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Sample records for apple replant disease

  1. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  2. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  3. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  4. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  5. Apple Replant Disease: Role of microbial ecology in cause and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. Development of non-fumigant alternatives for the control of this disease has been hindered by the absence of consensus concerning the etiology...

  6. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  7. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  8. Characterization of apple replant disease-associated microbial communities over multiple growth periods using next-generation sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replant disease in apple occurs as a result of incompletely understood and variable complexes of soil-borne pathogens that can build up over time in orchard soil. This disease limits economic viability of newly established orchards on replant sites and results in reduced productivity for the life of...

  9. Apple replant disease: role of microbial ecology in cause and control.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Manici, Luisa M

    2012-01-01

    Replant disease of apple is common to all major apple growing regions of the world. Difficulties in defining disease etiology, which can be exacerbated by abiotic factors, have limited progress toward developing alternatives to soil fumigation for disease control. However, the preponderance of data derived from studies of orchard soil biology employing multidisciplinary approaches has defined a complex of pathogens/parasites as causal agents of the disease. Approaches to manipulate microbial resources endemic to the orchard soil system have been proposed to induce a state of general soil suppressiveness to replant disease. Such a long-term strategy may benefit the existing orchard through extending the period of economic viability and reduce overall disease pressure to which young trees are exposed during establishment of successive plantings on the site. Alternatively, more near-term methods have been devised to achieve specific quantitative and qualitative changes in soil biology during the period of orchard renovation that may lead to effective disease suppression.

  10. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  11. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular responses in Malus domestica 'M26' roots affected by apple replant disease.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Stefan; Bartsch, Melanie; Winkelmann, Traud

    2017-06-01

    Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple 'M26' roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.

  13. Grass residues as a sustainable carbon source in application of anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of apple nursery replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for control of replant disease in an apple nursery setting. Treatments applied in a field trial conducted at an experimental orchard in Washington State included ASD using orchard grass residues (GR; 20 t ha-1) as ...

  14. Differential molecular response of apple rootstocks to replant disease causing soil-borne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A diversity of soil-borne fungal pathogens cause applereplant diseases” (ARD) with a range of symptoms from diminished productivity to tree death. The molecular mechanisms behind host resistance to these necrotrophic pathogens in perennial root tissues are unknown. It is known from other pathosy...

  15. A multi-phasic approach reveals that apple replant disease is caused by multiple biological agents, with some agents acting synergistically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of ARD in South Africa in six orchard soils, using a multiphasic approach under glasshouse ...

  16. Illumina Amplicon Sequencing of 16S rRNA Tag Reveals Bacterial Community Development in the Rhizosphere of Apple Nurseries at a Replant Disease Site and a New Planting Site

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jia; Wei, Qinping

    2014-01-01

    We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant) and a new planting site (NewPlant) in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of ‘Fuji’/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil) and from the new planting site (NewSoil) was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant). More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria). The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition. PMID:25360786

  17. Illumina amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA tag reveals bacterial community development in the rhizosphere of apple nurseries at a replant disease site and a new planting site.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jia; Wei, Qinping

    2014-01-01

    We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant) and a new planting site (NewPlant) in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of 'Fuji'/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil) and from the new planting site (NewSoil) was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant). More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria). The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition.

  18. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites.

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as "replant disease (RD)". Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The detection

  19. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J.; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as “replant disease (RD)”. Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The

  20. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  1. Bacterial diseases affecting apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial diseases of plants are usually difficult to control and often require a combination of control measures to successfully manage the disease. There are often stark differences between the means available to control bacterial diseases in annual crops versus a woody tree crop, such as apple. ...

  2. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  3. Characterization of Cylindrocarpon populations associated with replant disease of almond and peach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth and cumulative yield of replanted almond and peach orchards are often seriously compromised by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne complex affecting successive plantings of Prunus. Previously, our culture-based (CB) and culture-independent (CI) examinations of fungal,...

  4. Metabolic composition of apple rootstock rhizodeposits differs in a genotype-specific manner and affects growth of subsequent plantings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The percolated rhizodeposit composition and quantity of 4 apple rootstock genotypes grown in sand was examined via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry time-of-flight, specifically contrasting the rhizodeposits of apple replant disease susceptible genotypes (M26, M9Nic29) with apple replant disea...

  5. Differential transcriptional regulation of defense-associated genes among apple rootstock genotypes in response to Pythium ultimum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) poses a substantial threat to orchard establishment on replant sites. Deployment of resistant apple rootstocks is an ecologically desired, cost effective and durable disease control strategy particular for perennial production system. Candidate genes which function in pat...

  6. Managing the almond and stone fruit replant disease complex with less soil fumigant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As much as one-third of California’s almond and stone fruit acreage is infested with potentially debilitating plant parasitic nematodes, and even more of the land is impacted by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne disease complex that suppresses early growth and cumulative yi...

  7. Quantification of Cylindrocarpon in roots of almond and peach trees from orchards affected by Prunus replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prunus replant disease (PRD) is a poorly understood soilborne complex that suppresses replanted almond and peach orchards in California. Using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches, we found Cylindrocarpon (Cyl) macrodidymum among microorganisms associated with PRD. We developed a qPC...

  8. Identification and Characterization of Salvia miltiorrhizain miRNAs in Response to Replanting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaole; Liu, Lin; He, Zhigui; Yang, Shushen; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Replanting disease is a major factor limiting the artificial cultivation of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. At present, little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to replanting disease. In this study, two small RNA libraries obtained from first-year (FPR) and second-year plant (SPR) roots were subjected to a high-throughput sequencing method. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 110 known and 7 novel miRNAs were annotated in the roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Moreover, 39 known and 2 novel miRNAs were identified and validated for differential expression in FPR compared with SPR. Thirty-one of these miRNAs were further analyzed by qRT-PCR, which revealed that 5 miRNAs negatively regulated the expression levels of 7 target genes involved in root development or stress responses. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of S. miltiorrhiza in response to replanting disease but also demonstrates that 5 miRNAs may be involved in these responses. Interactions among the differentially expressed miRNAs with their targets may form an important component of the molecular basis of replanting disease in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27483013

  9. Microbial community analysis of apple rhizosphere around Bohai Gulf.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jihang; Song, Zhen; Yang, Xiaotong; Mao, Zhiquan; Nie, Xiaohong; Guo, Hui; Peng, Xiawei

    2017-08-21

    Bohai Gulf is the main area for apple tree cultivation in China. Consecutive replanting significantly affects the yield and quality of apple trees in this area. Microecological imbalance in apple trees' rhizospheres caused by variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of apple replant disease (ARD). This study analysed the microbial communities of the rhizospheres of perennial apple trees (PAT) and apple tree saplings under replanting (ATS) around Bohai Gulf using high-throughput sequencing. The results revealed increased populations of typical pathogenic fungi Verticillium and bacteria Xanthomonadaceae, and decreased populations of beneficial bacterial populations Pseudomonas and Bacillus with replanting, suggesting that competition between pathogens and beneficial microbes varies according to the ratio of pathogens to beneficial microbes in rhizosphere soil under the replanting system. Meanwhile, replanting was accompanied by an increase in the antagonistic bacteria Arthrobacter and fungus Chaetomium, suggesting that increased numbers of pathogens can lead to more instances of antagonism. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed site position and the main soil properties (pH, organic matter, available N, available K, available P, and moisture) affected the microbial community composition. It found clear differences in soil microbial communities and demonstrated a better understanding of the causes for ARD.

  10. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  11. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agent of ARD, the genetic response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. In t...

  12. Isolation and characterization of apple Pythium ultimum response genes and their ethylene and jasmonate mediated transcriptional regulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agents of ARD, the molecular response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. I...

  13. Incidence and pathogenicity of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) replant disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode, Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ...

  14. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  15. Genotype-specific responses of apple roots to pathogenic infection by Pythium ultimum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance mechanisms employed to defend against soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are poorly understood, particularly with respect to perennial tree fruit crops such as apple. Pythium ultimum is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease (ARD). Different levels of tolera...

  16. Replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Bhardwaj, Praveen

    2011-06-01

    The current concepts of replantation surgery, a procedure that has been practiced for half a century, can be discussed in terms of patients' demands and expectations, present indications for the procedure, available evidence that influences decision making, and technical refinements practiced to produce better outcomes.

  17. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  18. Reduced rate brassica seed meal amendment efficacy is apple rootstock genotype-dependent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassica seed meal formulations have been shown to provide effect control of the biologically complex disease phenomenon termed apple replant disease (Mazzola et al., 2015). The seed meal formulation when used at an application rate of 3 ton ac-1 provided disease control that was in some instances ...

  19. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  20. Sustainable approaches to control postharvest diseases of apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term storage of apples faces challenges in maintaining fruit quality and reducing losses from postharvest diseases. Currently, the apple industry relies mainly on synthetic fungicides to control postharvest decays. However, the limitations to fungicides such as the development of resistance i...

  1. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  2. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Ganpati B; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P M; Cline, W O; Agudelo, P; Nyczepir, A P; Noe, J P

    2013-06-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  3. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  4. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  5. Suppression of Specific Apple Root Pathogens by Brassica napus Seed Meal Amendment Regardless of Glucosinolate Content.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, M; Granatstein, D M; Elfving, D C; Mullinix, K

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT The impact of Brassica napus seed meal on the microbial complex that incites apple replant disease was evaluated in greenhouse trials. Regardless of glucosinolate content, seed meal amendment at a rate of 0.1% (vol/vol) significantly enhanced growth of apple and suppressed apple root infection by Rhizoctonia spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans. High glucosinolate B. napus cv. Dwarf Essex seed meal amendments did not consistently suppress soil populations of Pythium spp. or apple root infection by this pathogen. Application of a low glucosinolate containing B. napus seed meal at a rate of 1.0% (vol/vol) resulted in a significant increase in recovery of Pythium spp. from apple roots, and a corresponding reduction in apple seedling root biomass. When applied at lower rates, B. napus seed meal amendments enhanced populations of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., but these bacteria were not recovered from soils amended with seed meal at a rate of 2% (vol/vol). Seed meal amendments resulted in increased soil populations of total bacteria and actinomycetes. B. napus cv. Dwarf Essex seed meal amendments were phytotoxic to apple when applied at a rate of 2% (vol/vol), and phytotoxicity was not diminished when planting was delayed for as long as 12 weeks after application. These findings suggest that B. napus seed meal amendments can be a useful tool in the management of apple replant disease and, in the case of Rhizoctonia spp., that disease control operates through mechanisms other than production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products.

  6. Major upper limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Chew, W Y; Tsai, T M

    2001-08-01

    Major amputations remain a challenge to the replantation surgeon. Proper patient selection, good surgical skills, and cooperation among the patient, surgeon, and rehabilitation team help achieve a better outcome.

  7. Digit and hand replantation.

    PubMed

    Beris, Alexandros E; Lykissas, Marios G; Korompilias, Anastasios V; Mitsionis, Gregory I; Vekris, Marios D; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P

    2010-09-01

    For the past 45 years, the advent of microsurgery has led to replantation of almost every amputated part such as distal phalanx, finger tip, etc. Replantation of digits and hand can restore not only circulation, but also function and cosmetic of the amputated part. The goals of replantation are to restore circulation and regain sufficient function and sensation of the amputated part. Strict selection criteria are necessary to optimize the functional result. The management of this type of injuries includes meticulous preoperative management, microsurgical experience and continuous postoperative care. Among various factors influencing the outcome, the most important are the type and the level of injury, ischemia time, history of diabetes, age, sex, and smoking history. During the replantation procedure, bone stabilization, tendon repair, arterial anastomoses, venous anastomoses, nerve coaptation, and skin coverage should be performed. All structures should be repaired primarily, unless a large nerve gap or a flexor tendon avulsion injury is present. Adequate postoperative evaluation is mandatory to avoid early or late complications. To improve functional results, many replantation patients may need further reconstructive surgery.

  8. Replantation after traumatic avulsion.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Huseyin; Atalayin, Cigdem; Kayrak, Gul

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the case of an accidentally avulsed maxillary central incisor kept in saline solution from the moment of trauma until its replantation 3 h later in a 13-year-old girl. The avulsed tooth was replanted back into the alveolar socket and splinted with composite resin. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was used to prevent inflammatory root resorption. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during 27 months follow-up. During the 15 months follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable functional position and did not reveal replacement resorption. But mild infraocclusion and root resorption were developed 21 months after replantation. The amount of damage to tooth and supporting structures, emergency treatment and follow-up period play a role in the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. It can be recommended to keep the avulsed tooth in saline solution at least when more appropriate storage media are not on handle immediately.

  9. Replantation after traumatic avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Huseyin; Atalayin, Cigdem; Kayrak, Gul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the case of an accidentally avulsed maxillary central incisor kept in saline solution from the moment of trauma until its replantation 3 h later in a 13-year-old girl. The avulsed tooth was replanted back into the alveolar socket and splinted with composite resin. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was used to prevent inflammatory root resorption. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during 27 months follow-up. During the 15 months follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable functional position and did not reveal replacement resorption. But mild infraocclusion and root resorption were developed 21 months after replantation. The amount of damage to tooth and supporting structures, emergency treatment and follow-up period play a role in the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. It can be recommended to keep the avulsed tooth in saline solution at least when more appropriate storage media are not on handle immediately. PMID:24883032

  10. Unfavorable results in replantation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abraham G

    2013-05-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  11. Virulence characteristics accounting for fire blight disease severity in apple trees and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven A; Ngugi, Henry K; Halbrendt, Noemi O; O'Keefe, Grace; Lehman, Brian; Travis, James W; Sinn, Judith P; McNellis, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, the most destructive bacterial disease of rosaceous plants, including apple and pear. Here, we compared the virulence levels of six E. amylovora strains (Ea273, CFBP1367, Ea581a, E2002a, E4001a, and HKN06P1) on apple trees and seedlings. The strains produced a range of disease severity, with HKN06P1 producing the greatest disease severity in every assay. We then compared virulence characteristic expression among the six strains, including growth rates in immature apple fruit, amylovoran production, levansucrase activity, biofilm formation, carbohydrate utilization, hypersensitive cell death elicitation in tobacco leaves, and protein secretion profiles. Multiple regression analysis indicated that three of the virulence characteristics (amylovoran production, biofilm formation, and growth in immature apple fruit) accounted for >70% of the variation in disease severity on apple seedlings. Furthermore, in greenhouse-grown 'Gala' trees, >75% of the variation in disease severity was accounted for by five of the virulence characteristics: amylovoran production, biofilm formation, growth in immature apple fruit, hypersensitive cell death elicitation, and sorbitol utilization. This study demonstrates that virulence factor expression levels account for differences in disease severity caused by wild isolates of E. amylovora on apple trees.

  12. Replantation in the mutilated hand.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Lee, W P Andrew; Pagenstert, Geert I; Pagensteert, Geert I; May, James W

    2003-02-01

    With the evolution of surgical techniques and scientific technology, replantation has become more refined, establishing specific indications for replantation, rituals for preparation, efficient techniques to ultimately minimize ischemia times, improved survival rates, guidelines for postoperative care, strategies for treating complications, and goals for outcomes. Patient satisfaction hinges on their level of expectation as defined and explained in the preoperative discussion and informed consent. Studies have demonstrated patients can be expected to achieve 50% function and 50% sensation of the replanted part. Initially all that was amputated was replanted, as surgeons adopted the philosophy of George C. Ross (1843-1892): "Any fool can cut off an arm or leg but it takes a surgeon to save one." Forty years after the first replant (1962-2002), however, we recognize the ultimate goal: not merely to preserve all living tissue through nonselective replantation, but rather to preserve one's quality of life by improving their function and appearance. This objective to care for the patient with the intent to optimize function and appearance is important not only to the replantation of amputations but to all mutilated hand injuries.

  13. Identification and molecular properties of a 306 nucleotide viroid associated with apple dimple fruit disease.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, F; Aparicio, F; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Flores, R

    1996-11-01

    A new viroid associated with an apple fruit disorder similar to, but more severe than, the dapple apple disease induced in some varieties by apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) has been found. The new viroid, tentatively termed apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd), is a circular RNA of 306 nucleotides which adopts a quasi-rod-like conformation of minimum free energy. It contains the core nucleotides of the central conserved region (CCR) of the ASSVd group as well as the terminal conserved region (TCR) present in all members of the ASSVd and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) monophyletic groups. ADFVd has the highest sequence similarity with ASSVd and the 294 nucleotide citrus viroid CVd-IIIb sharing with the latter an almost identical left terminal domain. The right- and left-hand termini of ADFVd are formed by almost perfect duplications of sequences found in the CCR upper and lower strands, respectively, of PSTVd and closely related viroids.

  14. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sanchit; Date, Shivprasad V.; Gupta, Arunesh; Baliarsing, Amresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V. PMID:27274131

  15. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  16. [Replantation or prosthesis: individual planning].

    PubMed

    Jonas, H P

    2008-02-01

    Rehabilitation of a replanted upper limb is difficult and has to start close to the operation. Physical and occupational therapy are working close together. The unimpaired opposite upper extremity must be trained as well. Replantation of upper limb causes not only a lot of reoperations with extended morbidity, but also problems in social, family and psychic. After eventual amputation of the upper limb prosthetic compensation is necessary as soon as possible. There is a gap open between the technical and financial possibilities. To avoid spine disorders a shoulder cap is necessary if prosthetic compensation is not possible in higher amputations.

  17. Successful replantation of a forefoot.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T M

    1979-01-01

    This is a report of replantation of a completely severed forefoot which was divided through the distal tarsus by a samurai sword cut. Primary reconstruction of bone, vessels, nerve and skin was carried out 2 hours following amputation. Neither the long extensor nor the long flexor tendons were repaired. Three years following replantation the patient had an excellent result. His foot appeared normal and there was no evident atrophy of the soft tissue of the foot. No claw toe deformity developed. Protective sensation and temperature sense returned and the 2 point discrimination on plantar surface of the toe was 15 mm. The patient can walk and run with a normal gait.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Coffee Wilt Disease Under Roguing and Replanting Conditions: A Case Study from Kaweri Estate in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Pinard, F; Makune, S E; Campagne, P; Mwangi, J

    2016-11-01

    Based on time and spatial dynamic considerations, this study evaluates the potential role of short- and long-distance dispersal in the spread of coffee wilt disease (CWD) in a large commercial Robusta coffee estate in Uganda (Kaweri, 1,755 ha) over a 4-year period (2008 to 2012). In monthly surveys, total disease incidence, expansion of infection foci, and the occurrence of isolated infected trees were recorded and submitted to spatial analysis. Incidence was higher and disease progression faster in old coffee plantings compared with young plantings, indicating a lack of efficiency of roguing for reducing disease development in old plantings. At large spatial scale (approximately 1 km), Moran indices (both global and local) revealed the existence of clusters characterized by contrasting disease incidences. This suggested that local environmental conditions were heterogeneous or there were spatial interactions among blocks. At finer spatial scale (approximately 200 m), O-ring statistics revealed positive correlation between distant infection sites across distances as great as 60 m. Although these observations indicate the role of short-distance dispersal in foci expansion, dispersal at greater distances (>20 m) appeared to also contribute to both initiation of new foci and disease progression at coarser spatial scales. Therefore, our results suggested the role of aerial dispersal in CWD progression.

  19. Wrist level and proximal-upper extremity replantation.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Douglas P; Chin, Simon H

    2007-02-01

    Since Malt and McKhan's first successful arm replantation in 1962, upper extremity replantation surgery techniques have been refined and spread worldwide. Nevertheless, replantation at or proximal to the wrist, referred to as wrist-proximal replants, remains a daunting challenge that presents the hand surgeon with an array of difficulties distinct from digital replantation.

  20. Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum as a biocontrol agent of postharvest diseases of apple and citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two psycrotrophic yeasts isolated from the surface of lemons have been selected as biocontrol agents of the most common postharvest diseases of apples and citrus that develops during cold storage. The biocontrol yeasts were identified as Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum and Leucosporidium scottii....

  1. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

    PubMed Central

    Agnello, Arthur; Cox, Kerik; Lordan, Jaume; Francescatto, Poliana; Robinson, Terence

    2017-01-01

    Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success. PMID:28869562

  2. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  3. Above-elbow arm replantation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haws, M J; Erdmann, D; Brown, R E

    1996-01-01

    We report a successful replantation of an above-elbow amputated left arm in a 26-year-old female with a good, functional, long-term result. The patient was at 18 weeks estimated gestational age at the time of surgery. Major upper extremity replantation during pregnancy has not been previously described in the literature. Current operative and perioperative aspects, including considerations that favored microsurgical replantation in this unusual case, are discussed.

  4. Digit Replantation The First 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Scott R; Capo, John T

    2015-06-01

    Since the first successful digit replantation by Japanese surgeons Komatsu and Tamai, the past half century has seen the field of digit replantation in the USA experience exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. The history and approach to digit replantation is reviewed and highlights the likely push toward the development of regional replant centers staffed by highly skilled teams to improve the functional outcomes following these complex procedures. More than 50 years have passed since the first successful digit replantation by Komatsu and Tamai who replanted a sharply amputated thumb in a 28-year-old male at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint level in a 4.5 hour procedure. Two arteries and 2 veins were anastomosed using 8-0 monofilament nylon and 7-0 braided silk suture. The patient remained in the hospital for 40 days and did not return to work for 4 months. News of this triumph of microvascular skill was heralded throughout the world as the first successful replantation of a completely amputated digit. Over the past half century, the field of digit replantation in the USA experienced exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. In the next 50 years, it is possible that the majority of digit replantation procedures in the USA may be performed in tertiary centers or regional replant centers by highly skilled teams.

  5. Salvage of impending replant failure by temporary ectopic replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis; Navarro-Monzones, Angel; Soler-Nomdedeu, Santiago

    2006-03-01

    Temporary ectopic replantation of amputated parts has been reported previously as an alternative to orthotopic replantation in difficult cases. We report a case in which the left arm initially was replanted orthotopically with subsequent development of extensive infection. The impending vascular failure of the replanted arm was salvaged by reamputation and temporary ectopic transfer of the arm to the groin region. Nine days later the arm was transferred back to the clean humeral stump. The functional result was similar to that of a standard transhumeral replantation, with 30 degrees to 120 degrees of active range of elbow motion, basic grip pattern, and S3 sensibility.

  6. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  7. Replantation of upper extremity, hand and digits.

    PubMed

    Bumbasirević, Marko Z; Vucković, Cedo D; Vucetić, Cedomir; Manojlović, Radovan; Andjelkovic, Sladjana Z; Palibrk, Tomislav D; Milutinović, Suzana M; Raspopović, Emilija Dubljanin

    2013-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the part that has been completely amputated and there is no connection between the severed part and the patient. In Boston in 1962 Malt successfully replanted a completely amputated arm of a 12-year-old boy. Komatsu and Tamai reported the first successful replantation of an amputated digit by microvascular technique. There are no strict indications and contraindications for replantation. It's on surgeon to explain to the patient the chances of success of viability, expected function, length of operation, hospitalization and long rehabilitation protocol. Survival and useful function in replantation of upper extremity amputations is questionable. Success depends on microvascular anastomoses, but the final function is related with tendon, nerve, bone and joint repair.

  8. A Comparative Study of Attitudes Regarding Digit Replantation in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Shauver, Melissa J; Zhong, Lin; Chung, Kevin C; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    To compare the societal preferences for finger replantation between the United States (US) and Japan and to investigate factors influencing the preferences. A sample of the general population without current hand disease or condition was recruited via flyers posted in public areas of 2 major academic centers in the US and Japan. The recruited subjects completed a survey presenting finger amputation scenarios and various factors that may affect treatment decisions. We performed univariate analysis using treatment preference as the outcome and all other factors as possible predictors using the chi-square test. Most respondents in both countries preferred replantation and there was no significant difference between the US and Japan. Treatment preference was significantly associated with the importance of appearance, recovery time, and the chance of survival of the replanted digit. There was no association between treatment preference and attitudes regarding body integrity or estimate of stigma toward finger amputees. Japanese participants agreed more with statements of body integrity, and Japanese respondents rated appearance, sensation, and chance of survival of the replant as more important than did American participants. Patient preference is not driving the decrease in finger replantations in the US. The general public in both countries prefer replantation over wound closure for digit amputations. Economic and decision analysis III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative study of attitudes regarding digit replantation in the US and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Shauver, Melissa J.; Zhong, Lin; Chung, Kevin C.; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the societal preferences for finger replantation between US and Japan and to investigate factors influencing the preferences. Methods A sample of the general population without current hand disease or condition was recruited via flyers posted in public areas of 2 major academic centers in the US and Japan. The recruited subjects completed a survey presenting finger amputation scenarios and various factors that may affect treatment decisions. We performed univariate analysis using treatment preference as the outcome and all other factors as possible predictors using the chi-square test. Results The majority of respondents in both countries preferred replantation, and there was no significant difference between the US and Japan. Treatment preference was significantly associated with the importance of appearance, recovery time, and the chance of survival of the replanted digit. There was no association between treatment preference and attitudes on body integrity or estimate of stigma towards finger amputees. Japanese participants agreed more with statements of body integrity, and Japanese respondents rated appearance, sensation, and chance of survival of the replant as more important than American participants. Conclusions Patient preference is not driving the decrease in finger replantations in the US. The general public in both countries prefer replantation over wound closure for digit amputations. Level of Evidence Economic/Decision Analysis Level III PMID:26213200

  10. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  11. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  12. Forequarter Replantation and the Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Naren; Mashalkar, Narendra S.; Dsouza, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The literature on major upper limb replantation, especially those proximal to the elbow, is inadequate. An 18-year-old man presented to us with a left forequarter amputation. A replantation was attempted with a view to salvaging function and avoiding prosthesis. The procedure was technically challenging with a number of issues not highlighted in previous reports, particularly bony stabilization. The procedure was initially successful, with good perfusion. However, with time, the limb showed sepsis and had to be abandoned. We report this case to add to the literature on replantation at the shoulder level in the hope that this procedure may be reported successfully in the future. PMID:26495222

  13. Hand replantation: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a hand replantation. A 43-year-old male presented with an amputated right hand. After clinical and radiological examination of the amputated hand and the forearm stump, the patient was consented for hand replantation procedure. Both bones of the forearm were fixed using K-wires. Careful dissection, trimming and repair of the tendons, vessels (two arteries and one vein) and nerves was achieved. The patient tolerated the procedure well and 2 months later showed a progressive improvement in motor and sensory functions. We suggest that a single-vein repair is sufficient for a successful hand replantation. PMID:27489633

  14. The Risk Factors for Failure of an Upper Extremity Replantation: Is the Use of Cigarettes/Tobacco a Significant Factor?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Yin; Chen, Shih-Heng; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the potential risk factors associated with the failure of an upper extremity replantation with a focus on cigarette or tobacco use. Patients and Methods A cohort of 102 patients with 149 replants (6 extremities, 143 digits) and a mean age of 41 years (range 5 to 72 years) was enrolled in this study. The data collected included age, gender, tobacco/cigarettes use, trauma mechanism, underlying disease (e.g., hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), etc.), and vein graft use. An analysis with a multivariable regression was conducted to identify the risk factors of replant failure and their respective odds ratios (ORs). Results Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a binomial distribution and logit link showed that smoking did not increase the risk of replant failure (p = 0.234). In addition, the survival of replants was not affected by DM or HTN (p = 0.285 and 0.938, respectively). However, the replantation results were significantly affected by the age of the patients and the mechanism of injury. Patients older than 50 years and those with avulsion or crush injuries tended to have a higher risk of replant failure (OR = 2.29, 6.45, and 5.42, respectively; p = 0.047, 0.028, and 0.032, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that the use of cigarettes/tobacco did not affect the replantation outcome. The main risks for replant failure included being older than 50 years and the trauma mechanism (avulsion or crush injuries). PMID:26513147

  15. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight disease of apple.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Yong; Pusey, Paul Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu; Korban, Schuyler S; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin

    2012-07-10

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), an antagonist to the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora that causes fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 μm in diameter, were fabricated to encapsulate E325 within the core, along with nutrients, to preserve viability and promote proliferation. Controlled release of E325 was achieved by separately adjusting alginate concentrations in the shell and core solutions, and by modifying the AMC size. Viability of E325 was monitored via fluorescent staining, revealing either lack of or minimal stress during or after encapsulation. Proliferation of E325 within AMCs, followed by their subsequent release, and colonization activities within confines of apple flowers were studied under different encapsulation conditions using rfp-labeled E325 to obtain highly promising results. This study provided a 'proof of concept' of the successful use of a microencapsulated biocontrol agent, E325, against E. amylovora, and could serve as a model for further studies on the development of effective plant disease management strategies.

