, plays a key role in TrkA trafficking and signaling from endosomes. PMID:17015470

  15. GIPC is recruited by APPL to peripheral TrkA endosomes and regulates TrkA trafficking and signaling.

    PubMed

    Varsano, Tal; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Niesman, Ingrid; Gacula, Hyacynth; Lou, Xiaojing; Ma, Tianlin; Testa, Joseph R; Yates, John R; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2006-12-01

    GIPC is a PDZ protein located on peripheral endosomes that binds to the juxtamembrane region of the TrkA nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and has been implicated in NGF signaling. We establish here that endogenous GIPC binds to the C terminus of APPL, a Rab5 binding protein, which is a marker for signaling endosomes. When PC12(615) cells are treated with either NGF or antibody agonists to activate TrkA, GIPC and APPL translocate from the cytoplasm and bind to incoming, endocytic vesicles carrying TrkA concentrated at the tips of the cell processes. GIPC, but not APPL, dissociates from these peripheral endosomes prior to or during their trafficking from the cell periphery to the juxtanuclear region, where they acquire EEA1. GIPC's interaction with APPL is essential for recruitment of GIPC to peripheral endosomes and for TrkA signaling, because a GIPC PDZ domain mutant that cannot bind APPL or APPL knockdown with small interfering RNA inhibits NGF-induced GIPC recruitment, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and neurite outgrowth. GIPC is also required for efficient endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA because depletion of GIPC slows down endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA and APPL to the early EEA1 endosomes in the juxtanuclear region. We conclude that GIPC, following its recruitment to TrkA by APPL, plays a key role in TrkA trafficking and signaling from endosomes.

  16. A HIERARCHICAL HIDDEN MARKOV DETERIORATION MODEL FOR PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Eguchi, Toshiyuki; Ohi, Akira; Okizuka, Ryosuke

    The deterioration process of pavement is a complex process including the deterioration of road surface and the decrease in load bearing capacity of the entire pavement. The decrease in load bearing capacity influences the deterioration rate of road surface. The soundness of road surface can be observed by a road surface condition investigation. On the other hand, the decrease in load bearing capacity can be partially observed through the FWD testing, etc. In this study, such a deterioration process of road surface is described as a mixed Markov process that depends on the load bearing capacity of pavement. Then, the complex deterioration process, which is composed of the deterioration of road surface and the decrease in load bearing capacity of pavement, is expressed as a hierarchical hidden Markov deterioration model. Through a case study of the application into the expressway, a hierarchical hidden Markov deterioration model is estimated, and its applicability and effectiveness are empirically discussed.

  17. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  18. Our Ten Favorite AppleWorks Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Warren; Merritt, Cathleen

    1991-01-01

    The monthly newsletter of the National AppleWorks Users Group (NAUG), "The AppleWorks Forum," serves as a clearinghouse for user-discovered applications and work-arounds. This article presents 10 of the most popular suggested applications for the program, including the development and use of word processing templates, the installation of…

  19. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  20. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  1. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  2. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  3. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  4. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  5. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  6. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  7. Prevention of Significant Deterioration Workshop Manual 1980

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. Furan formation in sugar solutions and apple cider upon ultraviolet treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Furan is a possible human carcinogen induced by thermal processing of food. While ultraviolet C (UVC) is used to denominate apple cider and to sterilize sugar solutions, it is unknown whether UVC induces furan in cider or its major components. This study was conducted to investigate the possible for...

  9. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  10. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  11. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  12. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  13. Transverse gradient in Apple-type undulators

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.

    2017-01-01

    Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751

  14. 40 CFR 86.432-78 - Deterioration factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deterioration factor. 86.432-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.432-78 Deterioration factor. (a) Deterioration factors shall be developed for each test vehicle from the emission test results. A separate factor shall...

  15. 40 CFR 86.432-78 - Deterioration factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factor. 86.432-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.432-78 Deterioration factor. (a) Deterioration factors shall be developed for each test vehicle from the emission test results. A separate factor shall...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program,...

