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Sample records for apple replant disease

  1. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  2. Towards the intergrated management of apple replant disease using knowledge on disease etiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young apple orchards that are cultivated on old apple soils often suffer from apple replant disease (ARD). ARD symptom expression is characterized by tree stunting, shortened internodes and discoloured roots, which appears throughout the orchard shortly after orchard establishment when trees are mos...

  3. Advances in Brassica seed meal formulation for apple replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform and sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease for this soil amendment to be used as a viable alternative to pre-plant soil fumigation. Therefore, field trials were established at multiple site...

  4. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  5. Progress in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform or sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites (STM, SR and Tukey orchards) in Washington State to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for ...

  6. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  7. Characterization of apple replant disease-associated microbial communities over multiple growth periods using next-generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replant disease in apple occurs as a result of incompletely understood and variable complexes of soil-borne pathogens that can build up over time in orchard soil. This disease limits economic viability of newly established orchards on replant sites and results in reduced productivity for the life of...

  8. Apple replant disease: role of microbial ecology in cause and control.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Manici, Luisa M

    2012-01-01

    Replant disease of apple is common to all major apple growing regions of the world. Difficulties in defining disease etiology, which can be exacerbated by abiotic factors, have limited progress toward developing alternatives to soil fumigation for disease control. However, the preponderance of data derived from studies of orchard soil biology employing multidisciplinary approaches has defined a complex of pathogens/parasites as causal agents of the disease. Approaches to manipulate microbial resources endemic to the orchard soil system have been proposed to induce a state of general soil suppressiveness to replant disease. Such a long-term strategy may benefit the existing orchard through extending the period of economic viability and reduce overall disease pressure to which young trees are exposed during establishment of successive plantings on the site. Alternatively, more near-term methods have been devised to achieve specific quantitative and qualitative changes in soil biology during the period of orchard renovation that may lead to effective disease suppression.

  9. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  10. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  11. Grass residues as a sustainable carbon source in application of anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of apple nursery replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for control of replant disease in an apple nursery setting. Treatments applied in a field trial conducted at an experimental orchard in Washington State included ASD using orchard grass residues (GR; 20 t ha-1) as ...

  12. Promotion of apple tree growth and fruit production by the EBW-4 strain of Bacillus subtilis in apple replant disease soil.

    PubMed

    Utkhede, R S; Smith, E M

    1992-12-01

    A field trial was conducted near Kelowna, British Columbia, to determine the effect of biological treatments alone and in combination with formalin fumigation in apple replant disease soil. The response was measured by the increase in cross-sectional trunk area, total shoot growth, and fruit yield of McIntosh apple trees on M.26 rootstock. The postplanting drench application of strain EBW-4 of Bacillus subtilis alone was consistently effective in increasing cross-sectional trunk area for 5 years, total shoot growth for 4 years, and fruit yield for 3 years. The biological agent EBW-4 of B. subtilis in combination with formalin fumigation was also effective in promoting total shoot growth and cross-sectional trunk area. The application of formalin fumigation alone was effective in increasing shoot growth for 2 years and cross-sectional trunk area for 1 year only. This treatment did not increase fruit yield for 3 years. The consistent performance of strain EBW-4 of B. subtilis during 1986-1991 indicates that this bacterium has the potential for biological control of replant disease under orchard conditions in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.

  13. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis - contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments.

  14. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis - contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  15. Illumina Amplicon Sequencing of 16S rRNA Tag Reveals Bacterial Community Development in the Rhizosphere of Apple Nurseries at a Replant Disease Site and a New Planting Site

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jia; Wei, Qinping

    2014-01-01

    We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant) and a new planting site (NewPlant) in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of ‘Fuji’/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil) and from the new planting site (NewSoil) was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant). More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria). The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition. PMID:25360786

  16. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  17. Replant disease control and system resilience to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassica seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatments provided similar levels of disease control during the initial g...

  18. Replant disease control and soil system resilience to pathogen infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils. Application of a Brassica juncea/Sinapis alba SM formulation provided disease cont...

  19. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  20. Characterization of Cylindrocarpon populations associated with replant disease of almond and peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth and cumulative yield of replanted almond and peach orchards are often seriously compromised by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne complex affecting successive plantings of Prunus. Previously, our culture-based (CB) and culture-independent (CI) examinations of fungal,...

  1. Quantification of Cylindrocarpon in roots of almond and peach trees from orchards affected by Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunus replant disease (PRD) is a poorly understood soilborne complex that suppresses replanted almond and peach orchards in California. Using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches, we found Cylindrocarpon (Cyl) macrodidymum among microorganisms associated with PRD. We developed a qPC...

  2. Identification and Characterization of Salvia miltiorrhizain miRNAs in Response to Replanting Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Jin, Weibo; Zhu, Xiaole; Liu, Lin; He, Zhigui; Yang, Shushen; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Replanting disease is a major factor limiting the artificial cultivation of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. At present, little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to replanting disease. In this study, two small RNA libraries obtained from first-year (FPR) and second-year plant (SPR) roots were subjected to a high-throughput sequencing method. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 110 known and 7 novel miRNAs were annotated in the roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Moreover, 39 known and 2 novel miRNAs were identified and validated for differential expression in FPR compared with SPR. Thirty-one of these miRNAs were further analyzed by qRT-PCR, which revealed that 5 miRNAs negatively regulated the expression levels of 7 target genes involved in root development or stress responses. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of S. miltiorrhiza in response to replanting disease but also demonstrates that 5 miRNAs may be involved in these responses. Interactions among the differentially expressed miRNAs with their targets may form an important component of the molecular basis of replanting disease in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27483013

  3. Identification and Characterization of Salvia miltiorrhizain miRNAs in Response to Replanting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaole; Liu, Lin; He, Zhigui; Yang, Shushen; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Replanting disease is a major factor limiting the artificial cultivation of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. At present, little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to replanting disease. In this study, two small RNA libraries obtained from first-year (FPR) and second-year plant (SPR) roots were subjected to a high-throughput sequencing method. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 110 known and 7 novel miRNAs were annotated in the roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Moreover, 39 known and 2 novel miRNAs were identified and validated for differential expression in FPR compared with SPR. Thirty-one of these miRNAs were further analyzed by qRT-PCR, which revealed that 5 miRNAs negatively regulated the expression levels of 7 target genes involved in root development or stress responses. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of S. miltiorrhiza in response to replanting disease but also demonstrates that 5 miRNAs may be involved in these responses. Interactions among the differentially expressed miRNAs with their targets may form an important component of the molecular basis of replanting disease in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27483013

  4. Intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Dryden, J A

    1989-01-01

    When conventional endodontic treatment or retreatment and surgery are not feasible, a clinician may choose to replant the defective tooth. Intentional replantation consists of extracting the tooth, finding and correcting the defect, and replanting the tooth in its socket. This article describes five case reports in which intentional replantation was used as a last resort. Four (80%) of the five patients were successfully treated.

  5. Intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Madison, S

    1986-12-01

    Intentional replantation is an accepted endodontic procedure for treating teeth in cases in which intracanal and/or surgical endodontic treatments are not recommended. Although not a frequently used technique, intentional replantation is a treatment option that dentists should consider. An unusual case is described in which intentional replantation was required to maintain the tooth in the dentition. A 31 month follow-up evaluation revealed an asymptomatic, functional tooth with no radiographic signs of pathosis.

  6. Isolation and characterization of apple Pythium ultimum response genes and their ethylene and jasmonate mediated transcriptional regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agents of ARD, the molecular response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. I...

  7. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agent of ARD, the genetic response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. In t...

  8. Resilience of orchard replant soils to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatment provided similar levels of disease control during the initial gr...

  9. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  10. [Intentional replantation].

    PubMed

    Brouwer, T J; Raghoebar, G M

    1990-01-01

    In case of an unsuccessful endodontic treatment apicectomy often may cure the periapical inflammation. If for technical reasons periapical surgery is not possible, many of these teeth can be preserved by means of intentional replantation. The indications and contra-indications, the technical procedure and two case histories are described.

  11. Intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Kratchman, S

    1997-07-01

    A list of what was once advocated when performing a replantation versus what is done now follows: 1. It used to be advocated always to curettage the socket after removing the tooth. Now clinicians know not to touch the walls of the socket and only to aspirate gently the apical region if needed. 2. After removal, the tooth used to be held in gauze, desiccating viable PDL cells. Now the tooth is kept bathed in an emesis basin filled with HBSS, which maintains the viability of the PDL for 30 minutes. 3. All clinicians were able to do was visual inspection; now the microscope is used to illuminate and magnify the working area. 4. Splinting was done on every case; now clinicians rarely splint after replantation. 5. Narcotic pain medication was prescribed routinely; now clinicians premedicate with chlorhexidine rinse, anti-inflammatory medication, and sometimes antibiotics, rarely using narcotics. With increased understanding of the periodontium and improved techniques, replantation should no longer be viewed as a treatment of last resort, but rather a successful treatment alternative.

  12. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  13. Replantation of digits

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Reactions to medications Problems breathing Bleeding Infection Death of the replanted tissue Reduced nerve function or movement in the replanted digit Stiffness of the fingers Pain that continues after surgery

  14. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  15. Intentional replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Michael R; Panzarino, John

    2006-06-01

    Nonsurgical retreatment and surgical endodontics are not always viable solutions to endodontic disease. Access for retreatment may be limited by posts. Surgical endodontics may be limited by anatomical features including bone thickness and nerve and sinus proximity. Anatomical limitations and complex restorations may prevent implant placement. Intentional replantation is considered by many as a procedure of last resort when nonsurgical or surgical endodontics is contra-indicated. The treatment described demonstrates intentional replantation as a procedure to be considered when endodontic procedures or a dental implant are not possible.

  16. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  17. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  18. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  19. Association of Genetic Variation in Adaptor Protein APPL1/APPL2 Loci with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Esposito, Antonietta; Angellotti, Edith; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Marfella, Raffaele; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The importance of genetics and epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasingly recognized. Adiponectin has a central role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and controlling inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues and low adiponectin levels have been linked to NAFLD. APPL1 and APPL2 are adaptor proteins that interact with the intracellular region of adiponectin receptors and mediate adiponectin signaling and its effects on metabolism. The aim of our study was the evaluation of a potential association between variants at APPL1 and APPL2 loci and NAFLD occurrence. The impact on liver damage and hepatic steatosis severity has been also evaluated. To this aim allele frequency and genotype distribution of APPL1- rs3806622 and -rs4640525 and APPL2-rs 11112412 variants were evaluated in 223 subjects with clinical diagnosis of NAFLD and compared with 231 healthy subjects. The impact of APPL1 and APPL2 SNPs on liver damage and hepatic steatosis severity has been also evaluated. The minor-allele combination APPL1-C/APPL2-A was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR = 2.50 95% CI 1.45–4.32; p<0.001) even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides and adiponectin levels. This allele combination carrier had higher plasma alanine aminotransferase levels (Diff = 15.08 [7.60–22.57] p = 0.001) and an increased frequency of severe steatosis compared to the reference allele combination (OR = 3.88; 95% CI 1.582–9.531; p<0.001). In conclusion, C-APPL1/A-APPL2 allele combination is associated with NAFLD occurrence, with a more severe hepatic steatosis grade and with a reduced adiponectin cytoprotective effect on liver. PMID:23977033

  20. Unfavorable results in replantation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abraham G.

    2013-01-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them. PMID:24501462

  1. [Digital replantation in children].

    PubMed

    Barbary, S; Dautel, G

    2012-10-01

    Digital amputations in children are usually caused by crush or avulsion injuries (door hinge, bicycle chain, etc.). The preponderance of this mechanism of injury means a survival rate generally lower than in adults. However, finger amputation in children is an absolute indication for replantation because the sensory and functional results are significantly higher. Technically, there is little difference, apart from the difficulty of the size of the structure and the presence of growth plates. Kirschner wires are the most suitable fixation method but two subcutaneous needles are ideally used in distal amputations. The dressing and postoperative immobilization in a circular plaster above the elbow is kept for 1 month. Secondary procedures are rare, later than in adults and give poorer results because of the difficulty of understanding the active mobilization exercises. The postoperative analgesia is fundamental following replantation to avoid the risk of arterial spasm, and after a secondary procedure to allow proper rehabilitation.

  2. Infection of Apple by Apple Stem Grooving Virus Leads to Extensive Alterations in Gene Expression Patterns but No Disease Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lu; Chen, Hui; Wang, Shaojie; Fan, Zaifeng; Guo, Liyun; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of viral diseases, transcriptome profiling has been widely used to correlate host gene expression change patterns with disease symptoms during viral infection in many plant hosts. We used infection of apple by Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), which produces no disease symptoms, to assess the significance of host gene expression changes in disease development. We specifically asked the question of whether such asymptomatic infection is attributed to limited changes in host gene expression. Using RNA-seq, we identified a total of 184 up-regulated and 136 down-regulated genes in apple shoot cultures permanently infected by ASGV in comparison with virus-free shoot cultures. As in most plant hosts showing disease symptoms during viral infection, these differentially expressed genes encode known or putative proteins involved in cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, response to biotic and abiotic stress, development and fruit ripening, phytohormone function, metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, translation, transport, and photosynthesis. Thus, global host gene expression changes do not necessarily lead to virus disease symptoms. Our data suggest that the general approaches to correlate host gene expression changes under viral infection conditions to specific disease symptom, based on the interpretation of transcription profiling data and altered individual gene functions, may have limitations depending on particular experimental systems. PMID:24736405

  3. Intentional replantation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kahan, R S; Gulabivala, K

    1995-12-01

    Intentional replantation (IR) involves the extraction, extra-oral endodontic treatment and replantation of a tooth. Its use dates back over 1000 years, but it is rarely considered by the modern dental practitioner. This paper describes the treatment of a patient using this technique, and discusses its relative advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Intentional replantation to prevent predictable endodontic failures.

    PubMed

    Nosonowitz, D M; Stanley, H R

    1984-04-01

    A clinical approach to intentional replantation with indications and contradictions is presented. A histopathologic analysis of a tooth that was replanted and then removed 22 years later is illustrated.

  5. Identification and molecular properties of a 306 nucleotide viroid associated with apple dimple fruit disease.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, F; Aparicio, F; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Flores, R

    1996-11-01

    A new viroid associated with an apple fruit disorder similar to, but more severe than, the dapple apple disease induced in some varieties by apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) has been found. The new viroid, tentatively termed apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd), is a circular RNA of 306 nucleotides which adopts a quasi-rod-like conformation of minimum free energy. It contains the core nucleotides of the central conserved region (CCR) of the ASSVd group as well as the terminal conserved region (TCR) present in all members of the ASSVd and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) monophyletic groups. ADFVd has the highest sequence similarity with ASSVd and the 294 nucleotide citrus viroid CVd-IIIb sharing with the latter an almost identical left terminal domain. The right- and left-hand termini of ADFVd are formed by almost perfect duplications of sequences found in the CCR upper and lower strands, respectively, of PSTVd and closely related viroids.

  6. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sanchit; Date, Shivprasad V.; Gupta, Arunesh; Baliarsing, Amresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V. PMID:27274131

  7. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  8. Investigation of the radiation effects on Brown Rot disease of Golden Delicious apples, inoculated with the fungus Monilinia fructigena.

    PubMed

    Marcaki, P

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 0, 1.5 and 3 KGy gamma-irradiation on Brown Rot disease affecting Golden Delicious apples are investigated. The apples were artificially inoculated with Monilinia fructigena fungus before and after irradiation. Results show clearly that radiation induces a delay in fungus development, even when it is not directly affected. The effect of radiation on the apples' substrate seems to be considerable, being the main factor affecting fungal growth. Radiation doses of 1.5 and 3 KGy do not seem to produce strong differences in the fungal growth. Irradiation, however, is very effective, producing important changes of practical interest for apples infected before or after irradiation.

  9. Digit Replantation The First 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Scott R; Capo, John T

    2015-06-01

    Since the first successful digit replantation by Japanese surgeons Komatsu and Tamai, the past half century has seen the field of digit replantation in the USA experience exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. The history and approach to digit replantation is reviewed and highlights the likely push toward the development of regional replant centers staffed by highly skilled teams to improve the functional outcomes following these complex procedures. More than 50 years have passed since the first successful digit replantation by Komatsu and Tamai who replanted a sharply amputated thumb in a 28-year-old male at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint level in a 4.5 hour procedure. Two arteries and 2 veins were anastomosed using 8-0 monofilament nylon and 7-0 braided silk suture. The patient remained in the hospital for 40 days and did not return to work for 4 months. News of this triumph of microvascular skill was heralded throughout the world as the first successful replantation of a completely amputated digit. Over the past half century, the field of digit replantation in the USA experienced exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. In the next 50 years, it is possible that the majority of digit replantation procedures in the USA may be performed in tertiary centers or regional replant centers by highly skilled teams. PMID:26517169

  10. Intentional replantation: report of a successful case.

    PubMed

    Barnett, R J; Burton, W E; Nuckles, D B

    1992-11-01

    Irreversible iatrogenic damage sometimes occurs during dental treatment. In certain cases, intentional extraction, repair, and replantation can be used to save the damaged tooth. This case report describes the successful replantation of a premolar that had sustained a large root perforation.

  11. Intentional replantation of a lower premolar.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jeff

    2004-12-01

    Intentional replantation is the purposeful extraction of a tooth to perform extraoral endodontic treatment, curettage of apical soft tissue when present and the replacement of the tooth in its socket. This paper demonstrates the use of intentional replantation as a technique to successfully treat a case where conventional endodontic retreatment and apical surgery were considered unfeasible.

  12. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  13. Intentional replantation. A viable alternative for selected cases.

    PubMed

    Dryden, J A; Arens, D E

    1994-04-01

    When conventional endodontic treatment or retreatment is not possible, the operator may choose to intentionally extract and replant the involved tooth. Intentional replantation consists of extracting the tooth, finding and correcting the defect, and replanting the tooth in its socket. This article discusses the indications, contraindications, and recommended techniques for intentional replantation. Several successful case reports are described in which intentional replantation was used as a last resort.

  14. Hand replantation: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a hand replantation. A 43-year-old male presented with an amputated right hand. After clinical and radiological examination of the amputated hand and the forearm stump, the patient was consented for hand replantation procedure. Both bones of the forearm were fixed using K-wires. Careful dissection, trimming and repair of the tendons, vessels (two arteries and one vein) and nerves was achieved. The patient tolerated the procedure well and 2 months later showed a progressive improvement in motor and sensory functions. We suggest that a single-vein repair is sufficient for a successful hand replantation. PMID:27489633

  15. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, G; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-09-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation.

  16. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth

    PubMed Central

    Nagappa, G.; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation. PMID:24174765

  17. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon.

  18. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  19. The Risk Factors for Failure of an Upper Extremity Replantation: Is the Use of Cigarettes/Tobacco a Significant Factor?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Yin; Chen, Shih-Heng; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the potential risk factors associated with the failure of an upper extremity replantation with a focus on cigarette or tobacco use. Patients and Methods A cohort of 102 patients with 149 replants (6 extremities, 143 digits) and a mean age of 41 years (range 5 to 72 years) was enrolled in this study. The data collected included age, gender, tobacco/cigarettes use, trauma mechanism, underlying disease (e.g., hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), etc.), and vein graft use. An analysis with a multivariable regression was conducted to identify the risk factors of replant failure and their respective odds ratios (ORs). Results Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a binomial distribution and logit link showed that smoking did not increase the risk of replant failure (p = 0.234). In addition, the survival of replants was not affected by DM or HTN (p = 0.285 and 0.938, respectively). However, the replantation results were significantly affected by the age of the patients and the mechanism of injury. Patients older than 50 years and those with avulsion or crush injuries tended to have a higher risk of replant failure (OR = 2.29, 6.45, and 5.42, respectively; p = 0.047, 0.028, and 0.032, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that the use of cigarettes/tobacco did not affect the replantation outcome. The main risks for replant failure included being older than 50 years and the trauma mechanism (avulsion or crush injuries). PMID:26513147

  20. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P.; Pothier, Joël F.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  1. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  2. Alternative disease control agents induce resistance to blue mold in harvested 'red delicious' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    de Capdeville, Guy; Wilson, Charles L; Beer, Steven V; Aist, James R

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT Alternative control agents, including UV-type C (254 nm) irradiation, yeasts antagonistic to fungal growth, chitosan and harpin, were evaluated for their ability to induce resistance in cv. Red Delicious apple fruit against postharvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum. Freshly harvested and controlled atmosphere (CA)-stored fruit were treated with these agents at different doses and concentrations or with paired combinations of the agents. Treated fruit were inoculated with P. expansum 24, 48, or 96 h following treatment, and stored at 24 degrees C in the dark. The fruit were evaluated for development of disease every 2 days for 14 days by measuring the diameter of lesions that formed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated and analyzed statistically. All treatments were effective in reducing the AUDPC; UV-C was most effective, followed by harpin, chitosan, and the yeasts, respectively. Regardless of treatment, fresh fruit were more responsive to treatments than CA-stored fruit. There was a clear time-dependent response of the fruit to the treatments, in which treatments applied 96 h before inoculation provided the best results. In a few situations, the combinations of agents did provide an additive effect, but no synergistic effects were detected. Moreover, disease severity in fruit treated by any combination was markedly better than that in the controls. Although the combinations of treatments was overall less effective than the single treatments, they did provide significant reductions of the progress of disease in comparison with the controls. Because the fungus did not come into contact with any of the control agents, this study showed conclusively that the agents studied were able to induce resistance in the fruit rather than merely inhibit the pathogen directly. It also showed, for the first time, that harpin is able to induce resistance in harvested apple fruit. The use of these control agents may minimize the

  3. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality. PMID:26787402

  4. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.

  5. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus x domestica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychrotrophic yeasts isolated from soils collected in Antarctica and selected by its capacity of growing in apple juice at low temperatures were evaluated for their potential as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, ...

  6. Intentional replantation of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Bender, I B; Rossman, L E

    1993-11-01

    This article reports 31 cases of intentional replantation with an overall success rate of 80.6% with six recorded failures. Survival times varied from 1 day to 22 years. A second mandibular molar that failed after 3 weeks was replanted successfully a second time with no signs of failure after a 46-month follow-up period. Two cases of intentional replantation of deciduous molars are also reported. We suggest that intentional replantation reduces adverse outcomes and should be considered as another treatment modality and not as a procedure of last resort. This procedure is recommended as the treatment of choice in the following instances: for lower second molars, for single-rooted teeth, and lower first molars when there is difficulty in accessibility to perform apical surgery; when the mental foramen is superimposed over the apex of the premolars; when the molar apex is in proximity to the mandibular canal; when patients object to periradicular surgery; when failures occur after apical surgery, or when surgery would create a periodontal pocket as a result of extensive bone removal. Periradicular surgery with a retroseal is more advantageous for first molars when roots are more curved, widespread, and are more prone to fracture compared with second molars whose roots are more tapered and close together.

  7. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  8. [Intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and replantation in local treatment of primary malignant bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Buchner, M; Treiber, M; Wannenmacher, M; Ewerbeck, V; Parsch, D

    2003-11-01

    In 13 patients with primary malignant bone tumors (10 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 parosteal osteosarcoma, 1 adamantinoma recurrence, and 1 MFH) local therapy was performed as intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and replantation (IEIR) of the involved bone segment (5 tibia, 2 femur, and 6 pelvis). Of the 13 patients (69%), 9 are alive at the time of the follow-up (5 CDF, 4 AWM(treated)) and 4 patients died of disease (DOD). Up to now during the follow-up of 32 months (6-57), no local recurrence was observed in the replanted bone segments. The complication rate was very high (18 complications in 11 of the 13 patients, including 6 cases with complication V degrees according to Ruggieri with loss of the reconstruction). The typical complication is severe local infection necessitating removal of the replant. In cases of mechanical failure, the replanted segment could mostly be preserved by surgical revision and autologous bone grafting. If serious complications can be managed or avoided, functional results can be achieved. IEIR must be seen as an extraordinary reconstruction procedure in cases where established procedures such as endoprosthesis, biological reconstructions, or rotationplasties cannot be used or are refused by the patient. PMID:14615850

  9. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice.