  16. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P.; Pothier, Joël F.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  17. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-02-17

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora.

  18. Effect of bisphosphonates on root resorption after tooth replantation - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Shariq; Siddiqui, Fahad; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ansari, Shazia Akbar

    2017-04-01

    Replantation of avulsed teeth may lead to root resorption. Bisphosphonates (BPs), a class of drugs of used to treat resorptive diseases of the bone such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, have been observed to exert an antiresorptive effect on periodontal bone as well. The antiresorptive properties of BPs could prove them useful in preventing root resorption of replanted avulsed teeth. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze and summarize the currently available literature concerning the use of BPs in preventing root resorption of avulsed teeth. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase databases were searched using keywords 'bisphosphonate', 'replantation', and 'tooth'. Quality assessment of each study was carried out. In addition, general characteristics and outcomes of each study were summarized. After exclusion of 116 irrelevant articles, 10 animal studies were included in this review. The majority of the studies suggest that surface application of zoledronate or alendronate reduces root resorption of replanted teeth in animal models. Surface treatment with etidronate had no significant effect on root resorption, and intracanal etidronate accelerated resorption. Surface application of zoledronate and alendronate reduces root resorption of replanted teeth in animal models. However, the efficacy of intracanal usage of BPs is still debatable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    PubMed

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  20. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.

  1. Upper extremity replantation: three-year experience.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zárate, J L; Pastrana-Figueroa, J M; Granados-Martínez, R

    2000-01-01

    Microsurgery in Mexico was initiated in 1967, when the first report of the subspecialty was published. At our hospital, we have had a well-organized microsurgery department since 1995. This has improved our management of patients with amputations of the upper extremity. This article presents our experience with upper extremity replantation, including hand and fingers. During the first 3 years, we managed 55 patients, 42 male and 13 female, aged 2-52 years, who had suffered amputations of some part of their upper extremity or even of the complete limb. These patients underwent surgical exploration for replantation. We analyzed 103 amputations in the 55 patients operated. The amputated parts are summarized as follows: 11 thumbs, 25 index, 24 middle, 22 ring, and 12 little fingers; 5 hands, 5 forearms, and 2 arms. The average hospital stay was 10 days. The follow-up was 6-24 months. Replantation success was 82%, with 18% failure for survival of the replanted part. Functional recovery was satisfactory in the 50% of cases, and sensitive recovery was satisfactory in 75% of cases. We conclude that although our experience on upper extremity replantation is not so large, our results are similar to those from other series. We discussed our results.

  2. Actualities in big segments replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Clemente, Alessandra; Pontini, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Replantation of an amputation is no longer a difficult technical problem. Indeed, the experience gathered over the last few decades, right from the first concepts posed by the pioneers up to the present era and the improved technical aids, all go to suggest that the majority of amputated segments may now be reconstructed. However, what we really want from a replant is not just survival but function. Indications for replantations must follow careful and objective patient selection together with the evaluation of type and site of lesion and possible complications. Furthermore, the important role of emergency organization in this type of surgery is to be emphasized. Nowadays, clean cut injuries are rarer and are being substituted by high energy trauma which may produce extensive tissue lesions that increase complications and lead to poor functional results. Consequently, some authors were induced to describe evaluation systems for decision making which still present problems which are in part due to the large number of parameters to be taken into consideration as well as to the complex functionality of the upper limb. This led us to evaluate our case series of 52 major replantations of the upper limb over the last 10 years and to compare it with other published series. The best form of reconstruction following total amputation of a major limb segment is still its replantation. The highly significant increase in the quality of life is able to justify the higher social costs and the number of operations required.

  3. Digital replantation teaching model in rats.

    PubMed

    Ad-El, D D; Harper, A; Hoffman, L A

    2000-01-01

    Replant surgery is a complex procedure that requires advanced microsurgical skills and is usually performed as an emergency operation, lasting many hours. For these reasons, teaching replantation is difficult. Although teaching models exist, they are often too general or complicated for routine use and do not simulate the stages and the pitfalls of human replant surgery. We have designed a model that is simple and imitates human replant surgery. After reviewing the rat anatomy, students dissect and replant a rat hind limb that has been sharply amputated by the instructor. They follow the same principles of "real" surgery like debridement, minimizing ischemia time, and stable fixation before anatomosis of vessels. After marking the structures, bony fixation followed by vessel and nerve anastomosis are performed. Muscle is reattached to the skin and limb vascularity evaluated. After we designed this model, plastic surgery residents performed the technique on 10 rats. An 80% limb viability rate was achieved. This model is simple to perform, simulates all the relevant structures and pitfalls of human surgery, and the rats are relatively cheap and can be used for other parallel projects.

  4. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus x domestica)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Psychrotrophic yeasts isolated from soils collected in Antarctica and selected by its capacity of growing in apple juice at low temperatures were evaluated for their potential as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, ...

  5. Late digital replantation failure: pathophysiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F J; Concannon, M J; Gan, B S; May, J W

    1998-05-01

    It is generally accepted that replanted digits surviving at least 1 week following surgery rarely succumb to ischemic necrosis. Presented here are 2 patients who experienced late digital replantation failure. The first patient is an 8-year-old boy who had his index finger replanted at the proximal phalangeal level. After 16 days of viability, the replanted digit became swollen and subsequently necrosed. The second patient is a 35-year-old man with a history of smoking and intravenous drug use who underwent replantation of his avulsed thumb at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The replanted thumb was viable at the 2-week follow-up, but began to show ischemic changes at 3 weeks and eventually required revision amputation at the interphalangeal level. Both of these patients demonstrate late digital replantation failure--an unusual and poorly understood phenomenon. A discussion of possible risk factors and potential pathophysiology is presented.

  6. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  7. Low-drift nozzles vs. standard nozzles for pesticide application in the biological efficacy trials of pesticides in apple pest and disease control.

    PubMed

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Świechowski, Waldemar; Masny, Sylwester; Maciesiak, Alicja; Tartanus, Małgorzata; Bryk, Hanna; Hołownicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    The coarse spray air-induction nozzles have documented pesticide drift reducing potential and hence pose lower risk of environmental pollution than the standard fine spray hollow cone nozzles. However, it is questioned that use of the low-drift nozzles might not provide as effective crop protection as the standard nozzles. The objective of work was to assess the pest and disease control efficacy as affected by spray volume rate and nozzle type. The experiment was carried out in apple orchard, cv Jonagold/M26. The evaluated treatments were combinations of three spray volume rates: 250, 500 and 750lha(-1), and two types of nozzles: hollow cone nozzles generating very fine spray, and flat fan air induction nozzles producing coarse droplets. The biological performance of treatments was determined based on severity of diseases: apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.), as well as population or damage caused by pests: green apple aphid (Aphis pomi), rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.), woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali) and apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum L.). In general apple scab was equally controlled by all treatments. Only in the years of high infection pressure efficacy of powdery mildew control was better for fine spray nozzles and high volume rates. Green and rosy apple aphids were better controlled with higher volume rates, though significance of the advantage over the lower rates was occasional. No effect of spray quality on efficacy of aphid and mite control was found for any spray volume rate. Better control of apple blossom weevil and woolly apple aphid was achieved with the high spray volume rate providing heavy coverage to the point of run-off. The air induction nozzles having drift reducing potential are biologically efficacious alternative to conventional hollow cone nozzles.

  8. Two receptor-like genes, Vfa1 and Vfa2, confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis inciting apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Malnoy, Mickael; Xu, Mingliang; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Korban, Schuyler S; Aldwinckle, Herb S

    2008-04-01

    The Vf locus, originating from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. Previously, a cluster of four receptor-like genes, Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4, was identified within the Vf locus. Because the amino-acid sequence of Vfa3 is truncated, it was deemed nonfunctional. In this study, each of the three full-length Vfa genes was introduced into a plant cloning vector, pCAMBIA2301, and used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of two apple cultivars, Galaxy and McIntosh, to assess functionality of these genes and to characterize their roles in resistance to V. inaequalis. Transformed apple lines carrying each of Vfa1, Vfa2, or Vfa4 were developed, analyzed for the presence of the transgene using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting, and assayed for resistance to apple scab following inoculation with V. inaequalis. Transformed lines expressing Vfa4 were found to be susceptible to apple scab, whereas those expressing either Vfa1 or Vfa2 exhibited partial resistance to apple scab. Based on Western blot analysis as well as microscopic analysis of plant resistance reactions, the roles of Vfa1 and Vfa2 in apple scab disease resistance response are discussed.

  9. Management of complications with flap procedures and replantation.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Douglas M

    2015-05-01

    Replantation and flap procedures employ microvascular techniques to salvage or reconstruct a severely damaged limb or digit. The most devastating complications include complete or partial flap loss, or replantation failure due to vascular complications. Often, these complications can be prevented by appropriate patient selection, careful surgical planning, meticulous technique, and proper postoperative management. This article discusses complications related to replantation and flap procedures in the upper limb, focusing on preventing and managing these complications.

  10. Complications following replantation of a primary incisor: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Al-Khayatt, A S; Davidson, L E

    2005-06-11

    The replantation of avulsed primary incisors is contra-indicated. This case describes an 8-year-old child who six years previously had avulsed and had replanted a primary central incisor. At presentation, this tooth was retained, the permanent successor had failed to erupt and appearance of the adjacent lateral incisor was notably delayed. Investigation revealed a radicular cyst in relation to the replanted deciduous incisor together with severe displacement of the permanent tooth, which could not be saved.

  11. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions. PMID:27721696

  12. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-10-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  13. Replantation of large segments in children.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, P L; Petrolati, M; Delaria, G

    2000-11-01

    If one looks at the final results obtained in children, one should conclude that replantation of large segments is more often indicated in children than in adult patients. Nevertheless, the more common components of crush or avulsion and the frequent severe associated lesions must restrain the surgeon's enthusiasm when indicating replantation of a large segment in children. The possible dramatic consequences of a late revascularization syndrome can be easily foreseen as an outcome of replantation of a large segment in children. Moreover, the problem of growth must be faced from the start, programming secondary surgery either for soft tissue assessment (skin retraction treatments, tendon lengthening, muscle sliding) or for bone lengthening. The final outcome being a functional arm, special care has to be taken in nerve repair integrated with possible secondary tendon transfers to compensate the functional deficit. With all these limitations in indications, care in emergency, and correct timing and planning for secondary surgery, the final functional results of macroreplantations in children will certainly be improved.

  14. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  15. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2011-08-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously not affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology depending on actual weather conditions and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  16. Standardized protocol for artery-only fingertip replantation.

    PubMed

    Buntic, Rudolf F; Brooks, Darrell

    2010-09-01

    Artery-only fingertip replantation can be reliable if low-resistance flow through the replant is maintained until venous outflow is restored naturally. Injuring the tip of the replant to promote ongoing bleeding augmented with anticoagulation usually accomplishes this; however, such management results in prolonged hospitalization. In this study, we analyzed the outcomes of artery-only fingertip replantation using a standardized postoperative protocol consisting of dextran-40, heparin, and leech therapy. Between 2001 and 2008, we performed 19 artery-only fingertip replants for 17 patients. All patients had the replanted nail plate removed and received intravenous dextran-40, heparin, and aspirin to promote fingertip bleeding and vascular outflow. Anticoagulation was titrated to promote a controlled bleed until physiologic venous outflow was restored by neovascularization. We used medicinal leeches and mechanical heparin scrubbing for acute decongestion. By postoperative day 6, bleeding was no longer promoted. We initiated fluorescent dye perfusion studies to assess circulatory competence and direct further anticoagulant intervention if necessary. The absence of bleeding associated with an initial rise followed by an appropriate fall in fluorescent dye concentration would trigger a weaning of anticoagulation. All of the 19 replants survived. The average length of hospital stay was 9 days (range, 7-17 d). Eleven patients received blood transfusions. The average transfusion was 1.8 units (range, 0-9 units). All patients were happy with the decision to replant, and the cosmetic result. A protocol that promotes temporary, controlled bleeding from the fingertip is protective of artery-only replants distal to the distal interphalangeal joint until physiologic venous outflow is restored. The protocol described is both safe and reliable. The patient should be informed that such replant attempts may result in the need for transfusions and extended hospital stays, factors that

  17. Malus sieversii, a valuable genetic resource for disease resistance in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domesticated crop cultivars inevitably represent a subset of the genetic variation found in their wild ancestors (progenitors) due to genetic bottlenecks that result during the process of crop domestication. Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, is one of the ancestral proge...

  18. On Acute Gene Expression Changes after Ventral Root Replantation

    PubMed Central

    Risling, Marten; Ochsmann, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Lindå, Hans; Plantman, Stefan; Rostami, Elham; Angeria, Maria; Sköld, Mattias K.

    2011-01-01

    Replantation of avulsed spinal ventral roots has been show to enable significant and useful regrowth of motor axons in both experimental animals and in human clinical cases, making up an interesting exception to the rule of unsuccessful neuronal regeneration in central nervous system. Compared to avulsion without repair, ventral root replantation seems to rescue lesioned motoneurons from death. In this study we have analyzed the acute response to ventral root avulsion and replantation in adult rats with gene arrays combined with cluster analysis of gene ontology search terms. The data show significant differences between rats subjected to ventral replantation compared to avulsion only. Even though number of genes related to cell death is similar in the two models after 24 h, we observed a significantly larger number of genes related to neurite growth and development in the rats treated with ventral root replantation, possibly reflecting the neuroregenerative capacity in the replantation model. In addition, an acute inflammatory response was observed after avulsion, while effects on genes related to synaptic transmission were much more pronounced after replantation than after avulsion alone. These data indicate that the axonal regenerative response from replantation is initiated at an earlier stage than the possible differences in terms of neuron survival. We conclude that this type of analysis may facilitate the comparison of the acute response in two types of injury. PMID:21228913

  19. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential.

  20. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  1. Functional outcomes of replantation following radiocarpal amputation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amar Arun; Blount, Andrew L; Owens, Patrick W; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    To assess the long-term functional and clinical outcomes of patients who have undergone replantation after radiocarpal amputation. We performed a retrospective review of radiocarpal joint amputations at a level 1 trauma center over a 13-year period. Medical records of patients treated with replantation were queried for injury data, operative reports, complications, and clinical progress. Patients who met inclusion criteria were contacted for long-term follow-up. We measured total active motion of each digit, strength (grip and pinch), and 2-point discrimination. Functional outcomes were assessed with Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, Mayo Wrist Score, Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation, and Michigan Hand Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated, including frequencies for categorical variables and means and ranges for continuous variables. Six patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 36 years (range, 26-50 y). Five patients were available at a mean follow-up of 3.9 years (range, 1.0-6.9 y). Compared with the contralateral uninjured extremity, total active motion of the hand was 38% (range, 26% to 59%) and grip strength was 9% (range, 0% to 18%). Neither tip nor key pinch was present. Mean 2-point discrimination was 10.6 mm (range, 8-12 mm). All mean outcome scores indicated moderate disability, including Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (76; range, 45-82), Mayo Wrist Score (23; range, 5-50), Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (86; range, 56-98), and Michigan Hand Questionnaire (27; range, 15-55). Two patients were able to return to work and 3 were permanently disabled. All patients were satisfied with the hand function. Successful replantation for a radiocarpal joint amputation is associated with major restriction of motion, decreased strength, and moderate disability on functional outcome assessments. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations are infrequently reported. It is believed that replantation is indicated for amputations at all levels in children and for all distal amputations in adults. Replantations of arm or proximal forearm amputations in adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of major upper extremity replantations, defined as those that are transmetacarpal, through the wrist, forearm, elbow or arm. METHODS: A review of these types of replantations performed at the authors’ institution from 2002 to 2012 was conducted. Patients’ strength, range of motion and two-point discrimination were assessed. Patients completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: Seventeen patients underwent major upper extremity replantation surgery. The majority (16 of 17 [94%]) of the included patients were male. Of 17 patients, 13 (76.5%) required reoperations. The mean (± SD) DASH score of seven patients who consented to completing all questionnaires was 75.4±14.2 of 100 (range 59.2 to 91.1). On the MHQ, the mean score for affected hand function was 16% compared with 84% in the unaffected hand. Patients generally demonstrated at least mild levels of anxiety and depression on the HADS. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that major upper extremity injuries and replantations have a significant impact on patients’ long-term hand function, and produce long-term anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:25152640

  3. Replantation surgery in Quebec: The bottlenecks to rapid care

    PubMed Central

    Borsuk, Daniel E; Zadeh, Teanoosh; Lee, Chen; Moore, Karl; Tan, Grace

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Time delays resulting in prolonged ischemia have a significant impact on the successful reattachment of amputated body parts. No studies have addressed the issues surrounding delays from the time of the accident to the start of replantation surgery. The present paper identifies the bottlenecks that prolong the time before patients are able to gain access to a replant team. METHODS A total of 50 patients underwent microsurgical replantation, because of traumatic amputation, at a university-based hospital from 1996 to 2003. The charts were analyzed to ascertain individual time intervals from the onset of injury until the beginning of replant surgery. RESULTS The average length of time for patients who came directly to the replant centre was 3 h 40 min before surgery began. In contrast, for those referred from outlying hospitals, the elapsed time was 6 h 21 min. CONCLUSIONS Two major bottlenecks were found. First, for patients who were referred from other health centres, delays were due to a lack of information as to where patients could receive appropriate replant surgery. Second, delays at the replant centre were primarily due to insufficient physical and human resources in the operating room. PMID:19554107

  4. Rehabilitation in a Patient with Replantation of Amputated Distal Leg

    PubMed Central

    TUDOSIE, Alina; POPESCU, Simona; CINTEZA, Delia; ROMANESCU, Simona; POPA, Roxana; SANDU, Alina; ROMILA, Andreea; TINIUC, Ana Maria; FLOREA, Raluca

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many studies have been reported on replantation of an upper extremity after traumatic amputation, but there are only a few case reports on replantation of the lower extremities rather than amputation surgery. This is due to preoperative factors, complications and the possibility of good prosthetic substitution. We describe here the dynamic evaluation necessary for a continuous rehabilitation treatment in a subject with replanted left foot after traumatic amputation. Case report: A 58-year-old male person with amputation of the left leg at the level of the left talocrural joint, with talar dome and bimalleolar fractures and complete section of the blood vessels, nerves and tendons was considered for replantation surgery 7 hours after a traumatic injury. For an accurate evaluation of the postoperative conditions over time, clinical functional assessment combined with imaging and neurophysiological examination were conducted. Rehabilitation program is aimed to train the motor and sensory function of the replanted foot and to prevent undesired biomechanical changes that limit person's ability to perform everyday tasks. During the rehabilitation program there were a progressive recovery of the patient's protective sensation, active motion angles of the left ankle joint and muscle power of the replanted leg. Those are sufficient for walking activity and help the patient considerably in performing his everyday minimal housework. Conclusions: A well designed postoperative dynamic rehabilitation program is necessary in order to regain functionality after successful distal leg replantation surgery. The clinical and imaging evaluation support a dynamic rehabilitation program adapted to different stages of functional recovery. PMID:21977189

  5. Reverse Distal Transverse Palmar Arch in Distal Digital Replantation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ching-Yueh; Orozco, Oscar; Vinagre, Gustavo; Shafarenko, Mark

    2017-07-22

    Refinements in microsurgery have made distal finger replantation an established technique with high success rates and good functional and aesthetic outcomes. However, it still represents a technically demanding procedure due to the small vessel caliber and frequent lack of vessel length, requiring the use of interpositional venous grafts in some instances. We describe a new technique for anastomosis in fingertip replantation, whereby the need for venous grafts is eliminated. Applying the reverse distal transverse palmar arch technique, 11 cases of distal digital replantation were performed between January 2011 and July 2016. The described procedure was used for arterial anastomosis in 10 cases and arteriovenous shunting for venous drainage in 1 case. A retrospective case review was conducted. The technical description and clinical outcome evaluations are presented. Ten of the 11 replanted digits survived, corresponding to an overall success rate of 91%. One replant failed due to venous insufficiency. Blood transfusions were not required for any of the patients. Follow-up (range, 1.5-5 months) revealed near-normal range of motion and good aesthetic results. All of the replanted digits developed protective sensation. The average length of hospital admission was 5 days. All patients were satisfied with the results and were able to return to their previous work. The use of the reverse distal transverse palmar arch is a novel and reliable technique in distal digital replantation when an increase in vessel length is required, allowing for a tension-free arterial repair without the need for vein grafts.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sungbong; Lv, Jingyi; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark; Zhu, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a significant economic restraint to the successful re-establishment of new apple orchards on sites previously planted to the same crop. Pythium ultimum, an oomycete, is a significant component of the ARD pathogen complex. Although ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses are intensively studied in the foliar pathosystem, the transferability of this knowledge to the interaction between a perennial root system and soilborne pathogens is unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ET/JA-mediated defense response is conserved in roots of tree crops in response to infection by P. ultimum. Apple genes with the annotated function of ET/JA biosynthesis, MdERF (ethylene response factor) for signaling transduction and a gene encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (β-chitinase, the target of ERF) were identified from the apple genome sequences. The transcriptional profiles of these genes during P. ultimum infection and after exogenous ET and/or JA treatment were characterized using qRT-PCR. Several genes showed a 10- to 60-fold upregulation in apple root tissue 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi). Exogenous ET and JA treatment exhibited either a positive or negative influence on expression of ET or JA biosynthesis genes, depending upon gene isoforms and the tissue types, while the expression of MdERF and the PR protein encoding gene was upregulated by both ET and JA treatment. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that ET/JA-mediated defense pathways are functional in the root system of perennial tree species defending soilborne pathogens. PMID:26504552

  7. Replantation vs revision amputation in single digit zone II amputations.

    PubMed

    El-Diwany, M; Odobescu, A; Bélanger-Douet, M; Berbiche, D; Arsenault, J; Bou-Merhi, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of zone II amputations treated with either replantation or revision amputation at our institution to better aid patients in their decision making process regarding these treatment options. We conducted a comparative retrospective study. All cases of single digit amputations received at our replantation center between 2007 and 2011 were screened for single digit zone II injuries. These patients were stratified based on the treatment received: replantation vs revision amputation. Patients were called and invited to participate in the research project. Those who accepted to enter the study were asked to complete the Quick-DASH, the Beck Depression Inventory-short form, and a custom made questionnaire. There were seventeen patients with single digit zone II replantation and fourteen patients with similar injuries who underwent revision amputation and agreed to take part in the study. Our data revealed that the duration of sick leave, occupation after injury, professional and social reintegration, discontinued activities, and self-confidence were not statistically different between the two groups. The average hospital stay and the follow-up period of replanted individuals were longer. The replantation group did not have higher levels of pain or cold intolerance, and the global functional and esthetic satisfaction levels were similar between the two groups. Also, Beck Depression Inventory and Quick-DASH scores were not statistically different. Yet, significantly more patients in the replantation group would opt to repeat the replantation than revised patients would opt for revision amputation. From a functional viewpoint, our study suggests that revision amputation is not superior to replantation in zone II single digit amputations. This is valuable information that should be given to patients when deciding on the treatment process and to insure a proper informed consent.

  8. Replantation of degloved skin of the hand.

    PubMed

    Adani, R; Busa, R; Castagnetti, C; Castagnini, L; Caroli, A

    1998-05-01

    The treatment of a degloving injury is one of the most difficult problems in hand surgery. Various reconstructive procedures have been adopted in the past years, all with poor results. Between 1988 and 1995, nine patients with degloving injuries of the hand and fingers were treated by microsurgical replantation. The injury involved the thumb in three patients, the ring finger in three patients, the little finger in one patient, and multiple fingers in two patients. Successful complete revascularization was obtained in seven patients. In one case a superficial necrosis of the replanted thumb skin occurred with good preservation of the subcutaneous layer. In one patient with a degloving injury involving multiple fingers, revascularization was achieved only in the middle finger, and the first ray was secondarily resurfaced by a free flap from the foot. In our experience revascularization of the degloved skin does represent the best solution and must be managed as an emergency procedure. Coverage obtained in this way offers the best cosmetic result and allows early mobilization with good recovery of joint movement. Reestablishing sensibility is more difficult. It is not always possible to suture the nerves damaged by the trauma, and even when a careful primary nerve anastomosis is performed, the results often are unsatisfactory, probably because of the avulsive mechanism of nerve injury.

  9. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by management system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards.

  10. [Replantation in the complete amputation of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Yahya; Ezirmik, Naci; Vural, Unsal; Velioğlu, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    Trauma of the upper extremity can be a cause of significant morbidity and disability to otherwise productive people. Wounded extremity can be saved by replantation of the amputated parts. Replantation of traumatic amputations can be performed with reasonable success at a regional medical center when experienced surgeons, appropriate and experienced equipment, and skilled ancillary care are available. Successful replantation significantly reduces the morbidity of upper extremity amputations. We presented one case that, 9 year-old, was bridged to our hospital because of total arm amputation after sustained during use of a lawn mover. His arm was saved by urgency surgery.