  4. Application of Chemical Kinetics to Deterioration of Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labuza, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible modes of food deterioration (such as microbial decay, nonenzymatic browning, senescence, lipid oxidation) are reviewed. A basic mathematical approach to the kinetics of food deterioration, kinetic approach to accelerating shelf-life deterioration, and shelf-life predictions are discussed. (JN)

  5. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  13. Application of Chemical Kinetics to Deterioration of Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labuza, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible modes of food deterioration (such as microbial decay, nonenzymatic browning, senescence, lipid oxidation) are reviewed. A basic mathematical approach to the kinetics of food deterioration, kinetic approach to accelerating shelf-life deterioration, and shelf-life predictions are discussed. (JN)

  14. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  15. Involvement of Auxin and Brassinosteroid in Dwarfism of Autotetraploid Apple (Malus × domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Xue, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Ou, Chunqing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    The plant height is an important trait in fruit tree. However, the molecular mechanism on dwarfism is still poorly understood. We found that colchicine-induced autotetraploid apple plants (Malus × domestica) exhibited a dwarf phenotype. The vertical length of cortical parenchyma cells was shorter in autotetraploids than in diploids, by observing paraffin sections. Hormone levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroid (BR) were significantly decreased in 3- and 5-year-old autotetraploid plants. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in IAA and BR pathways. microRNA390 was significantly upregulated according to microarray analysis. Exogenous application of IAA and BR promoted stem elongation of both apple plants grown in medium. The results show that dwarfing in autotetraploid apple plants is most likely regulated by IAA and BR. The dwarf phenotype of autotetraploid apple plants could be due to accumulation of miR390 after genome doubling, leading to upregulation of apple trans-acting short-interfering RNA 3 (MdTAS3) expression, which in turn downregulates the expression of MdARF3. Overall, this leads to partial interruption of the IAA and BR signal transduction pathway. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dwarfism in autopolyploid apple plants. PMID:27216878

  16. Involvement of Auxin and Brassinosteroid in Dwarfism of Autotetraploid Apple (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Xue, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Ou, Chunqing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-05-24

    The plant height is an important trait in fruit tree. However, the molecular mechanism on dwarfism is still poorly understood. We found that colchicine-induced autotetraploid apple plants (Malus × domestica) exhibited a dwarf phenotype. The vertical length of cortical parenchyma cells was shorter in autotetraploids than in diploids, by observing paraffin sections. Hormone levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroid (BR) were significantly decreased in 3- and 5-year-old autotetraploid plants. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in IAA and BR pathways. microRNA390 was significantly upregulated according to microarray analysis. Exogenous application of IAA and BR promoted stem elongation of both apple plants grown in medium. The results show that dwarfing in autotetraploid apple plants is most likely regulated by IAA and BR. The dwarf phenotype of autotetraploid apple plants could be due to accumulation of miR390 after genome doubling, leading to upregulation of apple trans-acting short-interfering RNA 3 (MdTAS3) expression, which in turn downregulates the expression of MdARF3. Overall, this leads to partial interruption of the IAA and BR signal transduction pathway. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dwarfism in autopolyploid apple plants.

  17. Anaphylaxis to apple: is fasting a risk factor for LTP-allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Arena, A

    2010-08-01

    Primary apple allergy is frequent in Mediterranean countries where hypersensitivity to lipid transfer protein (LTP) is common. Due to its stability upon pepsin digestion, LTP may cause systemic allergic reactions. This study investigated the potential risk associated with an isolated intake of apple while fasting in LTP-hypersensitive patients with clinical allergy to peach but not to apple. Based on the observation of 6 patients who experienced 7 apple-induced anaphylactic reactions that in 6 cases followed the ingestion of the fruit after fasting, open food challenges were carried out in 12 patients LTP-hypersensitive patients with peach allergy but tolerant to apple. Four out of the 12 patients (33%) reacted to apple upon oral challenge. Fasting seems to play a relevant role in the clinical expression of allergy to LTP. It is possible that in an empty gastrointestinal tract the allergen is absorbed more rapidly. Alternatively, pepsin might digest the food matrix more efficiently, thus increasing the concentration of the purified allergen that comes in contact with the gut mucosa.

  18. Early warnings of heart rate deterioration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Vania G; Nabney, Ian T

    2016-08-01

    Hospitals can experience difficulty in detecting and responding to early signs of patient deterioration leading to late intensive care referrals, excess mortality and morbidity, and increased hospital costs. Our study aims to explore potential indicators of physiological deterioration by the analysis of vital-signs. The dataset used comprises heart rate (HR) measurements from MIMIC II waveform database, taken from six patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and diagnosed with severe sepsis. Different indicators were considered: 1) generic early warning indicators used in ecosystems analysis (autocorrelation at-1-lag (ACF1), standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis and heteroskedasticity) and 2) entropy analysis (kernel entropy and multi scale entropy). Our preliminary findings suggest that when a critical transition is approaching, the equilibrium state changes what is visible in the ACF1 and SD values, but also by the analysis of the entropy. Entropy allows to characterize the complexity of the time series during the hospital stay and can be used as an indicator of regime shifts in a patient's condition. One of the main problems is its dependency of the scale used. Our results demonstrate that different entropy scales should be used depending of the level of entropy verified.