  10. Five-year follow-up of successful intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Aqrabawi, J

    1999-11-01

    Intentional replantation has been practised for many years as a treatment modality for pulpless teeth. Although the success ratio for intentional replantation is far below that for routine or surgical endodontics, one should consider this procedure as an alternative to tooth extraction. Two cases of mandibular second molars which were treated with intentional replantation and retrograde fillings are reported in this article. At the 5-year recall visit, the radiographs showed no evidence of pathological changes.

  11. Laser assisted tooth replantation case report

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cheng Hsiang; Lu, Hung Chieh; KE, Jyuhn H.; Lan, Wan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim: Although intentional replantation for extraoral treatment is a solution for complicated endodontic cases, it is accompanied with risk of root resorption which is most likely due to extraction trauma and infected remnants. Laser therapies have long been proved for bactericidal and biostimulation effects. In the present case, a pulpitis combined severe periodontal destruction molar was extracted with an Er:YAG laser for thorough degranulation and disinfection. Before the extraction and right after the treatment, low level laser therapy (LLLT) with 810nm diode was applied for biostimulation. Result: Patient reported no post operative pain after laser treatment. Clinical follow-up showed uneventful healing, and excellent bone regeneration. Conclusion: The Er:YAG laser coupled with low level laser therapy (810 nm diode) has shown to assist and improve intentional replantation in disinfection procedure, and it may preserve more vital cells and enhance bioregeneration for less operative pain and better healing. PMID:24155537

  12. Replantation as treatment for extrusive luxation.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Nogueira, Lamis Meorin; Pires, Willian Ricardo; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of extrusive luxation cases, it is important that the repositioning of extruded tooth in the socket is done as soon as possible. If this does not occur, periapical clot becomes organized and makes replantation difficult reposition. In this article the patient referred to the Clinics for dental trauma sustaining extrusive luxation of the maxillary right central incisor. The patient reported having suffered a bicycle accident 12 days before, which caused traumatic tooth injuries. The repositioning was attempted without success and an alternative form of treatment was necessary to solve the case. Intentional tooth replantation, which is the deliberate extraction of the tooth and its replantation, was indicated. This technique allows clot removal and correct repositioning of the extruded tooth. Care should be taken as endodontic treatment is required for the prevention of subsequent infection-related resorption. Intracanal dressing with calcium hydroxide was used for 30 days before final root filling. Splint, systemic antibiotics and avoidance of further damage to the root surface is also important. After 49 months, showed clinical and radiographic characteristics of normality and demonstrates the availability of this technique to adversity in trauma.

  13. Intentional replantation for periodontally involved hopeless teeth.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Burak; Nohutçu, Rahime Meral; Tepe, Durul Işik; Eratalay, Kenan

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of intentional replantation of periodontally involved teeth after conditioning of root surfaces with tetracycline-HCl. Thirteen patients (seven female, six male; age range: 35-52 years) with 15 periodontally involved hopeless teeth were included in this study. During the replantation procedure, the affected teeth were gently extracted, then the granulation tissues, calculus, remaining periodontal ligament and necrotic cementum on the root surfaces were removed. Tetracycline-HCl, at a concentration of 100 mg ml(-1), was applied for 5 min to the root surfaces. The teeth were then replaced into the socket and splinted. Patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated at baseline (time of surgery) and 6 months after the surgery. The following measurements were recorded: probing depth (PD), gingival recession (R), the amount of bone loss (BL) and bone gain (BG). Results indicated a reduction in PD and in the amount of bone loss and healthy gingiva. Mean PD was decreased from 5.25 to 2.36 mm, gingival recession was increased from 3.73 to 4.0 mm, and BL was reduced from 73.20 to 56.86%. At the end of 6 months, no root resorption or ankylosis was observed radiographically. Even during the short period of evaluation, it may be suggested that intentional replantation can be an alternative approach to extraction in cases where advanced periodontal destruction is present and no other treatments could be considered.

  14. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions. PMID:27721696

  15. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2011-08-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously not affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology depending on actual weather conditions and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  16. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  17. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  18. Intentional extraction and replantation: the last resort.

    PubMed

    Abdurahiman, V T; Jolly, Sanju John; Khader, M Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don't have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.

  19. Insight into structure dynamics of soil microbiota mediated by the richness of replanted Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong-Po; Lin, Sheng; Chu, Leixia; Gao, JiangTao; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive monoculture of crops causes serious diseases and significant decline in yield and quality, and microbes in the rhizosphere are closely linked with plant health. Here we systematically studied the structure dynamics of soil microbiota in the monocropping system of Pseudostellaria heterophlla. The results illustrated that the successive cropping of P. heterophylla shifts the diversity and structure of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla, showing that the diversity of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla was decreased with the increase of planting years while the structure of microbial community became more deteriorative. Moreover, the population size of typical pathogens increased and the beneficial bacterial population decreased with the increasing years of monoculture, which resulted in the microecological imbalance in P. heterophylla rhizosphere, thereby caused serious replanting diseases in monocropping system. Our results suggested that structure dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities were mediated by the richness of replanted P. heterophylla, and thus the replant disease result from the imbalanced microbial structure with a higher ratio of pathogens/beneficial bacteria in rhizosphere soil under monocropping regimes. This finding provides a clue to open a new avenue for modulating the root microbiome to enhance the crop production and sustainability. PMID:27188449

  20. Insight into structure dynamics of soil microbiota mediated by the richness of replanted Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Po; Lin, Sheng; Chu, Leixia; Gao, JiangTao; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive monoculture of crops causes serious diseases and significant decline in yield and quality, and microbes in the rhizosphere are closely linked with plant health. Here we systematically studied the structure dynamics of soil microbiota in the monocropping system of Pseudostellaria heterophlla. The results illustrated that the successive cropping of P. heterophylla shifts the diversity and structure of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla, showing that the diversity of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla was decreased with the increase of planting years while the structure of microbial community became more deteriorative. Moreover, the population size of typical pathogens increased and the beneficial bacterial population decreased with the increasing years of monoculture, which resulted in the microecological imbalance in P. heterophylla rhizosphere, thereby caused serious replanting diseases in monocropping system. Our results suggested that structure dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities were mediated by the richness of replanted P. heterophylla, and thus the replant disease result from the imbalanced microbial structure with a higher ratio of pathogens/beneficial bacteria in rhizosphere soil under monocropping regimes. This finding provides a clue to open a new avenue for modulating the root microbiome to enhance the crop production and sustainability. PMID:27188449

  1. Malus sieversii, a valuable genetic resource for disease resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domesticated crop cultivars inevitably represent a subset of the genetic variation found in their wild ancestors (progenitors) due to genetic bottlenecks that result during the process of crop domestication. Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, is one of the ancestral proge...

  2. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential.

  3. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

  4. Replantation vs revision amputation in single digit zone II amputations.

    PubMed

    El-Diwany, M; Odobescu, A; Bélanger-Douet, M; Berbiche, D; Arsenault, J; Bou-Merhi, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of zone II amputations treated with either replantation or revision amputation at our institution to better aid patients in their decision making process regarding these treatment options. We conducted a comparative retrospective study. All cases of single digit amputations received at our replantation center between 2007 and 2011 were screened for single digit zone II injuries. These patients were stratified based on the treatment received: replantation vs revision amputation. Patients were called and invited to participate in the research project. Those who accepted to enter the study were asked to complete the Quick-DASH, the Beck Depression Inventory-short form, and a custom made questionnaire. There were seventeen patients with single digit zone II replantation and fourteen patients with similar injuries who underwent revision amputation and agreed to take part in the study. Our data revealed that the duration of sick leave, occupation after injury, professional and social reintegration, discontinued activities, and self-confidence were not statistically different between the two groups. The average hospital stay and the follow-up period of replanted individuals were longer. The replantation group did not have higher levels of pain or cold intolerance, and the global functional and esthetic satisfaction levels were similar between the two groups. Also, Beck Depression Inventory and Quick-DASH scores were not statistically different. Yet, significantly more patients in the replantation group would opt to repeat the replantation than revised patients would opt for revision amputation. From a functional viewpoint, our study suggests that revision amputation is not superior to replantation in zone II single digit amputations. This is valuable information that should be given to patients when deciding on the treatment process and to insure a proper informed consent.

  5. Re-inventing intentional replantation: a modification of the technique.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, S P

    2001-08-01

    Intentional Replantation (IR) has traditionally been considered a treatment of last resort due to complications during extraction, handling, and replantation. Root resorption and failure often resulted from drying of the root surface during extraoral manipulations. Replantation techniques have been recently modified to prevent desiccation. This article presents a modified IR technique with continuous immersion of the tooth in a tissue culture solution. This allows extension of the extraoral time period to permit inspection of the root surfaces, precise root-end resections and preparations, and placement of root-end fillings.

  6. Intentional replantation of periodontally involved and endodontically mistreated tooth.

    PubMed

    Lu, D P

    1986-05-01

    This article presents a case in which a tooth was intentionally replanted after it was endodontically mistreated; there was also a severe periodontal involvement. The unusually long period of time that the tooth survived might be attributed to a different approach to the replantation technique, such as occlusion adjustment prior to replantation, preoperative reduction of oral cavity bacteria and of the harmful aerosols commonly found in the dental operatory, placement of a noneugenol periodontal packing under the acrylic splint to prevent residual liquid monomer from seeping into the periodontal space, use of the patient's own blood and no other material to moisten the root while it was out of the socket, a short extraoral period, loose splinting, complete isolation of the operative site in the oral cavity, and completion of periodontal therapy before intentional replantation.

  7. Intentional replantation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Drain, D E; Petrone, J A

    1995-01-01

    Through a case report and a review of the literature, the indications and contraindications for intentional replantation are discussed. The current procedures and techniques for this seldom used modality are presented.

  8. Lymphatic drainage in patients after replantation of extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.; van Alphen, W.A.; van der Pompe, W.B.

    1987-02-01

    Lymph drainage was studied by means of lymph scintigraphy in eight patients in whom successful replantation of a totally or subtotally amputated extremity had been performed. Scintigrams were made after subcutaneous injection of technetium-99m in the replanted part of the patient and the contralateral, normal extremity. In all scintigrams, axillary or inguinal lymph node activity is seen, implying drainage of lymph by means of the lymph vessels. Retention of colloid in the replanted part (79 to 94 percent) shows no significant difference with the contralateral, normal side (86 to 94 percent). Unquestionable evidence of regeneration of lymphatics in humans is delivered in the three patients, in whom lymph node activity and normal retention percentages are seen on the scintigrams after total amputation of an extremity followed by replantation without anastomosing of interrupted lymph vessels.

  9. Rehabilitative treatment after unsuccessful teeth replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Horst, Sady; König, Joice; Reston, Eduardo Galia; Ernani, Calvete

    2002-01-01

    A nine-year-old boy suffered a severe facial trauma in a bicycle crash, which resulted in the avulsion and subluxation of upper central incisors. Teeth were repositioned and stabilized, attempting to achieve a successful replantation. Root resorption occurred, teeth were extracted, followed by orthodontic treatment, and esthetic procedures, modifying laterals and canines. This article reports an attempt and failure of replantation, providing alternatives for achieving patient's satisfaction, applying a variety of techniques and areas of dental profession. PMID:11874002

  10. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  11. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca2+ concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  12. APPLE - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasagam, R. M.

    1983-11-01

    The Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) is India's first experimental geostationary communication satellite, and incorporates such state-of-the-art technologies as three-axis stabilization by means of a momentum bias system, deployable solar panels, and orbit transfer/orbit attitude control and propulsion systems. The APPLE spacecraft has operated more than 6000 hours during 1981-1983, conducting digital communications technology experiments. Operations were terminated in September 1983, after 27 months on orbit, upon depletion of onboard fuel.

  13. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  14. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  15. Treatment of Necrotic Calcified Tooth Using Intentional Replantation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Arvin, Armita; Darvish, Alireza; Aflaki, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extracted. The root apex was resected and the root end cavity was prepared and filled with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Then, the extracted tooth was replanted in its original position. Results. After a year the tooth was asymptomatic, and the size of periapical radiolucency was remarkably reduced and no clinical sign of ankylosis was observed. Conclusion. Intentional replantation of the necrotic calcified teeth could be considered as an alternative to teeth extraction, especially for the single-rooted teeth and when nonsurgical and surgical endodontic procedures seem impossible. PMID:24716000

  16. Treatment of necrotic calcified tooth using intentional replantation procedure.

    PubMed

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Arvin, Armita; Darvish, Alireza; Aflaki, Sareh; Homayouni, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extracted. The root apex was resected and the root end cavity was prepared and filled with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Then, the extracted tooth was replanted in its original position. Results. After a year the tooth was asymptomatic, and the size of periapical radiolucency was remarkably reduced and no clinical sign of ankylosis was observed. Conclusion. Intentional replantation of the necrotic calcified teeth could be considered as an alternative to teeth extraction, especially for the single-rooted teeth and when nonsurgical and surgical endodontic procedures seem impossible.

  17. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  18. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8. PMID:26939157

  19. A Few Bad Apples: A Model of Disease Influenced Agent Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Contact Environment

    PubMed Central

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent’s disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence. PMID:25734661

  20. Newton's Apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-05-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his recollections of events did not always match known facts. However, one thing is certain-falling objects were to play a key part in Newton's eventual understanding of how objects move.

  1. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  2. Indications and Case Series of Intentional Replantation of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Alim Marvasti, Laleh; Kolahdouzan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This case series aims to comprehensively introduce intentional replantation with a focus on its indications and case selection in endodontics. In all represented cases, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement is used for root-end filling. This case series demonstrates twenty cases of IR and extraoral root-end resection and filling with CEM cement. All the selected teeth had a failed endodontic treatment and required surgical/nonsurgical endodontic (re)treatment or extraction. Subsequent to gentle tooth extraction, an appropriate root-end cavity was prepared and filled with CEM cement. Then the tooth was replanted; maximun procedure time was 15 min. A total of 18 cases (90%) were successful over a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. It can be concluded that intentional replantation with careful case selection can have a high success rate over 2 years. Intentional replantation may be a suitable treatment option for both trained general practitioners and specialists provided that the extraction is simple and straightforward. PMID:24396380

  3. Indications and case series of intentional replantation of teeth.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Alim Marvasti, Laleh; Kolahdouzan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This case series aims to comprehensively introduce intentional replantation with a focus on its indications and case selection in endodontics. In all represented cases, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement is used for root-end filling. This case series demonstrates twenty cases of IR and extraoral root-end resection and filling with CEM cement. All the selected teeth had a failed endodontic treatment and required surgical/nonsurgical endodontic (re)treatment or extraction. Subsequent to gentle tooth extraction, an appropriate root-end cavity was prepared and filled with CEM cement. Then the tooth was replanted; maximun procedure time was 15 min. A total of 18 cases (90%) were successful over a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. It can be concluded that intentional replantation with careful case selection can have a high success rate over 2 years. Intentional replantation may be a suitable treatment option for both trained general practitioners and specialists provided that the extraction is simple and straightforward.

  4. Delayed tooth replantation: MTA as root canal filling.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Saito, Célia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    MTA has been investigated as a root-end filling material. Its mechanism of action has some similarities to that of Ca(OH)2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair process taking place in the delayed replantation of monkey teeth using calcium hydroxide and MTA as root canal filling materials. Five monkeys had their lateral incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 minutes. After root canal preparation, the teeth were assigned to two groups according to root canal filling material: I, calcium hydroxide; and II, MTA. The same treatment sequence was followed for both groups: coronal seal, periodontal ligament removal, immersion of the tooth in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride, irrigation of the socket with saline and replantation. Both groups exhibited replacement resorption, areas of ankylosis and absence of inflammatory root resorption. Statistically similar results (p > 0.05) were observed for both groups regarding replacement root resorption, but the groups differed significantly (p < 0.05) regarding the occurrence of ankylosis. MTA may be a viable clinical option for filling teeth submitted to delayed replantation, and is an acceptable option for treating replanted permanent teeth in order to prevent tooth resorption, particularly when dressing changes are not possible. PMID:25337936

  5. Delayed, bilateral, non-microvascular ear replantation after violent amputation.

    PubMed

    García-Murray, E; Adán-Rivas, O; Salcido-Calzadilla, H

    2009-06-01

    Amputation of any body part is undoubtedly a traumatic experience leaving a terrible deformity, especially when the part or parts involved are visible and constitute an essential component of someone's facial whole. Bilateral ear amputation and successful subsequent replantation has been reported historically, but not in the modern surgical literature. We report the case of a 27-year-old female who was abducted and suffered a bilateral ear amputation at the hands of one of her captors to speed delivery of ransom money; the severed parts were sent to the parents approximately 2 hours after the amputation had taken place, and the girl was released some 48 hours after the ears were delivered. Microvascular replantation was attempted immediately after admission to the hospital some 2 hours after her release, but failed, and so a non-microvascular replantation was performed and was successful, after approximately 54 hours of ischaemia time. We consider this the first report of a complete bilateral, delayed, non-microvascular, successful ear replantation in a human being in the modern literature. PMID:18083644

  6. Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Akkara, Francis; Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

  7. A surgical approach for replantation of complete digital amputations.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, M

    1980-01-01

    A technique of extending exposure in digital replantation using lateral incisions permits atraumatic exposure of adequate length of digital nerves, arteries, and veins, and excellent exposure for fashioning bone and debridement and repair of tendon. Increase in viability rates, the ability to repair two arteries per digit, the number of veins repaired per digit, and a higher overall arterial patency rate appear to be related to the improved exposure. Operative time was also significantly shorter.

  8. Periodontal response to two intracanal medicaments in replanted monkey incisors.

    PubMed

    Thong, Y L; Messer, H H; Siar, C H; Saw, L H

    2001-12-01

    Intracanal medicaments are recommended for use in replanted teeth to inhibit inflammatory root resorption. This study compared the effect of calcium hydroxide (Pulpdent) and a corticosteroid-antibiotic paste (Ledermix) on periodontal healing and root resorption following replantation. Incisors of eight Macaca fascicularis monkeys were extracted, stored dry for 15 min and replanted. After 11 days, root canals in two adjacent maxillary incisors were treated with one medicament and contralateral incisors with the other medicament, or left as untreated controls. Animals were sacrificed 8 weeks later and the teeth prepared for histomorphometric evaluation of periodontal ligament inflammation and root resorption. Periodontal ligament inflammation and inflammatory root resorption were markedly inhibited by both calcium hydroxide and corticosteroid-antibiotic relative to untreated controls. Replacement resorption was lowest in the corticosteroid-antibiotic group, and significantly (P<0.05) more normal periodontal ligament was present in this group (79.6%) than in calcium hydroxide and control groups (64.6% and 62.7%, respectively). Treatment with the corticosteroid-antibiotic inhibited inflammatory resorption and was slightly more effective than calcium hydroxide in producing a periodontal healing response. PMID:11766092

  9. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  10. Economic Analysis of Revision Amputation and Replantation Treatment of Finger Amputation Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Erika Davis; Shin, Ryan; Prosser, Lisa A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to perform a cost-utility analysis to compare revision amputation and replantation treatment of finger amputation injuries across a spectrum of injury scenarios. Methods The study was conducted from the societal perspective. Decision tree models were created for the reference case (two finger amputation injury) and seven additional injury scenarios for comparison. Inputs included cost, quality of life, and probability of each health state. A web-based time trade-off survey was created to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for health states; 685 nationally representative adult community members were invited to participate in the survey. Overall cost and QALYs for revision amputation and replantation were calculated for each decision tree. An incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated if a treatment was more costly but more effective. Results We had a 64% response rate (n=437). Replantation treatment had greater costs and QALYs compared to revision amputation in all injury scenarios. Replantation of single digit injuries had the highest ICER ($136,400/QALY gained). Replantation of three and four digit amputation injuries had relatively low cost-benefit ratios ($27,100 and $23,800/QALY respectively). Replantation for distal thumb amputation had a relatively low ICER ($26,300/QALY) compared to replantation of non-thumb distal amputations ($60,200/QALY). Conclusions The relative cost per QALY gained with replantation treatment varied greatly among the injury scenarios. Situations in which indications for replantation are debated had higher cost per QALY gained. This study highlights variability in value for replantation among different injury scenarios. PMID:24352209

  11. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  12. The Inexhaustible Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Raymond; Lehman, Jeffrey R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several hands-on science activities which focus on the use of apples. Suggests several ways of using apples to teach classification. Proposes a field trip to an orchard as a culminating activity. (TW)

  13. Intentional replantation - a 'last resort' treatment or a conventional treatment procedure? nine case reports.

    PubMed

    Peer, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Intentional replantation is an accepted endodontic treatment procedure in which a tooth is extracted and treated outside the oral cavity and then inserted into its socket to correct an obvious radiographic or clinical endodontic failure. This article reviews nine cases of intentional replantation (IR) that show the feasibility of the procedure in a variety of indications. Only one case of replantation showed evidence of pathosis that reflected root resorption or ankylosis. This report suggests that IR is a reliable and predictable procedure and should be more often considered as a treatment modality in our efforts to maintain the natural dentition.

  14. Intentional replantation of a removable partial denture abutment tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cowan, R D; Addy, N L; Ritchie, G M; Myers, T L

    1992-01-01

    Intentional tooth replantation is a last-resort procedure, recommended only when all other techniques, short of tooth extraction, have been exhausted or are impractical. Although most endodontic textbooks describe the procedure, and many reports of intentional replantation have appeared in the dental literature, none have reported use of the technique to retain a removable partial denture abutment tooth. This article presents such a case and the rationale for the decision to intentionally replant. Eighteen-month follow-up clinical and radiographic results are presented.

  15. Intentional replantation with 180 degrees rotation of a crown-root fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fariniuk, Luiz Fernando; Ferreira, Erica Lopes; Soresini, Gizelle C Garcia; Cavali, Ana Egide C; Baratto Filho, Flares

    2003-12-01

    Crown root fractures are frequently difficult to treat and have a bad prognosis. To restore the biological space, intentional replantation can be chosen when osteotomy/osteoplasty and dental traction are not viable. Intentional replantation with tooth rotation consists of extraction, 180 degrees rotation and replantation, thus restoring the biological space. After treatment of inflammatory resorption with calcium hydroxide, endodontic treatment was completed. The patient was followed up with clinical examination (mobility test, gingival sulcus depth) and radiographic analysis (to analyze root resorption: inflammatory and/or substitution, and the integrity of the alveolar cortex and the periodontal space) for 3 years and there were no signs of resorption.

  16. Thumb Replantation Using the Superficial Palmar Branch of the Radial Artery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang Hyun; Bahar-Moni, Ahmed Suparno; Park, Hyun Chul

    2016-08-01

    The thumb is the most important part of the hand. If thumb is amputated, all efforts should be made to replant it to preserve hand functions. Good functional outcome can be obtained with successful thumb replantation than with other reconstructive surgery. We present a case of thumb amputation of a 44 -year-old male with severe damage to the soft tissues and bony structures of the radial part of the hand. We performed the replantation anastomosing the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery as donor artery as the proximal part of thumb digital arteries were severely damaged due to crush injury and got favorable result. PMID:27625540

  17. What's an Adam's Apple?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  18. Esthetic rehabilitation of avulsed-replanted anterior teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Tacir, Ibrahim Halil

    2008-06-01

    Avulsion is a complex injury affecting the pulp, periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. Avulsed permanent teeth can survive following replantation. However, post-traumatic external root resorption eventually resulting in loss of the traumatized tooth is a frequent finding. After replantation of the avulsed teeth, esthetic requirements can be needed. Treatment options include porcelain laminate veneers, metal-ceramic restorations and all-ceramic crowns as well as minimally invasive procedures such as direct resin composite bonding. This article describes the restoration of avulsed and replanted teeth with direct resin composite laminate veneers. Because of the fact that lost fragments were recovered with the loss of anterior esthetic, and bearing in mind the patient's psychologically affected, we considered direct resin composite laminate veneer restoration of the avulsed and replanted teeth as the best therapeutic option. The patient was satisfied with the final result. PMID:18489473

  19. Organization and activity of the Replantation Service for amputated hands in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej

    2013-01-02

    A permanent on-call service for hand amputations (Replantation Service) was established in 2010 of the initiative of the Council of Polish Society for Surgery of the Hand. It is run by three qualified hand centres in Trzebnica, Poznań and Szczecin. Organization of this system, rules of activity and spectrum of cases admitted to replantation units was presented. A scheme of referral of amputations was shown and the main problems that appeared during almost three-year activity of the Service were discussed. Medico-legal and ethical implications arising from these problems were shown and organization of replantation service in other European countries was outlined. Establishing of the Replantation Service constituted a significant progress in the organization of the management of upper limb amputations. Thanks to that, over the period of three years, more than 200 patients were saved from severe disability, receiving a chance to regain an amputated limb.