  11. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  12. [Effects of grape-replanting on soil bacterial and fungal populations].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Guo, Xiu-wu; Sun, Ying-ni; Zhang, Li-heng; Hu, Xi-xi

    2009-12-01

    Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil samples were collected from the vineyards having been planted for 3 and 30 years, and PCR-DGGE technique was adopted to study the effects of grape-replanting on the population structure and diversity of soil bacteria and fungi. The bacterial and fungal diversities were higher in 30-year-planted vineyard than in 3-year-planted vineyard, and higher in rhizosphere soil than in non-rhizosphere soil. After 30 years replanting, the population structure of bacteria and fungi approached the same in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil but differed from that in fallow soil; while in the 3-year-planted vineyard, the population structure in rhizosphere soil was different from that in non-rhizosphere soil and fallow soil. Comparing with that in 3-year-planted vineyard, the rhizosphere soil microbial population in 30-year-planted vineyard had a greater change. In bacterial population, Flavobacterium sp. (DQ339585) and Bacillus sp. (AY039821) decreased while Pedobacter sp. (AJ871084) increased; in fungal population, Omphalina farinolens (EF413029) appeared, Pestalotiopsis sp. (DQ657877, DQ657875, DQ657871), Phacidium lacerum (DQ470976), and Lecythophora decumbens (AF353597) decreased, while Pilidium acerinum voucher (AY48709) increased. Bacillus sp., Flavobacterium sp. , and Pestalotiopsis sp. had antagonism to pathogen, and their decrease reduced the resistance of grape against pathogen. The increase of Pilidium acerinum voucher might relate to the severe disease after grape-replanting.

  13. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  14. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-over limb replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Holmes, W J M; Williams, A; Everitt, K J M; Kay, S P J; Bourke, G

    2013-10-01

    Following traumatic bilateral arm amputation in a 46-year-old woman, orthotopic replantation was not possible. The patient underwent replantation of the left forearm to the right proximal forearm. At two years she has a sensate hand, with good recovery of her long flexors of the hand and wrist extensors. DASH score is 93.9 and Chen's score is III (medium). We demonstrate a high level of function compared to the contralateral prosthetic limb. There have only been four similar cases described. Although a rare circumstance, a cross-limb replant can provide a level of function and independence superior to a simple prosthesis. Cross-limb transfer should be considered in situations where bilateral arm amputation is present and neither can be orthotopically replanted.

  16. Lymphatic drainage in patients after replantation of extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.; van Alphen, W.A.; van der Pompe, W.B.

    1987-02-01

    Lymph drainage was studied by means of lymph scintigraphy in eight patients in whom successful replantation of a totally or subtotally amputated extremity had been performed. Scintigrams were made after subcutaneous injection of technetium-99m in the replanted part of the patient and the contralateral, normal extremity. In all scintigrams, axillary or inguinal lymph node activity is seen, implying drainage of lymph by means of the lymph vessels. Retention of colloid in the replanted part (79 to 94 percent) shows no significant difference with the contralateral, normal side (86 to 94 percent). Unquestionable evidence of regeneration of lymphatics in humans is delivered in the three patients, in whom lymph node activity and normal retention percentages are seen on the scintigrams after total amputation of an extremity followed by replantation without anastomosing of interrupted lymph vessels.

  17. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  18. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  19. [Postoperative function exercise for replantation of severed limbs in children].

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Liu, X Y; Zhen, P

    1996-05-01

    The speciality of limb replantation in children included thread and thin for blood vessels, growth development for muscles and epiphyses, morable and incooperation in clinical. The function exercises after limb replantation in children must be connected with the clinical speciality of vascular microsurgery, the anthor divided it into four stages; vascular crises stage, limb aliving stage, clinical healing of bone stage, and function recovery stage. The different treatment performed in four stages, and excellent clinical results were achieved.

  20. Training community health workers to reduce health disparities in Alabama's Black Belt: the Pine Apple Heart Disease and Stroke Project.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Cornell, Carol E; Brownstein, J Nell; Littleton, Mary Ann; Stalker, Varena G; Bittner, Vera A; Lewis, Cora E; Raczynski, James M

    2006-01-01

    African American women have significantly higher mortality rates from heart disease and stroke than White women despite advances in treatment and the management of risk factors. Community health workers (CHWs) serve important roles in culturally relevant programs to prevent disease and promote health. This article describes the Pine Apple Heart and Stroke Project's activities to (1) revise the Women's Wellness Sourcebook Module III: Heart and Stroke to be consistent with national guidelines on heart disease and stroke and to meet the needs of African American women living in rural southern communities; (2) train CHWs using the revised curriculum; and (3) evaluate the training program. Revisions of the curriculum were based on recommendations by an expert advisory panel, the staff of a rural health clinic, and feedback from CHWs during training. Questionnaires after training revealed positive changes in CHWs' knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and self-reported risk reduction behaviors related to heart disease, stroke, cancer, and patient-provider communication. This study provides a CHW training curriculum that may be useful to others in establishing heart disease and stroke programs in rural underserved communities.

  1. Defying standard criteria for digital replantation: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Diogo; Gomez, Manuel Macemino; Antunes, Paula; Candeias, Henrique; Almeida, Maria Angélica

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is much controversy regarding the current indications and contraindications for digital replantation. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three patients with absolute contraindications for digital replantation according to classical criteria are presented (Case 1: multilevel amputation of the hand and fingers; Case 3: avulsion of the thumb; Case 4: index amputation proximal to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis). In addition a patient with a very distal digital amputation (Case 2), whose indication for replantation is controversial is also presented. In all cases, the patients were replanted and showed good functional and aesthetical results. DISCUSSION Most authors advocate that the classical indications for replantation have been validated by experience, are predicated on the potential for long-term function, and should be followed in most if not all cases. However, some surgeons have been adopting a more liberal attitude with good results. CONCLUSION The clinical cases presented in this paper suggest that the standard criteria for digital replantation should not be followed rigidly but instead should be regarded as a general guide. PMID:23702366

  2. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  3. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca2+ concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  4. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  5. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  6. [Experiment and clinical application of squeezing technique in venous crisis after replantation of finger].

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Zhu, Z; Xu, G

    1997-11-01

    In search of a new method for treating venous crisis after replantation of the finger, the effect of instantaneous, quick and forceful squeezing on the belly of replanted finger (the so-called SQUEEZINGG TECHNIQUE) was studied. In the animal experiment, 20 SD rats were used. The femoral veins and arteries were separated in order to measure the venous pressure. The result showed that the venous pressure was (8.33 +/- 1.29) x 10(-2) kPa in normal condition, (20.61 +/- 2.34) x 10(-2) kPa in the condition simulating venous crisis and (73.9 +/- 5.74) x 10(-2) kPa on carrying out the squeezing technique. The second part of the experiment was performed on ten human fingers which were amputated because of trauma or other diseases. One of the arteriae digitales palmares propriae and two of its accompanied veins were disected, and all other blood vessels were ligated. The artery was irrigated with normal saline at a pressure of 12 kPa. When both veins were left open, the venous pressure was (1.32 +/- 0.17) kPa; (4.29 +/- 0.49) kPa, when both were ligated; and (16.88 +/- 5.25) kPa when the squeezing technique was applied at the time venous crisis developed. From May 1991 to May 1996, this method was used for 43 times in 25 cases (35 fingers) with venous crisis after replantation. It was successful for 39 times in 21 cases (30 fingers). It was very important that the performer should use the thumb and the index finger to squeeze just the belly of the involved finger, and that every squeeze should be forceful, quick and instantaneous. It was suggested that if this method was properly performed it could improve the survival rate of replanted fingers. The mechanism of squeezing technique in the treatment of venous crisis following replantation of finger was proposed.

  7. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  8. [Late results of replantations in tip amputations of the thumb].

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Purisa, Hüsrev; Mersa, Berkan; Sezer, Ilker; Ertürer, Erden; Ergün, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated replantations performed for Tamai type 1 thumb amputations. The study included 14 patients (12 males, 2 females; mean age 28 years; range 14 to 40 years) whose replanted thumbs survived following replantation for Tamai type 1 amputations in the distal nail fold of the thumb. Central digital artery anastomosis was performed in all the cases. Four patients with an appropriate vein had a single volar vein anastomosis. Nerve repair could be possible in only three patients. Sensory evaluations were made with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, static and moving two-point discrimination tests, and vibration test. In addition, patients were evaluated with respect to atrophy in the replanted part, nail-bed deformities, and cold intolerance. The mean follow-up period was 11 months (range 6 to 48 months). The Semmes-Weinstein test was green (range 2.83 to 3.22) in five patients (35.7%), blue (range 3.22 to 3.61) in eight patients (57.1%), and purple (range 3.84 to 4.31) in one patient (7.1%). The mean static and moving two-point discrimination test results were 6.9 mm (range 3 to 10 mm) and 4.5 mm (range 3 to 6 mm), respectively. Compared to the intact fingers, vibration was increased in six thumbs (42.9%), decreased in six thumbs, and the same in two thumbs (14.3%). Atrophy of the replanted parts was observed in five patients (35.7%). Three patients (21.4%) complained about cold intolerance, and three patients had nail-bed deformities. The mean time to return to work was 3.2 months (range 2 to 6 months). Despite technical difficulties, thumb replantations yield good functional and aesthetic results. Sensory recovery is sufficient even after tip replantations without nerve repair.

  9. Newton's Apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-05-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his recollections of events did not always match known facts. However, one thing is certain-falling objects were to play a key part in Newton's eventual understanding of how objects move.

  10. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm.

    PubMed

    Rayidi, V Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome.

  11. Resection replantation of the upper limb for aggressive malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    Stage IIB malignant tumors of the upper limb have been traditionally treated by amputation or disarticulation. There have been isolated reports on the technique of segmental resection of the tumor-bearing segment complete with the skin, and replanting the distal arm or forearm with or without neurovascular repair. The present paper describes four cases in which a wide resection margin was achieved in all by resecting the affected cylinder of the limb. Functional reconstruction was performed by appropriate tendon transfer. The main vessels and nerves were dealt with according to the findings revealed by preoperative investigations. If they had to be sacrificed, end-to-end suture was performed, but if the main nerves could be spared, it greatly enhanced the functional outcome. Local and systemic recurrences occurred in one case, and systemic recurrence occurred in another case. The other two cases remained disease-free at more than 4 years' follow-up. This operation is as radical as amputation, while the esthetic and functional results are equivalent to those of resection-arthrodesis.

  12. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  13. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  14. Long term functional results from major limb replantations.

    PubMed

    Laing, T A; Cassell, O; O'Donovan, D; Eadie, P

    2012-07-01

    Replantation is now firmly established as a viable treatment option in traumatic limb amputation, yet there are few long-term studies describing the functional outcome of these cases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate long-term results in a population of such patients to determine overall success and patient satisfaction. Since 1981, twenty macro-replants involving nineteen patients have been performed in our unit. All patients were reviewed by means of case note analysis, patient questionnaire, and follow-up clinical evaluation for functional outcome using the Tamai scoring system. Acute limb salvage was successful in 18/20 (90%) cases. One patient is still undergoing secondary reconstructive surgery and was unable to be assessed for final outcome leaving 17 replanted limbs that underwent full functional assessment. Overall functional results were good in 7/17 (41%) limbs, fair in 7/17 (41%) and poor in 3/17 (18%). The majority of patients (12/17) claimed to be highly or well satisfied with their outcome and eleven have returned to work since their injury. The current study of major limb replantation demonstrates favorable or acceptable long term functional outcomes in the majority of cases. High patient satisfaction rates even where results were poor emphasise the positive psychological impact of successful replantation.

  15. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

    PubMed

    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  16. A few bad apples: a model of disease influenced agent behaviour in a heterogeneous contact environment.

    PubMed

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent's disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence.

  17. A Few Bad Apples: A Model of Disease Influenced Agent Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Contact Environment

    PubMed Central

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent’s disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence. PMID:25734661

  18. Retrospective of the replantation of severed limbs in the People's Republic of China: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Zhong Wei

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-eight years have past since Chinese surgeons first reported the successful replantation of a severed limb. The following article reports the current status of replantation surgery in the People's Republic of China, addresses issues of complex replantation and reconstruction of severed limbs, and discusses future prospects and implications for replantation microsurgery.

  19. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  20. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  1. Analysis of Bone Fixation Methods in Digital Replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Jin Soo; Roh, Si Young; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Adequate fixation of replanted digits is essential not only for short-term healing but for long-term function. Various bony fixation methods using Kirschner (K-) and intraosseous wire are available in replantation. We examined clinical and radiographic outcomes of fixation methods on bone union after digital replantation. Methods A single institutional retrospective review identified 992 patients who had undergone 1,247 successful replantations between July 2009 and September 2015. Exclusion criteria included amputations of the distal phalanx, comminuted fractures, and intra-articular fractures. Patients were classified according to 5 categories of fixation methods: single K-wire, double longitudinal K-wires, cross K-wires, wire with, and wire without K-wire support. Bone union was evaluated by 5-month postoperative X-ray and fixation outcomes were compared across the 5 groups. Results The exclusion criteria were applied, and 88 patients with 103 replanted digits remained for analysis. Single K-wire fixation was used in 40 digits, double longitudinal K-wires in 30, and cross fixation in 14. Wire with and without K-wire support was required in 15 and 4 digits. Nonunion was observed in 32 digits (31.1%), of which 13 required additional operations such as bone graft or corrective osteotomy. The highest percent of nonunion was observed after cross fixation (35.7%) and the lowest after wire alone (25.0%). Conclusions In this study, contrary to general knowledge, we found that single K-wire fixation was not associated with poorer outcomes. Successful bone union outcomes may be achieved by careful selection of bone fixation methods. This study provides useful information for planning bone fixation in digital replantation. PMID:28194348

  2. Lower limb replantations: indications and a new scoring system.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Pontini, Italo; Ferrero, Sebastiano

    2002-01-01

    The need for reconstruction of lower limb amputations is increasing, due to high-energy trauma in road accidents and work-related injuries. The indication for lower limb replantation is still controversial. Compared with upper limb replantations, indications are more select due to the frequent complications in lower limb salvage procedures, such as severe general complications or local complications such as necrosis, infections, nonunions, the need for secondary lengthening, or other reconstructive procedures. The satisfactory results given by artificial prosthesis, such as quicker recovery time and fewer secondary procedures, also contribute to the higher degree of selection for lower limb replantation candidates. Since 1993, we have replanted 14 amputations of the lower limb in 12 patients, including 2 bilateral cases. Although survival of the replanted segment was obtained in all patients, 5 cases were subsequently amputated for severe secondary complications. Of the remaining 9 cases, evaluated by means of Chen criteria, 7 had good results (3 Chen I and 4 Chen II), 1 sufficient (Chen III), and 1 poor (Chen IV). The best results were obtained in young patients. Our experience led us to examine the necessity for careful, objective patient selection. We developed a score evaluation system by modifying the international classifying method for severe limb traumas (mangled extremity severity score, or MESS system). This relatively simple system, based on the retrospective study of our cases, considers several parameters (patient's age, general conditions, level and type of lesion, time of injury, and associated lesions), giving each one a score. The total score gives the indication for replantation, predicts the functional outcome, and facilitates decision-making.

  3. [Loss of the replanted thumb by drug-induced ergotism].

    PubMed

    Coppeneur-Krieger, C; Plock, E B; Neugebauer, R

    1995-05-01

    Vasospastic reactions are known to be a complication of thromboembolic prophylaxis with Heparin-dihydroergotamine. We describe a rare case after successful replantation of an amputated thumb. On the third day after surgery, Heparin-dihydroergotamine was administered once. Within three hours, the thumb turned pale and cold. At revision, a spasm of the artery proved to be the cause of ischemia. Therapeutic efforts were unsuccessful, even intraarterial injection of Prostaglandin E1 and the interposition of a vein graft. Amputation became necessary. Because of the possible complication with ergotism and the consequence of a failed replantation, we suggest not to use Heparin-dihydroergotamine for thromboembolic prophylaxis in microsurgery.

  4. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8.

  5. Meta-analysis to determine the effects of plant disease management measures: review and case studies on soybean and apple.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Henry K; Esker, Paul D; Scherm, Harald

    2011-01-01

    in epidemiology and disease management is illustrated with case studies from our work on Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean and Erwinia amylovora on apple. We show that although meta-analyses are often used to corroborate and validate general conclusions drawn from more traditional, qualitative reviews, they can also reveal new patterns and interpretations not obvious from individual studies.

  6. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes in Digital Replantation versus Revision Amputation.

    PubMed

    Tessler, Oren; Bartow, Matthew J; Tremblay-Champagne, Marie P; Lin, Alex M; Landes, Geneviève; Sebbag, Sarah; Nikolis, Andreas

    2017-03-22

    Background Earlier, digit viability judged the success of digital replantation. Now, utility health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures can better assess the impact of digital replantation. Methods Overall, 264 digital injury patients were sent a regimen of utility measures: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions, visual analog scale (VAS), time trade-off (TTO), and standard gamble (SG). Overall, 51 patients responded completely to all of these-36 replantation patients and 15 revision amputation patients. The utility results of these patients were stratified between replantation versus revision amputation; dominant hand replantation versus nondominant hand replantation; and dominant hand revision amputation versus nondominant hand revision amputation. Results The mean VAS score of replant (0.84) and revision amputation (0.75) groups was significantly different (p = 0.05). The mean DASH score of dominant hand replantations (29.72) and nondominant hand replantations (17.97) was significantly different (p = 0.027). The dominant hand revision amputation had higher anxiety levels in comparison to nondominant hand revision amputation (p = 0.027). Patients with two or more digits replanted showed a significant decrease in VAS, TTO, and SG scores in comparison to patients who only had one digit replanted (p = 0.009, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that HRQOL can offer better indices for outcomes of digital replantation. This shows some specific replantation cohorts have a significantly better quality of life when compared with their specific correlating revision amputation cohort. These findings can be employed to further refine indications and contraindications to replantation and help predict the quality of life outcomes.

  7. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  8. Reorganization of human motor cortex after hand replantation.

    PubMed

    Röricht, S; Machetanz, J; Irlbacher, K; Niehaus, L; Biemer, E; Meyer, B U

    2001-08-01

    In 10 patients, reorganizational changes of the motor cortex contralateral to a replanted hand (MCreplant) were studied one to 14 years after complete traumatic amputation and consecutive successful replantation of the hand. The organizational state of MCreplant was assessed for the deafferentated and peripherally deefferentated hand-associated motor cortex and the adjacent motor representation of the proximal arm. For this, response maps were established for the first dorsal interosseus and biceps brachii muscle using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on a skull surface grid. Characteristics of the maps were center of gravity (COG), number of effective stimulation sites, amplitude sum, and amplitudes and response threshold at the optimal stimulation point. The COG is defined by the spatial distribution of response amplitudes on the map and lies over the cortex region with the most excitable corticospinal neurones supplying the recorded muscle. The COG of the biceps map in MCreplant was shifted laterally by 9.8 +/- 3.6 mm (range 5.0-15.7 mm). The extension of the biceps map in MCreplant was increased and the responses were enlarged and had lowered thresholds. For the muscles of the replanted hand, the pattern of reorganization was different: Response amplitudes were enlarged but thresholds, COG, and area of the cortical response map were normal. The different reorganizational phenomena observed for the motor cortical areas supplying the replanted hand and the biceps brachii of the same arm may be influenced by a different extent of deafferentation and by their different role in hand motor control.

  9. Histological evaluation of a replanted tooth retained for 49 years.

    PubMed

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah; Asci, Selmin Kaan

    2006-06-01

    A maxillary incisor that had been replanted immediately after avulsion 49 years previously was evaluated histologically after extraction. The histological evaluation revealed resorption of the apical root surface, depositions in cement with different phases and mineral density, and histological changes in the periodontal ligament.

  10. Indications and Case Series of Intentional Replantation of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Alim Marvasti, Laleh; Kolahdouzan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This case series aims to comprehensively introduce intentional replantation with a focus on its indications and case selection in endodontics. In all represented cases, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement is used for root-end filling. This case series demonstrates twenty cases of IR and extraoral root-end resection and filling with CEM cement. All the selected teeth had a failed endodontic treatment and required surgical/nonsurgical endodontic (re)treatment or extraction. Subsequent to gentle tooth extraction, an appropriate root-end cavity was prepared and filled with CEM cement. Then the tooth was replanted; maximun procedure time was 15 min. A total of 18 cases (90%) were successful over a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. It can be concluded that intentional replantation with careful case selection can have a high success rate over 2 years. Intentional replantation may be a suitable treatment option for both trained general practitioners and specialists provided that the extraction is simple and straightforward. PMID:24396380

  11. Single centre experience of the upper limb replantation and revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Visnjic, Milan M; Kovacevic, Predrag T; Paunkovic, Ljiljana M; Milenkovic, Sasa S

    2004-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the amputated limb using the neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain the recovery of the limb. Fortunately, injuries causing limb amputation are rare. Adequate treatment within the optimal time scale can provide successful rehabilitation of the shape and function of the replanted part. We report the experience of our Clinical Centre (regional replantation centre) in the replantation of five forearms/hands and revascularisation of six hands between 1997 and 2001. The most frequent site of injury was the distal part of the forearm, while the major cause of injuries was a wood processing machine. The surgical procedures were performed under general anaesthesia within 2-6 hours after injury. Vascular anastomoses, nerve repair and muscle repair were performed following the external bone fixation. All patients were given anticoagulation treatment postoperatively. Thrombosis in the anastomotic site developed as an early complication in two patients who underwent thrombectomy; one of these patients developed gangrene and underwent amputation. Late postoperative results were good in 10 patients. One patient developed acral epidermolysis. Postoperative results after revascularisation were good in all patients.

  12. Delayed, bilateral, non-microvascular ear replantation after violent amputation.

    PubMed

    García-Murray, E; Adán-Rivas, O; Salcido-Calzadilla, H

    2009-06-01

    Amputation of any body part is undoubtedly a traumatic experience leaving a terrible deformity, especially when the part or parts involved are visible and constitute an essential component of someone's facial whole. Bilateral ear amputation and successful subsequent replantation has been reported historically, but not in the modern surgical literature. We report the case of a 27-year-old female who was abducted and suffered a bilateral ear amputation at the hands of one of her captors to speed delivery of ransom money; the severed parts were sent to the parents approximately 2 hours after the amputation had taken place, and the girl was released some 48 hours after the ears were delivered. Microvascular replantation was attempted immediately after admission to the hospital some 2 hours after her release, but failed, and so a non-microvascular replantation was performed and was successful, after approximately 54 hours of ischaemia time. We consider this the first report of a complete bilateral, delayed, non-microvascular, successful ear replantation in a human being in the modern literature.

  13. [An assessment of the results of upper limb replantation].

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej; Walaszek, Ireneusz

    2007-01-01

    During the period 1996-2005, in General and Hand Surgery Department in Szczecin, 47 patients, 45 males and 2 females, with a me an age of 42 years, with total (72%) and subtotal (28%) amputations within the metacarpus and more proximal were operated. 35 replants survived, however 10 (21%) necrotized, in 2 cases (5%) blood flow was not re-established during the operations. The study presents results of assessment of objective parameters of 19 patients who received replantation of amputated extremities at the level of metacarpus - 5 cases, wrist - 9, forearm - 3, elbow - 1 and arm - 1 case. Patients were followed-up at mean of 2.5 years after injury (range 6 months -10 years). The average active range of motion of fingers in replanted extremities was 116 degrees (range 26-224 degrees). The average total grip strength was 8.3 kG (range 2-12 kG). The subjective assessment of hand dexterity with DASH questionnaire was mean of 103 points, (range 72-148). Range of motion was satisfactory in most of metacarpals and wrist replantations and less pleasing in forearm and arm amputations. Simultaneously better objective results were achieved in metacarpals and wrist replantations (14 cases, mean DASH 98), than forearm and arm replantations (5 cases, mean DASH 117). The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing revealed feeling of light touch good in 2 cases, satisfactory in 4 cases (median nerve) and in 2 cases (ulnar nerve). Only protective sensation in 8 cases (median nerve) and 10 cases (ulnar nerve). In Chen's classification 3 patients were scored I grade, 2 patients II grade and 9 patients III grade. The patients underwent 78 corrective operations (mean 2.3 per patinet, range 1-5) in order to improve function or cover skin defect. The results support an opinion that these time consuming operations result in salvage of functionally acceptable extremity what advocates that in every case of major amputation, regardless the mechanism or extend of injury an attempt of replantation

  14. A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2002-01-01

    The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of approximately 290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves. PMID:12524365

  15. A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2002-12-01

    The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of approximately 290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves.

  16. Replantation versus Prosthetic Fitting in Traumatic Arm Amputations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Iris A.; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, Arnold H.; van Minnen, L. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze whether replantation is functionally and psychologically more profitable than formalization and prosthetic fitting in patients with traumatic arm amputation. Methods Functional outcome and satisfaction levels were recorded of patients with amputation levels below elbow, through elbow, and above elbow. Results Functional outcomes of 301 replantation patients and 172 prosthesis patients were obtained. In the replantation group, good or excellent functional scores were reported in 39% of above elbow, 55% of through elbow, and 50% of below elbow amputation cases. Nearly 100% of patients were satisfied with the replanted limb. In the prosthesis group, full use of the prosthesis was attained in 48% of above elbow and in 89% of below elbow amputation patients. Here, 29% of patients elected not to use the prosthesis for reasons including pain and functional superfluity. In both replantation patients and prosthesis wearers, a below elbow amputation yielded better functional results than higher amputation levels. Conclusions Replantation of a traumatically amputated arm leads to good function and higher satisfaction rates than a prosthesis, regardless of the objective functional outcome. Sensation and psychological well-being seem the two major advantages of replantation over a prosthesis. The current review of the available literature shows that in carefully selected cases replantation could be the preferred option of treatment. PMID:26340003

  17. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  18. Salvage of replanted upper extremities with major soft-tissue complications.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C

    2007-01-01

    Soft-tissue complications in the replantation wound, either septic or non-septic, are the main cause of failure in major extremity replantations. In the presence of necrosis or infection, vascular errosion or thrombosis readily develops and can lead to limb loss. Very aggressive surgical treatment has been recommended to salvage the replanted limb in these highly unstable clinical situations. Over a 10-year period, 423 amputated parts were replanted, 56 of which were replants proximal to the wrist. The experience of the author in treating 11 cases of critical soft-tissue necrosis (four septic and seven non-septic) after major replantation of the upper extremity with aggressive debridement and flap coverage, is reported. All flaps and limbs survived.