  19. Allergy to apple cultivars among patients with birch pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Aneta; Szwed, Angelika; Buczyłko, Krzysztof; Wagner, Waldemar

    2016-10-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is caused by cross-reacting allergens found in pollen, raw fruits, vegetables, and some tree nuts. The major apple allergen, Mal d 1, is a cause of food allergic reactions in birch pollen sensitized patients. To explore the allergenicity of the most popular and commonly consumed apple cultivars in Poland in patients with birch pollen allergy with or without OAS. Data were obtained from 46 adults with clinical symptoms of birch allergy and allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the occurrence of OAS to apple. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with pulp from the 11 most popular apple cultivars in Poland. Specific IgE (sIgE) to Bet v 1 was measured by radioallergosorbent test. Patients with OAS had more positive responses to apple SPT vs patients without OAS (odds ratios, 4.8-11.96). Patients with OAS had distinctive responses to apple cultivars. Szara Reneta and Cortland induced positive responses in 50% and 83% of patients, respectively. Patients with OAS vs patients without OAS who were allergic to apples vs nonallergic had 2-fold (P = .008) and 7-fold (P = .03) higher blood concentrations of sIgE Bet v 1, respectively. There were different profiles of correlations of sIgE Bet v 1 with wheal diameter for low and high allergenic cultivars in patients without and with OAS. We noted a substantial role for Bet v 1 sensitization in the allergic response based on evaluation of the allergenicity of 11 apple cultivars. The sIgE Bet v 1 and SPT results of patients with and without OAS allowed differentiation between low and high allergenic cultivars. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in

  1. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  2. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  3. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  4. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  5. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  6. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  7. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  8. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  9. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  10. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  11. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  12. MdVHP1 encodes an apple vacuolar H(+)-PPase and enhances stress tolerance in transgenic apple callus and tomato.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing-Long; Liu, Dan-Dan; An, Xiu-Hong; Hu, Da-Gang; Yao, Yu-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2011-11-15

    Vacuolar H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (VHP, EC 3.6.1.1) is an electrogenic proton pump, which is related to growth as well as abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a VHP gene MdVHP1 was isolated from apple. The alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that it encoded a type I VHP protein. It expressed in vegetative and reproductive organs, and its expression was induced by salt, PEG-mediated osmotic stress, cold and heat in apple in vitro shoot cultures. MdVHP1 expression showed a similar pattern in different apple tissues, but different change dynamics in response to abiotic stresses, compared with MdVHP2 (another MdVHP gene in apple). MdVHP1 overexpression enhanced tolerance to salt, PEG-mimic drought, cold and heat in transgenic apple calluses, which was related to an increased accumulation of proline and decreased MDA content compared with control calluses. In addition, MdVHP1 overexpression confers improved tolerance to salt and drought in transgenic tomato, along with an increased ion accumulation, high RWC and low solute potential compared with wild type. These results indicate that MdVHP1 is an important regulator for plant tolerance to abiotic stresses by modulating internal stores of ions and solutes.

  13. Integrating fluorescence and interactance measurements to improve apple maturity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyun Kwon; Lu, Renfu

    2006-10-01

    Fluorescence and reflectance (or interactance) are promising techniques for measuring fruit quality and condition. Our previous research showed that a hyperspectral imaging technique integrating fluorescence and reflectance could improve predictions of selected quality parameters compared to single sensing techniques. The objective of this research was to use a low cost spectrometer for rapid acquisition of fluorescence and interactance spectra from apples and develop an algorithm integrating the two types of data for predicting skin and flesh color, fruit firmness, starch index, soluble solids content, and titratable acid. Experiments were performed to measure UV light induced transient fluorescence and interactance spectra from 'Golden Delicious' apples that were harvested over a period of four weeks during the 2005 harvest season. Standard destructive tests were performed to measure maturity parameters from the apples. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the interactance and fluorescence data. A back-propagation feedforward neural network with the inputs of PC data was used to predict individual maturity parameters. Interactance mode was consistently better than fluorescence mode in predicting the maturity parameters. Integrating interactance and fluorescence improved predictions of all parameters except flesh chroma; values of the correlation coefficient for firmness, soluble solids content, starch index, and skin and flesh hue were 0.77, 0.77, 0.89, 0.99, and 0.96 respectively, with the corresponding standard errors of 6.93 N, 0.90%, 0.97 g/L, 0.013 rad, and 0.013 rad. These results represented 4.1% to 23.5% improvements in terms of standard error, in comparison with the better results from the two single sensing methods. Integrating interactance and fluorescence can better assess apple maturity and quality.