  20. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  1. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  2. Intentional replantation of a maxillary molar. A 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A Y

    1982-12-01

    A 4-year follow-up of a case treated by intentional replantation has been presented. A maxillary molar with a metal core was diagnosed as having acute apical periodontitis, endodontic treatment was determined to be impractical, and the tooth was extracted. Three roots canals which could not be detected roentgenologically were discovered and, after apicoectomy and reversed amalgam filling, the tooth was replanted in its socket. The follow-up reveals periapical repair with no signs of root resorption or ankylosis.

  3. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  4. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  5. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  6. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.

  7. Delayed replantation of rat teeth after use of reconstituted powdered milk as a storage medium.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Negri, Márcia Regina

    2009-02-01

    Minimal extraoral dry storage period and moist storage for the avulsed tooth are identified as key steps for the treatment protocol of tooth replantation. Among the possible moist storage media, bovine milk has stood out because of its capacity of preserving the integrity of the periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers. This condition has attracted the attention to investigate the use of powdered milk, which is one of the presentation forms of bovine milk, as a feasible storage medium in cases of delayed tooth replantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process after delayed replantation of rat teeth stored in reconstituted powdered milk and long shelf-life (ultra high temperature) whole milk. Forty maxillary right rat incisors were assigned to four groups (n = 10): group I--the teeth were extracted and immediately replanted into theirs sockets; group II--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of freshly reconstituted powdered milk; group III--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of long shelf-life whole milk; group IV--the teeth were kept dry for the same time. All procedures were performed at room temperature. Next, the root canals of teeth in groups II, III, and IV were instrumented, filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste, and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic therapy and were killed by anesthetic overdose 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological analysis. There was statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups I and IV regarding the presence of replacement resorption and PDL remnants on root surface. The powdered milk and long shelf-life whole milk presented similar results to each other and may be indicated as storage media for avulsed teeth.

  8. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    PubMed

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  9. Intentional replantation of a mandibular molar with calcified canal: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tang, P M; Chan, C P; Chen, C C; Tsai, A I

    1996-12-01

    Intentional replantation is an accepted endodontic technique for treating teeth in which both conventional and/or surgical endodontic treatments are not recommended. A rare case using intentional replantation technique on one mandibular molar has been successfully treated. This procedure was used owing to inaccessible calcified canal and pain intolerance of the patient. A thirty month post-operative evaluation revealed an asymptomatic, functional tooth with no radiographic signs of pathosis. The favorable results obtained in this case might be attributed to certain factors, such as occlusal adjustment prior to replantation, maintaining asepsis during replantation, no-damaging pressure during extraction, use of noneugenol periodontal packing, preservation of the vitality of the periodontal ligament, a minimal extraoral period, non-rigid splinting, apicoectomy and retrograde amalgam filling were done for hermetic apical seal. Intentional replantation may be limited to those cases when conventional endodontic therapy is not possible, but may be a treatment alternative to maintain the dentition and save an otherwise hopeless tooth.

  10. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm) on repair of dental replantation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; Santos, Laila; dos Santos Barbosa, Artur F.; Aguiar, Marcio C.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana M.

    2014-02-01

    Up to date the success of tooth replantation is still limited. The majority of the teeth is lost due to progressive external root resorption. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the effect of laser photobiomodulation on repair after tooth replantation. Sixty Wistar Albinus rats had the right upper incisor extracted and then divided into 4 groups: G1 - absence of storage medium; G2 - milk u s e d as storage medium; G3 - milk used as storage medium a n d followed by GaAlAs laser irradiation on dental surfaces and at the entrance of alveolus; G4 - milk used as storage medium associated with laser irradiation as in G3 before and after replantation on the buccal and palatal mucosa every 48 hours for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation. The results showed that after 15 days G4 exhibit more intense chronic inflammation, with presence of clastic cells and moderate inflammatory root resorption (p<0.05) when compared to G3, which presented absence of those parameters. At day 30 in G1, G2 and G4 mild to moderate chronic inflammation and severe external root resorption were observed. G3 remained with no inflammation and inflammatory root resorption with 30 and 60 days of healing experimental times. The results suggest that laser irradiation on the dental entrance of the dental alveolus prior to tooth replantation has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process in rats.

  11. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  12. Delayed Tooth Replantation after Traumatic Avulsion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khalilak, Zohreh; Shikholislami, Mahshid; Mohajeri, Ladan

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion is a serious injury which causes damage to dental and supportive tissues, ranging from 1-16 % among dental injuries and it mostly occurs in maxillary incisors. This report presents a case of replantation of a traumatically avulsed central incisor. The left central incisor of an 8 year-old boy with open apex was avulsed and was left in unclean and dry conditions. Tooth was replaced after 270 min and splinted. After 24 hours, tooth was treated endodontically. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied as intracanal medicament. After one year the calcium hydroxide was not replaced and was maintained in the canal, permanently. The tooth followed for 5 years. During follow up, the tooth kept stable. However, the resulted dent alveolar ankylosis prevented growth of the alveolar process. Spite of the fact that in children, replacement resorption leads to the loss of ankylosed teeth within 1-5 years; this tooth has remained in a stable, infra-position for 5 year and in functional position after coronal restoration. However, in such cases other treatments such as decoronation should be considered. PMID:24146677

  13. Repair of a root perforation with a resin-ionomer using an intentional replantation technique.

    PubMed

    Shuman, I E

    1999-01-01

    The repair of a root perforation can be accomplished using different materials and techniques. When the defect is surgically inaccessible, the tooth can be carefully extracted, repaired extraorally, and placed back into the socket. This procedure, known as intentional replantation, is often a measure of last resort in an heroic effort to save a hopeless tooth. This case report describes the treatment of a tooth with an iatrogenic root perforation and the subsequent healing of the surrounding periodontium using an intentional replantation technique and resin-ionomer to repair the root defect.

  14. Replantation with intentional rotation of a complete vertically fractured root using adhesive resin cement.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Yoshiyuki; Kubota, Minoru

    2003-04-01

    This case describes intentional replantation with rotation of a complete vertically fractured root using adhesive resin cement. The fractured root was fixed with adhesive resin cement extra-orally. The tooth was replanted into the socket with rotation in order to avoid contact with the area where the periodontal ligament of the root surface was lost and the area where the alveola bone was lost along the fracture line. At follow-up 18 months later, the tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed an increase in the density of the alveolar bone, and the periodontal pockets were improved.

  15. Replantation of an avulsed tooth with an extended extra oral period.

    PubMed

    Kubasad, Girish; Ghivari, Sheetal; Garg, Khushboo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have reported a case of the replantation of a maxillary incisor with an extended extraoral period following a traumatic avulsion. After storage in normal saline, the root surface of the avulsed tooth was conditioned with citric acid and treated with a triple antibiotic solution. The tooth socket was filled with Emdogain before replantation. A 12 month, 18 month and a 5 year follow-up clinical examination revealed the patient to be asymptomatic, and the tooth was functional. The recall radiograph showed no evidence of renewed periradicular breakdown and apical root resorption. PMID:23649072

  16. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression. PMID:25412009

  17. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  18. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  19. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  20. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  1. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  2. Enamel matrix derivative for replanted teeth in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on periodontal healing of replanted teeth in animal models. Materials and Methods The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge and Scopus for articles published up to Oct 2012. Animal studies in which EMD was applied in transplanted or replanted teeth with adequate controls and histological data were considered. Normal periodontal healing or root resorption determined by histology after EMD was applied in replanted teeth with adequate controls was used as outcome measures. The following search strategy was used: ('Emdogain' OR 'enamel matrix proteins' OR 'enamel matrix derivative') AND ('avulsion' OR 'transplantion' OR 'autotransplantation' OR 'replantation'). Results Six animal studies were included in the final review. There was great heterogeneity in study design among included studies. Two studies with similar study designs were identified and analyzed by a meta-analysis. The pooled estimates showed a significantly higher normal healing and surface resorption and significantly less inflammatory and replacement resorption in EMD-treated groups compared with non-EMD-treated groups. Conclusions With the limitations of this systematic review, the use of EMD led to greater normal periodontal healing and surface root resorption and less inflammatory and replacement root resorption in the presence of periodontal ligaments. However, no definite conclusion could be drawn with regard to the effect of EMD on periodontal healing and root resorption when no periodontal ligaments exist. PMID:24303353

  3. Treatment of combined endodontic-periodontic lesions by intentional replantation and application of hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liying; Xu, Beiyun; Wu, Bin

    2003-02-01

    A case of combined endodontic-periodontic lesions on a mandibular first molar was treated by intentional replantation and application of hydroxyapatites. Four months after the surgery, a porcelain-mental full crown restoration was completed. The 15-month follow-up examination showed that the tooth was clinically and radiographically healthy and functioned well.

  4. Intentional replantation for a periodontally involved hopeless incisor by using autologous platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Keçeli, Hüseyin Gencay; Serper, Ahmet; Tuncel, Behram

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present case is to describe the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in an intentional replantation procedure for a periodontally involved lower right central incisor with 18 months follow-up. Brief information is also given on the preoperative preparation of PRP in the dental office. PRP preparation is a new biotechnology, and the prepared material contains thrombocyte concentrates and high levels of growth factors. This material promotes healing time in a range of various sites. In this case, a tooth with severe periodontal breakdown was treated with PRP with intentional replantation procedure. This tooth was previously treated with root canal treatment and root planing. The tooth was extracted, and was replanted with autologous PRP. Clinical and radiographic follow-up for 18 months demonstrated new bone formation around the apical portion of the root and all clinical parameters indicated a trend of healing. The mobility of this previously grade III mobile incisor returned to normal limits. We speculate that intentional replantation with PRP application may induce wound healing and may induce bone formation.

  5. Prognosis of intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-03-01

    There is no particular treatment established to preserve vertically fractured teeth. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of the intentional replantation of 26 vertically fractured roots after reconstruction with 4-META/MMA-TBB dentin-bonded resin. Replanted teeth were evaluated according to clinical criteria and radiographic examinations for periods ranging from 4 to 76 months. Eighteen cases were functional and retained, with six fully successful; the others needed further observation. Eight cases failed to respond to treatment because of refracture, recurrence of gingival inflammation, or both. Longevity was calculated as 88.5% at 12 months after replantation, 69.2% at 36 months, and 59.3% at 60 months. All failures occurred in premolar and molar teeth. Longitudinal fractures extending more than 2/3 from the cervical portion toward the apex showed significantly shorter longevity compared with fractures within the 2/3 area (log-rank test, p = 0.02). Intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin may be considered for incisors as an alternative to extraction, although the long-term success is not optimal.

  6. Microsurgically aided upper lip replantation – case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Lidén, Mattias; Thorarinsson, Andri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A case with a patient who suffered an upper lip amputation and a lower lip laceration due to dog bite is presented. The amputated segment was replanted using microsurgical technique. The operative technique and postoperative care is presented, as well as a review of the current literature on the subject. PMID:27713916

  7. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  8. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  9. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples. PMID:27296414

  10. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis. PMID:26345382

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.

  13. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  14. The use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis - case report of a 4-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J

    2014-01-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.

  15. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  16. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  17. Intentional replantation of a mandibular second molar with long-term follow-up: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Benenati, Fred W

    2003-08-01

    A case is reported of a mandibular second molar that underwent non-surgical endodontic treatment and intentional replantation in an effort to relieve continued symptoms. A 15.5-year follow-up clinical examination revealed the patient to be asymptomatic, the tooth to be still functional, and a recall film showed no evidence of root resorption. The indications for and limitations of intentional replantation as well as recommended literature on the subject are discussed.

  18. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  19. Composition of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  1. Captan residue reduction in apples as a result of rinsing and peeling.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Fouguet, André; Bélanger, André; Smith, Mark

    2008-08-15

    Apples, treated with captan for disease control in a commercial orchard in Quebec, Canada, were collected and sorted into post-harvest preparation types (no preparation; rinse; rinse and peel). Captan residues were greatest (25.5-5100ng/g) in apples with no post-harvest preparation and lowest (0.146-136ng/g) in apples that had been rinsed and peeled prior to extraction and analysis. Residues were significantly lower (p=0.003) in apples that had been rinsed prior to extraction than in apples with no post-harvest preparation. Similarly, apples subjected to rinsing and peeling had significantly lower captan residues than had apples that had been rinsed alone (p<0.0001). Although captan residues in rinsed apples were approximately 50% lower than those in apples that received no post-harvest preparation, the reduction associated with peeling of apples was much greater (98%). Estimated mean captan intakes resulting from consumption of raw apples were established and single day intakes, based on apples with no preparation, ranged from 2.58μg/kg in females >70 years to 9.48μg/kg for individuals aged three years (at this age no distinction is made between males and females). Mean intakes estimated using rinsed and peeled apples were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than intakes estimated using apples with no post-harvest preparation, demonstrating the effect of post-harvest preparation on captan intakes. Mean captan intake estimates from all post-harvest preparation types were well below the World Health Organization acceptable daily intake of 100μg/kg/day, based on raw apple consumption.

  2. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes within a Caramel-Coated Apple Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Max C.; Wanless, Brandon J.; Bedale, Wendy; Czuprynski, Charles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple’s skin, stem, and calyx. Half of the apples had sticks inserted into the core, while the remaining apples were left intact. Apples were dipped into hot caramel and stored at either 7°C or 25°C for up to 11 or 28 days, respectively. Data revealed that apples with inserted sticks supported significantly more L. monocytogenes growth than apples without sticks under both storage conditions. Within 3 days at 25°C, L. monocytogenes populations increased >3 log10 in apples with sticks, whereas only a 1-log10 increase was observed even after 1 week for caramel-coated apples without sticks. When stored at 7°C, apples with sticks exhibited an approximately 1.5-log10 increase in L. monocytogenes levels at 28 days, whereas no growth was observed in apples without sticks. We infer that insertion of a stick into the apple accelerates the transfer of juice from the interior of the apple to its surface, creating a microenvironment at the apple-caramel interface where L. monocytogenes can rapidly grow to levels sufficient to cause disease when stored at room temperature. PMID:26463161

  3. Twenty-year follow-up of an unconventional intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R Viswa; Bhat, K Mahalinga

    2006-09-01

    For many years, intentional replantation has been a treatment option for pulpless teeth and an effective strategy for teeth that would be difficult, if not impossible, to treat using traditional root canal therapy. The preservation of cell vitality in the periodontal ligament, the removal of all tissue debris and irritating substances from the root surface, achievement of a good apical seal and reinforcement of the crown structure are critical in ensuring normal function of the reimplanted tooth. In this article, we report on an unconventional intentional replantation of a mandibular second molar to relieve continuing symptoms. Retrograde fillings were placed in the second molar and the coronal pulp chamber was sealed with amalgam. No endodontic therapy was carried out either during or after the procedure. After 20 years, the patient was asymptomatic, the tooth was still functional and a recall intraoral periapical radiograph showed an intact periodontal ligament space and lamina dura with no evidence of gross root resorption or ankylosis.

  4. Management of a complicated crown-root fracture in a young permanent incisor using intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyan; Heffernan, Michelle; Vann, William F

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this case presentation is to review the rationale for and illustrate the clinical procedures involved in intentional replantation of a maxillary central incisor following a complicated crown-root fracture. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures in children often is compromised by a fracture below the gingival margin and/or bone. This makes isolation difficult and comprises the hermetic seal that is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. Orthodontic or surgical extrusion with gingivectomy has been suggested; however, these approaches can be expensive, time-consuming, esthetically compromising, and unsatisfactory when the fracture line is deep below the gingiva. Our presentation will discuss the treatment options for such cases and introduce the concept of intentional replantation as an option to manage complicated crown-root fractures in young permanent anterior teeth.

  5. Intentional replantation of a mandibular canine with multiple iatrogenic endodontic complications.

    PubMed

    Sübay, R K; Sübay, M O; Balkaya, C M

    2014-09-01

    Teeth being exposed to multiple iatrogenic complications during root canal treatment are usually extracted and replaced with a dental implant. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular canine that had multiple endodontic complications using an intentional replantation technique. The case was showing swelling and pain, unusual canal anatomy, periapical lesion, broken instruments, and root perforation in association with overfilling. After extraction of the root, the resected root end and perforation were sealed using mineral trioxide aggregate. The root was replanted extrusively, fixed and restored with a crown. Appearances of slowly progressing replacement resorption were detected radio graphically at 6-, 12- and 24-month recalls. The tooth was functioning successfully without showing clinical symptoms at 6-, 12-and 24-month recalls.

  6. Intentional replantation for iatrogenic perforation of the furcation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tang, P M; Chan, C P; Huang, S K; Huang, C C

    1996-10-01

    Intentional replantation is an accepted endodontic procedure for treatment of teeth in which conventional surgical endodontic treatment is contraindicated. This article presents a rare case of intentional replantation of a mandibular molar that had severe periodontal destruction resulting from iatrogenic perforation of the furcation. A 17-month follow-up evaluation revealed an asymptomatic and functional tooth with no radiographic signs of pathosis. The favorable results obtained might be attributed to the preservation of the vitality of the periodontal ligament; the absence of damaging pressure during extraction; the minimal extraoral treatment time; the use of nonrigid splinting; and the immediate repair of the perforation during a one-visit endodontic procedure. The results obtained with this tooth may indicate the possibility of a successful surgical technique for this otherwise hopeless complication of endodontic therapy.

  7. Intentional replantation of a mandibular molar: case report and 14-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Henry; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; Herrera, Helen; Miralda, Lucas; Bezerra da Silva, Raquel Assed

    2006-10-01

    This case report describes the nonsurgical endodontic treatment and intentional replantation of a mandibular molar and its nearly 14-year follow-up. A 56-year-old woman sought treatment with complaint of discomfort and sensitivity in the mandibular left area. The radiographic examination showed that the mandibular left first molar was endodontically treated, with over-instrumentation of the distal root and unsatisfactory obturation on the mesial root. A large periapical lesion was observed surrounding the roots. In view of the patient's limited interocclusal space and objection to undergo an apical surgery, intentional replantation was suggested as an alternative. The patient returned for clinical and radiographic follow-up at 15 days, 40 days, 6 months, 12 months, and once yearly thereafter. At the last visit, after 14 years, no painful symptomatology was reported, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm, the periradicular area had normal appearance and no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion.

  8. Combined Endodontic Therapy and Intentional Replantation for the Treatment of Palatogingival Groove.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Iván; Abella, Francesc; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    A palatogingival groove is an anatomic malformation that predisposes the involved tooth to a severe periodontal defect. When the condition is complicated by pulpal necrosis, affected teeth often present a dilemma in terms of diagnosis and treatment planning. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove extending to the root apex and severe periodontal destruction (local pocketing). Suggested treatment modalities included curettage of the affected tissues, elimination of the groove by grinding and/or sealing with a variety of filling materials, and surgical procedures. In this case, a combined treatment approach, involving both endodontic therapy and intentional replantation after restoration with a self-etching flowable composite, resulted in periodontal healing and significant healing of the periradicular radiolucency at 12 months. In short, intentional replantation offers a predictable procedure and should be considered a viable treatment modality for the management of palatogingival grooves, especially for single-rooted teeth.

  9. Multidisciplinary approach of a crown-root fracture using intentional replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bindo, Tatiana Zaina; de Morais, Eduardo Christiano Caregnatto; de Campos, Edson Alves; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Correr, Gisele Maria; Baratto-Filho, Flares

    2010-01-01

    Crown-root fractures are complex traumatic injuries that require multidisciplinary management and afford uncertain prognosis. The purpose of this clinical article was to report the case of crown-root fracture where a multidisciplinary approach was successfully executed. A 10-year-old male patient who suffered a complicated crown-root fracture on a permanent maxillary central incisor was treated using an intentional 180°-rotation replantation technique, followed by endodontic therapy and restoration with resin composite. Two years after the initial treatment, the case was stable and the tooth was restored with a resin core and a ceramic crown. This article describes how adequate multidisciplinary treatment planning, coordination, and execution are necessary for similar cases to be properly managed. It can be concluded that the intentional replantation with 180°-rotation allowed a more conservative approach, showing, in this case, a clinical success without resorption.

  10. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation.

    PubMed

    El Harrech, Y; Abaka, N; Ghoundale, O; Touiti, D

    2013-10-01

    Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed. PMID:24311919

  11. Successful treatment of a radicular groove by intentional replantation and Emdogain therapy.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Naghshbandi, Jafar; Simon, James H S; Oglesby, Samuel; Rotstein, Ilan

    2004-08-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation often predisposing to a severe periodontal defect. Treatment of such an anomaly presents a clinical challenge to the operator. Presented is a case of successful treatment of a radicular groove associated with a maxillary lateral incisor in a 15-year-old girl. A combination of endodontic, intentional replantation and Emdogain therapy was used. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and active healing was evident.

  12. Adhesive tooth fragment reattachment with intentional replantation: 36-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Muharrem Cem; Akgun, Erkan Onur; Yoldas, Hamdi Oguz

    2013-06-01

    Crown-root fracture is one of the most challenging fracture types in dental traumatology literature. Aesthetic and functional rehabilitation is the primary goal of the treatment of crown-root-fractured tooth. For this purpose, reattachment of the fragment to its original position is a good choice. This paper reports a case of an adhesive fragment reattachment of a complicated crown-root fracture with intentional replantation in a 9-year-old girl patient and 36-month follow-up.

  13. Intracanal bisphosphonate does not inhibit replacement resorption associated with delayed replantation of monkey incisors.

    PubMed

    Thong, Yo Len; Messer, Harold H; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Saw, Lip Hean; Yoong, Lai Thong

    2009-08-01

    Progressive replacement resorption following delayed replantation of avulsed teeth has proved to be an intractable clinical problem. A wide variety of therapeutic approaches have failed to result in the predictable arrest of resorption, with a good long-term prognosis for tooth survival. Bisphosphonates are used in the medical management of a range of bone disorders and topically applied bisphosphonate has been reported to inhibit root resorption in dogs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a bisphosphonate (etidronate disodium) as an intracanal medicament in the root canals of avulsed monkey teeth, placed before replantation after 1 h of extraoral dry storage. Incisors of six Macaca fascicularis monkeys were extracted and stored dry for 1 h. Teeth were then replanted after canal contamination with dental plaque (negative control) or after root canal debridement and placement of etidronate sealed in the canal space. A positive control of calcium hydroxide placed 8-9 days after replantation was also included. All monkeys were sacrificed 8 weeks later and block sections were prepared for histomorphometric assessment of root resorption and periodontal ligament status. Untreated teeth showed the greatest extent of root resorption (46% of the root surface), which was predominantly inflammatory in nature. Calcium hydroxide treated teeth showed the lowest overall level of resorption (<30% of the root surface), while the bisphosphonate-treated group was intermediate (39%). Ankylosis, defined as the extent of the root surface demonstrating direct bony union to both intact and resorbed root surface, was the lowest in the untreated control group (15% of the root surface), intermediate in the calcium hydroxide group (27%) and the highest in the bisphosphonate group (41%). Bony attachment to the tooth root was divided approximately equally between attachment to intact cementum and to previously resorbed dentin. Overall, bisphosphonate resulted in a worse outcome than

  14. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  15. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  16. Management of complicated crown-root fractures using intentional replantation: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duck-Su; Shin, Dong Ryul; Choi, Gi-Woon; Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Sun-Young

    2013-08-01

    The management of complicated crown-root fractures is a challenge. Intentional replantation with 180° rotation may be a useful procedure to overcome this problem. In Case 1, a 23-year-old woman with complicated crown-root fractured teeth #11, #21, and #22 was referred for treatment. All fractured teeth were extracted, rotated 180°, and replanted in a slightly extruded position. After 3 months, root canal treatment was completed and the final restorations fabricated. At the 18-month follow up, the patient was asymptomatic, the tooth was functional, and no root resorption was observed radiographically. At the 90-month follow up, slight cervical root resorption of tooth #11 was noted. In Case 2, a 27-year-old woman with a crown-root fractured tooth #21 was referred for treatment. Despite immediate repositioning of the coronal fragment and a 2-week stabilization with a wire splint, the coronal fragment remained separated from the apical tooth segment. The apical segment was extracted, rotated 180°, and replanted in a slightly extruded position. After 1 and 4 weeks, the root canal treatment was completed and the final restoration fabricated, respectively. At the 24-month follow up, the patient was asymptomatic and apical healing was completed.