  19. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  20. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm

    PubMed Central

    Rayidi, V. Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome. PMID:28216826

  1. The Effect of Medicaid Expansion on Delivery of Finger and Thumb Replantation Care to Medicaid Beneficiaries and the Uninsured

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Aviram M.; Aliu, Oluseyi; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite advances in replantation, over 80% of finger and thumb amputation injuries in the United States result in revision amputation. Although numerous factors contribute to this, disparities in access and delivery of replantation care play a substantial role. With ongoing Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, it is prudent to understand whether expansion of coverage changes utilization of replantation care. Methods We used the 2001 Medicaid expansion in New York State (NY) to evaluate changes in replantation for Medicaid beneficiaries and the uninsured. Data for patients having undergone replantation between 1998–2006 were obtained from the NY State Inpatient Database. We used an interrupted time series to evaluate the effect of Medicaid expansion on the probability that Medicaid beneficiaries or uninsured patients received replantation. Census data were used for population-adjusted case volume analysis. Results After expansion, the likelihood of Medicaid as the primary payer for replantation increased 0.0059% per quarter, reaching a 1.7% increase five years after expansion. With population-based analysis, this indicates that Medicaid covered 12 additional replantation cases in NY annually. After expansion, 11 fewer of the replantation cases in NY each year were provided to patients without health care coverage. Conclusion Medicaid expansion resulted in a modest but significant increase in replantation for Medicaid beneficiaries. Additionally, fewer patients that underwent replantation remained uninsured. Considering the substantial cost and effort burden of replantation, these findings supports the benefits of Medicaid expansion in delivery and payer coverage of replantation. PMID:26505721

  2. Considerations for double-hand replantation in a resource-constrained healthcare facility.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan; Mohanty, Nilamani; Patnaik, Annada Prasad; Bal, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral-hand amputation is extremely rare and double-hand replantation is even rarer. Only one case of successful double replantation at arm level has been reported from India. We present a case of double-hand replantation at proximal palmar level in a young adult executed in a small nursing home. The patient presented 5 h after injury with limbs preserved well in ice. There were difficulties in executing such an unusual case in a small nursing home set-up. The patient is performing his activities of daily living and basic functions independently. We share our experience of this double-hand replantation with special emphasis on problems encountered.

  3. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  4. Hand replantation: First experience in a sub-Saharan African country (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Komla Sena; Amakoutou, Komla; Bakriga, Batarabadja; Abalo, Anani; Dossim, Assang

    2016-01-01

    Fifty years after Chen has performed the first forearm replantation, we report our first case of hand replantation in a sub-Saharan African country. The etiology of the amputation was machete due to interpersonal violence. The amputation was trans-carpal, guillotine-type, subtotal non-viable maintained with a small skin bridge. The replantation procedure was successful. At one year follow-up, the functional result according to Chen's criteria was excellent. Through this first experience, we can state that hand replantation can be performed successfully both in survival and function in a non-specialized hospital of a sub-Saharan African country. PMID:27274133

  5. Cross-arm replantation for traumatic bilateral upper extremity amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kailu; Zhong, Gang; Yin, Jiahui; Xiang, Zhou; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo

    2011-02-01

    A 40-year-old woman had her right extremity avulsed at the proximal upper arm level and the wrist and hand of her left extremity irretrievably injured in a traffic accident. The right distal forearm was surgically amputated and replanted onto the stump of the left distal forearm. New strategy for nerve repair was applied and the function recovery of the cross-replanted hand was favorable. We thought that cross-extremity replantation was indicated when the patient suffered from bilateral total or subtotal amputation at different levels and orthotopic replantation was impossible.

  6. The effects of topical application of bisphosphonates on replanted rat molars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Kim, Kwang Chul; Kim, Gue-Tae

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of two bisphosphonates (BPs) (etidronate and zoledronate), compared with that of alendronate, which is a well-known drug for delayed replantation, in decreasing or preventing inflammatory root resorption and replacement root resorption in replanted teeth. Eighty-four Sprague Dawley rat maxillary first molars were extracted, dried for 60 min and then replanted after root treatment. The rats were divided into four groups (control, alendronate, etidronate, zoledronate) as following treatments of avulsed root before replantation. At 7, 14, and 28 days postreplantation, the animals were sacrificed and the samples obtained and process for microscopic analysis. The data were statistically analyzed with the SPSS procedure, anova test and each test was complemented by the Tukey's post hoc test. The result indicated that topical application of alendronate and zoledronate, both nitrogen containing BPs, prevented inflammatory root resorption and inflammatory cell response in the delayed replantation model. Both drugs were demonstrated similar effects in the delayed tooth replantation model (P = 0.9). Etidronate did not prevent inflammatory root resorption and inflammation in the delayed replantation (P < 0.05). No significant differences in replacement root resorption were observed among all drugs. These results suggest that when teeth are dried and not replanted immediately, zoledronate, like alendronate, may prevent root resorption and facilitates the regeneration of periodontal tissues after replantation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  8. Systemic reperfusion injury during arm replantation requiring intraoperative amputation.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, C; Hennessy, B

    2002-02-01

    This case describes the attempted replantation of an arm following its traumatic amputation. After a five-and-a-half hour ischaemic time, perfusion of the arm was re-established. However over the ensuing hours, the patient developed hyperkalaemia, acidaemia and severe hypotension requiting high dose inotropic support. Ultimately re-amputation was necessary to treat the systemic effects of the ischaemia reperfusion syndrome.

  9. Influence of triterpenoids present in apple peel on inflammatory gene expression associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    PubMed

    Mueller, Dolores; Triebel, Sven; Rudakovski, Olga; Richling, Elke

    2013-08-15

    Various ursanic, oleanic and lupanic pentacyclic triterpenoids found in apple peel were studied for anti-inflammatory effects in vitro using T84 colon carcinoma cells. After pretreatment with single triterpenoids, cells were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1β). Regulation of mRNA expression was analysed for three specific inflammation-associated marker genes (TNF-α, IL-8, IP-10) using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the effects of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) on the synthesis of certain pro-inflammatory proteins were examined. IP-10 expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by all the tested compounds at concentrations ≥25 μM. The mRNA expression of TNF-α was slightly affected and the IL-8 level was increased. At the protein level, UA and OA (25 μM) reduced the synthesis of IP-10; sICAM-1, IL-23 and GROα were slightly repressed. The TNF-α level was not modulated, whereas induction of IL-8 was increased. UA also enhanced the synthesis of IL-1ra, while OA suppressed the level of I-TAC. The present study confirms that triterpenoids present in apple peel and β-damascone may be implicated in the anti-inflammatory properties of apple constituents, suggesting that these substances might be helpful in the treatment of IBD as nutrient supplements.

  10. Late occlusion of microvascular vein grafts in replantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, W A; Mitchell, G M; Hickey, M J

    1998-11-01

    Two cases are described in which patients presented 16 and 17 years, respectively, after complete or incomplete amputation/replantation of the arm. In case 1, the patient complained of coldness, pain, and tingling in the replanted arm in the previous 24 hours and noticed that his fingers had gone white. Arteriography and subsequent surgery revealed obliteration of the vein graft (inserted in the distal brachial artery) by neointimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque, which was confirmed in a subsequent morphologic examination. In case 2, the patient presented with discomfort and a pulsatile swelling on the inner aspect of his upper arm. Arteriography and surgery revealed an aneurysm in the previously inserted vein graft in the brachial artery, with some atherosclerotic degeneration. Both vein grafts were successfully replaced with a fresh autologous vein graft and the patients remain well several years later. The 2 cases suggest that as part of replantation surgery of a limb, it is essential to maintain postoperative clinical monitoring for signs of graft degeneration in all patients with long-term vein graft insertion.

  11. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Effect of IRM root end fillings on healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1994-08-01

    The effect of IRM as a root end filling placed in teeth prior to replantation was examined in 21 molar teeth in monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root end cavities prepared, and fillings of IRM or amalgam placed prior to replantation. After 8 wk the jaws were removed and prepared for histological examination. Bacteria were demonstrated in only 9 of 15 teeth filled with IRM; 18 of the roots (60%) were associated with inflammation, which was only moderate or severe around 5 (17%), and extended > 0.1 mm around only 2 roots. In contrast, of the 6 teeth filled with amalgam, all contained bacteria in the root canals and 11 roots were associated with moderate or severe inflammation, which around 8 roots extended > 0.5 mm. The difference in severity of inflammation for the two materials was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The tissue response to root end fillings of IRM in replanted teeth was less severe and less extensive than that to amalgam.

  13. Application of wearable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) techniques for in situ real-time field inspection of apple Marssonina blotch disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Han, Sangyeop; Jeong, Hyosang; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    Here we describe the possible application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to inspect Marssonina coronaria infected apple blotch disease of in situ apple leaves. To fulfill the in situ field inspection requirement, we developed a compact wearable OCT system. For the confirmation of OCT results, simultaneous experiment was performed in realtime using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is frequently used in agriculture. LAMP method was developed as an alternative approach for the inspection of disease. We performed field inspection for 30 consecutive days, and all the acquired results from both OCT and lamp were compared to confirm the correlation. A clear identification between healthy specimens, apparently healthy but infected specimens, and infected specimens could be obtained through the real-time OCT images, and the correlation between OCT and lamp results was confirmed through the obtained realtime lamp results. Based on this feasibility study, we conclude that the combination of both these diagnosing modalities can be effective for various novel agricultural discoveries.

  14. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  15. The Inexhaustible Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Raymond; Lehman, Jeffrey R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several hands-on science activities which focus on the use of apples. Suggests several ways of using apples to teach classification. Proposes a field trip to an orchard as a culminating activity. (TW)

  16. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  18. [Tooth replantation after traumatic exarticulation. Present therapeutic orientations and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Itro, A; Difalco, P; Carotenuto, A

    2003-06-01

    Replantation is a method in which an avulsed dental element is replaced into its alveolar socket. The dental traumatic exarticulation occurs in any age, but most frequently in the juvenile population. The aim of this paper is to rewiew the risks and benefits of tooth replantation and to discuss the present therapeutic orientations and future perspectives for avulsion management.

  19. Cross-replantation of lower extremities in multilimbed amputation: case report and literature review in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Yin, Y S; Gao, F G; Lu, Z; Hu, S B

    1995-06-01

    Presented is a case of a 20-year-old man on whom cross-replantation of the right leg onto the stump of the left was successfully conducted by means of unusual bone fixation. Follow-up showed that the result was satisfactory, with firm bone union and functional recovery of the replanted leg.

  20. Fingertip Replantation Using Y-Shaped Vein Graft to Pulp Artery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Young Man

    2015-10-01

    Re-establishing adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for success of fingertip replantation. However, in zone I level, replantation is very difficult, especially in repairing venous circulation. The authors have made an attempt to replantation using Y-shaped vein (YSV) graft to identify and repair veins easily in fingertip replantation. From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 46 fingertip replantations in 44 consecutive patients with amputations in the Tamai zone I level were performed by using YSV graft. In all patients, arterial anastomosis was performed using YSV graft, and interpositional vein grafts were used for venous repair. The overall success rate of the YSV-grafted replantations was 91.3% (42/46). Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 6 YSV-grafted replantations (13%), and pulp atrophy in the YSV-grafted digits was 9.5% (4/42). Fingertip replantation in zone I level is a difficult territory to a microsurgeon, especially anastomosing veins. However, our YSV grafting technique has shown value in this setting, enabling better esthetic and functional results.

  1. [Replantation of IMA and accessory right RA during infrarenal AAA repair and a current view on indications for IMA replanting].

    PubMed

    Biros, E; Staffa, R; Kríz, Z

    2010-09-01

    Replanting the inferior mesentery artery during infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair is a measure which might prevent development of colon ischemia under certain circumstances. These circumstances and patients who would benefit from this procedure are not well defined. 64-year old man underwent an elective operation on infrarenal AAA at our institution in December 2009. From preoperative CT angiography we knew about the accessory right renal artery branching directly from AAA and bilateral occlusion of hypogastric arteries. We performed open resection of AAA with implantation of a bifurcated graft. Proximal anastomosis was situated below renal arteries, distal anastomoses were bilaterally constructed on external illiac arteries. The accessory right renal artery was anastomosed into the right limb of the graft and IMA was replanted into the body of the graft. Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful. His follow-ups 3 and 6 months after the operation have been showing good clinical state of the patient, absence of abdominal complaints and normal levels of urea and creatinine. CT angiography which was performed 3 months after the operation discovered an occlusion of the reimplanted IMA, but patent replanted accessory right renal artery. Assessment of collateral circulation of large intestine during infrarenal AAA repair is influenced by many preoperative and intraoperative factors. Most surgeons judge the adequacy of the collateral circulation by IMA backbleeding combined with inspection of sigmoid colon after restoring aortic flow. There have been numerous attempts to replace this subjective approach with more objective methods like intraoperative colon mucosal saturation measurement, laser Doppler flowmetry, IMA stump pressures, photophletyzmographic technique. Even though these methods describe conditions when a collateral circulation of rectosigmoid is inadequate after IMA ligature, they are unable to fully eliminate the occurrence of colon ischemia

  2. Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 Target WRKY Transcription Factors to Influence Apple Resistance to Leaf Spot Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Chuanbao; Wang, Shengnan; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengyuan; Li, Tianzhong

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple (Malus×domestica). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a 2-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain. Md-miR395 targets another transcription factor, MdWRKY26, which contains two WRKY domains. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 levels increased, while MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression decreased in ALT1-inoculated GD leaves; furthermore, the overexpression of Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 resulted in a significant reduction in MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression. To investigate whether these miRNAs and their targets play a crucial role in plant defense, we overexpressed MdWRKYN1 or knocked down Md-miR156ab activity, which in both cases enhanced the disease resistance of the plants by upregulating the expression of the WRKY-regulated pathogenesis-related (PR) protein-encoding genes MdPR3-1, MdPR3-2, MdPR4, MdPR5, MdPR10-1, and MdPR10-2. In a similar analysis, we overexpressed MdWRKY26 or suppressed Md-miR395 activity, and found that many PR protein-encoding genes were also regulated by MdWRKY26. In GD, ALT-induced Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 suppress MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression, thereby decreasing the expression of some PR genes, and resulting in susceptibility to ALT1.

  3. Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 Target WRKY Transcription Factors to Influence Apple Resistance to Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiulei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Chuanbao; Wang, Shengnan; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengyuan; Li, Tianzhong

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple (Malus×domestica). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a 2-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain. Md-miR395 targets another transcription factor, MdWRKY26, which contains two WRKY domains. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 levels increased, while MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression decreased in ALT1-inoculated GD leaves; furthermore, the overexpression of Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 resulted in a significant reduction in MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression. To investigate whether these miRNAs and their targets play a crucial role in plant defense, we overexpressed MdWRKYN1 or knocked down Md-miR156ab activity, which in both cases enhanced the disease resistance of the plants by upregulating the expression of the WRKY-regulated pathogenesis-related (PR) protein-encoding genes MdPR3-1, MdPR3-2, MdPR4, MdPR5, MdPR10-1, and MdPR10-2. In a similar analysis, we overexpressed MdWRKY26 or suppressed Md-miR395 activity, and found that many PR protein-encoding genes were also regulated by MdWRKY26. In GD, ALT-induced Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 suppress MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression, thereby decreasing the expression of some PR genes, and resulting in susceptibility to ALT1. PMID:28469624

  4. Major replantation versus revision amputation and prosthetic fitting in the upper extremity: a late functional outcomes study.

    PubMed

    Graham, B; Adkins, P; Tsai, T M; Firrell, J; Breidenbach, W C

    1998-09-01

    The functional outcomes of amputated arms that were either replanted or had a prosthesis were compared. In addition, factors that influenced the functional outcome of replants were evaluated. The Carroll test was used to evaluate functional capacity of 22 successful upper extremity replantations at or proximal to the wrist as well as 22 amputees (at similar levels) fitted with a variety of prosthetic devices. The outcome was excellent or good in 8 (36%) replanted limbs. This proportion was statistically higher than those grades in the prosthetic group. When the groups were more closely matched (adults with below elbow injuries), the replantation group had 6 (50%) good or excellent outcomes and the prosthetic group had none. An analysis of covariance of the replantations demonstrated a statistical association between a better outcome in younger patients with more distal injuries. This study indicates that replantation produces superior functional results compared with amputation and a prosthesis.

  5. Biocontrol Agents Increase the Specific Rate of Patulin Production by Penicillium expansum but Decrease the Disease and Total Patulin Contamination of Apples.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangfeng; Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Apaliya, Maurice T; Ianiri, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyin; Castoria, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic fungicides are commonly employed for the control of postharvest diseases of fruits. However, due to health concerns about the use of these chemicals, alternative control methods including biocontrol based on antagonistic yeasts are gaining in popularity. In this study, we investigated the effects of two biocontrol yeasts, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain 3617 and Rhodotorula kratochvilovae strain LS11, on blue mold and patulin (PAT) contamination caused by Penicillium expansum strains PY and FS7 in artificially inoculated Fuji apples stored at 20°C for 9 days. To correlate the development of the P. expansum strains in yeast-treated and untreated apples with PAT production, we quantified their biomass in the infected fruits using a recently published quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method based on specific primers for patF, a gene from P. expansum that is involved in PAT biosynthesis. Both yeasts significantly reduced the disease incidence caused by the two strains of P. expansum up to 5-7 days of incubation, and lowered their biomass and the progression of symptoms up to 9 days. Interestingly, both yeasts strains increased the rate of PAT production (expressed as ng patulin/μg fungal DNA) by the two pathogenic strains. Nevertheless, both biocontrol agents reduced the total PAT contamination, especially in the case of P. expansum strain FS7, the higher PAT producer of the two tested P. expansum strains. Comparing between the yeast strains, R. kratochvilovae LS11 was more effective than R. mucilaginosa 3617 for the control of P. expansum.

  6. Biocontrol Agents Increase the Specific Rate of Patulin Production by Penicillium expansum but Decrease the Disease and Total Patulin Contamination of Apples

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangfeng; Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Apaliya, Maurice T.; Ianiri, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyin; Castoria, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic fungicides are commonly employed for the control of postharvest diseases of fruits. However, due to health concerns about the use of these chemicals, alternative control methods including biocontrol based on antagonistic yeasts are gaining in popularity. In this study, we investigated the effects of two biocontrol yeasts, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain 3617 and Rhodotorula kratochvilovae strain LS11, on blue mold and patulin (PAT) contamination caused by Penicillium expansum strains PY and FS7 in artificially inoculated Fuji apples stored at 20°C for 9 days. To correlate the development of the P. expansum strains in yeast-treated and untreated apples with PAT production, we quantified their biomass in the infected fruits using a recently published quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method based on specific primers for patF, a gene from P. expansum that is involved in PAT biosynthesis. Both yeasts significantly reduced the disease incidence caused by the two strains of P. expansum up to 5–7 days of incubation, and lowered their biomass and the progression of symptoms up to 9 days. Interestingly, both yeasts strains increased the rate of PAT production (expressed as ng patulin/μg fungal DNA) by the two pathogenic strains. Nevertheless, both biocontrol agents reduced the total PAT contamination, especially in the case of P. expansum strain FS7, the higher PAT producer of the two tested P. expansum strains. Comparing between the yeast strains, R. kratochvilovae LS11 was more effective than R. mucilaginosa 3617 for the control of P. expansum. PMID:28713362

  7. Comparison of patient-reported outcomes after traumatic upper extremity amputation: Replantation versus prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pet, Mitchell A; Morrison, Shane D; Mack, Jacob S; Sears, Erika D; Wright, Thomas; Lussiez, Alisha D; Means, Kenneth R; Higgins, James P; Ko, Jason H; Cederna, Paul S; Kung, Theodore A

    2016-12-01

    After major upper extremity traumatic amputation, replantation is attempted based upon the assumption that outcomes for a replanted limb exceed those for revision amputation with prosthetic rehabilitation. While some reports have examined functional differences between these patients, it is increasingly apparent that patient perceptions are also critical determinants of success. Currently, little patient-reported outcomes data exists to support surgical decision-making in the setting of major upper extremity traumatic amputation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to directly compare patient-reported outcomes after replantation versus prosthetic rehabilitation. At three tertiary care centers, patients with a history of traumatic unilateral upper extremity amputation at or between the radiocarpal and elbow joints were identified. Patients who underwent either successful replantation or revision amputation with prosthetic rehabilitation were contacted. Patient-reported health status was evaluated with both DASH and MHQ instruments. Intergroup comparisons were performed for aggregate DASH score, aggregate MHQ score on the injured side, and each MHQ domain. Nine patients with successful replantation and 22 amputees who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation were enrolled. Aggregate MHQ score for the affected extremity was significantly higher for the Replantation group compared to the Prosthetic Rehabilitation group (47.2 vs. 35.1, p<0.05). Among the MHQ domains, significant advantages to replantation were demonstrated with respect to overall function (41.1 vs. 19.7, p=0.03), ADLs (28.3 vs. 6.0, p=0.03), and patient satisfaction (46.0 vs. 24.4, p=0.03). Additionally, Replantation patients had a lower mean DASH score (24.6 vs. 39.8, p=0.08). Patients in this study who experienced major upper extremity traumatic amputation reported more favorable patient-reported outcomes after successful replantation compared to revision amputation with prosthetic rehabilitation

  8. Replantation of permanent incisors in children using Emdogain.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Edward J; Kenny, David J; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Sigal, Michael J; Johnston, Douglas H

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether application of an enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain (Biora AB Malmo, Sweden) to the root surface of avulsed permanent incisors would improve postreplantation outcomes in a pediatric population. Between June 1999 and May 2002, 25 avulsed permanent maxillary incisors (22 centrals and three laterals) were treated with Emdogain and followed for up to 32 months, mean duration 20.6 months (range: 6.9-32.5 months). Mean patient age at the time of treatment was 12.0 years (range: 7.7-17.6 years) and mean extra-alveolar duration was 185 min (range: 100-300 min). At the end of their follow-up each of the replanted incisors demonstrated radiographic evidence of replacement root resorption and clinical evidence of ankylosis. None of the replanted teeth were affected by inflammatory root resorption and there was no evidence of infection. When compared with the control samples from Barrett and Kenny (Endod Dent Traumatol 1997;15:269-72.) and Andersson et al. (Endod Dent Traumatol 1989;5:38-47.) this sample treated with the Emdogain protocol demonstrated significantly less root resorption than either of the control samples (anova, P < 0.0001). Although the Emdogain protocol did not produce periodontal regeneration, it did eliminate inflammatory resorption and infection and led to significantly less root resorption compared with the two historical controls.

  9. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  10. Fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision.

    PubMed

    Yabe, T; Muraoka, M; Motomura, H; Ozawa, T

    2001-11-01

    Four cases of fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision are reported. Because of lack of suitable arteries for anastomosis in the amputated finger, in each case a volar radial vein was anastomosed to the proximal digital artery and external drainage was performed through a transverse tip incision. In 3 cases the replanted fingertip survived completely; partial necrosis occurred in 1 case. Because veins are more superficial and larger than arteries, they are more available for anastomosis. The results indicate that this method is a useful alternative in fingertip replantation.

  11. Limb replantation with two robots: a feasibility study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Chihab; Nectoux, Eric; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of limb replantations and transplantations by telesurgery. The material consisted in a large white pig and two surgical robots (DaVinciS telemanipulators). The procedure consisted in a trans-humeral cross-section of the left thoracic limb, which was secondarily replanted. Results showed good vascular permeability, while the operator's physiological tremor was suppressed. Our results seem to demonstrate that telesurgery could improve limb replantation and transplantation management, especially regarding operating gesture precision. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ten-digit replantation with seven years follow-up: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cong, Haibo; Sui, Haiming; Wang, Chenlin; Wang, Zhumin; Yang, Qingmin; Wang, Buxing

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we present a case of successful replantation of 10-digit complete amputation and results of postoperative rehabilitation in 7 years follow-up. The rehabilitation program included psychotherapy, physical therapy, sensory re-education, and measurements. At the 7 years postoperatively, the static two-point discriminations of replanted digits ranged from 4 to 11 mm. Grasping powers ranged from 69 to 81 lb, and pinching powers ranged from 13 to 19 lb. The patient returned to the previous employment. Our experience has demonstrated that systemic postoperative rehabilitation and measurements could achieve satisfactory recovery of the sensory and motor functions of multiple-digit replantation.

  13. [Indications for replantation of lower limbs after their traumatic amputation at the shin level].

    PubMed

    Milanov, N O; Gusami, G M

    1994-09-01

    From analysis of the results of replantation of 37 lower limbs at the level of the leg, which were amputated as the result of injury in 33 patients, the authors determine the tactical approach to the choice of indications for replantation. The authors believe that replantation at the level of the leg is always indicated in children if it is executable technically and the patient's somatic status presents no general contraindications. In other cases the formation of a stump and subsequent prosthetics should be considered more advisable.

  14. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  15. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  16. Nucleotide sequences of a Korean isolate of apple stem grooving virus associated with black necrotic leaf spot disease on pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyekyung; Min, Yeonju; Hong, Sungyoul; Kwon, Moonsik; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Hyunran; Choi, Yongmoon; Lee, Sukchan; Yang, Jaemyung

    2004-10-31

    Pear black necrotic leaf spot (PBNLS) is a disease of pears caused by capillovirus-like particles, which can be observed under the electron microscope. The disease was analyzed by Western blot analysis with antisera raised against apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) coat protein. cDNAs covering the entire genome were synthesized by RT-PCR and RACE using RNA isolated from Chenopodium quinoa infected with sap extracted from pear leaves carrying black necrotic spot disease. The complete genome sequence of the putative pear virus, 6497 nucleotides in length excluding the poly (A) tail, was determined and analyzed. It contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, spans from nucleotide position 37 to 6354, producing a putative protein of 241 kDa. ORF2, which is in a different reading frame within ORF1, begins at nucleotide 4788 and terminates at 5750, and produces a putative protein of 36 kDa. The 241 kDa protein contains sequences related to the NTP-binding motifs of helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The 36-kDa protein contains the consensus sequence GDSG found in the active sites of several cellular and viral serine proteases. Morphological and serological analysis, and sequence comparison between the putative pear virus, ASGV, citrus tatter leaf virus and cherry virus A of the capillovirus suggest that PBNLS may be caused by a Korean isolate of ASGV.

  17. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  18. The Effect of Medicaid Expansion on Delivery of Finger and Thumb Replantation Care to Medicaid Beneficiaries and the Uninsured.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Aviram M; Aliu, Oluseyi; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-11-01

    Despite advances in replantation, over 80 percent of finger and thumb amputation injuries in the United States result in revision amputation. Although numerous factors contribute to this, disparities in access and delivery of replantation care play a substantial role. With ongoing Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, it is prudent to understand whether expansion of coverage changes use of replantation care. The authors used the 2001 Medicaid expansion in New York State to evaluate changes in replantation for Medicaid beneficiaries and the uninsured. Data for patients having undergone replantation between 1998 and 2006 were obtained from the New York State Inpatient Database. The authors used an interrupted time series to evaluate the effect of Medicaid expansion on the probability that Medicaid beneficiaries or uninsured patients underwent replantation. Census data were used for population-adjusted case volume analysis. After expansion, the likelihood of Medicaid as the primary payer for replantation increased 0.0059 percent per quarter, reaching a 1.7 percent increase 5 years after expansion. With population-based analysis, this indicates that Medicaid covered 12 additional replantation cases in New York State annually. After expansion, 11 fewer of the replantation cases in New York State each year were provided to patients without health care coverage. Medicaid expansion resulted in a modest but significant increase in replantation for Medicaid beneficiaries. In addition, fewer patients that underwent replantation remained uninsured. Considering the substantial cost and effort burden of replantation, these findings support the benefits of Medicaid expansion on delivery and payer coverage of replantation.