  14. Thermal deterioration of oil and frying foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Ojiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control), and frying oils heated for 20 h at 180 degrees C with amino acids, gluten, sugar, and wheat starch, respectively. The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oils were observed. The serum of all the experimental groups showed a tendency toward lower levels of triacylglycerol and free fatty acids and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than that of the control group. Among experimental groups, the rats fed a diet containing oil heated with gluten were least influenced by thermally deteriorated oil in terms of serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesterol, and insulin; histological evaluations; and number of dark-red patches found on the surface of the liver.

  15. Endogenous longevity, biological deterioration and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Sanso, Marcos; Aísa, Rosa M

    2006-05-01

    The identification of the types of bidirectional interactions that take place between longevity and economic growth in the long-run is carried out by means of the integration of human capital accumulation, innovation in medical technology, a health goods sector, and individual decisions on health and longevity in a dynamic general equilibrium set-up. In this context, in which individual agents decide not only on their "quality" of life but also on its "quantity", the mere process of biological deterioration, that is to say, the continuous loss of health goods effectiveness in maintaining a given level of health as individuals age, provides the reason for an additional, and new, engine of growth.

  16. Halophilic microbial communities in deteriorated buildings.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-10-01

    Halophilic microorganisms were traditionally isolated from an aquatic environment. There has been little research conducted into halophiles inhabiting the terrestrial environment in which historic monuments deteriorate. Salt efflorescence deposited on the walls is an observed phenomenon on the surface of historic buildings, and would favour the growth of halophiles. However, some conditions have to be fulfilled in order for efflorescence to occur: (1) the presence of salts, (2) porosity, (3) a source of water. Salt crystallization influences the material structure (cracking, detachment, material loss), but active growth of halophilic microorganisms may be a serious threat to historic materials as well, leading to aesthetical changes such as coloured biofilms, orange to pink or even violet stains. This is why it is important to investigate halophilic microorganisms, taking into consideration both the environmental conditions they need to grow in, material characteristics they inhabit, the mechanisms they possess to cope with osmotic stress, and the methods that should be applied for their identification.

  17. Beam Quality Deterioration Due to Angular Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2014-03-01

    Laser pulses are often manipulated by different optical elements in free space for purposes of filtering, stretching/compression, shaping, and splitting. This is due to the impossibility of using fiber optical components to withstand high energy pulses. The beam quality factor for free-space propagating optical beams, M2, is typically used to characterize the performance of optical elements. Optical element which preserves M2 in the CW regime may in fact worsen M2 for pulses with the same time-averaged power if this optical element exhibits dispersion in the spectral range of the pulse's bandwidth. Basic dispersive effects can be expressed in terms of aberration-free monochromatic beam optics, and they are longitudinal shift of the waist position, transversal shift of the waist center and angular shift of the propagation direction with wavelength tuning. The first two effects are negligible for optical elements much shorter than the Rayleigh length. We have found an analytical expression for the deterioration of M2 from unity due to angular dispersion for a test pulse which has transverse Gaussian beam profile. This expression depends on both the transverse size of the pulse and the mean square variation of the spectral-angular characteristic of the optical element averaged with the spectral weight distribution of the pulse. In particular, with decreasing of beam size, the M2 deteriorates less because the spectral-angular variation of the propagation direction is mitigated by increasing beam divergence due to diffraction. In our judgment, an optical element should be characterized by its angular dispersion properties rather than measurements of M2.

  18. Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jonard, Mathieu; Fürst, Alfred; Verstraeten, Arne; Thimonier, Anne; Timmermann, Volkmar; Potočić, Nenad; Waldner, Peter; Benham, Sue; Hansen, Karin; Merilä, Päivi; Ponette, Quentin; de la Cruz, Ana C; Roskams, Peter; Nicolas, Manuel; Croisé, Luc; Ingerslev, Morten; Matteucci, Giorgio; Decinti, Bruno; Bascietto, Marco; Rautio, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main European tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. We analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992-2009 on the intensive forest monitoring plots of the ICP Forests programme. Of the 22 significant temporal trends that were observed in foliar nutrient concentrations, 20 were decreasing and two were increasing. Some of these trends were alarming, among which the foliar P concentration in F. sylvatica, Q. Petraea and P. sylvestris that significantly deteriorated during 1992-2009. In Q. Petraea and P. sylvestris, the decrease in foliar P concentration was more pronounced on plots with low foliar P status, meaning that trees with latent P deficiency could become deficient in the near future. Increased tree productivity, possibly resulting from high N deposition and from the global increase in atmospheric CO2, has led to higher nutrient demand by trees. As the soil nutrient supply was not always sufficient to meet the demands of faster growing trees, this could partly explain the deterioration of tree mineral nutrition. The results suggest that when evaluating forest carbon storage capacity and when planning to reduce CO2 emissions by increasing use of wood biomass for bioenergy, it is crucial that nutrient limitations for forest growth are considered. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  20. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  1. Efficient Genome Editing in Apple Using a CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Chikako; Hirai, Narumi; Komori, Sadao; Wada, Masato; Okada, Kazuma; Osakabe, Keishi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Osakabe, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is a powerful technique for genome modification in molecular research and crop breeding, and has the great advantage of imparting novel desired traits to genetic resources. However, the genome editing of fruit tree plantlets remains to be established. In this study, we describe induction of a targeted gene mutation in the endogenous apple phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Four guide RNAs (gRNAs) were designed and stably transformed with Cas9 separately in apple. Clear and partial albino phenotypes were observed in 31.8% of regenerated plantlets for one gRNA, and bi-allelic mutations in apple PDS were confirmed by DNA sequencing. In addition, an 18-bp gRNA also induced a targeted mutation. These CRIPSR/Cas9 induced-mutations in the apple genome suggest activation of the NHEJ pathway, but with some involvement also of the HR pathway. Our results demonstrate that genome editing can be practically applied to modify the apple genome. PMID:27530958