  17. Hand replantation and revascularization--six years experience in Hospital Kuala Lumpur 1990-1995.

    PubMed

    Razana, A; Hyzan, M Y; Pathmanathan, V; Gill, R S

    1998-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in 130 patients who underwent replantation or revascularization of 195 amputations in Hand and Microsurgery Unit Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 1990 to 1995. There were 130 patients with 195 amputations in the duration of 6 years study, which were mainly males (111 patients, 85.4%). The commonest age group involved was 19-25 years old (49 cases, 63.7%). There were 146 complete amputations replanted and 49 cases of incomplete amputations were revascularized. The commonest part involved was thumb and index finger (23% of cases each) and majority was caused by industrial accident (60.8%). However in pediatric age group home accident was the leading cause of the amputation (93.8%). The overall survival rate for the amputation was 65.6%. Revascularization had a better survival rate (77.6%) than replantation (61.6%). A clean cut wound and ischaemic time less than 12 hours gave better survival rate. However, there was no significant different chance of survival on distribution of injured parts and ischaemic time (< 12 hours).

  18. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  19. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  20. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  1. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  2. Apple can act as anti-aging on yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  3. The influence of occlusal stimuli on basic fibroblast growth factor expression in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fang-Wei; Hosomichi, Jun; Kanno, Zuisei; Soma, Kunimichi

    2008-03-01

    Occlusal stimuli and the periodontal healing of replanted teeth have been reported to be related. However, the mechanism for preventing dentoalveolar ankylosis remains unclear. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2) is considered as a key factor in wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occlusal stimuli, bFGF, and the periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Five-week-old male rats were divided into non-occluded, occluded, and recovery groups. The right maxillary first molars were replanted in all groups, and the left maxillary first molars in the 2-week occluded group without replantation were served as nontreated. An anterior bite plate was attached to the maxillary and mandibular incisors to produce occlusal hypofunction in the non-occluded group and was then removed after 1 week in the recovery group. Histological observations were performed after 1 and 2 weeks of the experimental period. After 2 weeks, the non-occluded group had detectable ankylosis and obvious periodontal tissue stricture. Meanwhile, the occluded and recovery groups showed enlarged and thickened periodontia without ankylosis. The number of bFGF-positive cells in the occluded and recovery groups significantly increased as compared to in the non-occluded group. These results suggest that occlusal stimuli enhance the production of bFGF in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth and prevent dentoalveolar ankylosis.

  4. The soil microbiome – what does it tell us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When young blueberry bushes are planted in an established field that already contains mature blueberry bushes, the young bushes tend not to perform well. This syndrome is called replant disease. In other systems, such as apple replant disease, the causal organisms vary by geographic region and usual...

  5. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples.

  6. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  7. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  8. Intentional replantation of periodontally hopeless teeth using a combination of enamel matrix derivative and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Baltacioglu, Ersa; Tasdemir, Tamer; Yuva, Pinar; Celik, Davut; Sukuroglu, Erkan

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of the intentional replantation of periodontally hopeless teeth with combined enamel matrix derivative and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft therapy. Eleven patients (five female, six male; age range, 13 to 53 years) with 12 periodontally hopeless teeth resulting from extensive alveolar bone loss and vertical defects extending to the apexes were studied. At the 12-month clinical and radiologic follow-up, significant improvement was observed for all clinical and radiographic parameters except gingival recession (P < .05). These preliminary findings show that intentional replantation combined with regenerative techniques is a successful alternative to tooth extraction.

  9. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  10. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  11. First report of pyrimethanil resistance in Botrytis cinerea from stored apples in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...

  12. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  13. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.

  14. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  15. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  16. The usefulness of three-dimensional imaging for prognostication in cases of intentional tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Kabashima, Hiroaki; Mizobe, Kunitaka; Sakai, Takako; Nakamuta, Hiroyoshi; Kurita, Kenichi; Terada, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the utility of three-dimensional (3D) images obtained with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for prediction of successful clinical outcome in two cases of intentional tooth replantation (IR). IR was performed for teeth affected by vertical root fracture and root perforation with local application of blood clot and oxy-tetracycline antibiotic. High-resolution 3D images demonstrated no evidence of ankylosis, but did reveal the presence of alveolar bone regeneration, suggesting a good long-term prognosis. Our observations in these cases suggested that local application of the above two materials might help to induce the regeneration of lost periodontal tissues in IR.

  17. Surgical management with intentional replantation on a tooth with palato-radicular groove

    PubMed Central

    Forero-López, Jorge; Gamboa-Martínez, Luis; Pico-Porras, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A palato-radicular groove (PRG) is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed. PMID:25984480

  18. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect.

  19. Surgical management with intentional replantation on a tooth with palato-radicular groove.

    PubMed

    Forero-López, Jorge; Gamboa-Martínez, Luis; Pico-Porras, Laura; Niño-Barrera, Javier Laureano

    2015-05-01

    A palato-radicular groove (PRG) is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed.

  20. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  2. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  3. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  4. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  5. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  6. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection.

  7. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  8. Concurrent intentional replantation of maxillary molars using a novel root-end filling.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Nosrat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the successful concurrent intentional replantation (IR) of 2 maxillary molars. A 28-year-old woman complained of repeated swelling and pain in the left maxilla when chewing. Teeth No. 14 and 15 were sensitive to percussion and palpation. Radiographs revealed a large periapical radiolucent lesion and inadequate root canal fillings in both teeth. The patient refused nonsurgical retreatment, periradicular surgery, or implant replacement as treatment options, so IR was chosen. After the extraction of tooth No. 14, root-end resection and root-end preparation of the 3 roots were completed. All root-end cavities were filled with calcium enriched mixture cement and the tooth was replanted. The same procedure was done for tooth No. 15. The patient was recalled 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment for clinical evaluations. Follow-up visits at 6, 10, 15, and 24 months postsurgery revealed that both teeth were functional with no signs or symptoms of inflammation or resorption. The periapical lesion was healed at 24 months.

  9. Effect of various zinc oxide materials as root-end fillings on healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1995-11-01

    This study examined the effect of various zinc oxide materials as root-end fillings of teeth in a replantation model. A total of 35 molar teeth were used from 19 monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root-end cavities prepared and fillings placed prior to replantation. After 8 weeks the teeth and surrounding jaw were removed and prepared for histological examination. Twelve roots were filled with IRM plus dentine chips, and six with Cavit; the tissue response around root ends filled with these materials as assessed by inflammation was similar to that previous reported to IRM and Super EBA cement and was characterized by little or no inflammation of limited extent. In contrast, more severe inflammation was observed around root ends filled with plain zinc oxide-eugenol or Kalzinol; however, the reaction was neither as severe nor as extensive as that to amalgam root-end fillings. Giant cells were observed most often on the surface of fillings with Cavit and zinc oxide-eugenol. It is concluded that the tissue response to IRM with or without added dentine, Super EBA and Cavit was similar and mild; it was less severe than that to zinc oxide-eugenol and Kalzinol. All these materials had a much more favourable response than amalgam

  10. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Gagandeep; Ravi, G R

    2015-01-01

    Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74.

  11. Pre-plant soil fumigation with reduced rates under low permeable films for tree nursery production, orchard and vineyard replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil fumigation is a common agricultural practice in orchard and vineyard replanting as well as in nursery production of fruit and nut trees in CA. Identification of pest control strategies with low chemical inputs to reduce environmental impact are of interest. Therefore, the objective of...

  12. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the chronology of healing process after immediate tooth replantation in incisor rat teeth.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Okamoto, Roberta; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise; da Silva, Paula Ervolino; Saito, Celia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Marão, Heloísa Fonseca; Sedlacek, Paulo

    2013-02-01

    Dental tissues have special characteristics, and its regenerative capacity is noteworthy. However, understanding the circumstances that lead to regeneration is challenging. In this study, the chronology of the healing process after immediate replantation of rat incisor teeth was examined by histological and immunohistochemical analyses within a 60-day period. Thirty-six male Wistar rats had their maxillary right incisors extracted and replanted after 15 min in saline storage. The rats were sacrificed immediately 3, 7, 15, 28, and 60 days after replantation. The histological analysis showed rupture of the periodontal ligament and formation of a blood clot, which started being replaced by a connective tissue after 3 days. At 7 days, the gingival mucosa epithelium was reinserted and areas of root resorption could be seen. At 15 days, the periodontal ligament was repaired. At 3 days, the pulp presented an absence of the odontoblast layer, which started being replaced by a connective tissue. This tissue suffered gradual calcification, filling the root canal at 28 and 60 days. The root ends were closed. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed greater expression of OP, OPG, and RANK proteins in the initial periods (0 and 3 days), while TRAP expression predominated at 28 and 60 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in delayed tooth replantation, there is great new bone formation activity in the earlier periods of the repair process, while a predominance of bone resorption and remodeling is observed in the more advanced periods.

  13. Microsurgical Penile Replantation after Self-inflicted Amputation in a Schizophrenic Patient: 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish; Kim, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Summary: In this article, we report on the long-term follow-up of a microvascular penile replantation resulting from self-inflicted amputation in a schizophrenic patient. An interdisciplinary approach with the involvement of urology, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and psychiatry is imperative for optimal treatment of these catastrophic injuries. PMID:25878930

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of Microsurgical Nasal Replantation: Review of the Literature and Illustrated 10-Year Follow-Up of a Pediatric Case with Full Sensory Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Nicholas J.; Kyle, Amanda; Jessop, Zita M.; Whitaker, Iain S.; Laing, Hamish

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of successful artery only total nose replantation in an 18-month-old child, with 10 years of follow-up and full sensory recovery despite no nerve repair. The common absence of veins for anastomosis does not prevent successful replant, as demonstrated with the use of Hirudo medicinalis use in this unique case. We comprehensively review the literature of this rare and complex injury and advocate microsurgical replantation where possible over other methods of nasal reconstruction. PMID:25759812

  15. School teachers' knowledge of tooth avulsion and dental first aid before and after receiving information about avulsed teeth and replantation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asfour, Adel; Andersson, Lars; Al-Jame, Quomasha

    2008-02-01

    School teachers can play an important role in improving the prognosis of avulsed permanent teeth of school children after they are informed about the immediate and proper dental first aid steps to be taken at the time of an accident. The aims of this study were: (i) to assess the knowledge level of emergency measures for tooth avulsion in Kuwaiti intermediate school teachers and (ii) to determine if a short lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation could improve teachers' knowledge on this topic. Eighty-five teachers at two intermediate schools (children 10-14 years old) in Kuwait were interviewed using a questionnaire about their first-aid knowledge with particular focus on the following five categories: General knowledge of teeth and avulsion, replantation of primary and permanent teeth, how to clean an avulsed tooth before replantation, extra-oral time and storage methods and media for an avulsed tooth. For each category, a score ranging from 0-3 was possible. An informative 30-min lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation was presented to a group of 43 teachers. After the lecture, the knowledge level of the teachers was re-tested using the same method. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the data. Improvement in teacher knowledge to an adequate (score of 2) or complete (score of 3) level was observed after the lecture in all five categories. The general knowledge of tooth avulsion and replantation improved from 39% to 97% and knowledge of avulsed permanent and primary teeth from 8% to 71%. Knowledge of how to clean an avulsed tooth improved from 5% to 93%. The knowledge level on the importance of extra-alveolar time before replantation increased from 1% to 74% and knowledge of a suitable storage medium for the avulsed tooth improved from 4% to 86%. Many avulsed permanent teeth in school children can be saved by replantation if school teachers learn what to do when a tooth is avulsed. A lecture followed by discussion proved to be an

  16. Influence of extended operation time and of occlusal force on determination of pulpal healing pattern in replanted mouse molars.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hironobu; Yoshie, Hiromasa; Ohshima, Hayato

    2007-08-01

    The mechanism regulating the divergent healing processes following tooth replantation is unclear. This study clarifies the relationship between the healing pattern, the time taken for tooth replantation, and the influence of occlusal force. We investigated the pulpal healing process after tooth replantation by immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and nestin and by histochemistry for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. The upper right first molar of 3-week-old mice was extracted and repositioned in the original socket immediately or 30 min to 6 h after the operation. We divided the animals into a non-occluded group in which the lower right first molar was extracted and an occluded group without extraction of the counterpart tooth. In control teeth (upper left first molar), the periphery of the coronal dental pulp showed intense nestin-positive reaction. Tooth replantation weakened the nestin-positive reaction in the pulp tissue. On postoperative days 5-7, tubular dentin formation commenced next to preexisting dentin in which nestin-positive odontoblast-like cells were arranged in successful cases. In other cases, bone-like tissue formation occurred in the pulp chamber until day 14. The ratio of tertiary dentin formation was significantly higher in the non-occluded group. The intentionally prolonged time for the completion of tooth replantation induced bone-like tissue formation, expanded inflammatory reaction, or fibrous tissue formation in pulp tissue. Thus, the lack of a proper oxygenated medium is probably decisive for the survival of odontoblast-lineage cells, and occlusal force during and/or after operation worsens the fate of these cells. PMID:17497176

  17. Using early flowering transgenic apple to accelerate the breeding of donor parents with multiple loci for disease resistance (Malus x domestica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the goals of the USDA-NIFA-SCRI RosBREED project is to develop donor parents with multiple loci for disease resistance. Due to the long generation time of tree fruit crops, the accumulation of pyramided resistance loci for multiple diseases by conventional breeding methods could require deca...

  18. Apple fruit pectic substances

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. J.; Northcote, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The pectic substances of apple have been extracted and separated into a pure pectinic acid and a neutral arabinan–galactan complex by precipitation of the acidic component with ethanol and with cetylpyridinium chloride. 2. The composition of the fractions has been determined. The pectinic acid contained galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and several trace sugars. 3. Transelimination degradation of the pectinic acid gave rise to two components completely separable by zone electrophoresis and by Sephadex gel filtration. Analysis of these components confirmed that the pectinic acid molecules contained long chains of esterified galacturonosyl residues, but showed in addition that more neutral portions containing a high proportion of arabinofuranose residues were attached to them. 4. The identification of rhamnose, galactose and xylose in aldobiouronic acids obtained from a partial hydrolysate of pectinic acid has shown that these sugars are covalently linked in the molecule, and it is suggested that the galacturonosyl-(1→2)-rhamnose link is a general feature of pectinic acid structure. 5. The possible biological significance of pectinic acid structure has been discussed. 6. The arabinan–galactan complex contained nearly equal quantities of arabinose and galactose residues and some of its physical properties have been investigated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 9. PMID:14340052

  19. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  20. Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

  1. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  2. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  3. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  4. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in different species of apples grown in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness.

  5. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  6. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  7. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  8. Successful treatment of a radicular groove by intentional replantation and Emdogain therapy: four years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Naghshbandi, Jafar; Simon, James H S; Rotstein, Ilan

    2009-03-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often causes severe periodontal defects. Treatments of such an anomaly present a clinical challenge to the operator. Presented is a case of successful treatment of radicular groove associated with a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old girl. A combination of endodontics, intentional replantation, and Emdogain therapy was used. At 4-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and complete resolution of the periapical pathology was evident.

  9. DELAYED TOOTH REPLANTATION AFTER ROOT SURFACE TREATMENT WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND SODIUM FLUORIDE: HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other. PMID:19089038

  10. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  11. Short-term evaluation of intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Miura, Masabumi; Sato, Ikuko; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin. Twenty vertically fractured teeth were extracted intentionally and reconstructed with 4-META/MMA-TBB dentin-bonded resin. After reconstruction, the teeth were replanted into the original sockets. The replanted teeth were evaluated by clinical criteria and radiographic examination. The observation periods ranged between 4 and 45 months. Longevity was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and factors that had significant influence on the longevity were analyzed with the Log rank test at a 95% level of confidence. From this short-term observation, 14 of 20 cases were functioned in the oral environment. Of these 14 cases, 6 could be considered truly successful and 8 cases needed further observation. The other six cases were total failures and were extracted. The longevity was calculated as 83.3% at 12 months and 36.3% at 24 months. Teeth with thin roots or with longitudinal fractures extending over 2/3 of the root from the cervical portion toward the apex showed significantly lower longevity. It was concluded that this method had the potential to preserve vertically fractured teeth.

  12. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful.

    PubMed

    Ryana, Haneet Kour; Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes.

  13. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful.

    PubMed

    Ryana, Haneet Kour; Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  14. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  15. Responses of macrophage-associated antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp of rat molars to experimental tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Rungvechvuttivittaya, S; Okiji, T; Suda, H

    1998-09-01

    Bacterial infection of the dental pulp is a major hindrance to successful pulp regeneration after tooth replantation. This study examined how macrophages and class II molecule-expressing cells of the pulp respond to tooth replantation, on the hypothesis that they contribute to the defence and repair of the traumatized pulp. Upper right first molars of 5-week-old male Wistar rats were replanted immediately after extraction; contralateral untreated teeth served as controls. Pulpal cells expressing macrophage-associated antigens were immunohistochemically demonstrated at 0 h (immediately after the replantation) to 84 days postoperatively using antirat monoclonal antibodies OX6 (anti-class II molecules), ED1 (pan-macrophage antibody, reactive also with dendritic cells) and ED2 (anti-resident macrophages). Between 3 and 7 days postoperatively, ED1+ and OX6+ cells, but not ED2+ cells, were concentrated in areas of degeneration formed in the coronal pulp, and frequently showed a marked accumulation along the pulp-dentine border of the cuspal area. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that some of the OX6+ cells with a dendritic profile extended several cytoplasmic processes into the dentinal tubules communicating with the enamel-free area at the tip of the cusp. From 14-84 days, approx. two-thirds of specimens exhibited pulp-tissue regeneration with increasing formation of reparative dentine. Following the formation of sound reparative dentine, cells positive to each antibody were distributed more centrally in the pulp than in the controls, and thus did not show any accumulation along the pulp-dentine border. However, in the other specimens where a bone-like hard tissue had formed in the pulp chamber, many ED1+ and OX6+ cells were still concentrated in the remaining pulp tissue and showed a marked accumulation along the pulp dentine border. Few ED2+ cells were observed in these specimens. These findings suggest that, following tooth replantation, exudative

  16. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple. PMID:26582186

  17. Identification of resistance gene analogs in Korean wild apple germplasm collections.

    PubMed

    Baek, D E; Choi, C

    2013-02-27

    Several plant disease resistance gene (R-gene) classes have been identified on the basis of specific conserved functional domains. Cloning of disease-resistance apple genes would be useful for breeding programs and for studying resistance mechanisms. We used a PCR approach with degenerate primers designed from conserved NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat) regions of known R-genes to amplify and clone homologous sequences from six Korean wild apple germplasm collections and an individual plant of the Siberian wild apple, Malus baccata. One hundred and twenty-four sequenced clones showed high similarity at multiple NBS motifs with the R-genes of other plants. The clones OLE 2-9, BP 6-11, OLE 1-22, and OLE 5-13 shared 45% identity with the R-gene of other plants. The conserved sequence, which plays an important role in resistance, was found in our isolated resistance gene analogs (RGAs). The sequences of isolated apple RGAs showed more similarity to Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR than non-TIR-NBS-LRR. We suggest using a marker for this resistance gene region as well as for identifying potential material for disease-resistant breeding among Korea wild apple germplasms. This is the first step in preparing a comprehensive analysis of the RGAs in Korean wild apple germplasm.

  18. Effect of Biochar on Nutrient Leaching in a Young Apple Orchard.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus A; Oliver, Garth; Clothier, Brent E; Bound, Sally A; Green, Steve A; Close, Dugald C

    2015-07-01

    Nutrient leaching from agricultural soils is a worldwide problem that has been implicated in deleterious impacts on the environment. Application of biochar to soil has been proposed as a means to reduce nutrient leaching and improve fertilizer use efficiency. The potential for biochar to reduce nutrient leaching and increase fertilizer use efficiency was tested by applying 47 Mg ha hardwood biochar before replanting a commercial apple () orchard, in the Huon Valley, Tasmania. Passive wick flux meters were installed at the base of the A1 horizon at a depth of 25 cm to monitor leachate volume and the concentration of nutrients leached below the A1 soil horizon over a 38 mo period. Biochar application significantly increased the concentration of phosphorous in the leachate, while having no significant effect on nitrate or potassium concentration. The volume of leachate collected in the flux meters was significantly higher in the biochar treatment, which resulted in significantly higher amounts of potassium and phosphorous being leaching from the biochar treatment than the control. Biochar application had no significant effect on either the concentration or the flux of nitrate leached from the A1 horizon. Nonetheless, nutrient application was well in excess of tree requirements, such that between 53 to 78% of the applied nitrogen, 5 to 11% of the applied phosphate, and 69 to 112% of the applied potassium were leached below the A1 horizon. PMID:26437109

  19. Effect of Biochar on Nutrient Leaching in a Young Apple Orchard.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus A; Oliver, Garth; Clothier, Brent E; Bound, Sally A; Green, Steve A; Close, Dugald C

    2015-07-01

    Nutrient leaching from agricultural soils is a worldwide problem that has been implicated in deleterious impacts on the environment. Application of biochar to soil has been proposed as a means to reduce nutrient leaching and improve fertilizer use efficiency. The potential for biochar to reduce nutrient leaching and increase fertilizer use efficiency was tested by applying 47 Mg ha hardwood biochar before replanting a commercial apple () orchard, in the Huon Valley, Tasmania. Passive wick flux meters were installed at the base of the A1 horizon at a depth of 25 cm to monitor leachate volume and the concentration of nutrients leached below the A1 soil horizon over a 38 mo period. Biochar application significantly increased the concentration of phosphorous in the leachate, while having no significant effect on nitrate or potassium concentration. The volume of leachate collected in the flux meters was significantly higher in the biochar treatment, which resulted in significantly higher amounts of potassium and phosphorous being leaching from the biochar treatment than the control. Biochar application had no significant effect on either the concentration or the flux of nitrate leached from the A1 horizon. Nonetheless, nutrient application was well in excess of tree requirements, such that between 53 to 78% of the applied nitrogen, 5 to 11% of the applied phosphate, and 69 to 112% of the applied potassium were leached below the A1 horizon.

  20. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  1. Biological control of major postharvest pathogens on apple with Candida sake.

    PubMed

    Viñas, I; Usall, J; Teixidó, N; Sanchis, V

    1998-03-01

    Epiphytic microorganisms isolated from apples, pears and the surfaces of apple leaves were screened for antagonistic activity against Penicillium expansum (blue-mold), Botrytis cinerea (gray-mold) and Rhizopus nigricans (Rhizopus rot) on apple (Malus domestica). A total of 933 bacteria and yeasts were tested in primary screening against P. expansum. Ninety-two strains reduced the lesion size on apples by more than 50%, 72 of which were isolated from the surface of apples. For secondary screening against P. expansum, B. cinerea and R. nigricans, 31 strains were selected. The most promising isolate, CPA-1, was identified as Candida sake. This yeast, isolated from apples in storage season was very effective against all three diseases. Wounded Golden Delicious apples protected with the yeast suspension at a concentration of 2.6 x 10(6) CFU/ml and inoculated with conidia of B. cinerea and R. nigricans of 10(5) and 10(4) conidia/ml, respectively, did not develop rot. Complete control of P. expansum was obtained at the same concentration of the antagonist with a pathogen inoculum concentration of 10(3) conidia/ml. This strain, also provided excellent control of rot development under cold storage conditions. The strain of Candida sake can grow actively in aerobic conditions. In drop-inoculated wounds of apples, the populations of C. sake increased by more than 50-fold during the first 24 h at 20 degrees C. The maximum population of C. sake on apple wounds was the same at 20 as at 1 degrees C and was recovered after three and twenty days, respectively.