  19. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  20. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  1. Which instrument should we use to assess hand function after digital replantation?

    PubMed

    Kamburoğlu, H O; Aksu, A E; Sönmez, E; Işçi, E T; Safak, T; Keçik, A

    2011-06-01

    The functional recovery of a replanted body part is as important as its viability. We compared four instruments frequently used for the evaluation of hand function after digital replantation. The functional results of 17 patients at least one year after replantation of a total digital amputation between 2004 and 2007 were evaluated according to the Tamai, Ipsen, Chen and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaires. Scores of each patient for each test were calculated and intra-individual comparisons were made. Correlation was significant at the 0.05 level (two tailed) for all tests. A high correlation (>0.71) was found between the Ipsen, Tamai and DASH tests. The Chen test had a moderate correlation with the other tests. We determined that Ipsen, Tamai and DASH tests have similar effectiveness in assessing hand function after replantation.

  2. Considerations for double-hand replantation in a resource-constrained healthcare facility

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan; Mohanty, Nilamani; Patnaik, Annada Prasad; Bal, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral-hand amputation is extremely rare and double-hand replantation is even rarer. Only one case of successful double replantation at arm level has been reported from India. We present a case of double-hand replantation at proximal palmar level in a young adult executed in a small nursing home. The patient presented 5 h after injury with limbs preserved well in ice. There were difficulties in executing such an unusual case in a small nursing home set-up. The patient is performing his activities of daily living and basic functions independently. We share our experience of this double-hand replantation with special emphasis on problems encountered. PMID:27274127

  3. [Completely severed unilateral alas nasi survived replantation: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Min; Xu, Hui-Xian; Yu, Li; He, Wei-Ping; Wang, Pei-Yuan

    2002-03-01

    We reported a case in which the right wing of the nose had been completely severed and heavily contaminated 3 h before successful replantation, and survival of the right wing was retained postoperatively.

  4. Embolisation of a leaking pseudoaneurysm of the main artery supplying a replanted arm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tan, J J; Low, C K

    1999-07-01

    A 51-year-old patient suffered a near amputation of the right arm. Replant of the arm was performed and the brachial artery was grafted with a vein. A week later, there was severe bleeding from a leaking pseudoaneurysm at the proximal junction of the grafted artery. This was managed with embolization using coils and resulted in successful obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm without necrosis of the replanted arm.

  5. Replantation of finger avulsion injuries: a systematic review of survival and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sears, Erika Davis; Chung, Kevin C

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies presenting functional outcomes after replantation of finger avulsion injuries have challenged the historical practice of performing revision amputation for all complete finger avulsion injuries. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the English literature of replantation of finger avulsion injuries to provide best evidence of survival rates and functional outcomes. A Medline literature search yielded 1,398 studies, using key words "traumatic amputation" or "replantation", with limitation to humans and finger injuries. Inclusion criteria required that studies meet the following requirements: (1) primary data are presented; (2) the study includes at least 5 cases with either complete or incomplete finger avulsion injuries at or distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint; (3) the study presents survival rates, total active arc of motion (TAM), or static 2-point discrimination (2PD) data; (4) data for incomplete and complete avulsions are reported separately; (5) patients are treated with microvascular revascularization or replantation. Survival rates, TAM, and 2PD data were recorded and a weighted mean of each was calculated. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these 32 studies, all reported survival outcomes, 13 studies reported TAM (metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal), and 9 studies reported sensibility. The mean survival rate for complete finger and thumb avulsions having replantation was 66% (n = 442). The mean TAM of complete finger avulsions after successful replantation was 174° (n = 75), with a large number of patients in the included studies having arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint. The mean 2PD in patients after replantation was 10 mm (n = 32). We found that functional outcomes of sensibility and range of motion after replantation of finger avulsion injuries are better than what is historically cited in the literature. The results of this systematic review

  6. Successful replantation following an accidental forearm amputation. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sauma, A; Quiroga, R; Brockmann, C; Montaño, M; Flores, G; Barrenechea, J P

    2002-04-01

    We report a patient who suffered an accidental complete amputation of the right forearm followed by a successful replantation and comment on the indications and management of macro-replantations of the upper limbs. This is the first time that a successful surgical procedure of this nature has been performed in Bolivia, with no post-operative complications and excellent long-term functional recovery.

  7. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  8. Long-term outcome of replantation of proximal-third amputated arm: a worthwhile endeavor.

    PubMed

    Dagum, Alexander B; Slesarenko, Yury; Winston, Lucy; Tottenham, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    We report a successful replantation of a proximal-third avulsed left arm in a 26-year-old female with maintenance of good functional, clinical, Short Form 36, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcomes results at 10 years. An organized approach combining staged surgical reconstruction and intense hand therapy allowed for both successful replantation and outcome. There exist no clear guidelines in making the decision between replantation and revision amputation. Controversy regarding the value of upper limb replantation seems to increase with ascending levels of amputation. A case report cannot provide guidelines, but several points can be made that may be of help to hand surgeons confronting this uncommon situation. In a highly motivated patient with realistic expectation, a preoperatively intact functioning shoulder should be considered an indication for attempt at replantation. With further staged reconstruction, a helper arm can still be achieved even in an avulsion-type amputation. Current operative and perioperative aspects of microsurgical replantation and subsequent reconstruction are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of reversal osteofixation using K-wires in digital replantation.

    PubMed

    Vucetić, Cedomir; Vukasinović, Zoran; Manojlović, Radovan; Tulić, Goran; Vucković, Cedo; Spasovski, Dusko; Todorović, Aleksandar; Bumbasirević, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Modified, reversal technique of fixation in digital replantation using K-wires was analyzed. The results obtained from the standard technique and reversal technique of fixation using K-wires were compared. The aim was to compare the results of osteofixation using K-wires in digital replantation when either standard or reversal, modified technique was used. A retrospective study included 103 replanted fingers in 72 patients. The first group included standard fixation using K-wires and the second group included fixation using K-wires, but with a modified technique. Modification consisted of the opposite order of moves during the phalanges fixation compared to the standard technique: first, K-wire was introduced intramedullary in the proximal phalanx and the top of the wire was drawn out through the skin in proximal part of the finger or hand. Second, distal part of the wire was introduced in the phalanx of the amputated part of the finger intramedullary until the wire entered the cortex. Duration of bone healing after digital replantation was shorter in cases where reversal technique was used in comparison with standard technique (7.2 weeks compared to 7.5 weeks). The comparison of standard and reversal technique of phalangeal fixation with K-wires in digital replantation shows that both techniques are useful. Reversal technique expands the choice of operative techniques for bone fixation during the replantation. It shows some advantages and enables avoidance of vein injuries.

  10. Periodontal healing of replanted dog teeth stored in Viaspan, milk and Hank's balanced salt solution.

    PubMed

    Trope, M; Friedman, S

    1992-10-01

    This study examined, histologically, periodontal healing and root resorption of replanted dogs teeth stored in Viaspan for different time periods and compared these healing patterns to those after storage in milk or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Seventy-two beagle incisors were endodontically treated, extracted, randomly divided and placed in Viaspan or milk for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h, and Viaspan or HBSS for 36, 48, 72 and 96 h, after which they were replanted. Four negative control teeth were immediately replanted while four positive controls were allowed to dry for one hour before replantation. All replanted teeth were splinted for 14 days. Two months after replantation the dogs were killed and the teeth histologically examined for healing of the supporting tissues. For Viaspan neither replacement nor inflammatory root resorption was seen after 6 and 12 h storage. A statistically significant rise in the incidence of replacement resorption was seen at 24, 36 and 48 h which decreased again at 72 and 96 h to levels equal to storage for 6 and 12 h. The occurrence of inflammatory root resorption was low and significantly increased only at 48 h after which it decreased significantly again. Viaspan proved superior to milk as a storage medium. Teeth stored in HBSS showed healing results similar to those stored in Viaspan.

  11. Cross-limb vascular shunting for major limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Lee, Jing-Wei

    2009-02-01

    In the management of traumatic major limb amputation, rapid re-establishment of circulation to the amputated part is imperative so as to prevent complications related to reperfusion injury, especially for those already suffering from prolonged ischemia. A temporary, extra-anatomic cross limb shunting with infusion lines can be used to perfuse the amputated part almost instantaneously. This allows the surgeon to carry out skeletal fixation and other reparative works in an unhurried manner. The cannulation site is targeted at intact vessels far away from the injury zone, obviating the need to explore and handle traumatized vessels at the mangled stump ends, thus greatly simplifying and expediting the revascularization process. Such a method had been successfully applied in 2 young people suffering traumatic arm amputation and thigh amputation, respectively. We suggested that such a procedure could be a useful adjunct in the field of major limb replantation.

  12. Delayed Replantation of Avulsed Teeth: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Akcay, Merve; Koseoglu, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents two cases of delayed replantation of avulsed maxillary central incisors after an extended dry extra-alveolar period. Eight-year-old boy and 10-year-old boy presented with avulsed maxillary central incisors due to trauma occurring 27 and 7 hours earlier, respectively. Treatment guidelines for avulsed mature/immature permanent teeth with prolonged extra-oral time were carried out for the teeth and the extra-oral endodontic treatment was completed. After having been repositioned, the teeth were stabilized for 4 weeks and prophylactic antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical and radiographic controls were done after 18 months for Case I and 12 months for Case II. During the follow-up periods the teeth reported in these cases have remained in a stable, functional position but revealed clinical initial replacement resorption and ankylosis. PMID:25810928

  13. Somatic variation plays a key role in the evolution of the Vf gene family residing in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of four receptor-like genes has been previously identified in the Vf locus of the crabapple Malus floribunda clone 821 that confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the casual agent of apple scab disease. Pairwise comparisons of the four Vf paralogs in both promoter and coding regions reveal their timeline evolutionary history. The four Vf paralogs have evolved from four ancient Vf members resulting from two sequential duplication events of a single Vf progenitor initially present in the Malus genome. The coding sequences of the four Vf paralogs are characterized with high numbers of unique polymorphic nucleotides, a number of short duplications/deletions, various deletions of complete LRR copy units, and a casual insert of a transposon-like element. Significant high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions, Ka/Ks, are observed in the putative ligand binding residues in the LRR domains. No sequence exchange between the four Vf paralogs is observed. Compared with promoter regions, only nucleotide substitutions are dramatically elevated in the coding regions. The results presented in this study strongly indicate that the Vf locus is under strong and steady horizontal selective pressures imposed by the fungal pathogen V. inaequalis, and divergent selection on somatic variations plays a key role in shaping the resistance specificity.

  14. WHOLE SURFACE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MACHINE VISION INSPECTION OF APPLES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in the US serve as reminders of food safety in produce. Unpasteurized apple juice/cider has been identified as a repeated source of E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Apples with diseased or fungal contaminated surfaces, and open skin cuts and bruises may become sites...

  15. Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Soriano, José M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. Extensive research exists on apples and the health benefits of their beverages and phytochemicals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature in this area focusing on phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior.

  16. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  17. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  18. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  19. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  20. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037417 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  1. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037421 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  2. Resection-replantation for primary malignant tumours of the arm. An alternative to fore-quarter amputation.

    PubMed

    Windhager, R; Millesi, H; Kotz, R

    1995-03-01

    We describe a method of partial limb salvage for the treatment of large primary malignant tumours of the arm. The tumour-bearing area is resected as a cylindrical segment and the distal arm is then replanted with the necessary shortening. The method is suitable for stage-IIB tumours with or without neurovascular involvement which, because of their extent, could otherwise be adequately treated only by amputation. From 1987 to 1992 we used this method in 12 patients with primary malignant bone or soft-tissue sarcomas. Wide resection margins were achieved in all, but six patients died from their disease at a mean of 21.5 months (6 to 48), none with any local recurrence. Five patients have no evidence of disease at a mean follow-up period of 52.2 months (22 to 78), and one was lost to follow-up at 48 months postoperatively when there was no evidence of disease. The results of the functional evaluation of ten patients with a follow-up of over ten months were excellent in one, good in six and fair in three, by the criteria of Enneking (1987). Recovery after nerve reconstruction was satisfactory in all cases with sensation S3 or higher and motor function M2+ or higher. Detailed evaluation of hand function on the Millesi score rated only 22% (9.6% to 33.7%) as compared with the contralateral side, but the patients were satisfied and refused further operations for the improvement of function. These oncological and functional results allow us to recommend resection-replantation as a valuable alternative to amputation for the treatment of primary malignant tumours of the arm.

  3. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  4. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  5. Epidemiology of digital amputation and replantation in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dun-Hao; Ye, Shih-Yu; Chien, Li-Chien; Ma, Hsu

    2015-10-01

    Publications on digital amputation and replantation have been mostly derived from case series in high-volume hand surgery practices, and epidemiological studies are few. This study used a population-based dataset to illustrate the incidence of digital amputation, patient and hospital characteristics, and their relationships with replantation. A claim for reimbursement dataset (2008) was provided as a research database by the Bureau of National Health Insurance, Taiwan. Patients with ICD-9-CM coded as digital amputation (885 and 886) were included. These were cross-referenced with procedure codes for replantation procedures (84.21 and 84.22). We defined the patients who underwent thumb replantation (84.21) and thumb amputation (84.01) during a single hospitalization as replantation failure. Patient and hospital characteristics were studied with statistical analysis. In total, 2358 patients with digital amputation were admitted (1859 male, 499 female), mean age 39.2 ± 15.5 years. The incidence was 10.2/100,000 person-years. The highest incidence was 14.7/100,000 person-years in the age group 45-54 years. Machinery and powered hand tools caused 68.8% of digital amputations. Thumb amputation [odds ratio (OR): 1.35, p = 0.01], private hospital (OR: 1.40, p = 0.01), medical center (OR: 2.38, p < 0.001), regional hospital (OR: 2.41, p < 0.001) and hospitals with an annual volume >20 digital amputations (OR: 4.23, p < 0.001) were associated with higher attempt rates for replantation. Elderly patients (age >65 years) had higher risk of thumb replantation failure (OR: 32.30, p = 0.045), while hospitals with >20 annual replantations had lower risk (OR: 0.11, p = 0.02). Our study of the National Health Insurance database characterized the epidemiology of digital amputation patients undergoing replantation and the facilities in Taiwan where these procedures are performed. The hospitals treating more digital amputation patients had higher attempt rates and lower

  6. Perioperative evaluation and outcomes of major limb replantations with ischemia periods of more than 6 hours.

    PubMed

    Tantry, Thrivikrama Padur; Kadam, Dinesh; Shenoy, Sunil P; Bhandary, Sanath; Adappa, Karunakara K

    2013-03-01

    Early revascularization is cardinal for successful replantation of proximal limb amputations. Prolonged ischemia time potentially leads to reperfusion syndrome and morbidity. The dilemma persists regarding safe duration of cold ischemia time for replantation. The study was conducted to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of major replantation in terms of limb survival, reperfusion events, morbidity, and potential mortality with respect to the ischemia time and level of amputations. Fourteen patients with proximal amputations at the arm, elbow, and forearm with total ischemia time beyond 6 hours were replanted. All had warm ischemia time of less than 2 hours and were closely monitored to record and correct reperfusion events. Nine out of 14 limbs survived. Five patients had reperfusion events. Proximal limb amputations with larger muscle mass were at higher risk of developing reperfusion syndrome and such events had higher chances of limb loss. Major limb amputations within 2 hours of warm ischemia time even with prolonged cold ischemia can be successfully replanted with closed perioperative monitoring.

  7. Alleviatory effect of spent Pleurotus eryngii Quel substrate on replant problem of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Li, Xuanzhen; Zhang, Liuji; Gu, Li; Feng, Fajie; Li, Ming-Jie; Wang, Fengji; Lin, Wenxiong; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2017-06-13

    Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. is a medicinal plant cultivated at a commercial scale in China. However, replanting problems result in a severe decline in both the biomass and quality of its roots which are of greatest medicinal value. This study attempted to remediate the replant soil using spent Pleurotus eryngii Quel substrate for alleviating this issue, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that R. glutinosa grew successfully in fresh soil and remedial replant soil, while no roots were harvested in the unremedied replant soil. Overall, the nutritional status in the remedial soil was higher than that of the unremedied and fresh soil, while the concentration of allelopathic phenolic acids was lower. When planted in unremedied soil, the growth of five plant pathogens was induced and one beneficial fungus was suppressed. When planted in remedied soil, four out of the five pathogens were suppressed while two beneficial fungi were identified in the remedial soil. This study suggests that the spent P. eryngii substrate significantly alleviate the replant problem of R. glutinosa, and that the alleviatory function reflects a synergetic effect, including the supplement of soil nutrition, the degradation of allelochemicals, and the remediation of unbalanced microbial community.

  8. Rehabilitation of a patient following hand replantation after near-complete distal forearm amputation.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sarah M; Oxley, Sally B; Van Zant, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Case report. Reports of comprehensive rehabilitation following hand replantation are limited. To describe hand therapy of a patient following hand replantation. Right hand dominant 55 year-old male assessed 9 days following left hand replantation to treat distal forearm amputation. Patient presented with dorsal blocking orthotic. Initial status: AROM digits and thumb 0-20° extension, 0-40° flexion; absent light touch sensation; 0-1/5 hand strength. Patient underwent 70 hand therapy sessions over 13 months focusing on A/PROM, therapeutic exercise, neuromuscular re-education, and modalities to address functional limitations. Hand therapy discharge status: AROM digits and thumb form composite fist, thumb opposition to digit 3, light touch sensation (monofilament) 4.03 (digits 2, 4) and 4.17 (digits 1, 3, 5); 3- to 4-/5 hand strength. Hand therapy allowed for near complete functional return of the hand following replantation. Comprehensive Hand therapy aided restoration of adequate sensation and strength for functional use of the replanted hand. 4. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Continued Root Formation after Delayed Replantation of an Avulsed Immature Permanent Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Darvish, Alireza; Adel, Mamak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Tooth avulsion in the young permanent dentition is a frequent finding, and its prognosis depends on the treatment of the avulsed tooth before replantation, the extra-alveolar time, the storage medium, and the patient's general health. The present report describes management of an immature avulsed lower central incisor 90 minutes after the accident. Methods. A right lower central incisor of a 7-year-old girl was avulsed, and it was soaked in a glass of milk. 90 minutes after avulsion, replantation was performed, and the tooth was splinted; but after two weeks the replanted tooth's pulp was necrotic. Thus, endodontic treatment was performed and root canal was filled using a calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste (Metapex). Three months later, the intracanal medication was washed out and the canal was sealed using an apical plug of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Results. 20 months after replantation the tooth was completely asymptomatic, with physiologic mobility. Also, continued root formation including an apical segment beyond the artificial apical plug was observed. Conclusion. Creation of an appropriate apical barrier following the disinfection of root canal system promoted continued root-end growth in a replanted immature permanent tooth. PMID:24900928

  10. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Shaun D.; Sawyer, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization. PMID:28101290

  11. Immediate tooth replantation in rats: effect of systemic antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin and tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Melo, Moriel Evangelista; Silva, Cristina Antoniali; de Souza Gomes, Weglis Dyanne; da Silva, Vanessa Ferreira; Brandini, Daniela Atili; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of systemic administration of antibiotics (amoxicillin and tetracycline) at the different phases of the repair process (7, 15, 30 days) in immediate rat tooth replantation. Ninety rats had their incisors extracted and stored in saline for 5 min. Next, the teeth were replanted, and the animals were assigned to three groups according to the antibiotic administered by oral gavage: control group, amoxycillin group, and tetracycline group. Euthanasia was performed at 7, 15, and 30 days after replantation. Regardless of the evaluation period, the connective tissue underlying the epithelial attachment and the periodontal ligament showed statistically significant difference relative to the acute inflammatory infiltrate, which was more intense in the control group followed by the tetracycline group. These results point to the fact that systemic antibiotic therapy (SAT) in immediate tooth replantation is beneficial to pulpal and periodontal ligament repair and that amoxycillin is an excellent option. There is a lack of randomized studies assessing how the use of systemic antibiotics could influence tooth healing after immediate replantation.

  12. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Shaun D; Sawyer, Justin D; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization.

  13. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm) on repair of dental replantation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; Santos, Laila; dos Santos Barbosa, Artur F.; Aguiar, Marcio C.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana M.

    2014-02-01

    Up to date the success of tooth replantation is still limited. The majority of the teeth is lost due to progressive external root resorption. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the effect of laser photobiomodulation on repair after tooth replantation. Sixty Wistar Albinus rats had the right upper incisor extracted and then divided into 4 groups: G1 - absence of storage medium; G2 - milk u s e d as storage medium; G3 - milk used as storage medium a n d followed by GaAlAs laser irradiation on dental surfaces and at the entrance of alveolus; G4 - milk used as storage medium associated with laser irradiation as in G3 before and after replantation on the buccal and palatal mucosa every 48 hours for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation. The results showed that after 15 days G4 exhibit more intense chronic inflammation, with presence of clastic cells and moderate inflammatory root resorption (p<0.05) when compared to G3, which presented absence of those parameters. At day 30 in G1, G2 and G4 mild to moderate chronic inflammation and severe external root resorption were observed. G3 remained with no inflammation and inflammatory root resorption with 30 and 60 days of healing experimental times. The results suggest that laser irradiation on the dental entrance of the dental alveolus prior to tooth replantation has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process in rats.

  14. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  15. Replantation in scapulothoracic avulsion amputation of the right upper limb in a 3-year-old child- A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Sanjay; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Jawed, Akram; Aggarwal, Aditya; Singh, Hardeep; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Replantations for major amputations of upper extremity have been widely performed. We report a unique case of successful replantation of scapulothoracic avulsion amputation in a child. In this manuscript, we discuss the various challenges faced during the procedure and chances of neural recovery. PMID:27833298

  16. Salvage of amputated upper extremities with temporary ectopic implantation followed by replantation at a second stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Wang, Shou-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Zhao, Gui-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Salvage of the complex amputation of extremities, such as combined with devastating segmental injuries, extensive soft tissue defect, and multiple important organ injuries, continues to be a challenge for plastic surgeons. Temporary ectopic implantation of the amputated part to a healthy recipient site allows the patient to recover from critical combined injuries, radical debridements, and soft tissue repair. In this article, the authors report two cases of temporary ectopic implantation of complexly amputated forearms, followed by successful replantation to their anatomic positions at a second stage. The contralateral upper extremity is an acceptable recipient site for temporary ectopic implantation. In secondary replantation, a cross-arm flap can be designed to carry the vascular pedicle from the ectopic implantation recipient to improve blood supply to the replanted part when the second blood supply is established. The authors validated that temporary ectopic implantation of amputated parts provides an alternative procedure for the salvage of amputated extremities under special circumstances.

  17. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.

  18. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  19. An experimental model for studies on delayed tooth replantation and ankylosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maslamani, Manal; Almusawi, Ala; Joseph, Bobby; Gabato, Severino; Andersson, Lars

    2016-12-01

    To develop an experimental in vivo model to study dentoalveolar ankylosis and osseous replacement resorption after delayed replantation. The maxillary right incisors of eight rabbits were extracted and replanted, while the maxillary left incisors served as controls. A special technique for extraction was used, luxating the incisor laterally prior to extraction. Extra-oral root canal treatment was performed. In four of the eight replanted teeth, periodontal ligament was removed using gauze. All teeth were replanted after one-hour dry storage. A horizontal line was drilled on the labial enamel surface of the incisors to enable registration of possible subsequent infraposition. The rabbits were sacrificed after 1 week or 4 weeks, respectively. Percussion test of the teeth was carried out and infraposition was registered. Histological processing and evaluation were performed. Percussion sound was normal after 1 week and high in the 4 week group; infraposition was noted in all replanted teeth in the 4-week group. Fusion between the bone and dentin was seen in some areas on the root already after 1 week, but there was little or no osseous replacement. Larger areas of ankylosis were seen in the 4-week group although not significant, but deeper progressive osseous replacement was noted in this group. There was no significant difference in ankylosis with regard to periodontal ligament removal or not. Pulp and periodontal tissues were normal in all control teeth. The rabbit tooth model may be useful for experimental in-vivo studies on delayed replantation, subsequent ankylosis, osseous replacement and infraposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of laser photobiomodulation on the periodontal repair process of replanted teeth.

    PubMed

    Matos, Felipe de Souza; Godolphim, Fernanda de Jesus; Correia, Ayla Macyelle de Oliveira; de Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga

    2016-10-01

    Tooth replantation is the optimal treatment in cases of avulsion. However, its success is limited due to the occurrence of external root resorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of laser photobiomodulation (LPBM) at λ808 nm and λ660 nm and of storage media on the periodontal repair process of replanted teeth in rats. Sixty maxillary right incisors were extracted from sixty Wistar rats and randomly assigned to six groups (n = 10). Groups consisted of 10 teeth stored in paper napkins (PN), whole milk (WM), and soy milk (SM), for 45 min; and PNL, WML and SML, in which teeth were stored in the same storage media, but the root surface and the alveolus were treated with LPBM at λ808 nm before replantation, and the buccal and palatal mucosa of the alveolus were treated with LPBM at λ660 nm after replantation. Five rats from each group were euthanized after 15 or 30 days. The right hemimaxilla including the replanted incisor was removed and processed for histomorphometric analysis to assess root resorption areas, replacement root resorption, perimeter with ankylosis and periodontal repair, and areas of type I and III collagen deposition, using the ImageJ 1.50b software. Data were analyzed statistically by anova followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test (α = 5%). WM and SM showed smaller root resorption areas and higher collagen deposition in both experimental periods, and SM showed the largest perimeter of periodontal repair. LPBM reduced the occurrence of root resorption only in the PNL group, both at 15 and 30 days, and increased the perimeter of periodontal repair in all groups at 30 days. There was higher collagen deposition in the irradiated groups regardless of the experimental period. The LPBM protocol at λ808 nm and λ660 nm as well as whole milk and soy milk favored the periodontal repair process of replanted teeth in rats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    PubMed

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  2. Local subcutaneous heparin as treatment for venous insufficiency in replanted digits.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, M; Butrón, P

    1999-05-01

    In the treatment of venous insufficiency unsuitable for surgical correction in replanted digits, a small ungual window was surgically created to infiltrate subcutaneous heparin in the congested digit. The initial heparin dose was 1000 units. This dose made possible a continuous bleeding during 24 to 48 hours, solely through the ungual window. Further doses were applied based on the degree of congestion of the replanted digit, but usually it was necessary to infiltrate up to 500 units of heparin every 24 to 48 hours until vascular stability was achieved. Three patients were treated with this technique. One opted for quitting the treatment. A replanted thumb suffered venous congestion on the seventh postoperative day and was treated with local subcutaneous heparin for 3 days. A replanted fingertip suffered venous thrombosis 24 hours after surgery and was treated likewise for 18 days. In these two patients, success was attained. Blood transfusions were carried out in the latter two, and none had any systemic changes in partial thromboplastin or thrombin time. This treatment is based on the mechanism of action of heparin at high doses but applied only to the congested segment. Besides their anticoagulant effect through antithrombin, high doses of heparin slow platelet aggregation, may induce angiogenesis, and have a longer-than-normal half-life. With the above technique, heparin has been applied to the congested segment at an approximate dose of 33,000 to 40,000 units/kg, and continuous bleeding solely through the ungual window for 24 to 48 hours has been achieved, which has allowed us to save two replanted segments with no complications at all. This method may offer another alternative for the medical treatment of venous insufficiency in replanted segments.