  2. Significance of skin flavonoids for UV-B-protection in apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela

    2003-08-01

    An attempt has been made to assess the UV-B-protective capacity of phenolic compounds accumulated in superficial structures of plants using apple fruit as a model. Two apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Braeburn and Granny Smith) differing in response to high fluxes of solar radiation were selected and exposed to increasing doses of UV-B radiation. The extent of UV-B-induced damage to photosystem II of apple skin correlated with its quercetin glycoside (but not anthocyanin) content. Granny Smith apples did not demonstrate a pronounced response to high sunlight in terms of the accumulation of phenolic substances in the skin and exhibited similar patterns of Fo, Fm, and Fv/Fm changes in the course of UV-B irradiation both on sun-exposed and shaded surfaces of a fruit. Unlike Granny Smith, Braeburn fruits were characterized by a significant accumulation of quercetin glycosides in sun-exposed skin, however, shaded skin contained these compounds in similar amounts to those in Granny Smith. Accordingly, photosystem II in sun-exposed skin of Braeburn apples was resistant to high doses of UV-B radiation (up to 97 kJ m-2), whereas the susceptibility of the photosynthetic apparatus in shaded skin of Braeburn to UV-B-induced damage was much higher and similar to that of both sun-exposed and shaded skin of Granny Smith fruits. Anthocyanins, at least in the amounts found in Braeburn, did not show an additional effect in UV-B protection.

  3. The role of anthocyanin in photoprotection and its relationship with the xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system in apple peel depends on the light conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changsheng; Li, Houhua; Zhang, Di; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin, the xanthophyll cycle, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species (AOS) were compared between red and non-red apple cultivars, in response to either long-term sunlight exposure (high light intensity) during fruit development, or to exposure of bagged fruits to lower light intensity late in fruit development. During fruit development of red and non-red apples, the xanthophyll cycle pool size decreased much more in red apple peel late in development. With accumulation of AOS induced by long-term sunlight exposure, enhancement of the antioxidant system was found. However, this change became significantly lower in red apple than non-red apple as fruit developed, which might serve to accelerate the anthocyanin synthesis in red apple peel. When, late in fruit development, bagged fruits were exposed to sunlight, the accumulation of AOS was lower in red apple peel than in non-red peel. This could be due to the higher anthocyanin concentration in the red peels. Meanwhile, compared with that in non-red cultivar, the xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system in red apple peel were protected first but then down-regulated by its higher anthocyanin concentration during sunlight exposure. In conclusions, red and non-red apples peel possess different photoprotective mechanisms under high light conditions. The relationship between anthocyanin synthesis and the xanthophyll cycle, and the antioxidant system, depends on the light conditions that fruit undergoes. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  5. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  6. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  7. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  8. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  9. The transcriptional response of apple alcohol acyltransferase (MdAAT2) to salicylic acid and ethylene is mediated through two apple MYB TFs in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Shao-Wei; Shen, Jin; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Da-Peng; Li, De-Quan; Zheng, Cheng-Chao; Shu, Huai-Rui

    2014-08-01

    Volatile esters are major factors affecting the aroma of apple fruits, and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) are key enzymes involved in the last steps of ester biosynthesis. The expression of apple AAT (MdAAT2) is known to be induced by salicylic acid (SA) or ethylene in apple fruits, although the mechanism of its transcriptional regulation remains elusive. In this study, we reveal that two apple transcription factors (TFs), MdMYB1 and MdMYB6, are involved in MdAAT2 promoter response to SA and ethylene in transgenic tobacco. According to electrophoretic mobility shift assays, MdMYB1 or MdMYB6 can directly bind in vitro to MYB binding sites in the MdAAT2 promoter. In vivo, overexpression of the two MYB TFs can greatly enhance MdAAT2 promoter activity, as demonstrated by dual luciferase reporter assays in transgenic tobacco. In contrast to the promoter of MdMYB1 or MdMYB6, the MdAAT2 promoter cannot be induced by SA or ethephon (ETH) in transgenic tobacco, even in stigmas in which the MdAAT2 promoter can be highly induced under normal conditions. However, the induced MYB TFs can dramatically enhance MdAAT2 promoter activity under SA or ETH treatment. We conclude that MdMYB1 and MdMYB6 function in MdAAT2 responses to SA and ethylene in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that a similar regulation mechanism may exist in apple.