  2. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  3. Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Animal feces are a suspected source of contamination of apples by disease-causing organisms such as Escherichia coli O157. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to detect different amounts of feces from dairy cows, deer, and a dairy pasture applied to Red Delicious apples. One day after application, detection for 1:2 and 1:20 dilutions was nearly 100%, and for 1:200 dilutions (<15 ng of dry matter) detection was >80%. Detection after apples had been washed and brushed was lowest for pasture feces; detection for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 dilutions of feces was 100%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. This technology may encourage development of commercial systems for detecting fecal contamination of apples.

  4. Intentional replantation of an immature permanent lower incisor because of a refractory peri-apical lesion: case report and 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Tsuji, M; Toyosawa, S; Ooshima, T

    2004-05-01

    We performed an intentional replantation of an immature lower incisor that had a refractory peri-apical lesion. The incisor was extracted and the peri-apical lesion was removed by curettage. The root canal of the tooth was then rapidly irrigated, and filled with a calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste (Vitapex(R)), after which the tooth was fixed with an arch wire splint. Five years later, no clinical or radiographic abnormalities were found, and the root apex was obturated by an apical bridge formation. A team of two dentists is essential to prevent a prolonged operation time, thus eliminating any of the causes of ankylosis. Furthermore, calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste, along with an arch wire splint retained with composite resin, led to good healing of the periodontal tissue after the intentional replantation. Our results indicate that intentional replantation is a useful method for an immature tooth with refractory peri-apical problems.

  5. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  6. Candidate insect vectors of apple proliferation in Northwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, Marcos; Somoano, Aitor; Moreno, Aránzazu; García, Rocío Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The apple proliferation (AP) disease is spread mostly by two psyllids. Each species plays a predominant role as AP vector that changes regionally. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the AP vectors in each region where the disease is present. This research aimed at identifying the psyllid community in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain) and studying their possible role in AP transmission. Yellow sticky traps were used to monitor psyllid community in five cider-apple orchards during 2 years. 3678 individuals belonging to 22 species were identified. We confirmed the presence of the two known vectors, Cacopsylla picta and Cacopsylla melanoneura, although they occurred in relatively low numbers (2.1 and 0.7 % of total catches, respectively). Most collected psyllids are not supposed to use apple as host, and their occurrence is likely favoured by landscape structure and an insect-friendly management. Phytoplasma detection was performed by squash-capture real-time PCR. The pathogen was detected in six species (Cacopsylla crataegi, Cacopsylla mali, Ctenarytaina spatulata, Ctenarytaina eucalypti and the two known AP vectors). Based on abundance and AP-detection rate C. picta is likely the main species spreading AP in our region. However, the low density of the known vectors does not match the widespread and high tree damage level observed in Asturias. The discovery of other four psyllid species carrying the phytoplasma reveals that our knowledge on the potential vectors is limited and that more research is clearly needed to unravel the role of the psyllid fauna in disease transmission in our orchards. PMID:27536523

  7. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products.

  8. Treatment for a complicated crown-root fracture with intentional replantation: a case report with a 3.5-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin-Tian; Duan, Duo-Mo; Tan, Ling; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Li-An

    2013-12-01

    Crown-root fractures are always challenging for pediatric dentists because of their complicated treatments and uncertain prognosis. The purpose of this case report was to describe a severe crown-root fracture successfully treated by multidisciplinary approaches including intentional replantation. After a 3.5-year follow up, the patient felt comfortable and satisfied with her tooth, and the prosthesis was functionally and esthetically acceptable. It is recommended that multidisciplinary treatment with intentional replantation is effective and necessary for similar cases to be conservatively managed.

  9. Fifteen months follow-up of a hopeless tooth treated with two-step procedure involving intentional replantation and free gingival graft

    PubMed Central

    Keceli, Huseyin Gencay; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the report is to document 15-month results of mucogingival surgery applied following intentional replantation (IntR). A mandibular left lateral incisor with severe periodontitis and malposition was replanted and splinted following root canal treatment. Three months after IntR, a free gingival graft (FGG) was placed. Fifteen months follow-up of the case demonstrated significant improvement in periodontal healing parameters and significant bone fill was detected around the root apex. As a conclusion, IntR may be speculated as a convenient alternative to keep the periodontally hopeless teeth and supportive approaches such as FGGs may improve the outcomes following IntR. PMID:25512741

  10. Fifteen months follow-up of a hopeless tooth treated with two-step procedure involving intentional replantation and free gingival graft.

    PubMed

    Keceli, Huseyin Gencay; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the report is to document 15-month results of mucogingival surgery applied following intentional replantation (IntR). A mandibular left lateral incisor with severe periodontitis and malposition was replanted and splinted following root canal treatment. Three months after IntR, a free gingival graft (FGG) was placed. Fifteen months follow-up of the case demonstrated significant improvement in periodontal healing parameters and significant bone fill was detected around the root apex. As a conclusion, IntR may be speculated as a convenient alternative to keep the periodontally hopeless teeth and supportive approaches such as FGGs may improve the outcomes following IntR.

  11. Immediate replantation of maxillary incisors in rats: effects of tooth immersion in sodium fluoride and subsequent removal of the periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Niccoli-Filho, W; Sonoda, C K; Martins, A P; de Souza, R

    1999-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of maintaining the periodontal ligament (PDL) in immediate replantation as well as chemical treatment of the root surface have been a matter of discussion because the vitality of such tissue in surgery is always questioned. This study evaluated the effects of conserving the tooth in sodium fluoride and the removal of the PDL before replantation of incisors in rats. There was more cementum-dentin resorption in the group with the PDL. The group without the PDL showed more discreet resorption, repair occurred through the newly formed bone tissue in the PDL space and ankylosis was more extensive than in the group with the PDL.

  12. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  13. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  14. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  15. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  16. Molecular characterization of cisgenic lines of apple 'Gala' carrying the Rvi6 scab resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Flachowsky, Henryk; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2014-01-01

    Using resistance genes from a crossable donor to obtain cultivars resistant to diseases and the use of such cultivars in production appears an economically and environmentally advantageous approach. In apple, introgression of resistance genes by classical breeding results in new cultivars, while introducing cisgenes by biotechnological methods maintains the original cultivar characteristics. Recently, plants of the popular apple 'Gala' were genetically modified by inserting the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) under control of its own regulatory sequences. This gene is derived from the scab-resistant apple 'Florina' (originally from the wild apple accession Malus floribunda 821). The vector used for genetic modification allowed a postselection marker gene elimination to achieve cisgenesis. In this work, three cisgenic lines were analysed to assess copy number, integration site, expression level and resistance to apple scab. For two of these lines, a single insertion was observed and, despite a very low expression of 0.07- and 0.002-fold compared with the natural expression of 'Florina', this was sufficient to induce plant reaction and reduce fungal growth by 80% compared with the scab-susceptible 'Gala'. Similar results for resistance and expression analysis were obtained also for the third line, although it was impossible to determine the copy number and TDNA integration site-such molecular characterization is requested by the (EC) Regulation No. 1829/2003, but may become unnecessary if cisgenic crops become exempt from GMO regulation.

  17. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  18. The biomechanical role of periodontal ligament in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth under cyclic biting forces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya-Nan; Yang, Wei-Dong; Abbott, Paul V; Martin, Nicolas; Wei, Wen-Jia; Li, Jing-Jing; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Wen-Mei

    2015-01-01

    After teeth are replanted, there are two possible healing responses: periodontal ligament healing or ankylosis with subsequent replacement resorption. The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of vertically fractured teeth after bonding the fragments under conditions simulating both healing modes. Thirty-two human premolars were vertically fractured and the fragments were bonded together with Super-Bond C&B. They were then randomly distributed into four groups (BP, CP, CA, BA). The BP and CP groups were used to investigate the periodontal ligament healing mode whilst the BA and CA groups simulated ankylosis. All teeth had root canal treatment performed. Metal crowns were constructed for the CP and CA groups. The BP and BA groups only had composite resin restorations in the access cavities. All specimens were subjected to a 260 N load at 4 Hz until failure of the bond or until 2×106 cycles had been reached if no fracture occurred. Cracks were detected by stereomicroscope imaging and also assessed via dye penetration tests. Finally, interfaces of the resin luting agent were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results confirmed that the fatigue resistance was higher in the groups with simulated periodontal ligament healing. Periodontal reattachment showed important biomechanical role in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth. PMID:25214360

  19. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  20. Transmission of Tomato Ringspot Virus by Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi from New York Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Georgi, L L

    1988-04-01

    Populations of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi were collected from apple orchards in eastern and western New York and tested in the laboratory for ability to transmit tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV) to cucumber and dandelion. Populations varied in the frequency with which they transmitted TmRSV, but this variation did not correspond to variation in disease prevalence in the orchard. The lower prevalence of TmRSV-incited disease in apple trees in western New York cannot be attributed to inability of the local Xiphinema spp. to transmit TmRSV.

  1. Autotransplantation and replantation of tooth germs in monkeys. Effect of damage to the dental follicle and position of transplant in the alveolus.

    PubMed

    Kristerson, L; Andreasen, J O

    1984-08-01

    The effect of damage to the follicle and of superficial positioning of tooth germs after replantation or autotransplantation was studied in green Vervet monkeys. Radiographs were taken immediately after surgery and 3, 6 and 9 months postoperatively, whereafter the animals were sacrificed. The tissue blocks were sectioned in step serial sections along a frontal plane and histologic and radiographic evaluation was made. Tooth germs whose follicle was either damaged or removed showed no sign of eruption, while tooth germs which were replanted with an intact follicle were fully erupted within 3 months. Non-operated control teeth were fully erupted within 6 months. Histologic examination revealed that roots of replanted teeth were only slightly shorter than the non-operated control teeth. Transplantation of tooth germs in different positions in relation to the alveolar crest showed that teeth placed in their original position attained an average tooth length of 12.5 mm, whereas teeth placed in a semi-erupted position achieved an average length of only 9.7 mm. A control group of non-operated incisors demonstrated an average tooth length of 13.7 mm. This study indicates that damage to the follicle at the time of replantation of tooth germs is of major importance for tooth eruption and that placing tooth germs in a semi-erupted position adversely influences later root development.

  2. Treatment of replacement resorption by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites, and Emdogain--results of a 6-year survey.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Andreas; Pohl, Yango; von Arx, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    The present clinical study investigated the outcome of intentional replantation using resection of the ankylosed sites of the root, extraoral endodontic treatment using titanium posts and Emdogain for periodontal healing following trauma-related ankylosis. During an evaluation period of 6 years, 16 ankylosed teeth affected by replacement resorption were treated as described. Evaluation parameters before treatment and during the follow-up period included Periotest scores, percussion sound and periapical radiographs. All findings were compared to those of the adjacent teeth. In a second accident, one tooth was lost after 7 months and was excluded as a dropout. Ankylosis did not recur in seven replanted teeth, which were observed for an average of 52.3 months (range: 24-68 months). Ankylosis recurred in eight teeth after an average period of 12 months (range: 4-26 months). An infraocclusion, normal or only slightly reduced Periotest scores and normal percussion sound were preoperatively found in six of seven successfully replanted teeth, which corresponded to a relatively small area of ankylosis. The majority of the teeth showing recurrent ankylosis preoperatively presented with normal position, negative Periotest scores and a high percussion sound which corresponded to an extended area of ankylosis. Statistically significant relationship between preoperative findings and the treatment outcome (P = 0.031) have become apparent. The results indicate that the treatment of minor areas of ankylosis by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites and Emdogain appeared to prevent or delay the recurrence of ankylosis in 7 of 15 teeth.

  3. Dental pulp in mature replanted human teeth: morphological alterations and metalloproteineses-2 and -9, Annexin-5, BCL-2 and iNOS modulation.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Uzzo, M L; Spatola, G F; Jurjus, A; Vandevska-Radunovic, V

    2015-01-01

    Tooth replantation, as a treatment concept, has been subject to controversies regarding the mechanism as well as the various parameters underlying this process. This work aimed to study time-related changes in the pulp of replanted mature human premolars through the changes in the levels of certain factors involved in the underlying mechanisms of pulpal tissue healing after replantation. Eleven experimental mature teeth were extracted, immediately replanted in the original socket and left without any other intervention for 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks before re-extraction. Three premolars served as control. All specimens were subject to histological analysis and the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic family) were analyzed employing immunohistochemistry. The results showed degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammatory cell infiltrate, loss in pulpo-dentine interface and loss of odontoblasts in the dental pulp tissue. This was accompanied by increase over time of MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and a decrease of BCL-2 and MMP-2, suggesting that apoptosis increased throughout the experimental period. PMID:26753662

  4. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  5. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  6. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  7. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  8. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  9. [Optimising care structures for severe hand trauma and replantation and chances of launching a national network].

    PubMed

    Haas, E M; Volkmer, E; Holzbach, T; Wallmichrath, J; Engelhardt, T O; Giunta, R E

    2013-12-01

    Severe hand traumata have a significant impact on our health system and on insurance companies, respectively. It is estimated that 33% of all occupational injuries and 9% of all invalidity pensions are due to severe hand trauma. Unfortunately, these high numbers are not only due to the severity of the trauma but to organisational deficiencies. Usually, the patient is treated at the general surgical emergency in the first place and only then forwarded to a microsurgeon. This redirection increases the time that is required for the patient to finally arrive at an expert for hand surgery. On the one hand, this problem can be explained by the population's lack of awareness for distinguished experts for hand and microsurgery, on the other hand, the emergency network, or emergency doctors in particular are not well informed about where to take a patient with a severe hand trauma - clearly a problem of communication between the hospitals and the ambulance. It is possible to tackle this problem, but put participating hand trauma centres have to work hand in hand as a network and thus exploit synergy effects. The French system "FESUM" is a good example for such a network and even comprises centres in Belgium and Switzerland. To improve the treatment of severe hand trauma, a similar alliance was initiated in Germany just recently. The pilot project "Hand Trauma Alliance" (www.handverletzung.com) was started in April 2013 and currently comprises two hospitals within the region of upper Bavaria. The network provides hand trauma replantation service on a 24/7 basis and aims at shortening the way from the accident site to the fully qualified hand surgeon, to improve the therapy of severe hand injuries and to optimise acute patient care in general. In order to further increase the alliance's impact it is intended to extend the project's scope from regional to national coverage - nevertheless, such an endeavour can only be done in collaboration with the German Society for Hand

  10. Apple juice, fructose, and chronic nonspecific diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, C M; Jakobs, C; Douwes, A C

    1989-04-01

    Apple juice contains fructose and sorbitol, substances that have been shown to be incompletely absorbed by most people. As this might have clinical consequences, especially in young children, we investigated the absorption of the carbohydrate content of apple juice in apple juice consuming toddlers with chronic nonspecific diarrhoea as compared to controls, using the breath hydrogen (H2) test. Incomplete absorption of the carbohydrates from 250 ml of apple juice, as indicated by a maximum breath H2 increase of greater than or equal to 20 parts per million (ppm), was found in all nine patients (mean +/- SEM 57 +/- 8 ppm), and in five out of eight controls (22 +/- 7 ppm) (P less than 0.01). Six patients were retested with apple juice "enriched" with glucose, which is known to improve fructose absorption. The maximum breath H2 increase as well as the area under the breath H2 curve decreased significantly. It was thus estimated that fructose accounted for 80% of the incomplete absorption and sorbitol for 20%. Elimination of apple juice from the diets of the nine patients resulted in normalisation of both the frequency and the consistency of the stools. Incomplete absorption of the carbohydrates, particularly fructose, from apple juice seems to be quite common, and may contribute to chronic diarrhoea in young children.

  11. Population dynamics of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northeast Italy and its role in the apple proliferation epidemiology in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Baldessari, Mario; Mazzoni, Valerio; Trona, Federica; Angeli, Gino

    2012-04-01

    In the current study, incidence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' in an experimental apple orchard in northeast Italy, in addition to abundance and phytoplasma infectivity of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was determined and the role of this psyllid as a vector of 'Ca. P. mali' in this region was reviewed. Insect samples collected in the orchard by the beating method indicated high abundance of C. melanoneura (up to 7.92 specimens/branch); however, the psyllid C. picta was not observed. Molecular analyses revealed presence of 'Ca. P. mali' in 6.25% of overwintered psyllids. This infection rate is quite high in comparison to other localities where C. melanoneura is known as the main vector of the phytoplasma. This finding supports the assumption that C. melanoneura also is paramount in the epidemiology of the apple proliferation disease also in northeast Italy. Moreover, we correlated immigration dynamics to the temperatures registered in the apple orchard, and defined an immigration index to predict the progressive arrival of the overwintered adults from winter sites. Psyllids start to reach the apple orchards when either the average of the maximum temperature of the 7 d is above 9.5 degrees C or the immigration index has a positive value. This index will be a useful tool for the growers to prevent apple proliferation phytoplasma spread with well-timed insecticide treatments targeted against C. melanoneura. However, further research is needed to validate or adjust the index to other apple growing regions, which may affect more efficacious management of this disease and psyllid vector.

  12. Apple juice malabsorption: fructose or sorbitol?

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, J H; van Kempen, A A; Kneepkens, C M

    1993-01-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption after apple juice ingestion may produce abdominal symptoms and diarrhea, especially in children. The carbohydrates suggested to play roles in this process are fructose, as it is present in excess of glucose, and sorbitol. Absorption of the carbohydrates in apple juice was investigated in 17 children and 12 adults by means of the hydrogen breath test. Apple juice was given at a dose of 15 ml/kg body weight, with a maximum of 375 ml. Fructose (0.6 g/kg) and sorbitol (0.06 g/kg), alone and in combination, were administered in amounts similar to their contents in apple juice (fructose as excess over glucose content). Apple juice malabsorption, as judged by a peak breath H2 excretion of > or = 20 ppm, was found in 11 children (65%) and 4 adults (33%). Of those malabsorbing apple juice, 7 of 11 children malabsorbed fructose, 1 of 11 sorbitol, and 4 of 11 the combination; the four adults absorbed all test solutions completely. We could not find an additive effect of sorbitol on breath H2 excretion after fructose ingestion. Peak breath H2 concentrations after apple juice ingestion (mean +/- SEM: 43 +/- 7 ppm) were higher than those with fructose (23 +/- 5 ppm; p < 0.05) or the fructose-sorbitol combination (20 +/- 5 ppm; p < 0.05). Fructose, and not sorbitol, is the sugar responsible for the increase in breath H2 after apple juice consumption and therefore for the diarrhea accompanying excessive apple juice consumption in toddlers.

  13. Latency- and Defense-Related Ultrastructural Characteristics of Apple Fruit Tissues Infected with Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Park, E W; Kim, Y H; Ahn, K K; Kim, P G; Kim, K S

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Apple fruit tissues infected with Botryosphaeria dothidea were examined by transmission electron microscopy using susceptible cv. Fuji and resistant cv. Jonathan. Immature (green) and mature (red) fruits of cv. Fuji with restricted or expanding lesions were also examined to reveal subcellular characteristics related with latent and restricted disease development. In infected susceptible mature fruits, cytoplasmic degeneration and organelle disruption commonly occurred, accompanying cell wall dissolution around invading hyphae. Cell wall dissolution around invading hyphae in subepidermis was rare in immature, red halo-symptomed cv. Fuji and resistant cv. Jonathan fruits. In infected immature fruits of cv. Fuji, presumably at the latent state of disease development, cellular degeneration was less severe, and invading hyphae contained prominent microbody-lipid globule complexes or the deposition of thin electron-dense outer layer around cell wall of intercellular hyphae. Both mature fruits with red halos and resistant apple fruits formed cell wall protuberances at the outside of cell walls. In addition, electron-dense extramural layers were formed in the resistant apple fruits. Aberrant hyphal structures such as intrahyphal hyphae were found only in resistant fruit tissues, indicating the physiologically altered fungal growth. These ultrastructural changes of host tissues and fungal hyphae may reflect the pathogenesis of apple white rot under varying conditions of apple fruits.

  14. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  15. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  16. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  17. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  18. VIEWPOINT – Vitiligo and alopecia areata: Apples and oranges?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336

  19. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  20. The infection capacity of P. expansum and P. digitatum on apples and histochemical analysis of host response.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Teixidó, N; Torres, R; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2012-07-16

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a variety of biochemical changes and is also associated with increased susceptibility to pathogens. The present study determined the effects of fruit maturity and storage conditions on the infection capacity of a host (P. expansum) and non-host (P. digitatum) pathogen on apple. A range of inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were utilized. Exposure to P. expansum at 20 °C resulted in significant differences in rot dynamics in apples collected at the earliest harvest date compared to all later harvest dates and inoculum concentrations assayed. Greater differences in infection capacity between harvests were obtained when fruit was stored at low temperature (0 °C). In contrast, P. digitatum was able to infect apples only under specific conditions and disease symptoms were limited to the initial wound inoculation site. When apples were resistant to P. digitatum, a visible browning reaction around the infection site was observed. Histochemical analyses of tissues surrounding the wound site were conducted. A positive reaction for lignin was observed in immature apples as early as 1 day after inoculation with either pathogen. Experiments conducted with the non-host pathogen indicated that lignification was an essential component of resistance in apples harvested prior to maturity or at commercial maturity. Apples harvested at an over-mature stage and inoculated with P. digitatum did not show evidence of staining for lignin until 7 days post-inoculation. Control samples only showed positive reaction in immature harvest. Results demonstrated that the maturity stage of fruit is an important factor in apple resistance to both P. expansum and P. digitatum and that lignin accumulation seems to play an important role when resistance is observed. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that P. digitatum, a non-host pathogen, has a limited capacity to infect apples.

  1. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  2. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  3. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  4. Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis: inoculum availability, persistence and seasonal host susceptibility in Washington apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    P. washingtonensis infects apple fruit in the orchard but decay symptoms develop during storage. Pycnidia on diseased shoots are believed to be the inoculum source for fruit infection in the orchard. However, the period of twig susceptibility and availability of viable inoculum in the field are un...

  5. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  6. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the file. For…

  7. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  8. Transcriptome profiling to identify genes involved in pathogenicity of Valsa mali on apple tree.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiwang; Yin, Zhiyuan; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Voegele, Ralf T; Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Haiying; Gao, Xiaoning; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-07-01

    Apple Valsa canker, caused by the fungus Valsa mali (Vm), is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in China. A better understanding of this host-pathogen interaction is urgently needed to improve management strategies. In the current study we sequenced the transcriptomes of Vm during infection of apple bark and mycelium grown in axenic culture using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. We identified 437 genes that were differentially expressed during fungal infection compared to fungal mycelium grown in axenic culture. One hundred and thirty nine of these 437 genes showed more than two fold higher transcript abundance during infection. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of the up-regulated genes suggest prevalence of genes associated with pectin catabolic, hydrolase activity and secondary metabolite biosynthesis during fungal infection. Some of the up-regulated genes associated with loss of pathogenicity and reduced virulence annotated by host-pathogen interaction databases may also be involved in cell wall hydrolysis and secondary metabolite transport, including a glycoside hydrolase family 28 protein, a peptidase and two major facilitator superfamily proteins. This highlights the importance of secondary metabolites and cell wall hydrolases during establishment of apple Valsa canker. Functional verification of the genes involved in pathogenicity of Vm will allow us to better understand how the fungus interferes with the host machinery and assists in apple canker establishment.