  3. Resection replantation of the arm for sarcoma: an alternative to amputation.

    PubMed

    Athanasian, Edward A; Healey, John H

    2002-02-01

    Resection-replantation for primary malignant tumors of the arm as an alternative to forequarter amputation first was reported in 1995. Segmental resection of the upper arm and replantation of the distal segment to the proximal humerus as an alternative to shoulder disarticulation for a large tumor of the humerus is reported. This procedure provides the patient with an aesthetically acceptable single-segment arm, which is useful for activities of daily living and recreation. There has been no local recurrence or metastasis at 5 years followup.

  4. Vascularized nail transfer from non-replantable digit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Taleb, Chihab; Goukodadja, Oswald; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a traumatic amputation by circular saw of the ring and small fingers, associated with middle finger nail matrix loss and tendon, bone and joint exposure. The replantation was not attempted with patient's consent. Since the nail unit from the ring finger was intact, we decided to harvest the ring finger nail unit for major finger reconstruction. Although the principle of vascularized transfer from a severely damaged finger is widely recognized and the vascularized nail transfer from toe is a relatively common procedure, there is no description of a vascularized nail transfer from a non-replantable digit in the literature.

  5. An interesting healing outcome of a replanted immature permanent tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyunsook; Kim, Miri; Yang, Wonkyung; Ko, Hyunjung

    2011-02-01

    A case of an avulsed upper left central incisor that was replanted after 3 h in a 7-year-old girl is presented. The tooth showed signs of an acute periapical abscess at 2 weeks after replantation. Apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) following application of calcium hydroxide was attempted. At 3-year and 6-month follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with adequate clinical function. The radiograph showed resolution of the periapical lesion and apparent radiopaque tissue under MTA plug resembling root end morphology. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Spectacularly successful microsurgical penile replantation in an assaulted patient: one case report.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elfassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare condition for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. We present herein one case of a 27-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department after his wife cut his penis. The penis was replanted microsurgically. The deep dorsal penile veins and superficial veins were anastomosed. Although we could not reanastomose the arteries, wound healing occurred without any problem one week postoperatively and the patient regained erectile function 4 weeks after surgery. At 1-year follow-up examinations he reported on restored erectile function and a normal urinary function.

  7. Spectacularly Successful Microsurgical Penile Replantation in an Assaulted Patient: One Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elfassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare condition for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. We present herein one case of a 27-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department after his wife cut his penis. The penis was replanted microsurgically. The deep dorsal penile veins and superficial veins were anastomosed. Although we could not reanastomose the arteries, wound healing occurred without any problem one week postoperatively and the patient regained erectile function 4 weeks after surgery. At 1-year follow-up examinations he reported on restored erectile function and a normal urinary function. PMID:22606628

  8. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  9. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple

    PubMed Central

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective. PMID:28199444

  10. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos

    2017-02-13

    Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.

  12. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR < 0.001) by RNA-Seq. During the early phase of infection, 12 h post inoculation (HPI), AAAP exhibited limited fungal development and little change in the transcript accumulation status (950 DEGs). During the intermediate phase of infection, the period between 18 and 36 HPI, increased fungal development, active infection, and increased transcript accumulation were detected (4111 and 3838 DEGs detected at each time point, respectively). The majority of DEGs were detected by 72 HPI, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of apples' AAAP infection. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs are predominately involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways; results showed that almost gene associated with photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction were down-regulated, while transcription factors (i.e., WRKY, MYB, NAC, and Hsf) and DEGs involved in cell wall modification, defense signaling, the synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related (PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP

  13. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between "Starking Delicious" apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR < 0.001) by RNA-Seq. During the early phase of infection, 12 h post inoculation (HPI), AAAP exhibited limited fungal development and little change in the transcript accumulation status (950 DEGs). During the intermediate phase of infection, the period between 18 and 36 HPI, increased fungal development, active infection, and increased transcript accumulation were detected (4111 and 3838 DEGs detected at each time point, respectively). The majority of DEGs were detected by 72 HPI, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of apples' AAAP infection. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs are predominately involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways; results showed that almost gene associated with photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction were down-regulated, while transcription factors (i.e., WRKY, MYB, NAC, and Hsf) and DEGs involved in cell wall modification, defense signaling, the synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related (PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in "Starking Delicious" following AAAP

  14. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  15. Apple mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  16. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  17. The effect of apple feeding on markers of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Langkilde, Søren; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended to lower DNA damage in the liver (P = 0.136 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.284 in noninitiated rats). Liver alanine aminotransferase was significantly increased in rats fed apples (P = 0.008 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.019 in noninitiated rats). In conclusion, feeding whole fresh apple may affect the occurrence of preneoplastic changes in the rat colon, but the effect was not gradual.

  18. Anxiety and trauma perception and quality of life in patients who have undergone replantation.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Alper; Bekler, Halil; Karacaoglu, Ercan; Servet, Erkan; Gokay, Nevzat Selim

    2011-10-01

    The difficulty in keeping an amputated limb biologically alive is overcome day by day thanks to the successful replantation procedures applied in the early period. However, the reflections of this biological success on patients in functional and psychological terms may not be pleasing all the time. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the perceptual responses of patients to trauma after replantation and their possible effects on clinical results. We conducted a retrospective study of 43 patients who underwent replantation. The average age was 32.4 years and the average follow-up period was 38.6 months. When the results of the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck's Depression Inventory, and the assessment scores of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand survey were evaluated, there was a negative correlation between the patients diagnosed with depression and all SF-36 subunits. A negative correlation between the severity of trauma and the average physical and mental values included in the SF-36 evaluations was observed (R = 0.48, R = 0.51, respectively),. These results revealed that the psychology of the patient was one of the important factors that could not be ignored in the success of replantation.

  19. [Replantation and revascularization in acute upper limb amputation--the Sheba Medical Center experience].

    PubMed

    Oron, Amir; Yaffe, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Replantation and revascularization in acute upper-limb amputations are well-accepted surgical techniques in hand surgery. All medical staff members treating patients in emergency settings should be familiar with the indications, timetable, setup and transportation of patients rendered suitable for such surgery. While replantation surgery is not considered a simple surgical procedure by any means, viability rates approach ninety percent. The amputated part should be wrapped with gauze soaked in saline, placed in a sterile plastic bag and then put in an ice-filled container. The patient should be transferred to a medical center with a team dedicated to performing replantation procedures, following notification in advance. Time from the initial insult to the initiation of treatment should be minimized. Combined efforts employed by the primary caregivers and the microsurgical team will lead to optimization of patient treatment and improve the final outcome. During the years 1991-2007 a total of 383 upper limb replantation or revascularization procedures were performed at the Sheba Medical Center and are presented in this article.

  20. Emdogain does not prevent progressive root resorption after replantation of avulsed teeth: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Schjøtt, M; Andreasen, J O

    2005-02-01

    Emdogain has been shown in clinical and experimental studies to promote regeneration of all periodontal tissues: cementum with anchoring fibres, a functional, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in connection with treatment of marginal periodontitis. The intention of this study was to analyse whether this regenerative capacity upon the periodontal ligament also worked in a trauma situation where a significant number of PDL cells have been eliminated because of unphysiologic storage or actual damage during avulsion or replantation. Furthermore if ankylosis sites already established because of earlier replantation after avulsion could be surgical removed and application of Emdogain could revert the ankylosis stage to a normal PDL situation. The first treatment situation was tested in seven patients with a total of 16 avulsed teeth with varying time of extra oral storage. The teeth were extra-orally endodontically treated and the root and socket covered with Emdogain before replantation. All teeth demonstrated subsequent ankylosis, primarily diagnosed by a percussion test. The second treatment situation where an ankylosis was already established constituted of seven patients with a total of 11 teeth because of previous replantation after avulsion. These teeth were all extracted, the ankylosis sites removed and the root and socket treated with Emdogain. After 6 months all teeth showed recurrence of ankylosis. It is concluded that Emdogain was not able to prevent or cure ankylosis.

  1. The effect of Emdogain and 24% EDTA root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Martínez, Nayelli; Silva-Herzog, Flores Daniel; Méndez, González Verónica; Martín-Pérez, Silvia; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Cohenca, Nestor

    2009-02-01

    Controversies still exist as for the regenerative role of enamel matrix derivatives and the need for removal of the periodontal ligament in replanted teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain and 24% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth. Teeth were extracted, endodontically treated and preconditioned as follows: group 1, Emdogain; group 2, Emdogain + EDTA and group 3, EDTA. Teeth were replanted after 30 min extraoral time, splinted for 15 days and animals sacrificed after 8 weeks of observation. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome and results scored based on previously reported criteria for histological evaluation. Replacement root resorption was histologically diagnosed in all groups except in the negative control. A parametric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between experimental groups. Root preconditioning with Emdogain alone or in combination with 24% EDTA showed no evidence of regeneration of collagen fibers and consequently did not prevent the development of replacement root resorption on replanted dog's teeth.

  2. Histologic and micro-computed tomographic analyses of replanted teeth stored in different kind of media.

    PubMed

    de Paula Reis, Manuella Verdinelli; Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Souza-Neto, Manoel Damião; Barbosa, Darceny Zanetta; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-05-01

    Coconut water (CW) and soy milk (SM) have been proposed as storage media for avulsed teeth because of their nutrients that preserve cell viability. The present study investigated the periodontal healing process of dog teeth replanted after storage in CW, SM, and whole milk (WM) using micro-computed tomographic (μCT) and histologic analyses compared with immediate tooth replantation. Forty roots of 10 adult beagle dogs were extracted and subjected to the following protocols: immediate replantation after extraction (control), stored in CW with an adjusted pH, and SM and WM for 50 minutes before replantation. The animals were euthanized 28 days postoperatively, and the obtained specimens were scanned using a μCT scanner and subjected to routine processing for histometric analyses under an optical microscope. CW and SM performed similarly to WM; however, SM showed significantly higher ankylosis than the control group. Additionally, this study showed that the combined use of histologic analysis and μCT is a promising method to better identify tooth resorption and the repair process and to evaluate the total extension of the periodontium. CW as a storage medium is a promising transport media for avulsed teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Low-Cost High-Definition Video System for Microsurgical Hindlimb Replantation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Rui; de Barros, Monteiro; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Leal, Rafael Aquino; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Sabbá, Marcelo Ferreia; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Vieira

    2017-03-01

    Background The surgical microscope is still essential for microsurgery, but several alternatives that show promising results are currently under development, such as endoscopes and laparoscopes with video systems; however, as yet, these have only been used for arterial anastomoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a low-cost video-assisted magnification system in replantation of the hindlimbs of rats. Methods Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two matched groups according to the magnification system used: the microscope group, with hindlimb replantation performed under a microscope with an image magnification of 40× and the video group, with the procedures performed under a video system composed of a high-definition camcorder, macrolenses, a 42-in television, and a digital HDMI cable. The camera was set to 50× magnification. We analyzed weight, arterial and venous caliber, total surgery time, arterial and venous anastomosis time, patency immediately and 7 days postoperatively, the number of stitches, and survival rate. Results There were no significant differences between the groups in weight, arterial or venous caliber, or the number of stitches. Replantation under the video system took longer (p < 0.05). Patency rates were similar between groups, both immediately and 7 days postoperatively. Conclusion It is possible to perform a hindlimb replantation in rats through video system magnification, with a satisfactory success rate comparable with that for procedures performed under surgical microscopes.

  4. [Contralateral replantation after bilateral traumatic lower leg amputation. Case report with 6 year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Betz, A; Stock, W; Hierner, R; Sebisch, E; Schweiberer, L

    1995-05-01

    A 66-year-old patient attempted suicide by jumping in front of a train. The lower extremities were amputated at different levels. On the right side, there was a complete amputation within the distal third of the lower leg. Proximal to the amputation site, there was an extensive soft-tissue and bone defect. On the left side, there was a crush injury of the tarsal and mid-tarsal bones. The left lower leg showed only few injuries. An ipsilateral (anatomical) replantation was not possible. In order to save one lower extremity, we decided to carry out a cross-over (contralateral) replantation of the right foot to the left lower leg. After a follow-up of six years, the patient is able to walk well with her prosthesis on the right side and the right foot hooked up to the left lower leg. Functionally, this treatment (cross-over replantation-one-side prosthesis of the lower leg) is much better than the prosthesis on both extremities, as the result has shown. Also from a psychological point of view, it seems to be better for the patient to preserve one extremity even with a cross-over replanted foot.

  5. Prognosis of intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-03-01

    There is no particular treatment established to preserve vertically fractured teeth. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of the intentional replantation of 26 vertically fractured roots after reconstruction with 4-META/MMA-TBB dentin-bonded resin. Replanted teeth were evaluated according to clinical criteria and radiographic examinations for periods ranging from 4 to 76 months. Eighteen cases were functional and retained, with six fully successful; the others needed further observation. Eight cases failed to respond to treatment because of refracture, recurrence of gingival inflammation, or both. Longevity was calculated as 88.5% at 12 months after replantation, 69.2% at 36 months, and 59.3% at 60 months. All failures occurred in premolar and molar teeth. Longitudinal fractures extending more than 2/3 from the cervical portion toward the apex showed significantly shorter longevity compared with fractures within the 2/3 area (log-rank test, p = 0.02). Intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin may be considered for incisors as an alternative to extraction, although the long-term success is not optimal.

  6. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  7. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues in post-harvest treated apples.

    PubMed

    Su, Yirong; Mitchell, S H; Mac AntSaoir, S

    2003-08-01

    Bramley apples were treated with Ridomil mbc 60 WP, containing carbendazim and metalaxyl, at half and full rate application at 10 and 20 degrees C, and with diphenylamine to control disease during storage. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively, in apple core, flesh and peel at the initial time, 3 and 6 months after storage under controlled atmosphere conditions of 4.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 1% O(2). The concentration of carbendazim residues in apple flesh was apple core and peel were 2.2 +/- 1.1 and 5.2 +/- 2.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The MRL for carbendazim in apple was 2.0 mg kg(-1). The concentration of metalaxyl residues in apple flesh was apple core and peel were 0.41 +/- 0.18 and 0.79 +/- 0.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. The MRL for metalaxyl in apple was 1.0 mg kg(-1). The temperature of the fungicide solution had little effect on the carbendazim residues but did have some effect on metalaxyl residues. Carbendazim residue content per apple was decreased when diphenylamine was included. A change in the ratio of carbendazim to metalaxyl was noted in the flesh, core and peel of the stored apple. The ratio of carbendazim to metalaxyl was 5:1 in the fungicide mix as applied. The ratio remained fairly constant in the core during storage. However, the ratio changed significantly in the peel and, to a lesser extent, and in a different direction, in the flesh. In the peel, the ratio was around 15:1 at 3 months of storage and 12:1 after 6 months of storage, whereas for flesh the ratios were 2:1 and 4:1, respectively.

  8. Effect of indomethacin on surface treatment and intracanal dressing of replanted teeth in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Machado, Juliana Reis; Crema, Virginia Oliveira; Lima, Cirilo Antônio de Paula; de Carvalho, Antônio Cesar Perry

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the healing process of teeth replanted after root treatment and intracanal dressing with indomethacin alone or indomethacin with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2). Through a case-control study, 24 teeth of 6 adult dogs were extracted, dried, and divided into 4 groups according to the root surface treatment protocols performed before replantation and the intracanal medication used after replantation. In group 1 (negative control), root surfaces were treated by immersion in a 0.9% saline solution and then replanted. In the other groups, the roots were immersed for 10 minutes in Ca(OH)2 (group 2), indomethacin (group 3), or a solution of indomethacin and Ca(OH)2 (group 4). After 2 weeks, group 1 teeth were subjected to single-visit root canal treatment and obturation with gutta-percha and sealer consisting of zinc oxide and eugenol. The teeth in the other groups were subjected to intracanal dressing with the same material used for immersion. After an additional period of 28 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the jaws containing the replanted teeth were processed for histologic analysis. Histometric values were statistically analyzed, with significance set at a P value less than or equal to .05. Group 1 exhibited significantly more normal periodontium than group 4 (P = .02). Total resorption was greater in group 4 than in group 1 (P = .02). No statistically significant difference in the percentage of surface resorption or in total inactive resorption was observed between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that intracanal dressing and topical root treatment with Ca(OH)2 with or without indomethacin is not recommended for teeth dried for 50 minutes, but the use of indomethacin alone as root surface treatment for delayed tooth replantation deserves further study using longer drying periods. In addition, the present results suggest that a single-visit root canal, performed up to 2 weeks after replantation, might be indicated for teeth dried

  9. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  10. Central adaptation following heterotopic hand replantation probed by fMRI and effective connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, S B; Dafotakis, M; Grefkes, C; Shah, N J; Zilles, K; Piza-Katzer, H

    2008-07-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined changes--relative to healthy controls--in the cortical activation and connectivity patterns of two patients who had undergone unilateral heterotopic hand replantation. The study involved the patients and a group of control subjects performing visually paced hand movements with their left, right, or both hands. Changes of effective connectivity among a bilateral network of core motor regions comprising M1, lateral premotor cortex (PMC), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) were assessed using dynamic causal modelling. Both patients showed inhibition of ipsilateral PMC and SMA when moving the healthy hand, potentially indicating a suppression of inference with physiological motor execution by the hemisphere controlling the replanted hand. Moving the replanted hand, both patients showed increased activation of contralateral PMC, most likely reflecting the increased effort involved, and a pathological inhibition of the ipsilateral on the active contralateral M1 indicative of an unsuccessful modulation of the inhibitory M1-M1 balance. In one patient, M1 contralateral to the replanted hand experienced increased tonic (intrinsic connectivity) and phasic (replanted hand movement) facilitating input, whereas in the other, pathological suppression was present. These differences in effective connectivity correlated with decreased behavioural performance of the latter as assessed by kinematic analysis, and seemed to be related to earlier and more intense rehabilitative exercise commenced by the former. This study hence demonstrates the potential of functional neuroimaging to monitor plastic changes of cortical connectivity due to peripheral damage and recovery in individual patients, which may prove to be a valuable tool in understanding, evaluating and enhancing motor rehabilitation.

  11. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes within a Caramel-Coated Apple Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Max C.; Wanless, Brandon J.; Bedale, Wendy; Czuprynski, Charles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple’s skin, stem, and calyx. Half of the apples had sticks inserted into the core, while the remaining apples were left intact. Apples were dipped into hot caramel and stored at either 7°C or 25°C for up to 11 or 28 days, respectively. Data revealed that apples with inserted sticks supported significantly more L. monocytogenes growth than apples without sticks under both storage conditions. Within 3 days at 25°C, L. monocytogenes populations increased >3 log10 in apples with sticks, whereas only a 1-log10 increase was observed even after 1 week for caramel-coated apples without sticks. When stored at 7°C, apples with sticks exhibited an approximately 1.5-log10 increase in L. monocytogenes levels at 28 days, whereas no growth was observed in apples without sticks. We infer that insertion of a stick into the apple accelerates the transfer of juice from the interior of the apple to its surface, creating a microenvironment at the apple-caramel interface where L. monocytogenes can rapidly grow to levels sufficient to cause disease when stored at room temperature. PMID:26463161

  12. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  13. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  14. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  15. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  16. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  17. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  18. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  19. First successful replantation of face and scalp with single-artery repair: model for face and scalp transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Kang, Robert H; Movassaghi, Kiumars; Ganchi, Parham A; Lee, W P Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Successful replantation of the scalp with microanastomosis of a single artery and vein has been reported to produce reliable results. In fact, there have been several reports of scalp replantations based on one-artery and vein repair. There has been a face and scalp replantation reported in the literature, but this was as two separate parts and was based on several arterial and venous repairs. The authors performed the first successful replantation of a face and scalp with repair of a single artery and, of course, two veins. A 21-year-old man presented after his face and scalp were completely severed. The patient's long hair was caught in a conveyor belt at work. The face and scalp underwent replantation, with repair of the right superficial temporal artery with an interposition vein graft. A multiteam approach allowed for minimization of overall ischemic time and simultaneous preparation of the vessels on the patient and amputated part as well as vein graft harvest from the arm. Also critical to the success of the procedure, the small portions of the vessels of the amputated part were sent for frozen section to differentiate artery from vein. Initially, only the right superficial temporal vein was repaired. One week after replantation, the patient returned for treatment of venous congestion of an area to the opposite side of the forehead partial transection, with repair of the left superficial temporal vein, also. This saved the entire part that underwent replantation, and the entire part survived. The face and scalp can undergo replantation based on single-artery repair.

  20. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  1. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  2. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  3. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  4. Arterial and venous revascularization with bifurcation of a single central artery: a reliable strategy for Tamai Zone I replantation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Yu-Te; Moran, Steven L; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2010-12-01

    Replantation of the distal phalanx and pulp can be performed to improve finger function and finger aesthetics; however, establishing adequate venous drainage is a challenge. Slattery et al. reported microsurgical reattachment of a partial distal phalanx with the use of a bifurcated terminal digital artery. The bifurcation was divided into two pedicles, one of which was used for venous drainage. In this article, the authors report their experience with a similar technique and propose a new algorithm for distal finger replantation. From January of 2008 to February of 2009, five replantations were performed using a single central artery. The replanted levels were pulp, avulsed fingertip of the thumb, and distal phalanges. There was no volar vein, dorsal vein, or second artery available in the amputated part for standard venous drainage. Venous drainage in all cases was established by creating an anastomosis from a branch of the solitary terminal artery to a recipient vein. All digits were replanted successfully without evidence of arterial insufficiency or venous congestion. Partial necrosis was not identified postoperatively in any of the five fingers. There were no cases of wound infection. A branch of the central solitary artery may be used successfully to reestablish venous outflow in cases of distal finger tip replantation. This technique allowed for the salvage of all fingers in this study without the use of leeches or other techniques used in cases of venous insufficiency.

  5. Above-the-knee replantation in a child: a case report with a 24-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Durban, Claire Marie C; Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Replantation of an amputated limb is generally contraindicated in crushing and traction injuries. Injury to muscle tissue and skin also creates difficulties in coverage, and bony fractures may shorten limb length which can impede lower extremity function. Numerous cases have been reported on the successful replantation of the lower limb in children; however, review of previous English literature has documented only very few replantation at the thigh level, and those with severe crushing injury resulted in subsequent amputation. We report a case of successful thigh-level replantation in a 3-year-old child who sustained a crushing-traction type of injury with a follow-up of 24 years. After the replantation, early and late complications developed but these were successfully managed. On her last visit, the patient had pain-free ambulation without assistance, had intact protective sensation distal to the injury, and was very satisfied with the outcome. Replantation of the lower limb in children with crushing or avulsion type of injuries is still a worthwhile procedure. However, both the patient and the family should be aware that multiple surgeries may be needed to accommodate to long-term complications such as joint stiffness, scar contractures, and limb length discrepancies.

  6. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  7. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  8. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented.

  9. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  10. Replantation of an avulsive amputation of a foot after recovering the foot from the sea.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, F; Karacaoğlu, E; Ulkür, E; Güler, M M

    2000-04-01

    A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery.

  11. Management of a complicated crown-root fracture in a young permanent incisor using intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyan; Heffernan, Michelle; Vann, William F

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this case presentation is to review the rationale for and illustrate the clinical procedures involved in intentional replantation of a maxillary central incisor following a complicated crown-root fracture. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures in children often is compromised by a fracture below the gingival margin and/or bone. This makes isolation difficult and comprises the hermetic seal that is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. Orthodontic or surgical extrusion with gingivectomy has been suggested; however, these approaches can be expensive, time-consuming, esthetically compromising, and unsatisfactory when the fracture line is deep below the gingiva. Our presentation will discuss the treatment options for such cases and introduce the concept of intentional replantation as an option to manage complicated crown-root fractures in young permanent anterior teeth.

  12. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in monitoring blood perfusion in digital replantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jian-Min; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    Using a near-infrared optical device developed by ViOptix, Inc., a clinical study on post-operative non-invasive monitoring of finger blood perfusion has been conducted for 48 patients undergoing digital replantation at the California Pacific Medical Center. The study showed that non-survival digits have their tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) values significantly lower than those for the controls in general, but survival digits did not. Further, the StO2 values can be used to define a survival index, in terms of which a digit survival criterion was tentatively suggested. Applying the criterion to the 64 digits (with 3 of them non-survival) involved in the clinical study, the sensitivity and the specificity were high. Therefore the device may have potential to be used in post-operative monitoring for digit replantation.

  13. Combined Endodontic Therapy and Intentional Replantation for the Treatment of Palatogingival Groove.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Iván; Abella, Francesc; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    A palatogingival groove is an anatomic malformation that predisposes the involved tooth to a severe periodontal defect. When the condition is complicated by pulpal necrosis, affected teeth often present a dilemma in terms of diagnosis and treatment planning. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove extending to the root apex and severe periodontal destruction (local pocketing). Suggested treatment modalities included curettage of the affected tissues, elimination of the groove by grinding and/or sealing with a variety of filling materials, and surgical procedures. In this case, a combined treatment approach, involving both endodontic therapy and intentional replantation after restoration with a self-etching flowable composite, resulted in periodontal healing and significant healing of the periradicular radiolucency at 12 months. In short, intentional replantation offers a predictable procedure and should be considered a viable treatment modality for the management of palatogingival grooves, especially for single-rooted teeth.

  14. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    PubMed

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris, the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative, Malus domestica. With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  15. [Hand replantation: differences in functional outcome considering patient age and sociomedical aspects].

    PubMed

    Reichl, H; Schütz, T; Gabl, M; Angermann, P; Russe, E; Wechselberger, G

    2013-12-01

    By presenting 2 cases of successful hand replantation with similar trauma mechanism, level of amputation and ischaemia time of an 18-year-old female patient and a 48-year-old depressive male patient, the influence of age and sociomedical status on the postoperative outcome is discussed. DASH- (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand) score and Biometrics E-LINK power and sensitivity measurement were used to evaluate the outcomes.