  10. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  11. Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Beacham-Bowden, Tina; Keller, Susanne E; Adhikari, Chaitali; Taylor, Kirk T; Chirtel, Stewart J; Merker, Robert I

    2003-04-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. However, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. The purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars) but was found at levels of 40.2 to 374 microg/liter in cider pressed from four cultivars of fresh ground-harvested (dropped) apples. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from culled tree-picked apples stored for 4 to 6 weeks at 0 to 2 degrees C but was found at levels of 0.97 to 64.0 microg/liter in cider pressed from unculled fruit stored under the same conditions. Cider from controlled-atmosphere-stored apples that were culled before pressing contained 0 to 15.1 microg of patulin per liter, while cider made from unculled fruit contained 59.9 to 120.5 microg of patulin per liter. The washing of ground-harvested apples before pressing reduced patulin levels in cider by 10 to 100%, depending on the initial patulin levels and the type of wash solution used. These results indicate that patulin is a good indicator of the quality of the apples used to manufacture cider. The avoidance of ground-harvested apples and the careful culling of apples before pressing are good methods for reducing patulin levels in cider.

  12. Stability and anti-glycation properties of intermediate moisture apple products fortified with green tea.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2011-07-15

    Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs.

  13. Dementia paralytica: deterioration from communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Roldán, S; Benito, C; Martin, M

    1979-01-01

    Five patients suffering from dementia paralytica who failed to improve or deteriorated after one or several high dosage courses of penicillin, had pneumoencephalographic patterns suggesting communicating hydrocephalus. Measurements of the ventricular index, ratio of cella media to width of the temporal horn, and the callosal angle differed from that in seven cases of dementia paralytica with associated cerebral atrophy. An isotope cisternogram in three cases with communicating hydrocephalus further confirmed a blockage of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the parasagittal subarachnoid space. Three patients exhibited the full syndrome of gait apraxia, incontinence, and pyramidal tract signs associated with a severe degree of dementia. Shunting of the CSF in three cases was followed by immediate improvement in two, one in a longlasting way. No active parenchymal inflammation was observed in any of three brain biopsy samples taken during surgery, except for leptomeningeal fibrosis in one. Chronic leptomeningitis in dementia paralytica may impair subarachnoid CSF absorption with subsequent communicating hydrocephalus. Progression or inadequate responses after therapeutic dose of penicillin in dementia paralytica should prompt investigation for this complication as an alternative, effective treatment could be offered. Images PMID:469557

  14. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    SciTech Connect

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  15. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  16. Bridge concrete deteriorating diagnosis by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Nobuhiro; Sakuma, Joji; Mochizuki, Jun; Kimura, Yukinori

    2006-04-01

    Bridge is indispensable as social overhead capital. In the past, concrete construction was believed to be semi-permanent. Actually, however, concrete is deteriorated by various factors including seawater damage, annual temperature change, etc. Therefore, it is now obvious that maintenance and management are essential to keep performance of the bridge. In Japan, we had many reports of using infrared thermography for diagnosis of building, mainly for delamination of tile and mortar used for surface of the building for more than 10 years. In recent years, infrared thermogrephy is more actively used for delamination of surface of the bridge. Passive method is usually used for open-air concrete structure diagnosis, which utilizes intraday environmental temperature change and/or radiation energy emitted from the sun which create delta-T of delamination portion of the concrete structure. It is very important to take thermal image at right conditions. Otherwise, you may easily fall onto false diagnosis. In our presentation, many case examples and study of thermal data will be shown, which are taken at the right condition.