  9. Red-fleshed Apples: Old Autochthonous Fruits as a Novel Source of Anthocyanin Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:26134879

  10. Impact of apple and grape juice consumption on the antioxidant status in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linhong; Meng, Liping; Ma, Weiwei; Xiao, Zhongxin; Zhu, Xian; Feng, Jin Fang; Yu, Huanling; Xiao, Rong

    2011-12-01

    It is reported that consumption of antioxidant-rich foods significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in humans. Also, it is proved that the antioxidants from plant foods improve the body's antioxidant defence by acting additively and synergistically. As a result, rational combination of antioxidant-rich foods is recommended to population in the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. Both apple and grape are antioxidant-rich fruits. In this study, 2 weeks dietary intervention study was carried out in 25 healthy subjects to investigate the influences of apple and grape juices consumption on body antioxidant status. Our results indicated that 2 weeks of apple and grape juice consumption increased the plasma T-AOC and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde. However, no change was found in the content of plasma carbonyl. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were enhanced by 2 weeks of fruit juice consumption; however, no change was found in the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase. The in vitro comet assay results indicated that apple and grape juice consumption did not influence lymphocyte damage upon hydrogen peroxide treatment. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine content was not affected by 2 weeks of fruit juice intervention. These findings indicated that concomitant intake of apple and grape juice was efficient in enhancing the body's antioxidant status.

  11. Red-fleshed Apples: Old Autochthonous Fruits as a Novel Source of Anthocyanin Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases.

  12. Control of postharvest pathogens and colonization of the apple surface by antagonistic microorganisms in the field.

    PubMed

    Leibinger, W; Breuker, B; Hahn, M; Mendgen, K

    1997-11-01

    ABSTRACT Selected isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Bacillus subtilis reduced the size and number of lesions on wounded apples caused by the postharvest pathogens Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Pezicula malicorticis. Combinations of the antagonistic microorganisms were applied to apple trees in the field late in the growing season of two consecutive years. The population dynamics of the introduced microorganisms and the incidence of fruit decay were determined. Population sizes of introduced antagonists on apple surfaces increased in the field following application of treatments until harvest. After transfer of the fruit from the field into cold storage, the populations of the introduced antagonists remained higher than in the control treatments. Identification of the applied isolates of A. pullulans and R. glutinis during the experiments was achieved by isolate-specific DNA probes generated from random amplified polymorphic DNA. A combination of two strains of A. pullulans and one strain of R. glutinis suppressed rotting of apple to the same extent as the commonly used fungicide Euparen. Our data demonstrate that the application of antagonistic microorganisms in the field represents a promising alternative to fungicide treatments to control post-harvest diseases of apple.

  13. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples. PMID:26635764

  14. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples. PMID:26635764

  15. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P < 0.01). Additionally, the level of butyrate measured in these pectin-fed animal was more than double of the corresponding level in control animals (P < 0.01). Sequencing revealed that DGGE bands, which were suppressed in pectin-fed rats, represented Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P < 0.05). Additionally, a more than four-fold increase in the amount of Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa), as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our

  16. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  17. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab.

  18. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  19. Intentional replantation of a hopeless tooth with the combination of platelet rich plasma, bioactive glass graft material and non-resorbable membrane: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demir, Becen; Demiralp, Burak; Güncü, Güliz Nigar; Uyanik, Mehmet Ozgür; Cağlayan, Feriha

    2007-06-01

    Intentional replantation can be an alternative choice for periodontally involved hopeless tooth at least for a period of time. This technique may help to restore an original tooth to function in the mouth instead of replacing it with prosthesis. The combination of one or more techniques currently available for periodontal therapy may have the potential to enhance clinical results as compared to any of the techniques used alone. In this case report, intentional replantation was combined with regenerative techniques. A very popular agent, platelet rich plasma was used in combination with bioactive glass graft material and non-resorbable PTFE membrane. The technique and one year results of treatment were discussed radiographically and clinically.

  20. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up.

    PubMed

    Dua, Deepti; Dua, Ankur

    2015-09-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits.

  1. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  2. Apples and cardiovascular health--is the gut microbiota a core consideration?

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2015-05-26

    There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.

  3. Apples and Cardiovascular Health—Is the Gut Microbiota a Core Consideration?

    PubMed Central

    Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26016654

  4. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  5. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  6. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  7. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  8. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  9. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  10. Biological control of postharvest spoilage caused by Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea in apple by using the bacterium Rahnella aquatilis.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Juan; Calvente, Viviana; de Orellano, María Edith; Benuzzi, Delia; Sanz de Tosetti, Maria Isabel

    2007-02-15

    The epiphytic bacterium Rahnella aquatilis, isolated from fruit and leaves of apples, was tested for antagonistic properties against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea on Red Delicious apple fruit. In "in vitro" assays, this bacterium inhibited completely the germination of P. expansum and B. cinerea spores, but it needed direct contact with the spores to do it. However the putative mechanism seemed be different for the two pathogens. The bacterium did not produce extracellular antibiotic substances and when the acute toxicity test was performed no mortality, toxicity symptoms or organ alterations of the test animals (Wistar rats) were observed. Assays of biological control of P. expansum and B. cinerea on apple fruit were carried out at different temperatures. At 15 degrees C and 90% RH, the incidence of disease caused by P. expansum on apples stored for 20 days, was reduced by nearly 100% by R. aquatilis (10(6) cells/ml), while in the case of B. cinerea, the reduction of decay severity was nearly 64% but there was no reduction in the incidence of disease. At 4 degrees C and 90% RH the treatment with the bacterium significantly inhibited the development of B. cinerea on apples stored for 40 days and the incidence of disease was reduced by nearly 100%, while the incidence of disease caused by P. expansum at 4 degrees C was 60%. The results obtained show that R. aquatilis would be an interesting microorganism to be used as a biocontrol agent.

  11. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather.

  12. Replantation of a maxillary second molar after removal of a third molar with a dentigerous cyst: Case report and 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María A.; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the replantation of a maxillary second right molar, which had been removed for surgical reasons in order to remove a dentigerous cyst associated with the adjacent third molar, and the case’s 12-month follow-up. A 51-year-old man presented swelling in the right maxillary area. Radiographic examination showed a large radiolucency in close proximity to the third molar, suggesting a follicular cyst. The third molar was extracted and the cyst underwent curettage. The second molar had to be extracted to enable complete removal of the cyst and to achieve primary closure of the wound, which would have been impossible without repositioning the molar. With this objective, extraoral endodontic treatment was performed, the root-end was resected and prepared with ultrasonic retrotips, and root-end filling was accomplished with MTA before the molar was replanted. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth showed no clinical signs or symptoms, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm and radiographic examination showed no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion. Key words:Replantation, maxillary molar, follicular cyst, dentigerous cyst. PMID:24790721

  13. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  14. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  15. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  16. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  17. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-β-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process.

  18. Appl1 and Appl2 are Expendable for Mouse Development But Are Essential for HGF-Induced Akt Activation and Migration in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinfei; Xin, Xiaoban; Coffey, Francis J; Wiest, David L; Dong, Lily Q; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Although Appl1 and Appl2 have been implicated in multiple cellular activities, we and others have found that Appl1 is dispensable for mouse embryonic development, suggesting that Appl2 can substitute for Appl1 during development. To address this possibility, we generated conditionally targeted Appl2 mice. We found that ubiquitous Appl2 knockout (Appl2-/-) mice, much like Appl1-/- mice, are viable and grow normally to adulthood. Intriguingly, when Appl1-/- mice were crossed with Appl2-/- mice, we found that homozygous Appl1;Appl2 double knockout (DKO) animals are also viable and grossly normal with regard to reproductive potential and postnatal growth. Appl2-null and DKO mice were found to exhibit altered red blood cell physiology, with erythrocytes from these mice generally being larger and having a more irregular shape than erythrocytes from wild type mice. Although Appl1/2 proteins have been previously shown to have a very strong interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (Pi3k) in thymic T cells, Pi3k-Akt signaling and cellular differentiation was unaltered in thymocytes from Appl1;Appl2 (DKO) mice. However, Appl1/2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited defects in HGF-induced Akt activation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, these data suggest that Appl1 and Appl2 are required for robust HGF cell signaling but are dispensable for embryonic development and reproduction.

  19. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  20. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  1. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  4. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  5. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  8. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  9. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding instrument which recorded general…

  10. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  11. Establishing Commercial Utility of Behavioral Control for Apple Maggot Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot fly is a key summer pest of apples throughout eastern North America, and poses an increasing threat to apple production in the Northwest. If left unchecked, the threat of AMF injury to fruit can be severe, resulting in complete loss of marketable crop. To combat AMF infestation, comme...

  12. First morphomolecular identification of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum toxicogenic isolates associated with blue mold on apple.

    PubMed

    Moslem, Mohmed; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Yassin, Mohamed; Bahkali, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Postharvest blue mold decay caused by Penicillium spp. is the most important disease of fresh apple fruit in the world, which extend from the field to the store. Two new Penicillium spp. responsible for apple fruit decay were recovered. The morphological and molecular features of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum isolated from apple fruits were characterized morphologically and molecularly. Pathogenicity test exhibited that both P. griseofulvum and P. aurantiogriseum were responsible for blue mold decay in storage apple fruits. Lesion diameter indicated that P. aurantiogriseum was more aggressive than P. griseofulvum. All tested isolates were able to synthesize citrinin in addition to patulin. Not all of the isolates belonging to the same species showed the same profile of secondary metabolites. Microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction was able to differentiate these isolates at the species level and divided the analyzed isolates into two genetically different groups. Little intraspecific variability was evident. Microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction analysis proved to be an objective, rapid, and reliable tool to identify Penicillium spp. involved in blue mold of apple. This is the first report of occurrence of P. griseofulvum and P. aurantiogriseum on imported apple fruits in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Evaluation of cardiovascular protective effect of different apple varieties - Correlation of response with composition.

    PubMed

    Serra, Ana Teresa; Rocha, J; Sepodes, B; Matias, Ana A; Feliciano, Rodrigo P; de Carvalho, Agostinho; Bronze, Maria R; Duarte, Catarina M M; Figueira, M E

    2012-12-15

    Epidemiological evidence supports the concept that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate or delay the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In particular, a reduced risk of CVD has been associated with apple consumption, probably due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of the main bioactive compounds, namely fibre and polyphenols. In this work, the effect of diet supplementation with 20% of three Portuguese apple cultivars (Bravo de Esmolfe, Malápio Serra and Golden), containing distinct phenolic and fibre concentrations, on serum lipid profile and oxLDL of male Wistar rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet (2%) was evaluated. After 30 days, only Bravo de Esmolfe apple was able to decrease significantly serum levels of triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol concentrations (reductions of 27.2%, 21.0% and 20.4%, respectively, in relation to the cholesterol-enriched diet group, P<0.05). The levels of oxLDL were also significantly improved with the consumption of this apple variety (reductions of 20.0% and 11.9%, in relation to the cholesterol-enriched diet group and control group, respectively, P>0.05) as well as with Malapio da Serra apple (reductions of 9.8% in relation to the cholesterol-enriched diet group, P<0.05). Correlation of the bioactive response with chemical composition showed that catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B1 and β-carotene are the major phytocompounds responsible for the cholesterol lowering ability of apples. The antioxidant potential may have also contributed to this beneficial effect.

  14. Erosion of quantitative host resistance in the apple×Venturia inaequalis pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Caffier, Valérie; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Giraud, Michel; Lascostes, Matthieu; Stievenard, René; Lemarquand, Arnaud; van de Weg, Eric; Expert, Pascale; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Le Cam, Bruno; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance to scab disease, we surveyed scab incidence over time in a network of three orchards planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled Venturiainaequalis isolates from two of these orchards at the beginning of the experiment and we tested their quantitative components of pathogenicity (i.e., global disease severity, lesion density, lesion size, latent period) under controlled conditions. The disease severity produced by the isolates on the quantitatively resistant apple genotypes differed between the sites. Our study showed that quantitative resistance may be subject to erosion and even complete breakdown, depending on the site. We observed this evolution over time for apple genotypes that combine two broad-spectrum scab resistance QTLs, F11 and F17, showing a significant synergic effect of this combination in favour of resistance (i.e., favourable epistatic effect). We showed that isolates sampled in the orchard where the resistance was inefficient presented a similar level of pathogenicity on both apple genotypes with quantitative resistance and susceptible genotypes. As a consequence, our results revealed a case where the use of quantitative resistance may result in the emergence of a generalist pathogen population that has extended its pathogenicity range by performing similarly on susceptible and resistant genotypes. This emphasizes the need to develop quantitative resistances conducive to trade-offs within the pathogen populations concerned.

  15. Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shalika; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-04-01

    Humankind is presently engulfed by convenience quench, modern life style and urbanized diet system leading to progression in array of health disorders. The past decade confronted cardiometabolic disorder (21.8 %), lower respiratory and chronic obstructive lung disease (12.5 %) as the major causes of death world over. In anticipation, scientific communities' have demonstrated the role of healthy diets, especially those rich in fruits and vegetables, for management of such health related issues. These horticultural  crops are considered as a good source of polyphenols such as dihydrochalcones, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The present article reviews the efforts made to assess the potential of apple phenolic compounds present in fresh fruits, leaves, bark and pomace as dietary polyphenols. Considering the positive impact of such phytochemicals on human health, various nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and phenolic-rich food products are presently available on market shelves. On analytical front, improved instrumentation based on liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC, LC/MS/MS) have made the assessment of phenolics more rapid and reliable. Thus, owing to the emergent interest in natural compounds, it is pertinent to discuss the latest significant research findings on therapeutic aspects along with probable metabolic mechanisms of dietary polyphenols found in apples and their implications on human health. PMID:27413201

  16. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  17. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  18. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Le; Zhao, Huizhong; Zhang, Leijie; Zhong, Zhiyou; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Jianhua

    A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. Then there was obvious difference between apple fruit temperature and environment temperature. Compared to the change of environment temperature, a long hysteresis phenomenon happened to the temperature of apple fruit body. That is to say, there was a significant temperature change of apple fruit body in a period of time after environment temperature dropping. And then the change of temerature of apple fruit body in the cooling process became slower and slower. This can explain the time delay phenomenon of biology. After that, the temperature differences of every layer increased from centre to surface of apple fruit gradually. That is to say, the minimum temperature differences closed to centre of apple fruit body and the maximum temperature differences closed to the surface of apple fruit body. Finally, the temperature of every part of apple fruit body will tend to consistent and be near to the environment temperature in the cooling process. It was related to the metabolism heat of plant body at any time.

  19. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  20. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  1. Variability in captan residues in apples from a Canadian orchard.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Shields, J Brian; Conca, Giacomo; Sun, Wing-Fung; Lacroix, Gladys M A; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, André; Bélanger, André

    2007-02-01

    Apple trees in an orchard in Quebec, Canada were treated, following label directions, with the fungicide captan (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-N-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide) during the 2003 agricultural season. A total of 142 apples from three rows of trees were selected for determination of captan by GC/MS. Individual apples were found to contain captan levels ranging from 16.9 to 6350 ng g-1. Only two individual apple samples exceeded the Canadian maximum residue limit (5000 ng g-1) for captan in apples. Six composite samples, comprising half portions of eight individual apples, were analysed from each of the three experimental rows. Composite samples ranged in concentration from 166 to 2620 ng g-1. The greatest uncertainty associated with the measured concentrations was due to variability among apples rather than the measurement of residue levels.

  2. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  3. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  4. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... This could be due to different amounts of arsenic in orchard soils. Testing a small number of samples of different ... organic apples come from trees that grow in soil that may contain arsenic. The FDA is not aware of any data ...

  5. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  6. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  7. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  8. An ADC Interface for the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiker, P. Steven

    1990-01-01

    Described is the construction of a simple analog-to-digital convertor circuit to interface an Apple II+ microcomputer to a light sensor used in conjunction with a holographic gear inspector. A list of parts, circuit diagram, and a simple BASIC program for the convertor are provided. (CW)

  9. Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Monika; Bielawska, Aleksandra; Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, Hanna; Priebe, Waldemar; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2014-11-01

    Apples are among the most popular fruits in the world. They are rich in phenolic compounds, pectin, sugar, macro- and microelements. Applying different extraction techniques it is possible to isolate a particular group of compounds or individual chemicals and then test their biological properties. Many reports point to the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and many other beneficial effects of apple components that may have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This paper summarizes and compiles information about apple phenolic compounds, their biological properties with particular emphasis on health-related aspects. The data are reviewed with regard to different apple varieties, part of apple, cultivation model and methods of extraction. PMID:25282014

  10. Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Monika; Bielawska, Aleksandra; Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, Hanna; Priebe, Waldemar; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2014-11-01

    Apples are among the most popular fruits in the world. They are rich in phenolic compounds, pectin, sugar, macro- and microelements. Applying different extraction techniques it is possible to isolate a particular group of compounds or individual chemicals and then test their biological properties. Many reports point to the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and many other beneficial effects of apple components that may have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This paper summarizes and compiles information about apple phenolic compounds, their biological properties with particular emphasis on health-related aspects. The data are reviewed with regard to different apple varieties, part of apple, cultivation model and methods of extraction.

  11. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Weathers, P.J.; McConville, F.X.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of the pomace is hauled away (at a cost of $4/ton) and landfilled (at a cost of $10/ton). If 5% (w/w) conversion of pomace to ethanol could be achieved, the need for this company to purchase No. 6 fuel oil (1000 gal/day) for cooking during processing would be eliminated. Our approach was to saccharify the pomace enzymatically, and then to carry out a yeast fermentation on the hydrolysate. We chose to use enzymatic hydrolysis instead of dilute acid hydrolysis in order to minimize pH control problems both in the fermentation phase and in the residue. The only chemical studies have concerned small subfractions of apple material: for example, cell walls have been analyzed but they constitute only 1 to 2% of the fresh weight of the apple (about 15 to 30% of the pomace fraction). Therefore, our major problems were: (1) to optimize hydrolysis by enzyme mixtures, using weight loss and ultimate ethanol production as optimization criteria; (2) to optimize ethanol production from the hydrolysate by judicious choice of yeast strains and fermentation conditions; and (3) achieve these optimizations consistent with minimum processing cost and energy input. We have obtained up to 5.1% (w/w) of ethanol without saccharification. We show here that hydrolysis with high levels of enzyme can enhance ethanol yield by up to 27%, to a maximum level of 6% (w/w); however, enzyme treament may be cost-effective only a low levels, for improvement of residue compaction. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. PMID:26808096

  13. Influence of variety and storage on the polyphenol composition of apple flesh.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Aurora; Cascone, Annunziata; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Scalfi, Luca; Di Vaio, Claudio; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2004-10-20

    Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide. It is available on the market for the whole year being a major source of dietary polyphenols. Several studies suggested that apple polyphenols could play a role in prevention of degenarative diseases. The action of these compounds has been partially ascribed to their antioxidative ability, and fruit antioxidants profile is influenced by apple variety and by the postharvest storage. In this work, the polyphenols composition of the flesh of four apple varieties cultivated in southern Italy were investigated by HPLC, and a flow injection MS/MS procedure to quantify cholorogenic acid and catechins was set up. Phenolic composition and the radical scavenging activity were monitored during a postharvest storage of four months. The quantification by flow injection procedure gives results comparable to those obtained by HPLC, and the increase of the antioxidant activity during storage correlated with an increase of the concentration of catechin and phloridzin. This trend is particularly evident for the variety "Annurca" which is a typical product cultivated in the area around Naples. The genetic characteristics of the Annurca variety together with the anticipated harvest time and the peculiar postharvest conditions are likely responsible for this increase of the antioxidant activity.

  14. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum.

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  19. Involvement of Gluconic Acid and Glucose Oxidase in the Pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum in Apples.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Yoav; Goldberg, Israel; Pines, Ophry; Prusky, Dov

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT The contribution of gluconic acid secretion to the colonization of apple tissue by Penicillium expansum was analyzed by modulation (increase or decrease) of gluconic acid accumulation at the infection court. P. expansum isolates that express the most gox2 transcripts and concomitant glucose oxidase (GOX) activity and that secrete the most gluconic acid cause disease of apple at the fastest rate. Cultures grown under reduced oxygen concentration generated fewer gox2 transcripts, produced less gluconic acid, and led to a 15% reduction in disease. Furthermore, the detection of significantly high levels of transcripts of gox2 and GOX activity at the edge of the decaying tissue emphasize the involvement of GOX in tissue acidification of the decaying tissue. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of GOX in the production of the gluconic acid that leads, in turn, to host tissue acidification. This acidification enhanced the expression of pectolytic enzymes and the establishment of conditions for necrotrophic development of P. expansum.

  20. Histochemical and immunocytochemical study of hard tissue formation in dental pulp during the healing process in rat molars after tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto-Tanaka, Hiroko; Ikegame, Mika; Takagi, Ritsuo; Harada, Hidemitsu; Ohshima, Hayato

    2006-08-01

    Dental pulp is assumed to possess the capacity to elaborate both bone and dentin matrix under the pathological conditions following tooth injury. This study was undertaken to clarify the mechanism inducing bone formation in the dental pulp by investigating the pulpal healing process, after tooth replantation, by micro-computed tomography (mu-CT), immunocytochemistry for heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 and cathepsin K (CK), and histochemistry for both alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Under deep anesthesia, the upper right first molar of 4-week-old Wistar rats was extracted and immediately repositioned in the original socket. In control teeth at this age, the periphery of the coronal dental pulp showed intense ALP-positive and HSP-25-positive reactions, whereas there were no TRAP-positive or CK-positive cells. Tooth replantation weakened or terminated ALP-positive and HSP-25-positive reactions in the pulp tissue at the initial stages. At 3-7 days after operation, the ALP-positive region recovered from the root apex to the coronal pulp followed by HSP-25-positive reactions in successful cases showing tertiary dentin formation. In other cases, TRAP-positive and CK-positive cells appeared in the pulp tissue of the replanted tooth at postoperative days 5-10 and remained associated with the bone tissue after 12-60 days. Immunoelectron microscopy clearly demonstrated that CK-positive osteoclast-lineage cells made contact with mesenchymal cells with prominent nucleoli and well-developed cell organelles. These data suggest that the appearance of TRAP-positive and CK-positive cells is involved in the induction of bone tissue formation in dental pulp. PMID:16596394

  1. Apple ethanol extract promotes proliferation of human adult stem cells, which involves the regenerative potential of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Mi Ok; Jang, Sunghee; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Jung, Kwangseon; Park, Yong Seek; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-09-01

    Tissue regeneration using adult stem cells (ASCs) has significant potential as a novel treatment for many degenerative diseases. Previous studies have established that age negatively affects the proliferation status and differentiation potential of ASCs, suggesting a possible limitation in their potential therapeutic use. Therefore, we hypothesized that apple extract might exert beneficial effects on ASCs. The specific objectives were to investigate the proliferative effect of apple ethanol extract on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs), and identify the possible molecular mechanisms. Apple extract promoted proliferation of ADSCs and CB-MSCs as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Click-iT 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine flow cytometry assays. In addition, phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4B and eIF4E was induced stepwise in ADSCs. Furthermore, apple extract significantly induced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in both ADSCs and CB-MSCs. Similarly, apple extract-induced phosphorylation of the mTOR/p70S6K/S6RP/eIF4B/eIF4E pathway was blocked by pretreatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. These results indicate that apple extract-induced proliferation of ADSCs under serum-free conditions is mediated by ERK-dependent cytokine production. Moreover, the beneficial effect of apple extract on proliferation of ASCs may overcome the limitation in therapeutic use of stem cells in tissue regeneration and maintenance of stem cell homeostasis. PMID:27632912

  2. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. PMID:27139585

  3. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus 6domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden...

  4. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  5. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  6. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  7. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  8. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice.