  16. Transient bone resorption following finger replantation: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Lucchina, Stefano; Becker, Hillary-A; Fusetti, Cesare; Shin, Alexander-Y

    2011-06-01

    Radiographic changes consisting of alterations in mineral content, osteopaenia or destructive neuropathy that occur following successful finger replantation have already been described. We report our experience about four fingers in three individuals in whom bone changes developed in the first three months postoperatively with complete "restitution ad integrum". Three patients, 21-49 years old (average 36 years) sustained a clean-cut amputation of four fingers. The first patient had an amputation at the base of the middle phalanx of the index finger and the second patient at the base of the proximal phalanx of the ring finger. The third had an amputation at the base of the first metacarpal bone and the proximal phalanx of the small finger in a five finger amputation. In the first case, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were repaired. In the second case, one palmar artery and one dorsal vein were reanastomosed. In the third case at the thumb, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were reconstructed. At the small finger, one dorsal vein, one palmar digital artery and two digital nerves were reconstructed. Bone fixation was achieved with two and three K-wires or tension-band wiring. Replantation was successful in all cases. Three weeks after replantation, the X-rays showed rapid development of osteopaenia in the juxtaarticular region and metaphyses of the bone. These changes were followed by subperiosteal, intracortical and endosteal bone resorption. No further surgical procedures or splintage were needed and hand therapy was not discontinued. At 10-13 weeks (average 12 weeks) postoperatively, the X-rays showed a complete recovery with new periosteal bone formation. We suggest that the radiographic changes after finger replantation are transient, first evident subperiosteally and progressing centrally. They may reflect small-vessel compromise and microinfarction and transient hyperemia secondary to neurovascular damage

  17. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yanpiset, K; Trope, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).

  18. Intracanal bisphosphonate does not inhibit replacement resorption associated with delayed replantation of monkey incisors.

    PubMed

    Thong, Yo Len; Messer, Harold H; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Saw, Lip Hean; Yoong, Lai Thong

    2009-08-01

    Progressive replacement resorption following delayed replantation of avulsed teeth has proved to be an intractable clinical problem. A wide variety of therapeutic approaches have failed to result in the predictable arrest of resorption, with a good long-term prognosis for tooth survival. Bisphosphonates are used in the medical management of a range of bone disorders and topically applied bisphosphonate has been reported to inhibit root resorption in dogs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a bisphosphonate (etidronate disodium) as an intracanal medicament in the root canals of avulsed monkey teeth, placed before replantation after 1 h of extraoral dry storage. Incisors of six Macaca fascicularis monkeys were extracted and stored dry for 1 h. Teeth were then replanted after canal contamination with dental plaque (negative control) or after root canal debridement and placement of etidronate sealed in the canal space. A positive control of calcium hydroxide placed 8-9 days after replantation was also included. All monkeys were sacrificed 8 weeks later and block sections were prepared for histomorphometric assessment of root resorption and periodontal ligament status. Untreated teeth showed the greatest extent of root resorption (46% of the root surface), which was predominantly inflammatory in nature. Calcium hydroxide treated teeth showed the lowest overall level of resorption (<30% of the root surface), while the bisphosphonate-treated group was intermediate (39%). Ankylosis, defined as the extent of the root surface demonstrating direct bony union to both intact and resorbed root surface, was the lowest in the untreated control group (15% of the root surface), intermediate in the calcium hydroxide group (27%) and the highest in the bisphosphonate group (41%). Bony attachment to the tooth root was divided approximately equally between attachment to intact cementum and to previously resorbed dentin. Overall, bisphosphonate resulted in a worse outcome than

  19. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  20. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  1. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  2. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  3. Functional transposition of the latissimus dorsi muscle for biceps reconstruction after upper arm replantation.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Thomas; Wechselberger, Gottfried; Hussl, Heribert; Huemer, Georg M

    2007-01-01

    Major upper arm amputations are often accompanied by different levels of soft-tissue divisions involving crushing, traction, and avulsion injuries to various structures. In these cases the goal is not only the re-establishment of circulation, but also functional outcome. Some patients require further reconstruction for functional restoration of elbow flexion and additional soft tissue coverage. Five patients underwent functional latissimus dorsi transfer for restoration of elbow flexion after successful upper arm replantation at our institution. The transfer was unipolar in four patients and bipolar in one. The patients' ages ranged from seven to 55 years. The time period between replantation and transfer ranged from two weeks to 12 months. All flaps healed well with minimal donor site morbidity. At mean 43-month follow-up (range: 22-65 months), functional results were good with M4 in three patients and M3 in two patients for elbow flexion. The pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a valuable tool to restore elbow flexion and provide coverage of soft tissue defects after major upper arm replantations.

  4. Contralateral abdominal pocketing in salvation of replanted fingertips with compromised circulation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.

  5. [The problems in replantation of limbs amputated through the arm region].

    PubMed

    Jabłecki, Jerzy; Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Kaczmarzyk, Leszek; Lapczyński, Deodat; Kocieba, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    The problems in replantation of arms were analysed on the ground of nine such replantations performed in Center of Replantations of Limbs in Trzebnica in the same number of patients (7 men, 2 children, 1 woman) during the seven year period 1993-2000. The range of age of the patients was from 12 to 62 years (35.5 on average). Among the problems discussed were such as qualification for the operation, operative technique (limb shortening, perfusion of vessels, half-open anastomosis of veins, neurotisation of remaining nerves) evaluation scale. Eight of the amputations were the results of crush-avulsion mechanism, one was guillotine-type. The patients required 15 secondary operations; all of them were able to perform an arm abduction and active flexion of the elbow joint. They all had at least protective sensibility on the palm. The results were rated (acc. to Chen-Yu scale) III(o)--four patients, IV(o)--four patients (one patient did not appear for control check-up). Despite of such a poor evaluation, all of the patients are satisfied with the operation.

  6. Delayed tooth replantation following root canal filling with calcium hydroxide and MTA: Histomorphometric study in rats.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marão, Heloisa Fonseca; Silva, Pedro Ivo Dos Santos; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Ribeiro, Eduardo Dias; Sonoda, Celso Koogi

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a histomorphometric evaluation of the repair process in rat teeth replanted after root canals were filled with calcium hydroxide (CH) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Upper right incisors were extracted from 30 rats divided into three groups (n=10). The teeth were stored dry for 60min, after which the pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) were removed and immersed in acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solution. In Group I, the root canals were filled with saline; in Group II, they were filled with CH; and in Group III, they were filled with CH, and the foramen was sealed with an MTA plug. The teeth were replanted, and the animals were sacrificed after 60 days. The sections with teeth were removed for histological preparation (haematoxylin and eosin, H&E). The characteristics of the PDL, cementum, dentine, and alveolar bone, as well as the occurrence of inflammatory and replacement root resorption and apical sealing, were subjected to histological and morphometric analysis (P<0.05). Group I was the most affected by root resorption (mean=67.05%). In Groups II and III, the resorption averaged 42.2% and 11.7%, respectively. Group III was less affected by inflammatory resorption and presented more areas of apical sealing by mineralized tissue (P<0.05). An apical MTA plug improved the repair of the replanted tooth by decreasing surface resorption and repairing mineralized tissue in the periapical region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Autotoxic Ginsenosides in the Rhizosphere Contribute to the Replant Failure of Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Xiaodan; Xu, Yanguo; Mei, Xinyue; Jiang, Bingbing; Liao, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaobo; Zheng, Jianfen; Zhao, Zhi; Fan, Liming; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Sanqi ginseng (Panax notoginseng) growth is often hampered by replant failure. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of autotoxicity in Sanqi replant failures and assess the role of ginsenosides in autotoxicity. Methods The autotoxicities were measured using seedling emergence bioassays and root cell vigor staining. The ginsenosides in the roots, soils, and root exudates were identified with HPLC-MS. Results The seedling emergence and survival rate decreased significantly with the continuous number of planting years from one to three years. The root exudates, root extracts, and extracts from consecutively cultivated soils also showed significant autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth. Ginsenosides, including R1, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb3, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the roots and consecutively cultivated soil. The ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the root exudates. Furthermore, the ginsenosides, R1, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, caused autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth and root cell vigor at a concentration of 1.0 µg/mL. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that autotoxicity results in replant failure of Sanqi ginseng. While Sanqi ginseng consecutively cultivated, some ginsenosides can accumulate in rhizosphere soils through root exudates or root decomposition, which impedes seedling emergence and growth. PMID:25695831

  8. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial Variation in Treatment of Traumatic Finger/Thumb Amputation: A National Comparative Study of Replantation and Revision Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic finger/thumb amputations are some of the most prevalent traumatic injuries affecting Americans each year. Rates of replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation, however, have been steadily declining across U.S. hospitals, which may make these procedures less accessible to minorities and vulnerable populations. The specific aim of this study was to examine racial variation in finger replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Methods Using a two-level hierarchical model, we retrospectively compared replantation rates for African-American patients with those of Whites, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients younger than 65 with traumatic finger/thumb amputation injuries who sought care at a U.S. trauma center between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study sample. Results We analyzed 13,129 patients under 65 years of age with traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Replantation rates declined over time from 19% to 14% (p = 0.004). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, African-Americans (OR=0.81; CI: 0.66–0.99; p = 0.049) were less likely to undergo replantation procedures than Whites, and uninsured patients (OR=0.73; CI: 0.62–0.84; p < 0.0001) were less likely than those who were privately insured. Conclusions Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques and the increasing use of reconstructive surgery in other fields, finger/thumb replantation rates are declining in the U.S. and vulnerable populations are less likely to undergo replantation after amputation injuries. Regionalization of care for these injuries may not only provide a higher quality care but also reduce variations in treatment. PMID:26910702

  10. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kd allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y

    1995-12-01

    Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.

  12. [Replantation of amputated penis in Chinese men: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Zhong; Man, Li-Bo; He, Feng; Huang, Guang-Lin

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the methods for the replantation of the amputated penis in Chinese men. We performed a meta-analysis on the domestic literature relating replantation of the amputated penis, particularly its successful methods published from 1964 to January 2012. We identified 109 reports on 111 cases of replantation of the amputated penis that met the inclusion criteria, including 103 adults and 8 children. The mean age, warm ischemia time and total ischemia time were 29 +/- 11 years (range 2 - 56 years), 5.2 +/- 5.7 hours (range 0 - 38 hours) and 6.3 +/- 5.7 hours (range 1 - 38 hours). Fifty-three of the cases were treated by microsurgery and 44 by non-microsurgery. Complications occurred in 81 (73%) of the cases, including ED in 14 cases, urethral stricture in 16, urinary fistula in 8, skin necrosis in 58 and skin sensory abnormality in 31. The incidences of ED, urethral stricture and urinary fistula exhibited significant differences between the microsurgery and non-microsurgery groups of the partial amputation patients (P < 0.05). The incidence of ED was correlated negatively with the number of anastomosed dorsal nerves (r = -0.3, P = 0.05), anastomosis of dorsal veins (r = -0.2, P = 0.02) and anastomosis of arteries (r = -0.2, P = 0.03), but positively with skin sensory abnormality (r = 0.4, P < 0.01), that of urethral stricture negatively with the anastomosis of dorsal nerves (r = -0.2, P = 0.02) and arteries (r = -0.2, P = 0.016), but positively with the anastomosis of corpus cavernosum (r = 0.3, P = 0.01), that of skin necrosis negatively with the total number of anastomosed blood vessels (r = -0.2, P = 0.04), and that of complications negatively with the number of anastomosed dorsal nerves (r = -0.3, P = 0.01), dorsal veins (r = -0.2, P = 0.04), arteries (r = -0.2, P = 0.023) and micro-anastomosis (r = -0.3, P < 0.05). Early micro-anastomosis of the most possible penile dorsal veins, arteries and dorsal nerves is essential for the survival of the replanted

  13. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes within a caramel-coated apple microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Golden, Max C; Wanless, Brandon J; Bedale, Wendy; Czuprynski, Charles

    2015-10-13

    A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple's skin, stem, and calyx. Half of the apples had sticks inserted into the core, while the remaining apples were left intact. Apples were dipped into hot caramel and stored at either 7°C or 25°C for up to 11 or 28 days, respectively. Data revealed that apples with inserted sticks supported significantly more L. monocytogenes growth than apples without sticks under both storage conditions. Within 3 days at 25°C, L. monocytogenes populations increased >3 log10 in apples with sticks, whereas only a 1-log10 increase was observed even after 1 week for caramel-coated apples without sticks. When stored at 7°C, apples with sticks exhibited an approximately 1.5-log10 increase in L. monocytogenes levels at 28 days, whereas no growth was observed in apples without sticks. We infer that insertion of a stick into the apple accelerates the transfer of juice from the interior of the apple to its surface, creating a microenvironment at the apple-caramel interface where L. monocytogenes can rapidly grow to levels sufficient to cause disease when stored at room temperature. Neither caramel nor apples are a food where the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes should grow, as caramel does not contain enough free water and apples are too acidic. Caramel-coated apples, however, were recently linked to a deadly outbreak of listeriosis. We hypothesized that inserting a stick into the apple releases juice to the interface between the apple and caramel, providing a more

  14. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  15. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period. PMID:25288943

  16. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  17. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  18. First report of pyrimethanil resistance in Botrytis cinerea from stored apples in Pennsylvania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...

  19. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  20. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  1. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  2. Replantation of a displaced incisor in a boy with a cleft lip and alveolus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Heidrun; Kerkmann, Heiko; Pitka, Felix; Bock, Niko Christian; Attia, Sameh

    2016-09-15

    Tooth replantation after traumatic avulsion or transplantation is a challenge in oral surgery. A special method named auto-alloplastic replantation, in which a titanium post is used after extraoral endodontic treatment, combines several advantages. The treatment is performed in one step with no further endodontic intervention, no wide root canal instrumentation, no recontamination, and reduced endodontic infection. This is the first report on replantation of an ectopic tooth in a patient with a cleft lip and alveolus using this method. This case report presents the treatment of a 13-year-old white boy with a cleft lip and alveolus who had an ectopic incisor in the cleft region. His rehabilitation was performed by a tooth transposition using the auto-alloplastic replantation technique. After preparation of the displaced incisor from the vestibule, extraoral endodontic treatment followed using a titanium post prior to replantation in a newly formed socket. In the follow-up, the tooth is still in place and functioning after 2 years. This method can be used to bridge the years while a patient is young and jaw growth is incomplete until bone augmentation and implantation can be performed. The tooth will preserve the remaining alveolar ridge and help the adolescent psychologically.

  3. The soil microbiome – what does it tell us?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When young blueberry bushes are planted in an established field that already contains mature blueberry bushes, the young bushes tend not to perform well. This syndrome is called replant disease. In other systems, such as apple replant disease, the causal organisms vary by geographic region and usual...

  4. Relevance of apple polyphenols as antioxidants in human plasma: contrasting in vitro and in vivo effects.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-01-15

    Apples are a major source of flavonoids in the Western diet, and flavonoid-rich foods may help protect against chronic diseases by antioxidant mechanisms. In the present study we investigated: (1) the antioxidant capacity of representative apple polyphenols and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of apple extracts; (2) the effects of adding apple extract to human plasma in vitro on oxidation of endogenous antioxidants and lipids; and (3) the effects of apple consumption by humans on ex vivo oxidation of plasma antioxidants and lipids. We found that the apple-contained flavonols and flavanols, quercetin, rutin, (-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin, had a higher antioxidant capacity than the dihydrochalcones, phloridzin and phloretin, and the hydroxycinnamate, chlorogenic acid. However, together these apple polyphenols contributed less than 20% to the total antioxidant capacity of aqueous apple extracts. When human plasma was exposed to a constant flux of aqueous peroxyl radicals, endogenous ascorbate (70.0 +/- 10.3 microM) was oxidized within 45 min of incubation, while endogenous urate (375 +/- 40 microM) and alpha-tocopherol (24.7 +/- 1.2 microM) were oxidized after ascorbate. Addition of 7.1 or 14.3 micrograms/ml total phenols of apple extract did not protect ascorbate from oxidation, but increased the half-life (t1/2) of urate from 136 +/- 15 to 192 +/- 16 and 208 +/- 23 min, respectively (p < 0.05 each), and t1/2 of alpha-tocopherol from 141 +/- 18 to 164 +/- 8 min (p = ns) and 188 +/- 8 min (p < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation started after ascorbate depletion, and addition of apple extract increased the lag time preceding detectable lipid peroxidation from 36.3 +/- 3.7 to 50.9 +/- 2.7 min (p < 0.05) and 70.4 +/- 4.2 min (p < 0.001). However, when six healthy volunteers ate five apples and plasma was obtained up to 4 h after apple consumption, no significant increases in the resistance to oxidation of endogenous urate, alpha-tocopherol, and lipids were

  5. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Functional latissimus dorsi island pedicle musculocutaneous flap to restore elbow flexion in replantation or revascularisation of above-elbow amputations.

    PubMed

    Parmaksizoglu, F; Beyzadeoglu, T

    2003-01-01

    Two total and one subtotal above-elbow amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged upper extremities followed by functional latissimus dorsi island pedicle musculocutaneous flap to restore elbow flexion. The mean follow-up was 68 months (range: 14 to 121 months). At final follow-up examinations, the patients had sufficient range-of-motion of their elbows with good strength. Restoring elbow function eliminates one of the most important limiting factors for above-elbow replantations. Functional latissimus dorsi island pedicle musculocutaneous flap is very reliable, has minimal donor-site morbidity and offers a wider choice when deciding about arm replantation in the upper arm region by providing a chance of restoring functions.

  7. Continued root formation after replantation and root canal treatment in an avulsed immature permanent tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Hsin; Chung, Ming-Pang; Su, Wen-Song; Cheng, Jen-Chan; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2010-04-01

    This case report describes the continued root formation following replantation and conventional root canal therapy of a traumatically avulsed open-apex tooth with suppurative apical periodontitis. A 7-year-old male patient had an avulsed upper left central incisor (tooth 21) replanted approximately 50 min after traumatic avulsion. A root canal procedure was initiated due to pulp necrosis and periapical abscess detected in the follow-up period. After endodontic treatment with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dressing, a normal root length developed including an apical segment beyond the hard tissue barrier. Regeneration of the root occurred without pathology or ankylosis at 1-year of follow up.

  8. Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.

  9. Flying solo: a single year-single surgeon community hospital replantation/ revascularization experience.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, J Scott

    2002-08-01

    A recent 12-month review of the emergent replantation/revascularization experience of a solo practice microsurgeon in a community hospital environment is presented. A total of 67 digits and/or hands/limbs were operated on in 51 patients with a success rate of 87 percent. There were nine failures, all in digits with crush-avulsion etiologies. These results support the position that the single microsurgeon practicing in a community hospital environment can provide levels of care for patients with amputated or devascularized digits and parts comparable to tertiary medical centers.

  10. Surgical management with intentional replantation on a tooth with palato-radicular groove

    PubMed Central

    Forero-López, Jorge; Gamboa-Martínez, Luis; Pico-Porras, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A palato-radicular groove (PRG) is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed. PMID:25984480

  11. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  12. Surgical and technical aspects of hand transplantation: is it just another replant?

    PubMed

    Hartzell, Tristan L; Benhaim, Prosper; Imbriglia, Joseph E; Shores, Jaimie T; Goitz, Robert J; Balk, Marshall; Mitchell, Scott; Rubinstein, Roee; Gorantla, Vijay S; Schneeberger, Stefan; Brandacher, Gerald; Lee, W P Andrew; Azari, Kodi K

    2011-11-01

    The ultimate goal of hand allotransplantation is to achieve graft survival and useful long-term function. To achieve these goals, selection of the appropriate patient, detailed preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique are of paramount importance. Transplantation should be reserved for motivated consenting adults in good general heath, who are psychologically stable and have failed a trial of prosthetic use. While the key surgical steps of transplantation are similar to those of replantation, there are major differences. This article describes the steps in hand allotransplantation, and the importance of patient selection as well as preoperative and postoperative care.

  13. Microsurgical replantation and postoperative leech treatment of a large severed nasal segment.

    PubMed

    Stemann Andersen, Peter; Elberg, Jens Jørgen

    2012-12-01

    The survival of a microsurgically replanted segment of nose in a 41-year-old woman was facilitated by the assistance of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. An arterial microanastomosis was made to a severed partial segment of nose with no possibility of recreating a venous anastomosis. The resulting venous congestion was treated with nine days of treatment with a medical leech until venous neovascularisation had been achieved. At follow-up six months after discharge there was a well-heeled nasal segment and a satisfying functional - as well as cosmetic - result.

  14. Fatal bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following single digit replantation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anderson S M; Fok, Margaret W M; Fung, Boris K K

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism in hand surgery is rare. There is no report in the literature on postoperative mortality from venous thromboembolism following microsurgery in upper limbs. We report the case of a 56-year-old Chinese man who died from pulmonary embolism as a result of bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis following prolonged surgery under general anaesthesia after replantation of a finger. This case raises awareness of the need for precautions against venous thromboembolism following prolonged microsurgery and identification of high-risk patients.

  15. Information for the diagnosis and treatment of root resorption due to tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Manfrin, Thais Mara; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sonia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Coradazzi, Luis Francisco; Giovanini, Ellen Greves

    2008-01-01

    A favorable prognosis after tooth avulsion depends on some variables, such as the extra-alveolar period and storage medium. Vitality of the periodontal ligament cells is considered a critical factor for a successful outcome without root resorption. The dental surgeon is provided with clinical information and radiographic findings to establish a diagnosis and may rely on current available guidelines. Once trauma has occurred, treatment must be quick and effective, and periodic follow-up must be performed. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics for each type of root resorption due to tooth replantation are presented, with the aim to provide information for the diagnosis and treatment of healing complications.

  16. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  17. Analysis of fire blight shott infection epidemics on apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight incidence and spread of the shoot blight phase of the disease was studied in four apple cultivars in replicated blocks over four years (1994 - 1997). The cultivar ‘York’ was highly susceptible, followed by ‘Fuji’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ which were moderately susceptible, and ‘Liberty’ wh...

  18. Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

  19. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  20. Using early flowering transgenic apple to accelerate the breeding of donor parents with multiple loci for disease resistance (Malus x domestica)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the goals of the USDA-NIFA-SCRI RosBREED project is to develop donor parents with multiple loci for disease resistance. Due to the long generation time of tree fruit crops, the accumulation of pyramided resistance loci for multiple diseases by conventional breeding methods could require deca...

  1. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned. PMID:16704822

  2. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  3. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  4. Efficacy of enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain) in treatment of replanted teeth--a systematic review based on animal studies.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the current systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) (Emdogain) on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth. A review of the published literature [search term: (Emdogain OR enamel matrix derivative OR enamel matrix protein] AND [avulsion OR replantation OR autotransplantation)] was conducted by two independent investigators according to defined selection criteria. For data extraction of the identified animal studies, the following histomorphometric findings were considered: (i) healed PDL, (ii) surface resorption, (iii) inflammatory resorption and (iv) replacement resorption. The heterogeneity of data collection and the small amount of identified publications did not allow for statistical analysis. Four controlled trials (CT) conducted in animals, but no randomized controlled trials (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) could be received from the systematic search. From the selected studies, two CT gave evidence of EMD treatment to be effective in inducing healing of replanted teeth, while one CT found no differences between EMD treated teeth and controls. Finally, one CT compared EMD and sodium fluoride application, but revealed no differences between the treatments. The data of controlled trials available are limited and conflicting. No firm conclusion regarding the efficacy of EMD application on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth can be drawn because of lack of RCT and CCT.

  5. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the chronology of healing process after immediate tooth replantation in incisor rat teeth.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Okamoto, Roberta; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise; da Silva, Paula Ervolino; Saito, Celia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Marão, Heloísa Fonseca; Sedlacek, Paulo

    2013-02-01

    Dental tissues have special characteristics, and its regenerative capacity is noteworthy. However, understanding the circumstances that lead to regeneration is challenging. In this study, the chronology of the healing process after immediate replantation of rat incisor teeth was examined by histological and immunohistochemical analyses within a 60-day period. Thirty-six male Wistar rats had their maxillary right incisors extracted and replanted after 15 min in saline storage. The rats were sacrificed immediately 3, 7, 15, 28, and 60 days after replantation. The histological analysis showed rupture of the periodontal ligament and formation of a blood clot, which started being replaced by a connective tissue after 3 days. At 7 days, the gingival mucosa epithelium was reinserted and areas of root resorption could be seen. At 15 days, the periodontal ligament was repaired. At 3 days, the pulp presented an absence of the odontoblast layer, which started being replaced by a connective tissue. This tissue suffered gradual calcification, filling the root canal at 28 and 60 days. The root ends were closed. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed greater expression of OP, OPG, and RANK proteins in the initial periods (0 and 3 days), while TRAP expression predominated at 28 and 60 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in delayed tooth replantation, there is great new bone formation activity in the earlier periods of the repair process, while a predominance of bone resorption and remodeling is observed in the more advanced periods. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. School teachers' knowledge of tooth avulsion and dental first aid before and after receiving information about avulsed teeth and replantation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asfour, Adel; Andersson, Lars; Al-Jame, Quomasha

    2008-02-01

    School teachers can play an important role in improving the prognosis of avulsed permanent teeth of school children after they are informed about the immediate and proper dental first aid steps to be taken at the time of an accident. The aims of this study were: (i) to assess the knowledge level of emergency measures for tooth avulsion in Kuwaiti intermediate school teachers and (ii) to determine if a short lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation could improve teachers' knowledge on this topic. Eighty-five teachers at two intermediate schools (children 10-14 years old) in Kuwait were interviewed using a questionnaire about their first-aid knowledge with particular focus on the following five categories: General knowledge of teeth and avulsion, replantation of primary and permanent teeth, how to clean an avulsed tooth before replantation, extra-oral time and storage methods and media for an avulsed tooth. For each category, a score ranging from 0-3 was possible. An informative 30-min lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation was presented to a group of 43 teachers. After the lecture, the knowledge level of the teachers was re-tested using the same method. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the data. Improvement in teacher knowledge to an adequate (score of 2) or complete (score of 3) level was observed after the lecture in all five categories. The general knowledge of tooth avulsion and replantation improved from 39% to 97% and knowledge of avulsed permanent and primary teeth from 8% to 71%. Knowledge of how to clean an avulsed tooth improved from 5% to 93%. The knowledge level on the importance of extra-alveolar time before replantation increased from 1% to 74% and knowledge of a suitable storage medium for the avulsed tooth improved from 4% to 86%. Many avulsed permanent teeth in school children can be saved by replantation if school teachers learn what to do when a tooth is avulsed. A lecture followed by discussion proved to be an

  7. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  8. The effect of splint material and thickness on tooth mobility after extraction and replantation using a human cadaveric model.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Steven C; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2012-08-01

    Although current guidelines for the treatment of traumatic injuries recommend the use of 'flexible' splints, the precise definition of what is considered flexible versus rigid has not been rigorously defined, leaving the clinician with a wide range of options for this critical factor. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the effect of eight different splints on tooth mobility after extraction and replantation using a human cadaveric model. Following strict selection criteria including complete root maturation, lack of periodontal disease, normal bone levels, and crown integrity, a maxillary central incisor was atraumatically extracted and splinted with eight different splints. The experimental splints included a 20-pound test (9.072-kilogram test) [corrected] monofilament nylon-composite splint and six wire-composite splints made of wires of 0.012' (0.3 mm), 0.016' (0.4 mm), or 0.020' (0.5 mm) diameter stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NT). A direct composite splint represented the most rigid type of splint. These eight splints were applied five times each, and tooth mobility was measured before and after each splint was applied. The average splint effect, defined as the difference between the presplint and the postsplint measurements quantified using the Periotest, was calculated for each splint and compared. No significant differences were found between the nylon-composite and the wire-composite splints. There was significantly less tooth mobility with the direct composite splint compared to all other splints. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that nylon and SS or NT wires up to 0.016' diameter are significantly more flexible than direct composite splints and thus may be better suited for the splinting and management of traumatized teeth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  10. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  11. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  12. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  13. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Too Short All About Puberty What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A You're at the ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  14. Knowledge of teachers and students in physical education's faculties regarding first-aid measures for tooth avulsion and replantation.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; de Toledo, Flávia Fonseca; Alves, Laila Caldeira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the knowledge of undergraduate students and teachers at all physical education courses in the city of Belo Horizonte (Brazil) regarding first-aid measures to be taken following tooth avulsion as well as the need for the preventative use of mouth guards. The sample consisted of 442 individuals (Group 1: 53 teachers; Group 2: 389 undergraduate students). Data collection was carried out with the administration of a questionnaire with both objective and subjective questions addressing definitions, first-aid measures in cases of avulsion and tooth replantation, together with an assessment of the use and indication of mouth guards. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. The results revealed that 45.1% of the participants in both groups knew what a tooth replantation was. However, 91.6% judged themselves incapable of performing an immediate replantation. Among the overall sample, 45.9% has no knowledge on first-aid measures regarding tooth avulsion; sending the patient with an avulsed tooth to the dentist was the most often cited measure (42.3%). Immediate replantation was cited by 20.6% of the individuals in Group 1 and 5.9% of the individuals in Group 2 (P = 0.009). Regarding the storage medium, 17.1% of the individuals would keep the avulsed tooth in a dry medium. The majority of participants (58.3%) stated that the ideal extra-alveolar time for replantation was more than 360 min. Although 74% of the overall sample stated having knowledge of mouth guards, few reported making use or indicating the use of this piece of equipment. The present study revealed that the majority of teachers and undergraduate students of physical education courses do not have adequate knowledge regarding first-aid measures for tooth avulsion and do not use or indicate the use of mouth guards during sports activities.