  17. 7. NORTHBOUND BRIDGE: DETAIL VIEW, SHOWING DETERIORATION AND CONCRETE SPALLING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTHBOUND BRIDGE: DETAIL VIEW, SHOWING DETERIORATION AND CONCRETE SPALLING, LOOKING EAST - Veterans Memorial Park & Parkway, M-120 Northbound Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  18. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  19. DNA damage protective effect of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Robson Alves; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Dias, Lucas Pinheiro; Costa, Maiane Papke; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; Cunha, Kênya Silva; Lehmann, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fruits and derivatives, such as juices, are complex mixtures of chemicals, some of which may have mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potential, while others may have antimutagenic and/or anticancer activities. The modulating effects of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar (HSCAN), on somatic mutation and recombination induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and mitomycin C (MMC) were evaluated with the wing spot test in Drosophila melanogaster using co- and post-treatment protocols. Additionally, the antimutagenic activity of two HSCAN components, cashew apple pulp and honey, in MMC-induced DNA damage was also investigated. HSCAN reduced the mutagenic activity of both EMS and MMC in the co-treatment protocol, but had a co-mutagenic effect when post-administered. Similar results were also observed with honey on MMC mutagenic activity. Cashew apple pulp was effective in exerting protective or enhancing effects on the MMC mutagenicity, depending on the administration protocol and concentration used. Overall, these results indicate that HSCAN, cashew apple and honey seem capable of modulating not only the events that precede the induced DNA damages, but also the Drosophila DNA repair processes involved in the correction of EMS and MMC-induced damages. PMID:27560988

  20. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  1. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  2. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  3. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a…

  4. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  5. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  6. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  7. The history of Newton's apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  8. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  9. Ocean acidification-induced food quality deterioration constrains trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Rossoll, Dennis; Bermúdez, Rafael; Hauss, Helena; Schulz, Kai G; Riebesell, Ulf; Sommer, Ulrich; Winder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Our present understanding of ocean acidification (OA) impacts on marine organisms caused by rapidly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is almost entirely limited to single species responses. OA consequences for food web interactions are, however, still unknown. Indirect OA effects can be expected for consumers by changing the nutritional quality of their prey. We used a laboratory experiment to test potential OA effects on algal fatty acid (FA) composition and resulting copepod growth. We show that elevated CO(2) significantly changed the FA concentration and composition of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, which constrained growth and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa. A significant decline in both total FAs (28.1 to 17.4 fg cell(-1)) and the ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (PUFA:SFA) of food algae cultured under elevated (750 µatm) compared to present day (380 µatm) pCO(2) was directly translated to copepods. The proportion of total essential FAs declined almost tenfold in copepods and the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) tripled at high CO(2). This rapid and reversible CO(2)-dependent shift in FA concentration and composition caused a decrease in both copepod somatic growth and egg production from 34 to 5 eggs female(-1) day(-1). Because the diatom-copepod link supports some of the most productive ecosystems in the world, our study demonstrates that OA can have far-reaching consequences for ocean food webs by changing the nutritional quality of essential macromolecules in primary producers that cascade up the food web.

  10. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple, using a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Luo, W; Chen, M; Chen, A; Dong, W; Hou, X; Pu, B

    2015-04-01

    To isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella inoculated on fresh-cut apple, using a modelling method. Four kinds of pao cai were selected. A total of 122 isolates exhibited typical LAB characteristics: Gram-positive and catalase negative, among which 104 (85·24%) colonies showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella by the well diffusion assay. Four colonies showing maximum antibacterial radius against Salmonella were selected to co-inoculate with Salmonella on fresh-cut apple and stored at 10°C, further identified as three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of Lactobacillus brevis by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. The modified Gompertz model was employed to analyse the growth of the micro-organisms on apple wedges. Two of the four selected strains showed antagonistic activity against Salmonella on fresh-cut apple, one of which, RD1, exhibited best inhibitory activity (Salmonella were greatly inhibited when co-inoculated with RD1 at 10°C at 168 h). No deterioration in odour or appearance of the apple piece was observed by the triangle test when fresh-cut apple was inoculated with RD1. The mathematical modelling method is essential to select LAB with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple. LAB RD1 holds promise for the preservation of fresh-cut apple. This study provided a new method on fresh-cut product preservation. Besides, to make the LAB isolating procedure a more correct one, this study first added the mathematical modelling method to the isolating procedure. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2009-01-01

    There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh

  12. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  13. Whole apple extracts increase lifespan, healthspan and resistance to stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Vayndorf, Elena M; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-07-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of age-related functional decline and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These effects are primarily attributed to phytochemicals, plant compounds with a wide range of biological activities and health benefits. Apples, the top contributor of fruit phenolics in American diets, have high antioxidant, antiproliferative and chemopreventive activity in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about their effects on aging. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of whole apple phytochemical extracts on lifespan, healthspan and resistance to various stresses in vivo using C. elegans as a model. The mean and maximum lifespan of animals treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml whole apple extracts increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner by up to 39 and 25%, respectively. Healthspan also significantly improved as indicated by improved motility and reduced lipofuscin accumulation. Animals pre-treated with whole apple extracts were more resistant to stresses such as heat, UV radiation, paraquat-induced oxidative stress, and pathogenic infection, suggesting that cellular defense and immune system functions also improved. Our findings indicate that, in C. elegans, whole apple extracts slow aging, extend lifespan, improve healthspan, and enhance resistance to stress.