  9. Streptomycin application has no detectable effect on bacterial community structure in apple orchard soil.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Klimowicz, Amy K; Spear, Russell N; Linske, Matthew; Donato, Justin J; Hogan, Clifford S; McManus, Patricia S; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Streptomycin is commonly used to control fire blight disease on apple trees. Although the practice has incited controversy, little is known about its nontarget effects in the environment. We investigated the impact of aerial application of streptomycin on nontarget bacterial communities in soil beneath streptomycin-treated and untreated trees in a commercial apple orchard. Soil samples were collected in two consecutive years at 4 or 10 days before spraying streptomycin and 8 or 9 days after the final spray. Three sources of microbial DNA were profiled using tag-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes: uncultured bacteria from the soil (culture independent) and bacteria cultured on unamended or streptomycin-amended (15 μg/ml) media. Multivariate tests for differences in community structure, Shannon diversity, and Pielou's evenness test results showed no evidence of community response to streptomycin. The results indicate that use of streptomycin for disease management has minimal, if any, immediate effect on apple orchard soil bacterial communities. This study contributes to the profile of an agroecosystem in which antibiotic use for disease prevention appears to have minimal consequences for nontarget bacteria.

  10. Reduction of patulin during apple juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Bissessur, J; Permaul, K; Odhav, B

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a number of molds involved in fruit spoilage. This compound is carcinogenic and teratogenic. Various methods are currently used to reduce the levels of patulin in apple juice, namely, charcoal treatment, chemical preservation (sulfur dioxide), gamma irradiation, fermentation, and trimming of fungus-infected apples. Many of these processes are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need to find a convenient and economical process to control patulin levels. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of several clarification processes for the reduction of patulin. Clarification was carried out on a laboratory scale. Apple pulp was spiked with patulin, pressed, and clarified using four different processes, namely, fining with bentonite, enzyme (pectinase) treatment, paper filtration, and centrifugation. Patulin was recovered from the clarified juice by liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase chromatography was used for sample clean-up prior to analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum detectable limit using HPLC was 20 microg/liter. Pressing followed by centrifugation resulted in an average toxin reduction of 89%. Total toxin reduction using filtration, enzyme treatment, and fining were 70, 73, and 77%, respectively. Patulin reduction was due to the binding of the toxin to solid substrates that was verified by analyzing the clarified juice as well as the filter cake, pellet, and sediment. The combined concentrations correlated to the spiked concentration. These results reveal that clarification was successful in the reduction of patulin levels in apple juice. However, clarification resulted in high levels of patulin in the pressed pulp after filtration and centrifugation, and this could be harmful if they are used as animal feeds.

  11. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

  12. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE-/- mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE-/- mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  13. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  14. Development and linkage mapping of E-STS and RGA markers for functional gene homologues in apple.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh; Hampson, Cheryl; Gasic, Ksenija; Bakkeren, Guus; Korban, Schuyler S

    2006-08-01

    Linkage maps developed from known-function genes can be valuable in the candidate gene mapping approach. A set of 121 expressed sequence tagged site (E-STS) primer pairs were tested on a framework genetic linkage map of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) constructed using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. These known-function gene markers, E-STSs, were supplemented by markers for resistance gene analogues (RGAs), designed based on conserved motifs in all characterized resistance genes isolated from plant species. A total of 229 markers, including 46 apple E-STSs, 8 RGAs, 85 SSRs from apple and peach, and 88 RAPDs, were assigned to 17 linkage groups covering 832 cM of the apple genome, based on 52 individuals originating from the cross 'Antonovka debnicka' (Q12-4) x 'Summerred'. Clusters of E-STS and RGA loci were located in linkage groups previously identified to carry resistance genes, some of which confer resistance to apple scab disease caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.

  15. Prediction of postharvest firmness of apple using biological switch model.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M; Sanders, M

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we present a model that predicts the softening of apple during ripening in the postharvest phase. Apple ripening starts with an autocatalytic production of ethylene, which triggers a multitude of biochemical processes like the degradation of cell wall material. This triggering of the ripening process has been modelled as a biological switch-using the activator-depleted substrate model, which is proposed earlier by Meinhardt in the field of developmental biology. The model has been calibrated using storage experiments using various apple cultivars. Furthermore, the model is proven to be valid using independent experimental data of Elstar apple under dynamic storage conditions.

  16. Effects of postharvest preparation on organophosphate insecticide residues in apples.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, André; Bélanger, André

    2008-02-13

    Apples were sampled directly from orchard trees at 96, 45, and 21 days postapplication with one of three organophosphate insecticides (azinphos methyl, phosalone, or phosmet, respectively). Individual apples were prepared for analysis following one of three postharvest preparations: no preparation, rinsed with deionized water for 10-15 s, or rinsed and peeled. Azinphos methyl, phosalone, and phosmet concentrations ranged from below the level of detection to 5.26 ng/g, 94.7 to 5720 ng/g, and 0.011 to 663 ng/g in the apples that received no postharvest preparation, respectively. Although rinsed apples had lower maximum concentrations than observed in apples with no preparation, levels were not significantly lower. Concentrations of all three OP insecticides in apples that were rinsed followed by peeling, however, were much lower (below detection limits to 0.733 ng/g, azinphos methyl; 0.322-219 ng/g, phosalone; and below detection limits to 44.0 ng/g, phosmet) than observed in apples that had been rinsed alone. Rinsing and peeling of apples resulted in a 74.5-97.9% reduction in OP residues, while rinsing alone lowered mean concentrations by 13.5-28.7% relative to apples that received no postharvest preparation.

  17. Intake of hot water-extracted apple protects against myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Young; Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

    2014-11-01

    Intakes of apple and its products are shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by delaying occlusion of coronary arteries. In our previous study, we showed that apple pectin protected against myocardial injury by prohibiting apoptotic cascades in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, we hypothesized that water-extracted apple, into which apple pectin was released from the cell wall, might exhibit the same efficacy as apple pectin. To test this hypothesis, we fed rats either cold water- (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or hot water-extracted apples (HWEA; 40, 100, and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Three days later, the rats were subjected to myocardial injuries by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (30 minutes), and subsequently, the heart (3 hours) reperfused by releasing the ligation. Only the rats that were supplemented with HWEA (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) showed significant reductions in infarct size, which was 28.5% smaller than that of the control group. This infarct size reduction could be partly attributed to the prevention of steps leading to apoptosis. These steps are manifested by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio, lower procaspase-3 conversion to caspase-3, and inhibition of DNA nick generation, which reflects the extent of apoptosis. The findings indicate that HWEA supplementation reduces myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that apple intake, specifically boiled apple, might reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by inhibiting postocclusion steps, such as myocardial injury after artery occlusion, as well as preocclusion steps, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:25304826

  18. Evolution of pathogenicity traits in the apple scab fungal pathogen in response to the domestication of its host

    PubMed Central

    Lê Van, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Lemaire, Christophe; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Durel, Charles-Eric; Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how pathogens emerge is essential to bring disease-causing agents under durable human control. Here, we used cross-pathogenicity tests to investigate the changes in life-history traits of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis associated with host-tracking during the domestication of apple and subsequent host-range expansion on the wild European crabapple (Malus sylvestris). Pathogenicity of 40 isolates collected in wild and domesticated ecosystems was assessed on the domesticated apple, its Central Asian main progenitor (M. sieversii) and M. sylvestris. Isolates from wild habitats in the centre of origin of the crop were not pathogenic on the domesticated apple and less aggressive than other isolates on their host of origin. Isolates from the agro-ecosystem in Central Asia infected a higher proportion of plants with higher aggressiveness, on both the domesticated host and its progenitor. Isolates from the European crabapple were still able to cause disease on other species but were less aggressive and less frequently virulent on these hosts than their endemic populations. Our results suggest that the domestication of apple was associated with the acquisition of virulence in the pathogen following host-tracking. The spread of the disease in the agro-ecosystem would also have been accompanied by an increase in overall pathogenicity. PMID:23144656

  19. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  20. Liquid chromatographic method for determination of patulin in clear and cloudy apple juices and apple puree: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, S; Long, M; Gilbert, J; Felgueiras, I

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative trial was conducted to validate the effectiveness of a liquid chromatographic (LC) procedure for determination of patulin in both clear and cloudy apple juices and apple puree. The test portion of clear apple juice was directly extracted with ethyl acetate; cloudy apple juice and apple puree were treated with pectinase enzyme before extraction. After back-extraction into sodium carbonate to remove interfering acidic compounds, the extract was dried and concentrated, and patulin was determined by LC with UV detection. Clear and cloudy apple juices, apple puree test samples naturally contaminated with patulin, and blank test samples for spiking with patulin were sent to 14 collaborators in 12 different European countries. Test portions of each of the 3 test sample types were spiked with patulin at 75 ng/g. Recoveries of patulin ranged from 80 to 92%. Based on the results for spiked test samples (blind pairs) and naturally contaminated test samples (blind pairs at 3 levels), the relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 8 to 35% and 11 to 36%, respectively. Although HORRAT values of <1.4 were obtained for all 3 matrixes at patulin levels ranging from 26 to 121 ng/g, better performance values (RSDr values 6-10% and RSDR values 11-25%) were obtained for clear and cloudy apple juice spiked above 50 ng/g, which is either the statutory limit or the advisory level for patulin contamination in apple juices in many countries.

  1. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple. PMID:25575987

  2. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple.

  3. Modulation of oxidative responses by a virulent isolate of Colletotrichum fructicola in apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Rockenbach, Mathias F; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2016-10-01

    Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) can be caused by Colletotrichum fructicola. Although both diseases can occur simultaneously in orchards, some isolates show clear organ specialization. Thus, this work was aimed to compare microscopically the development of preinfective structures of ABR- and GLS isolates and their impact on the enzymatic oxidant defense system during the leaf infection process. On leaves, conidial germlings of GLS-isolate formed appressoria mostly sessile. In contrast, those of ABR-isolate were pedicellate and formed multiple melanized appressoria probably as a sign of unsuccessful infection attempts. Neither ABR- nor GLS isolate triggered hypersensitive response in apple leaves. In overall, the activity of scavenging enzymes was higher and long-lasting in leaves inoculated by GLS- than by ABR isolate and control. Guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase had activity peaks within 24 h after inoculation (HAI). Ascorbate peroxidase activity was higher only in GLS-infected leaves at 6 HAI, while superoxide dismutase remained unaltered. A lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was determined in GLS-infected plants at 48 HAI, but the electrolyte leakage markedly increased. Disease symptoms in leaves were only caused by GLS-isolate. Results suggest that the virulent isolate coordinately downregulates the oxidative plant defense responses enabling its successful establishment in apple leaves. PMID:27647236

  4. Real-time PCR for specific detection of three phytoplasmas from the apple proliferation group.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Nataša; Nikolić, Petra; Gruden, Kristina; Ravnikar, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a real-time PCR detection system for fast, reliable, specific, and sensitive detection and discrimination of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', 'Ca. P. prunorum', and 'Ca. P. pyri' from the 16SrX (apple proliferation-AP) group. These phytoplasmas are causal agents of fruit tree diseases within the Rosaceae family, namely apple proliferation, European stone fruit yellows, and pear decline. The assays use (hydrolysis) TaqMan(®) minor groove binder probes. The panel of assays comprises the same set of primers and specific probes for species-specific amplification, and an additional set of primers and probe for 18S rRNA as an endogenous quality control of DNA extraction. The assays described can be used in routine phytoplasma surveys and in certification programmes.

  5. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  6. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  7. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  8. Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the investigation of light propagation in fresh apples in the visible and short-wave near-infrared region using Monte Carlo simulations. Optical properties of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were determined over the spectral range of 500-1100 nm using a hyperspectral imaging method, ...

  9. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  10. [Standardization of technical methods for apple fluorescence canopy spectral detection].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Lei, Tong; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Wang, Jing-An

    2010-06-01

    Aiming at spectral detection of apple fluorescence canopy, the present paper carried out spectral detection tests under different weather conditions, different detection times, and different detection heights and angles to apple canopy in the two years of 2008 and 2009, so as to analyze impacts of these factors on apple canopy spectral characteristics and explore standardized spectral detection methods for apple fluorescence canopy. The results indicated the regularity in spectral reflectance of apple fluorescence canopy to a certain degree under different conditions, especially in the 760-1 350 nm near-infrared bands. The authors found that canopy spectral reflectance declined along with the decrease in sunshine and it is appropriate to detect canopy spectrum in sunny days with few clouds. In addition, spectral reflectance tended to be stable when the wind scale was below grade 2. The discrepancy of canopy spectra is small during the time period from 10:00 to 15:00 of a day compared to that of other times. For maintaining stable spectral curves, the height of detector to apple canopy needed to be adjusted to cover the whole canopy within the field of view according to detection angle of the detector. The vertical or approximately vertical detection was the best for canopy spectral reflectance acquisition. The standardization of technical methods of spectral detection for apple fluorescence canopy was proposed accordingly, which provided theoretical references for spectral detection and information extraction of apple tree canopy.

  11. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  12. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  13. Apple IIe Computers and Appleworks Training Mini Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The instructional materials included in this document are designed to introduce students to the Apple IIe computer and to the word processing and database portions of the AppleWorks program. The materials are intended for small groups of students, each of whom has use of a computer during class and for short periods between classes. The course…

  14. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  15. Visualizing enzyme infusion into apple tissue.

    PubMed

    Culver, C A; Bjurlin, M A; Fulcher, R G

    2000-12-01

    Enzymes traditionally used in food processing are applied to ground or macerated tissue with little or no retention of cellular structure. More recently developed applications use enzymes to selectively alter tissue properties while retaining some structure. Process development has been hindered by the lack of conclusive evidence showing that enzyme infusion into plant tissue pieces is possible. This study provides direct evidence that such infusion is possible by using fluorescence microscopy to monitor vacuum infusion of fluorescein-labeled alpha-amylase into apple cubes. This method is generally applicable to any plant or animal tissue and to any macromolecule capable of derivatization. PMID:11141264

  16. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line.

  17. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  18. Dw2 a new dwarfing locus in apple rootstocks and relationship to induction of early bearing in apple scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of certain apple rootstocks to dwarf their scions has been known for centuries and spurred a revolution in apple production. In this investigation, several breeding populations, in multiple replicated field and pot experiments were used to ascertain the degree of dwarfing of segregating...

  19. Obtaining Help with AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for obtaining help with AppleWorks version 2.0 word processing files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading; selecting the help list; and using the help list to copy text, delete text, find parts of a document, identify…

  20. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  1. In vitro and in vivo [corrected] activity of eugenol oil (Eugenia caryophylata) against four important postharvest apple pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Achour; Dugas, Robert; Pichot, Anne L; Bompeix, Gilbert

    2008-08-15

    The activity of eugenol oil was evaluated in vitro and in vivo against four apple pathogens namely Phlyctema vagabunda, Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eugenol incorporated in malt extract agar medium was found to be 2 mg ml(-1). Mycelial growth of the four test pathogens was completely inhibited when treated with 150 microl l(-1) of volatile eugenol whether at 4 or 20 degrees C. Conidia of P. vagabunda, P. expansum, M. fructigena and B. cinerea suspended for 2 min in eugenol solution at 2 mg ml(-1) heated to 50 degrees C germinated at rates of 19, 37, 38 and 39%, respectively. Three different eugenol formulations (Tween 80, ethoxylate and lecithin) were tested for their in vivo efficacy against the tested pathogens on apples. Ethoxylate- and Tween 80-eugenol formulations applied at room temperature were ineffective in reducing disease incidence. When heated to 50 degrees C, both formulations induced phytotoxicity on apple surface and caused cuticle damages as revealed by scanning electronic microscopic observations. A mixture of eugenol at 2 mg ml(-1) and soy lecithin at 50 mg ml(-1) suppressed the phytotoxic symptoms produced by eugenol on apples and reduced the disease incidence of P. expansum, P. vagabunda, B. cinerea and M. fructigena to less than 7, 6, 4 and 2% respectively after 6 months of storage at 2 degrees C. The application of heated lecithin-formulated eugenol could become a successful alternative to the traditional fungicides used in postharvest disease management of apple fruit.

  2. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state.

  3. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-07-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (P<0.05) in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider.

  5. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p < 0.05) when applied UV irradiance and sample thickness were consistent. The reaction rate constant of patulin degradation in apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p < 0.05). Although further investigations are still needed, the results of this study demonstrated that UV radiation may be an effective method for

  6. Gabor feature-based apple quality inspection using kernel principal component analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated inspection of apple quality involves computer recognition of good apples and blemished apples based on geometric or statistical features derived from apple images. This paper introduces a Gabor feature-based kernel, principal component analysis (PCA) method; by combining Gabor wavelet rep...

  7. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same conditions as those for Fuji variety apples. We have determined that the risk of...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  12. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  13. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  14. The history of apple breeding in People’s Republic Of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    China is the leading apple production country in the world. Its apple area and production in 2006 was 1,898,000 hectares and 26,000,000 tons, accounting for more than 35% of the global apple area and production, respectively. New cultivars are very important to development of the apple industry. Chi...

  15. Dynamic transcription profiles of "Qinguan" apple (Malus × domestica) leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua; Li, Miaomiao; Jiao, Peng; Tao, Hongxia; Wei, Ningning; Ma, Fengwang; Zhang, Junke

    2015-01-01

    Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant's response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of "Qinguan" (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria) apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed. PMID:26528306

  16. Genes responding to water deficit in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) roots

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual plants adapt to their immediate environment using a combination of biochemical, morphological and life cycle strategies. Because woody plants are long-lived perennials, they cannot rely on annual life cycle strategies alone to survive abiotic stresses. In this study we used suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genes both up- and down-regulated in roots during water deficit treatment and recovery. In addition we followed the expression of select genes in the roots, leaves, bark and xylem of ‘Royal Gala’ apple subjected to a simulated drought and subsequent recovery. Results In agreement with studies from both herbaceous and woody plants, a number of common drought-responsive genes were identified, as well as a few not previously reported. Three genes were selected for more in depth analysis: a high affinity nitrate transporter (MdNRT2.4), a mitochondrial outer membrane translocase (MdTOM7.1), and a gene encoding an NPR1 homolog (MpNPR1-2). Quantitative expression of these genes in apple roots, bark and leaves was consistent with their roles in nutrition and defense. Conclusions Additional genes from apple roots responding to drought were identified using suppression subtraction hybridization compared to a previous EST analysis from the same organ. Genes up- and down-regulated during drought recovery in roots were also identified. Elevated levels of a high affinity nitrate transporter were found in roots suggesting that nitrogen uptake shifted from low affinity transport due to the predicted reduction in nitrate concentration in drought-treated roots. Suppression of a NPR1 gene in leaves of drought-treated apple trees may explain in part the increased disease susceptibility of trees subjected to dehydrative conditions. PMID:25004790

  17. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples. PMID:27651916

  18. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations.

    PubMed

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter Ma; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world's most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples. PMID:27651916

  19. Thermoaciduric Clostridium pasteurianum spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guoping; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2010-10-01

    Clostridium pasteurianum BB, a saccharolytic and spore-forming obligate anaerobe, was isolated and identified from shelf-stable apple juice that was responsible for multiple large spoilage outbreaks. The growth and sporulation conditions of C. pasteurianum were atypical compared with those previously published. C. pasteurianum spores were heat resistant in apple juice at pH 3.80, with D-values at 80, 85, and 90°C being 34.4, 15.9, and 4.4 min, respectively, and a z-value of 11°C. The survival curves for thermal inactivation obeyed linear first-order kinetics. Apple juice with varying pH values was used to determine the effect of pH on germination capability of C. pasteurianum spores. The spores were found to be able to germinate at pH as low as 4.3 in pH-adjusted apple juice at low contamination levels. It was confirmed by PCR that C. pasteurianum isolated from spoiled apple juice did not contain the genes for botulinum toxins B and E, which were more commonly found in neurotoxigenic butyric clostridia. Control of finished-juice pH to below 4.0 in combination with mild heating was proposed to prevent potential spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice made with spore-contaminated apple juice concentrate.

  20. Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

  1. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples.

  2. Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider.

    PubMed

    Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that

  3. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  4. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  5. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting.

    PubMed

    Gildemacher, Peter; Heijne, Bart; Silvestri, Massimiliano; Houbraken, Jos; Hoekstra, Ellen; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun

    2006-12-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulans, and the development of russet. All yeast inoculations aggravated russet, but Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporidiobolus pararoseus and A. pullulans did so to a greater extent than the other species. Both captan and dithianon significantly reduced russeting. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that inoculations with R. glutinis and S. pararoseus seemed to suppress other yeast species present on the apple surface.

  6. Decay study of pesticide residues in apple samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez Clavijo, M; Plaza Medina, M; Sanz Asensio, J; Galbán Bernal, J

    1996-07-26

    A method for monitoring pesticides in apple samples, including Soxhlet extraction, an evaporation step and capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection, is applied to a decay study of the carbamate pesticide ethiofencarb. The evaporation step is carried out by a surface nitrogen flow and the recoveries of ethiofencarb measured in standard solutions of ethyl acetate and apple extracts. The results of the decay studies show that ethiofencarb is degraded in the apple peel faster than in the interior of the fruit. The methodology is then applied to decay studies in the laboratory of the organophosphorus pesticides, diclofluanid, fenitrothion and malathion.

  7. Replanting St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, J.J.

    1986-05-01

    On May 18, 1980 an earthquake beneath the north side of Mt. St. Helens triggered the eruption of this volcano. This eruption caused damage to 160,000 acres of forests, meadows, lakes and streams. This paper discussed the reforestation of approximately 50,000 acres of devastated land which was located around the site of the eruption. It also discussed the natural recovery of this area and the reestablishment of ecosystems and rebuilding of habitats by the plants and animals.

  8. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    PubMed

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos. PMID:25721103

  9. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:26076968

  10. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  11. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  12. Polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity of skin and pulp of a rare apple from Marche region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. Results Catechins, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides, dihydrochalcone glycosides and one anthocyanin: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. Conclusion This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple. PMID:25067944

  13. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  14. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  15. Characterization of fludioxonil-resistant and pyrimethanil-resistant phenotypes of Penicillium expansum from apple.

    PubMed

    Li, H X; Xiao, C L

    2008-04-01

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold, a major postharvest disease of apple. Fludioxonil and pyrimethanil are two newly registered postharvest fungicides for pome fruit in the United States. To evaluate the potential risk of resistance development in P. expansum to the new postharvest fungicides, one isolate of each of thiabendazole-resistant (TBZ-R) and -sensitive (TBZ-S) P. expansum was exposed to UV radiation to generate fungicide-resistant mutants. Four fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants (EC(50) > 1,000 microg/ml) and four pyrimethanil-resistant mutants (EC(50) > 10 microg/ml) were tested for sensitivities to thiabendazole, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil, and fitness parameters including mycelial growth, sporulation on potato dextrose agar (PDA), sensitivity to osmotic stress, and pathogenicity and sporulation on apple fruit. The stability of resistance of the mutants was tested on PDA and apple fruit. Efficacy of the three fungicides to control blue mold incited by the mutants was evaluated on apple fruit. Six fungicide-resistant phenotypes were identified among the parental wild-type isolates and their mutants based upon their resistance levels. All four fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants were sensitive to pyrimethanil and retained the same phenotypes of resistance to TBZ as the parental isolates. All four pyrimethanil-resistant mutants had a low level of resistance to fludioxonil with a resistance factor >15. The two pyrimethanil-resistant mutants derived from a TBZ-S isolate became resistant to TBZ at 5 microg/ml. After 20 successive generations on PDA and four generations on apple fruit, the mutants retained the same phenotypes as the original generations. All mutants were pathogenic on apple fruit at both 0 and 20 degrees C, but fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants were less virulent and produced fewer conidia on apple fruit than pyrimethanil-resistant mutants and their parental wild-type isolates. Compared with the parental isolates

  16. Despite Raves for IBook, Tide Still Turns against Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Apple's latest laptop computer, the IBook, may have many admirers, but that few believe the company will ever regain prominence in higher education. Issues include increased competition from other computer vendors and software availability (EV)

  17. Apple pomace: a versatile substrate for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Albuquerque, Patrícia M; Streit, Fernanda; Esposito, Elisa; Ninow, Jorge L

    2008-01-01

    Apple pomace is the processing waste generated after apple juice manufacturing and represents up to 30% of the original fruit. This solid residue consists of a complex mixture of peel, core, seed, calyx, stem, and soft tissue. This residual material is a poor animal feed supplement because of its extremely low protein content and high amount of sugar. The application of agroindustrial by-products in bioprocesses offers a wide range of alternative substrates, thus helping solve pollution problems related to their disposal. Attempts have been made to use apple pomace to generate several value-added products, such as enzymes, single cell protein, aroma compounds, ethanol, organic acids, polysaccharides, and mushrooms. This article reviews recent developments regarding processes and products that employed apple pomace as a substrate for biotechnological applications.