  14. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) on apples.

    PubMed

    Son, Yerim; Chon, Ikjo; Neven, Lisa; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-10-01

    Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Because of its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control C. sasakii in apples. The fifth instar was the most tolerant immature stage to a heat treatment of 44 degrees C for 20 min. When the apples infested with different stages of C. sasakii were treated under CATTS conditions (heating rate of 16 degrees C/h, chamber temperature of 46 degrees C, final core temperature of 44 degrees C under 1% O2/15% CO2 atmosphere), young larvae (first-fourth instars) did not survive after 40 min exposure, but the fifth instars required an exposure of at least 60 min to attain 100% mortality. A partial heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) was cloned and showed inducible expression in response to heat shock at 44 degrees C. CATTS suppressed transcription of the hsp90 gene. Apples did not show any appreciable loss of quality in relation to fruit firmness, sweetness, and decay after a 60 min CATTS treatment. These results suggest that CATTS can be applicable to control C. sasakii in apples.

  15. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Sarkaki, A R; Jalali, M T; Latifi, S M

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (300+/-30 g) by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Both normal and diabetic animals were fed with standard animal food containing apple cider vinegar (6% w/w) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose did not change, while HbA1c significantly decreased by apple cider vinegar in diabetic group (p<0.05). In normal rats fed with vinegar, significant reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (p<0.005) and significant increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (p<0.005) were observed. Apple cider vinegar also reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (p<0.005) and increased HDL-c (p<0.005) in diabetic animals. These results indicate that apple cider vinegar improved the serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats by decreasing serum TG, LDL-c and increasing serum HDL-c and may be of great value in managing the diabetic complications.

  16. The research development of hyperspectral imaging in apple nondestructive detection and grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Di; Ji, Jian-wei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Si-jia; Tian, You-wen

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a new technology for nondestructive detection of fruit which developed rapidly in recent years. It can get the image and spectral information of the detected object from "three-dimensional", can also reflect the internal and external qualities simultaneously, is a new efficient grading method for fruit. This article induces system types by introducing the hardware structure, determine light source and scanning mode which apply to apple grading. We describe detecting process of apple external and internal indicators according to two directions in apple grading. For internal quality detection, we generalize the methods of image enhancement and image segmentation. For quality indicator detection, we elaborate the process of system calibration and spectral preprocessing, also we discuss the significance of optimal band selection, classify the methods of prediction model establishment and evaluation. Then we summarize the domestic and foreign research results of several main indicators of apple grading, the external quality including color, size, slight injury and contamination, and the internal quality including soluble solids content (SSC), firmness and bruise. We illustrate accuracy, modeling methods, research progress of all indicators and express personal comments for the research progress of single indicator. Finally, this article proposes the deficiency, research direction and application prospect of hyperspectral imaging in apple nondestructive detection and grading.

  17. Ethylene-Enhanced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Ripening Apples 1

    PubMed Central

    Bufler, Gebhard

    1984-01-01

    Apples (Malus sylvestris Mill, cv Golden Delicious) were treated before harvest with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). AVG is presumed to reversibly inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) activity, but not the formation of ACC synthase. AVG treatment effectively blocked initiation of autocatalytic ethylene production and ripening of harvested apples. Exogenous ethylene induced extractable ACC synthase activity and ripening in AVG-treated apples. Removal of exogenous ethylene caused a rapid decline in ACC synthase activity and in CO2 production. The results with ripened, AVG-treated apples indicate (a) a dose-response relationship between ethylene and enhancement of ACC synthase activity with a half-maximal response at approximately 0.8 μl/l ethylene; (b) reversal of ethylene-enhanced ACC synthase activity by CO2; (c) enhancement of ACC synthase activity by the ethylene-activity analog propylene. Induction of ACC synthase activity, autocatalytic ethylene production, and ripening of preclimacteric apples not treated with AVG were delayed by 6 and 10% CO2, but not by 1.25% CO2. However, each of these CO2 concentrations reduced the rate of increase of ACC synthase activity. PMID:16663569

  18. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  2. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  8. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  9. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2922 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2922 Section 52.2922 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Northern Mariana Islands § 52.2922 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of... procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  16. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  2. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  5. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  7. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  9. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  15. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  1. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  2. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  10. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  12. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 33984, June 6, 2013. (a) The requirements... approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for...

  13. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  14. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  15. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  20. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  1. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  3. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  6. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  8. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  19. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...