  18. [Apple powder in the treatment of patients with chronic enteritis].

    PubMed

    Valenkevich, L N

    1993-01-01

    A manifest clinical response has been achieved in 38 patients with chronic enteritis kept on apple diet in the form of apple powder produced from apple juice refuse. Carbohydrate loading with starch (polysaccharide), saccharose (disaccharide), glucose (monosaccharide), d-xylose made it clear that the apple powder improves hydrolysis and carbohydrate absorption: by 30%, 23%, 32% and 40% for starch, saccharose, glucose and d-xylose, respectively. Attenuation of the inflammation in the small intestine was also evident from the tendency to normalization of some fecal intestinal enzymes activity (entero-kinase, alkaline phosphatase). Changes in the systems PGE-cAMP and PGF-cGMP are suggested to play a role in the emergence of malabsorption syndrome, diarrhea, structural lesions in small intestinal mucosa.

  19. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively.

  20. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control.

  1. Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2013-09-01

    Fresh apple juice treated with ultrasound (for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min, at 20 °C, 25 kHz frequency) was evaluated for different physico-chemical, Hunter color values, cloud value, antioxidant capacity, scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and microbial characteristics. No significant effect of sonication was observed on pH, total soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity of apple juice. Sonication significantly improved ascorbic acid, cloud value, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and differences in Hunter color values. Moreover, significant reduction in microbial population was observed. Findings of the present study suggested that sonication treatment could improve the quality of apple juice. It may successfully be employed for the processing of apple juice with improved quality and safety from consumer's health point of view.

  2. Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

    2014-11-01

    Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 °C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice.

  3. A study of ethylene in apple, red raspberry, and cherry.

    PubMed

    Blanpied, G D

    1972-04-01

    High ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (Malus sylvestris) and cherry (Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus), "June drop" of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). However, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with June drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. During the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. Ethylene remained low throughout the period of sweet and tart cherry ripening. The data obtained indicated marked ethylene gradients between adjacent tissues. Increases of ethylene in some tissues may have resulted from ethylene diffusion from adjacent tissues containing high levels of ethylene.

  4. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  5. Apples in Class: The Latest in Team Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibbin, Wendy Lea

    1985-01-01

    Describes the innovative uses of Apple microcomputers in elementary and secondary school classrooms. They include: (1) helping students understand geometric relationships using LOGO; (2) computer-based science workstations; (3) using word processing; and (4) other projects. (JN)

  6. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose. PMID:25477638

  7. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  8. Culturable fungi of stored 'golden delicious' apple fruits: a one-season comparison study of organic and integrated production systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Granado, José; Thürig, Barbara; Kieffer, Edith; Petrini, Liliane; Fliessbach, Andreas; Tamm, Lucius; Weibel, Franco P; Wyss, Gabriela S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of organic and integrated production systems on the culturable fungal microflora of stored apple fruits from five matched pairs of certified organic and integrated 'Golden Delicious' farms were studied at five representative production sites in Switzerland. Isolated fungi were identified morphologically. Colonization frequency (percentage of apples colonized), abundance (colony numbers), and diversity (taxon richness) were assessed for each orchard. The standard quality of the stored fruits was comparable for both organic and integrated apples and complied with national food hygiene standards. Yeasts (six taxa) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were the dominant epiphytes, filamentous fungi (21 taxa) the dominant endophytes. The most common fungi occurred at all sites and belonged to the "white" and "pink" yeasts, yeast-like A. pullulans, filamentous fungi Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and sterile filamentous fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis of the total fungal community revealed a clear differentiation among production systems and sites. Compared to integrated apples, organic apples had significantly higher frequencies of filamentous fungi, abundance of total fungi, and taxon diversity. The effects of the production system on the fungal microflora are most likely due to the different plant protection strategies. The incidence of potential mycotoxin producers such as Penicillium and Alternaria species was not different between production systems. We suggest that higher fungal diversity may generally be associated with organic production and may increase the level of beneficial and antagonistically acting species known for their potential to suppress apple pathogens, which may be an advantage to organic apples, e.g., in respect to natural disease control. PMID:18473135

  9. Cloning and characterization of miRNAs and their targets, including a novel miRNA-targeted NBS-LRR protein class gene in apple (Golden Delicious).

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Lu, You; Bai, Songlin; Zhang, Wennan; Duan, Xuwei; Meng, Dong; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Aide; Zhou, Zongshan; Li, Tianzhong

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression in plants. 146 miRNAs were identified from apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) by bioinformatic analysis and RNA library sequencing. From these, 135 were conserved and 11 were novel miRNAs. Target analysis predicted one of the novel miRNAs, Md-miRLn11 (Malus domestica microRNA Ln11), targeted an apple nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class protein coding gene (Md-NBS). 5' RACE assay confirmed the ability of Md-miRLn11 to cleave Md-NBS at the 11-12-nt position. Analysis of the expression of Md-miRLn11 and Md-NBS during the optimum invasion period in 40 apple varieties showed that the expression of Md-NBS gene in resistant varieties is higher than in susceptible varieties, with an inverse pattern for Md-miRLn11. Seedlings from the resistant apple variety 'JiGuan' were used to carry out an Agrobacterium infiltration assay, and then inoculated with the apple leaf spot disease. The result showed a clear decline of disease resistance in JiGuan apples. In contrast, the susceptible variety 'FuJi' infiltrated with the Md-NBS gene showed a significant increase in disease resistance. Based on the above results, we propose that Md-miRLn11 regulates Md-NBS gene expression in particular under the condition of pathogen infection, and that the Md-miRLn11 targeting P-loop site may regulate many NBS-LRR protein class genes in woody plants.

  10. Reducing patulin contamination in apple juice by using inactive yeast.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W

    2011-01-01

    The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed.

  11. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  12. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  13. Identification and mapping of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora (Ea) is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease of many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bac...

  14. FIBRILLIN4 Is Required for Plastoglobule Development and Stress Resistance in Apple and Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra K.; Maximova, Siela N.; Jensen, Philip J.; Lehman, Brian L.; Ngugi, Henry K.; McNellis, Timothy W.

    2010-01-01

    The fibrillins are a large family of chloroplast proteins that have been linked with stress tolerance and disease resistance. FIBRILLIN4 (FIB4) is found associated with the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, thylakoids, and plastoglobules, which are chloroplast compartments rich in lipophilic antioxidants. For this study, FIB4 expression was knocked down in apple (Malus 3 domestica) using RNA interference. Plastoglobule osmiophilicity was decreased in fib4 knockdown (fib4 KD) tree chloroplasts compared with the wild type, while total plastoglobule number was unchanged. Compared with the wild type, net photosynthetic CO2 fixation in fib4 KD trees was decreased at high light intensity but was increased at low light intensity. Furthermore, fib4 KD trees produced more anthocyanins than the wild type when transferred from low to high light intensity, indicating greater sensitivity to high light stress. Relative to the wild type, fib4 KD apples were more sensitive to methyl viologen and had higher superoxide levels during methyl viologen treatment. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fib4 mutants and fib4 KD apples were more susceptible than their wild-type counterparts to the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato and Erwinia amylovora, respectively, and were more sensitive to ozone-induced tissue damage. Following ozone stress, plastoglobule osmiophilicity decreased in wild-type apple and remained low in fib4 KD trees; total plastoglobule number increased in fib4 KD apples but not in the wild type. These results indicate that FIB4 is required for plastoglobule development and resistance to multiple stresses. This study suggests that FIB4 is involved in regulating plastoglobule content and that defective regulation of plastoglobule content leads to broad stress sensitivity and altered photosynthetic activity. PMID:20813909

  15. The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Downey, Luke A; Croft, Kevin D; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids and nitrate in a fruit and vegetable diet may be protective against cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline through effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. The circulating NO pool is increased via distinct pathways by dietary flavonoids and nitrate. Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of apples, rich in flavonoids, and spinach, rich in nitrate, independently and in combination on NO status, cognitive function and mood in a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial with healthy men and women (n = 30). The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach and apple + spinach) were compared. Endpoints included plasma nitric oxide status (determined by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO)), plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite, urinary nitrate and nitrite as well as cognitive function (determined using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery) and mood. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher plasma RXNO. A significant increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as urinary nitrate and nitrite was observed with spinach and apple + spinach compared to control. No significant effect was observed on cognitive function or mood. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augmented NO status acutely with no concomitant improvements or deterioration in cognitive function and mood.

  16. CLIPS, AppleEvents, and AppleScript: Integrating CLIPS with commercial software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.

  17. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  18. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  19. Results after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth. II. Periodontal healing and the role of physiologic storage and antiresorptive-regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas; Kirschner, Horst

    2005-04-01

    The status of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and of the pulp are decisive for the healing of avulsed and replanted teeth. A tooth rescue box was developed and distributed to offer optimal storage conditions for avulsed teeth. The therapy comprised extraoral endodontic treatment and applications of medicaments to enhance periodontal healing. In this long-term clinical study the healing results following avulsion and replantation were investigated. Twenty-eight permanent teeth in 24 patients were evaluated. The extraoral storage media and periods varied considerably. Soon after avulsion six teeth were stored in a cell culture medium (tooth rescue box Dentosafe) for 1-53 h; the PDL was defined as not compromised. Sixteen teeth were stored in a non-physiologic situation temporarily, the PDL was considered as compromised. Six teeth were stored in non-physiologic conditions for longer periods; the condition of the PDL was defined as hopeless. On 14 teeth antiresorptive-regenerative therapy (ART) with the local application of glucocorticoids and enamel matrix derivative and the systemic administration of doxycyclin was used. In all teeth extraoral endodontic treatment by retrograde insertion of posts was performed. The mean observation period was 31.2 months (+/-24.1; 5.1-100.2; median: 23.8). All six teeth rescued physiologically healed with a functional PDL (functional healing, FH) irrespective of the storage period. Of eight teeth with a compromised PDL on which ART was used, three teeth healed with a functional PDL. All other teeth showed replacement resorption, in three teeth additionally infection-related resorption was recorded. The predominant influence on the healing results was the immediate physiologic rescue of avulsed teeth (chi-square, P = 0.0001). The use of ART seemed to support FH (chi-square, P = 0.0547) in teeth with a compromised PDL. No other factors (maturity of roots, crown fractures, gender, age, antibiotics) were related to healing. In a linear

  20. Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Hooper, Cassandra; Shi, Xingyi

    2012-12-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic and lead in drinking water have long been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and new regulations regarding the presence of these contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in 2009. No comparable exposure limits or regulations are available, however, for juices and other beverages that may contain arsenic and lead. In the study described in this article, 20 apple juices (or ciders), 15 apple-containing juices, one grape, and one citrus juice were analyzed for arsenic and lead. Arsenic was detected in all juices while lead was detected in more than 94% of juices analyzed. Twelve samples (32%) demonstrated arsenic levels nearly at or above the drinking water exposure limit of 10 parts per billion. No juices contained lead above drinking water exposure limits. Expanding drinking water limits to include juices (and other frequently consumed beverages) would better protect consumers while regular testing of these juices would better inform consumers of the risks posed by specific juices and brands. PMID:23270108

  1. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    PubMed

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  2. [Hyperspectral estimation models of chlorophyll content in apple leaves].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun

    2012-05-01

    The present study chose the apple orchard of Shandong Agricultural University as the study area to explore the method of apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation by hyperspectral analysis technology. Through analyzing the characteristics of apple leaves' hyperspectral curve, transforming the original spectral into first derivative, red edge position and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) respectively, and making the correlation analysis and regression analysis of these variables with the chlorophyll content to establish the estimation models and test to select the high fitting precision models. Results showed that the fitting precision of the estimation model with variable of LCI and the estimation model with variable of the first derivative in the band of 521 and 523 nm was the highest. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.845 and 0.839, the root mean square errors RMSE were 2.961 and 2.719, and the relative errors RE% were 4.71% and 4.70%, respectively. Therefore LCI and the first derivative are the important index for apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation. The models have positive significance to guide the production of apple cultivation.

  3. [Study on hyperspectral characteristics of apple florescence canopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Lei, Tong; Li, Xi-Can; Chen, Zhi-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The present study aims to systematically analyze the hyperspectral characteristics of apple florescence canopy and explore the sensitive spectra to provide the theoretical basis for large area apple information extracting and remote sensing retrieval for nutrition diagnosis. Based on the 120 hyperspectral data of apple florescence canopy acquired with ASD Field Spec 3 portable object spectrometer, the effects of different sample numbers on hyperspectral characteristics were analyzed. Using variance analysis method, the hyperspectral characteristics of apple florescence canopy and the sensitive wave bands were obtained. The results showed that with the increase in cumulative sample numbers, the hyperspectrum curves of apple florescence became stable and smooth. At the 550 nm green peak and the 760-1,300 nm reflection plateau, the reflection rate reduced with the increase in flowering amount, while in the red valley of 670 nm, the reflection rate increased with the increase in flowering amount; At the wave bands of 350-500, 600-680 and 760-1,300 nm, the variance analysis results showed very significant differences, indicating that they were sensitive wave bands of florescence canopy. With the increase in flowering amount, the red-edge position, the red-edge slope and red edge area tended to decrease gradually. PMID:20038043

  4. The amount of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fruits of different varieties of apple tree--Malus domectica L.

    PubMed

    Gogia, N; Bukia, Z; Atamashvili, Ts; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2015-05-01

    This article presents data on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the juice and residue, after squeezing the juice in the fruit of different varieties of Apple tree-Malus domestica L. The high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity is characterized by endemic grade Kekhura, compared with introduced varieties. Found that in the fruit all varieties of apples mainly there is a correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, except for fruit varieties of Golden, in which the average measurement of polyphenols fixed high antioxidant activity. Shows that in residue, after squeezing the juice content of high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, which implies its use as biologically active additives for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  5. Investigation of dietary important components in selected red fleshed apples by GC-MS and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Andrea; Tóth, Magdolna; Blazics, Balázs; Héthelyi, Éva; Szarka, Szabolcs; Ficsor, Emese; Ficzek, Gitta; Lemberkovics, Éva; Blázovics, Anna

    2012-12-01

    Three red-fleshed apple cultivars (Malus 'Geneva': GFV-03, Hungarian hybrid: GFV-04, Malus pumila Niedwetzkyana: GFV-05) were investigated for their chemical composition by sHS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analytical techniques. In cultivars GFV-03 and GFV-05 sesquiterpene α-farnesene were dominant while the alphatic esters were present mostly in traces. In GFV-04 - the new disease resistant advanced selection of the Hungarian apple breeding program - hexanol and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were present in larger amounts while the amount of α-farnesene was lower than the other two cultivars. Using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS four phenolic acid derivatives, four anthocyanins, six flavonoids of quercetin derivatives and two dihydrochalcone phloretin glycosides were identified or characterized among the detected sixteen phenolic compounds. PMID:22565146

  6. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  7. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community.

  8. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing "replant problem" in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  9. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-02-17

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple.

  10. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-02-17

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple. PMID:26813795

  11. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  12. Return bloom in 'Stayman' apple with NAA and/or ethephon: 2007 through 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following a season in which apple trees produce a full crop, many cultivars fail to produce enough bloom the next year for an adequate crop. Obtaining good return bloom is a problem for many apple growers. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are recommended to enhance return bloom in apple. This study...

  13. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

  14. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  15. Effect of home processing on the distribution and reduction of pesticide residues in apples.

    PubMed

    Kong, Z; Shan, W; Dong, F; Liu, X; Xu, J; Li, M; Zheng, Y

    2012-08-01

    The effect of home processing (washing, peeling, coring and juicing) on residue levels of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim in apple segments was investigated. The pesticide residues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and GC with a flame photometric (FPD) and electron capture detection (ECD). The results indicated that the pesticide residue levels in the apple peel and core were higher compared with in the apple flesh. After peeled and cored apple was processed into apple juice and pomace, chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and tebuconazole were concentrated in the apple pomace. However, residues of acetamiprid and carbendazim were exceptions. The apple pomace was free of acetamiprid, which was mainly present in the apple juice. After washing the mean loss of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim from apples under recommended dosage and twofold higher dosage were 17-21%, 6.7-7.1%, 13-32%, 42-67% and 47-50%, respectively. The pesticide residues were significantly reduced in the edible part of the apple except for β-cypermethrin during peeling and coring process. The removal effect of apple juicing was found to be the most pronounced on β-cypermethrin residue, which was reduced in the range of 81-84%, and the reductions of chlorpyrifos, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim upon apple juicing were in the range of 15-36%. PMID:22738391

  16. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  17. 78 FR 11173 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  20. 77 FR 791 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... Kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... use of kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  2. Teaching Bad Apples: A Fun Way to Tackle Difficult Teaching Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Nathaniel; Betrus, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching Bad Apples" is a game developed in 2014 for current and future teachers. It plays much like "Apples to Apples" or "Cards Against Humanity," with each player in turn reading a situation card, followed by the other players choosing their response cards. Each situation, however dramatic or bizarre, is…

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  6. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  7. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high resolution and…

  8. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... antidumping duty order on imports of non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China (65 FR 35606). Following... continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of non- frozen concentrated apple juice from China (70 FR... COMMISSION Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States International...

  9. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  10. Alteration of 'Granny Smith' Apple Peel Metabolic Profiles by Postharvest UV/Visable Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light exposure stimulates an array of responses in apple peel including photosynthesis and pigment metabolism. While the specifics of many metabolic processes stimulated by light are known, impacts of light on primary metabolism in apple peel are relatively uncharacterized. ‘Granny Smith’ apples, ...

  11. Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  12. Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. Apple IIGS Computer Appleworks Data Base Training Mini Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    These training minicourse materials include class schedules, a description of class composition, class outlines, and a list of handouts for using AppleWorks database applications with the Apple IIGS computer in language arts, social studies, and science. Classes for each content area include introductions to the Apple IIGS computer, to the…

  13. Apple peels--a versatile biomass for water purification?

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-05-22

    The presence of anions such as chromate, arsenate, and arsenite in drinking water is a major health concern in many parts of the world due to their high toxicity. Removal of such anions from water using low cost biomass is an efficient and affordable treatment process. Owing to the easy availability and biodegradability, we chose to use apple peel as a substrate for our investigations. Zirconium cations were immobilized onto the apple peel surface and used for the extraction of anions. Zirconium loaded apple peels were used to extract anions such as phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presence of Zr cations on the apple peel surface was characterized using XPS. The modified adsorbent was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. Zr treated apple peels showed efficient adsorption toward AsO2(-) (15.64 mg/g), AsO4(3-) (15.68 mg/g), Cr2O7(2-) (25.28 mg/g), and PO4(3-) (20.35 mg/g) anions. The adsorption and desorption studies revealed the adsorption mechanism involves electrostatic interactions. Anion removal efficiency was estimated by batch adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetic parameters for all anions at different concentrations were described using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Langumir and Freundlich isotherms were used to validate our adsorption data. Arsenate and chromate anions were strongly adsorbed at the pH range from 2 to 6, while arsenite was extracted efficiently between pH 9 and 10. Overall, the Zr immobilized apple peel is an efficient adsorbent for common anionic pollutants.

  14. Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL

    SciTech Connect

    Errion, S.M.; Thommes, M.M. Caruthers, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL (ANL/TM 452) explains how Argonne computer users (with CMS, MVS, or VAX/VMS accounts) can print quality text and graphics on the Apple LaserWriter. Currently, applications at Argonne that are compatible with the Apple LaserWriter include Waterloo Script, CA/ISSCO graphics software (i.e., Cuechart, Tellagraf, and Disspla), SAS/Graph, ANSYS (version 4.2), and some personal computer test and graphics software. This manual does not attempt to cover use of the Apple LaserWriter with other applications, though some information on the handling of PostScript-compatible files may be valid for other applications. Refer to the documentation of those applications to learn how they work with the Apple LaserWriter. Most of the information in this manual applies to the Allied Linotype L300P typesetter in Building 222. However, the typesetter is not a high volume output device and should be used primarily for high quality (1250 and 2500 dots per inch) final copy output for Laboratory publications prior to making printing plates. You should print all drafts and proof pages on LaserWriers or other printers compatible with the PostScript page description language. Consult with Graphic Arts (at extension 2-5603) to determine the availability of the typesetter for printing the final copy of your document or graphics application. Since the Apple LaserWriter itself produces good quality output (300 dots per inch), we expect that most internal documents consisting of test or graphics will continue to be printed at LaserWriters distributed throughout the Laboratory. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694

  16. Extrafloral nectar in an apple ecosystem to enhance biological control.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R; Krawczyk, Greg

    2010-10-01

    A common goal of conservation biological control is to enhance biodiversity and increase abundance and effectiveness of predators and parasitoids. Although many studies report an increase in abundance of natural enemies, it has been difficult to document increases in rates of biological control. To enhance parasitism of the tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), alternate food was provided by interplanting peaches bearing extrafloral nectaries into apple (Malus spp.) orchards. Laboratory studies showed that the presence of nectar increased longevity and parasitism rates by Goniozus floridanus (Bethylidae), the dominant parasitoid of tufted apple bud moth in West Virginia. In orchard studies, we found the total number of hymenopteran parasitoids was higher on peach (Prunus spp.) trees than on adjacent apple trees. Abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera also was significantly higher on the side of traps facing away from rather than toward peach trees, indicating attraction to peach trees. However, total parasitism rates of tufted apple bud moth were not affected by the presence of peach extrafloral nectar in any field studies. Insect injury to fruit at harvest showed that fruit from orchards with interplanted peach trees had less injury from San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) and stink bugs (Pentatomidae) than fruit from an apple monoculture. Although interplanting with peach trees did not produce the hypothesized result of increased biological control, the experiment did have beneficial results for pest management. These results demonstrate the importance of collecting data on variables beyond the targeted species when evaluating habitat manipulation experiments to fully assess the impact on the ecosystem.

  17. A method of analysis for T-2 toxin and neosolaniol by UPLC-MS/MS in apple fruit inoculated with Trichothecium roseum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yamei; Xue, Huali; Bi, Yang; Li, Yongcai; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Shen, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Trichothecenes are one of the most important groups of mycotoxins produced by Trichothecium roseum, which causes core rot of apple. A reliable and sensitive method was developed and successfully applied for the rapid detection of trichothecenes including T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in harvested apple using UPLC-MS/MS. After the extraction of the two mycotoxins from the apple matrix with methanol/water (80/20, v/v), the concentrated extracts were cleaned-up by PriboFast M270 columns and then analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. T-2 toxin and neosolaniol were effectively separated as unique peaks. The validity of this method was established by its linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9995), precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 3.6%), accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection of 2-5 μg kg(-1), limit of quantification of 5-10 μg kg(-1) and average recovery of 73-96%. Levels of T-2 toxin were found in the range 7.1-128.4 µg kg(-1) in the core rot lesion of three cultivars apple (cvs. Red Delicious, Fuji and Ralls). T-2 was detected not only in the lesion, but also in the tissue without any disease symptoms. However, neosolaniol was only detected in the lesion on 'Red Delicious' apples. In addition, the concentration of T-2 toxin in the susceptible cultivar (cv. Fuji) was significantly higher than that in the resistant one (cv. Ralls). This method proved to be suitable at detecting T-2 and neosolaniol simultaneously in apples infected with T. roseum.

  18. Differential Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Gene Family Members in Fire-Blight-Infected Apple ‘Holsteiner Cox’ 1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M.; Belkheir, Asma K.; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple ‘Golden Delicious’, nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple ‘Holsteiner Cox,’ heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple ‘Cox Orange,’ expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  19. Ocular toxicity by seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple).

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Harsha; Kugar, Thungappa; Shivanna, Yathish; Agrawal, Archita; Shetty, Rohit

    2016-08-01

    Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6-12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid. PMID:27688289

  20. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.