  15. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan.

  16. Bilateral Leg Replantation in a 3-Month-Old Baby After a Knee Level Crush Amputation-A 2-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bulic, Kresimir; Antabak, Anko; Dujmovic, Anto; Kisic, Hrvoje; Lorencin, Mia

    2017-03-01

    We present a case of a successful bilateral leg replantation in a 3-month-old baby after a knee-level crush amputation with the loss of both knee joints. The legs were replanted after 4 hours of warm and an additional 2.5 and 3.5 hours of cold ischemia time. Both legs show motor and sensory reinnervation, without additional procedures performed on the right leg, and after a nerve reconstruction with cadaveric allografts on the left leg. Both replanted legs exhibit excellent bony and soft tissue growth. Two years after the injury, the patient is progressing well with rehabilitation, with favourable odds of having knee reconstructions performed at a later age. This is the youngest patient reported to have had successful replantation of both legs.

  17. Rehabilitation after the replantation on a 2-year-old girl with both amputated legs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Heon; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yong Ha; Seul, Jung Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin

    2005-04-01

    We had an opportunity to perform replantation of both legs on a 2-year-old girl, and our decision to perform replantation rather than amputation surgery was carefully made taking her age, degree of crushing injury, ischaemic time and level of the amputation into consideration. Painstakingly designed rehabilitation treatments were continuously performed on this girl from the early stage after the operation, and the treatments were comprised of four parts; that is, flexion and extension exercise for the ankle in order to prevent it from stiffness or contracture, functional electrical stimulation (FES) in order to prevent muscular atrophy on the lower extremities, muscle strengthening exercise for the lower extremities, and electrical stimulation to regenerate the damaged nerves and to prevent muscular atrophy from occurring. For an objective assessment of the postoperative conditions, total active motion angles of the ankle joint were measured, and also EMG and NCV were conducted at the end of the first month as well as at the end of the 6th month. Total active motion angles of the ankle joint were increased progressively as time went on, from 15 to 60 degrees on the right and from 10 to 45 degrees on the left. NCV did not show any sensation or response from motor nerves, or amplitude decreased considerably 1 month after the operation; however, at the end of the 6th month conditions improved a great deal with both amplitude and latency. And most muscles that did not show any signals on EMG or showed less than normal at the end of the first month after the operation eventually recovered at the end of the 6th month. The patient had no particular difficulties in walking after 6 months or rather she started running in small steps showing her legs functioning superbly. An infant with both of lower extremities amputated is quite a rare case. We believe that the replantation surgery was successful due to the fact that carefully selected preoperative factors were taken into

  18. Foster replantation of fingertip using neighbouring digital artery in a young child.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Hong; Gao, Zheng-Jun; Yao, Jing-Ming; Tan, Wei-Qiang; Dawreeawo, Javed

    2010-06-01

    Reconstruction of an amputated fingertip in a young child demands special techniques for success. We report a 2.5-year-old female patient with an amputated left index fingertip with the vascular defect being too severe to perform the usual replantation. Comparing several methods, we used the neighbouring digital artery as the feeding artery to perform foster replantation. Finally, the patient was satisfied with the appearance and function of her fingers. The clinical case, techniques, results are described and discussed. We consider it a useful technique, especially for those with a rather severe vascular defect. A 2.5-year-old girl suffered a crush amputation of the left index fingertip. Only the flexor tendon of the amputated fingertip was connected to the proximal finger tissue and the blood supply was completely lost (Figure 1). The distal amputated fingertip was fixed using Kirschner wire under general anaesthesia. Then, microsurgery operation was carried out immediately to replant this amputated fingertip. Both ulnar and radial digital arteries were avulsed, while the dorsal vein was intact and the digital nerve was also surviving. The integrity of blood vessels was too traumatised to connect to the proximal part. In the case of the distal part of the ulnar artery of the injured index finger, the blood supply was established by anastomosing the distal end of the amputated tip and the radial artery of the middle finger, which was the feeding artery (Figure 2). A 11/0 nylon suture was used. The dorsal vein and digital nerve were repaired by means of microsurgical anastomosis. The wound was covered with the dorsal skin of the middle finger and the palmar skin of the index finger to form a skin pedicle, and then, immobility of the two fingers was maintained to prevent avulsion. The index tip obtained good blood supply and survived completely (Figure 3). Detachment of the index and middle finger was performed after 3 weeks, and both of the fingers showed good

  19. Bull’s-eye rot management: understanding the disease cycle of Neofabraea spp. occurring on apples grown in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the US Pacific Northwest, bull’s-eye rot of pome fruit, caused by Neofabraea spp., is a major quarantine concern. Of the four fungi causing this disease, Neofabraea perennans and N. kienholzii are common in north central Washington. In addition to fruit decay, N. perennans causes perennial cank...

  20. Dry bin filler for apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  1. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042112 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Currently docked to the station, a Russian Progress resupply vehicle (left) and a Soyuz spacecraft along with Earth's horizon are visible in the background.

  2. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042121 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. The bright sun and Earth's horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  3. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in different species of apples grown in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness.

  4. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  5. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period.

  6. Infection of apple fruit by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in the orchard in relation to Sphaeropsis rot in storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis rot, caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, is a recently recognized postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard in relation to development of Sphaeropsis rot in storage and ...

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of apple in response to inoculation with a pathogen (P. expansum) and a non-pathogen (P. digitatum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mould of pome fruits, is a major postharvest pathogen in all producing countries. To develop a better understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in apples, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of apple gene expression in response to a compatibl...

  8. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    PubMed

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed.

  9. [Clinical study on prevention root absorption after teeth replantation with Vitapex paste].

    PubMed

    Han, Jun-li; He, Hong; Xu, Zhen; Gu, Tuo; Zhang, Lu-dong; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the result of using Vitapex paste for preventing root absorption after replanting the avulsed teeth. Thirty patients with 36 avulsed upper anterior teeth with fully developed apices within 5 hours of trauma were enrolled in this study. For each case, the tooth and its alveolar site were irrigated with 0.9%NaCl, then the tooth was put into its original site and fixed with steel wires and composite resin. Two weeks later,the involved teeth underwent pulpectomy and were randomly divided into two groups. Ca(OH)₂ paste was used for temporary root canal filling in group A, and Vitapex paste in group B. The patients were asked to recall every three months, X-ray film was taken to evaluate root absorption and the same temporary root canal filling material was replaced. The permanent root canal filling was performed about one and a half years after treatment when root absorption stopped. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS12.0 software package. The success rate of two groups was not significantly different, though which was a little higher one year after treatment in group A than group B (88.9% vs. 83.3%). Vitapex paste had the benefits of both Ca(OH)₂ and iodoform. The radiopaque of iodoform made Vitapex paste observed easily for the status of filling or absorption. The injection style of Vitapex paste makes it easily being manipulated. Vitapex paste is an ideal material for preventing root absorption of replanted avulsed teeth. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No. 08DZ2271100).

  10. Evaluation of fumigation and surface seal methods on fumigant emissions in an orchard replant field.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J; Schneider, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests and enabling successful replanting of orchards. Reducing emissions is required to minimize the possible worker and bystander risk and the contribution of fumigants to the atmosphere as volatile organic compounds that lead to the formation of ground-level ozone. A field trial was conducted in a peach orchard replant field to investigate the effects of fumigation method (shank-injection vs. subsurface drip-application treatments) and surface treatments (water applications and plastic tarps) on emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) from shank-injection of Telone C-35 and drip application of InLine. Treatments included control (no water or soil surface treatment); standard high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, and pre-irrigation, all over shank injection; and HDPE tarp over and irrigation with micro-sprinklers before and after the drip application. The highest 1,3-D and CP emission losses over a 2-wk monitoring period were from the control (36% 1,3-D and 30% CP) and HDPE tarp (43% 1,3-D and 17% CP) over shank injection. The pre-irrigation 4 d before fumigation and VIF tarp over shank injection had similar total emission losses (19% 1,3-D and 8-9% CP). The HDPE tarp and irrigations over subsurface drip-application treatments resulted in similar and the lowest emission losses (12-13% 1,3-D, and 2-3% CP). Lower fumigant concentrations in the soil-gas phase were observed with drip-application than in the shank-injection treatments; however, all treatments provided 100% kill to citrus nematodes in bags buried from 30 to 90 cm depth. Pre-irrigation and drip application seem to be effective to minimize emissions of 1,3-D and CP.

  11. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PDL regeneration via cell homing in delayed replantation of avulsed teeth.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yang; Cen, Lian; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-14

    This study was aimed to investigate whether regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) like tissue could be promoted by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) induced cell homing in delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. Canine mandibular premolar teeth were first extracted and air-dried for 2 h followed by complete detachment of their PDL tissues. The crown and pulp of the teeth were also removed. Twenty-four roots divided into two groups (n = 12/group) were used for the following in vivo transplantation. The roots of Group A were treated with 17 % EDTA for 24 h to achieve demineralization, and then coated with SDF1 and BMP7 supplemented collagen solution. The roots of Group B were similarly treated except being coated with a pristine collagen solution. The above roots were transplanted in the sockets that formed previously during tooth extraction. At 6 months' post-operation, PDL-like tissue composed of spindle-shaped cells, capillaries and highly organized collagen fibers was observed in the interstitial space between the avulsed root surface and surrounding alveolar bone in Group A. The neo-fibers inserted deeply and perpendicularly into the cementum and adjacent bone. The periodontium-like characteristics of the neo-tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for collagen I, fibronectin and osteocalcin. A high incidence of PDL re-establishment as 42 % was achieved for samples of Group A. However, no PDL-like tissue was found but root ankylosis and replacement resorption as well as inflammatory resorption was observed in the replanted roots of Group B. It can be confirmed that avulsed teeth could be successfully rescued even in delayed transplantation to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis or replacement resorption via the current developed cell homing method.

  13. Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags from Apple1

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing

    2006-01-01

    The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485

  14. Placental immune response to apple allergen in allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Enke, Uta; Varosi, Frauke; Hoyer, Heike; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Jenmalm, Maria C; Markert, Udo R

    2014-12-01

    The immunological milieu in the placenta may be crucial for priming the developing foetal immune system. Early imbalances may promote the establishment of immune-mediated diseases in later life, including allergies. The initial exposure to allergens seems to occur in utero, but little is known about allergen-induced placental cytokine and chemokine release. The release of several cytokines and chemokines from placenta tissue after exposure to mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or apple allergen in placentas from allergic and healthy mothers was to be analysed. Four placentas from women with apple allergy and three controls were applied in a placental perfusion model with two separate cotyledons simultaneously perfused with and without apple allergen (Mal d 1). Two control placentas were perfused with compound 48/80. In outflow, histamine was quantified spectrophotofluorometrically, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ by a cytometric multiplex bead array and IL-13 and CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22 with an in-house multiplex Luminex assay. Compound 48/80 induced a rapid release of histamine, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22, but not of the other factors. Apple allergen induced a time-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF, but not of histamine, in placentas of women with apple allergy compared with the unstimulated cotyledon. CCL17 levels were slightly increased after allergen stimulation in control placentas. Allergens can induce placental cytokines and chemokines distinctly in allergic and healthy mothers. These mediators may affect the prenatal development of the immune system and modify the risk of diseases related to immune disorders in childhood such as allergies.

  15. Effect of reddening-ripening on the antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts from cv. 'Annurca' apple fruits.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Cimmino, Amelia; Raimo, Marianna; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

    2007-11-28

    Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide, and several studies suggest that apple polyphenols could play a role in the prevention of degenerative diseases. 'Annurca' apple fruit undergoes, after harvest, a typical reddening treatment to turn the apples' skin red, and it is noted for its high firmness. This paper reports the effect of reddening-ripening treatment on polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity of both peel and flesh extracts. The in vitro antioxidant properties have been compared with the protective effect against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species using Caco-2 cells as model system. Pretreatment of cells with different polyphenolic apple extracts provides a remarkable protection against oxidative damage. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of 'Annurca' apple polyphenolic compounds. The flesh has antioxidant properties comparable to those possessed by the peel. Neither the reddening nor the fruit conservation causes changes in the antioxidant properties possessed by this apple variety. The data indicate that polyphenolic compounds in 'Annurca' apples are relatively stable in the peel and also in the flesh; therefore, the health benefits of polyphenols should be maintained during long-term storage. Finally, a diet rich in apple antioxidants could exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to the production of reactive oxygen species.

  16. Penile replantation.

    PubMed

    Wells, M D; Boyd, J B; Bulbul, M A

    1991-06-01

    Amputation of the penis is thankfully an uncommon injury. Because of its rarity, a uniform plan of management to deal with this difficult injury has yet to be agreed on. We describe a man who sustained such an injury and his subsequent clinical course. The relevant history and pertinent anatomy is highlighted. Additionally, a systematic approach to dealing with this devastating injury is presented.

  17. Unexpected diversity during community succession in the apple flower microbiome.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; McManus, Patricia S; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-02-26

    Despite its importance to the host, the flower microbiome is poorly understood. We report a culture-independent, community-level assessment of apple flower microbial diversity and dynamics. We collected flowers from six apple trees at five time points, starting before flowers opened and ending at petal fall. We applied streptomycin to half of the trees when flowers opened. Assessment of microbial diversity using tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the apple flower communities were rich and diverse and dominated by members of TM7 and Deinococcus-Thermus, phyla about which relatively little is known. From thousands of taxa, we identified six successional groups with coherent dynamics whose abundances peaked at different times before and after bud opening. We designated the groups Pioneer, Early, Mid, Late, Climax, and Generalist communities. The successional pattern was attributed to a set of prevalent taxa that were persistent and gradually changing in abundance. These taxa had significant associations with other community members, as demonstrated with a cooccurrence network based on local similarity analysis. We also detected a set of less-abundant, transient taxa that contributed to general tree-to-tree variability but not to the successional pattern. Communities on trees sprayed with streptomycin had slightly lower phylogenetic diversity than those on unsprayed trees but did not differ in structure or succession. Our results suggest that changes in apple flower microbial community structure are predictable over the life of the flower, providing a basis for ecological understanding and disease management. Flowering plants (angiosperms) represent a diverse group of an estimated 400,000 species, and their successful cultivation is essential to agriculture. Yet fundamental knowledge of flower-associated microbiotas remains largely unknown. Even less well understood are the changes that flower microbial communities experience through time. Flowers are

  18. Deep sequencing analysis of apple infecting viruses in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deep sequencing of viruses isolated from eight symptomatic apple trees in Korea has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV) and Apricot lat...

  19. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  1. Toe-to-hand transfer from a cross-foot replantation in a traumatic four-extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Serkan; Akan, Mithat; Aköz, Tayfun

    2005-10-01

    Treatment of mutilating hand injuries often requires multiple innovative procedures. This report describes a case of multi-limbed amputations from a train injury and the extraordinary microsurgical approaches for a two-hand reconstruction. The first stage of the procedure was a cross replantation of the left foot to the right leg. The second stage was a combined second and third toe transfer from the cross replantation of the left foot to the right hand, and a sensate fibular osteocutaneous flap transfer for left hand reconstruction. Satisfactory function was restored, including good protective sensation. These kinds of extraordinary microsurgical approaches are useful salvage procedures for hand reconstruction, when presented with a case of multi-limb amputation.

  2. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  3. The chemopreventive activity of apple against carcinogenesis: antioxidant activity and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia A P; Gomes de Moura, Carolina F; Aguiar, Odair; de Oliveira, Flavia; Spadari, Regina C; Oliveira, Nara R C; Oshima, Celina T F; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2014-09-01

    Apples and their derivatives are rich in phytochemicals, including flavonoids (catechins, flavonols, quercetin) and phenolic acids (quercetin glycosides, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins), vitamins, and fibers, that confer an important antioxidant property. Chemoprevention is defined by the use of natural or synthetic agents to interfere with the progression, reverse, or inhibit carcinogenesis, thereby reducing the risk of developing clinically invasive disease. The aim of this article is to present data generated from the use of apples as a chemopreventive agent in carcinogenesis using in-vivo and in-vitro test systems. Apple and its bioactive compounds can exert chemopreventive properties as a result of antioxidant activity and cell cycle control. However, future focus of research on apple such as identifying the specific phytochemical responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, timing of consumption, and adequate amount of apples to achieve the best preventive effect using human large randomized-controlled trials is needed. Furthermore, animal studies are also relevant for better understanding the role of this fruit in human health as well as modulation of degenerative diseases such as cancer. Therefore, this area warrants further investigation as a new way of thinking, which would apply not only to apples but also to other fruit used as promising therapeutic agents against human diseases.

  4. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  5. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  6. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W; Jenkins, D J; Southgate, D A; Houston, H; James, W P

    1978-01-07

    Approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, and guar gum was added to the controlled basal diet of nineteen healthy volunteers. Faecal weight increased by 12% on bran, 69% on cabbage, 59% on carrot, 40% on apple, and 20% on guar gum. These changes in faecal weight were correlated with an increased intake of pentose-containing polysaccharides from the fibre. On the basal diet there were pronounced individual differences in faecal weight, and from these the response of subjects to the fibre preparations could be predicted. Addition of fibre shortened mean transit-time through the gut and significantly diluted an inert marker in the faeces. Diet-induced changes in colonic function may explain international differences in the prevalence of colonic disease, whilst personal variation in the response to dietary fibre may determine individual susceptibility to large-bowel disease within a community.

  7. Osteosarcoma of the distal radius treated with segmental forearm resection, hand replantation, and subsequent limb lengthening: case report.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Hiroshi; Morita, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Iwabuchi, Yasuhiro

    2014-06-01

    A 9-year-old girl with osteosarcoma of the radius was treated with segmental forearm resection and replantation followed by forearm lengthening of 11 cm. At 9-year follow-up, she had recovered sensory function, and her pinch and grasp were sufficient for performing daily activities. Functional outcomes evaluated by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and International Society of Limb Salvage functional score system were 4/100 and 23/30, respectively.

  8. Evaluating Emdogain and healing of replanted teeth using an intra-individual experimental-control study design.

    PubMed

    Fridström, Margareta; Schollin, Jens; Crossner, Claes-Göran

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to use an intra-individual experimental-control study design to explore if application of Emdogain prior to re-plantation after a dry extra-alveolar period of 60 min would promote a favorable healing of the periodontal ligament cells. Ten patients, for whom already decisions had been taken to extract two maxillary premolars because of crowding, participated in the study. The teeth were extracted and endodontic treatment was performed extra orally. The experimental tooth and its alveolar socket were covered with Emdogain prior to replantation. The contra lateral tooth served as a control and was replanted without any prior treatment. The teeth were stabilized with a retainer for 3-7 days and the patients were followed up every third week. After 13 weeks, the teeth were finally extracted and prepared for histological examination. Radiographs were taken before the study period, at day 29 and prior to the final extraction. The results were in favor of Emdogain, but the overall difference between the Emdogain-treated tooth and its control was rather small, and it seemed questionable if the registered differences could be of any obvious practical clinical importance. Histologically, all the teeth showed some degree of pathology after such a long dry extra-oral time and the outcome seemed to be more correlated to the individual than to the treatment. Given more favorable conditions regarding storage medium and/or extra-oral time, Emdogain might still be of value for an uncomplicated healing after replantation.

  9. Successful treatment of a radicular groove by intentional replantation and Emdogain therapy: four years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Naghshbandi, Jafar; Simon, James H S; Rotstein, Ilan

    2009-03-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often causes severe periodontal defects. Treatments of such an anomaly present a clinical challenge to the operator. Presented is a case of successful treatment of radicular groove associated with a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old girl. A combination of endodontics, intentional replantation, and Emdogain therapy was used. At 4-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and complete resolution of the periapical pathology was evident.

  10. DELAYED TOOTH REPLANTATION AFTER ROOT SURFACE TREATMENT WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND SODIUM FLUORIDE: HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other. PMID:19089038

  11. Periapical tissue reactions to calcium hydroxide and MTA after external root resorption as a sequela of delayed tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Marão, Heloisa Fonseca; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeiras; Silva, Pedro Ivo Santos

    2012-08-01

    Clinical experience has shown that most avulsed teeth are replanted after a long extra-alveolar time and dry or inadequate wet storage, causing necrosis of periodontal ligament cells. This condition invariably leads to development of external root resorption, leaving the filling material in contact with the periapical connective tissues. In this study, the periapical tissue reactions to calcium hydroxide (CH) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were evaluated after occurrence of external root resorption as an expected sequela of delayed tooth replantation. Twenty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) had their right upper incisor extracted and maintained in dry storage for 60 min. Then, the dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and periodontal ligament were removed, and the teeth were immersed in a 2% acidulated phosphate sodium fluoride solution, pH 5.5, for 10 min. The teeth were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 10), in which the canals were filled with either a CH and saline paste (CH group) or MTA (MTA group). The sockets were irrigated with saline, and the teeth were replanted. After 80 days, it was possible to observe large areas of replacement root resorption and some areas of inflammatory root resorption in both groups. More severe inflammatory tissue reaction was observed in contact with calcium hydroxide compared with the mineral trioxide aggregate. New bone formation was more intense at the bottom of the socket in the MTA group. In conclusion, as far as periapical tissue compatibility is concerned, intracanal MTA can be considered as a viable option for root canal filling in delayed tooth replantation, in which external root resorption is an expected sequela.

  12. Infection courts and timing of infection of apple fruit by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis in the orchard in relation to speck rot during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is the cause of speck rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. The pathogen is believed to incite infections in the field, and disease symptoms become evident only during storage. To determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard i...

  13. Fingertip replantation at or distal to the nail base: use of the technique of artery-only anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Akyürek, M; Safak, T; Keçik, A

    2001-06-01

    The authors describe the functional and aesthetic results of microsurgical replantation of 21 fingertip amputations at or distal to the nail base-namely, zone I amputations. There were 15 male and 6 female patients, with an average age of 26 years (age range, 1-41 years). Replantations were performed using the anastomosis of the artery-only technique, with neither vein nor nerve repair. Venous drainage was provided by an external bleeding method with a fish-mouth incision in "distal" zone I amputations for approximately 7 days, and by the use of leeches in more "proximal" zone I amputations for 10 to 12 days. Results indicated that the overall survival rate was 76%, with 16 of 21 digits surviving. Sensory evaluation at an average follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-18 months) revealed an average static two-point discrimination of 6.1 mm (range, 2.0-8.0 mm). Considering the unfavorable results and the donor site morbidity of various fingertip reconstructions, a microsurgical fingertip replantation should always be considered except in extremely distal, clean-cut, pediatric cases, in which case a composite graft is a possibility. The results of this series indicate that an amputated fingertip in zone I can be salvaged successfully by microvascular anastomosis of the artery only, with a nonmicrosurgical method of venous drainage. Furthermore, acceptable sensory recovery can be expected without any nerve coaptation.

  14. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  15. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful.

    PubMed

    Ryana, Haneet Kour; Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes.

  16. Biological control of major postharvest pathogens on apple with Candida sake.

    PubMed

    Viñas, I; Usall, J; Teixidó, N; Sanchis, V

    1998-03-03

    Epiphytic microorganisms isolated from apples, pears and the surfaces of apple leaves were screened for antagonistic activity against Penicillium expansum (blue-mold), Botrytis cinerea (gray-mold) and Rhizopus nigricans (Rhizopus rot) on apple (Malus domestica). A total of 933 bacteria and yeasts were tested in primary screening against P. expansum. Ninety-two strains reduced the lesion size on apples by more than 50%, 72 of which were isolated from the surface of apples. For secondary screening against P. expansum, B. cinerea and R. nigricans, 31 strains were selected. The most promising isolate, CPA-1, was identified as Candida sake. This yeast, isolated from apples in storage season was very effective against all three diseases. Wounded Golden Delicious apples protected with the yeast suspension at a concentration of 2.6 x 10(6) CFU/ml and inoculated with conidia of B. cinerea and R. nigricans of 10(5) and 10(4) conidia/ml, respectively, did not develop rot. Complete control of P. expansum was obtained at the same concentration of the antagonist with a pathogen inoculum concentration of 10(3) conidia/ml. This strain, also provided excellent control of rot development under cold storage conditions. The strain of Candida sake can grow actively in aerobic conditions. In drop-inoculated wounds of apples, the populations of C. sake increased by more than 50-fold during the first 24 h at 20 degrees C. The maximum population of C. sake on apple wounds was the same at 20 as at 1 degrees C and was recovered after three and twenty days, respectively.

  17. Apple juice consumption reduces plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Hyson, D; Studebaker-Hallman, D; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies show that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with beneficial effects on human health including reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fruits and their juices contain phytochemicals that inhibit in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and may account, in part, for their protective effect. However, reports of in vivo antioxidant effects from fruit intake are limited. We conducted a human trial to examine the in vivo effect of consumption of apples (both whole and juice) in an unblinded, randomized, crossover design. Healthy men and women added 375 ml of unsupplemented apple juice or 340 g of cored whole apple to their daily diet for 6 weeks, then crossed over to the alternate product for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after each dietary period. Compliance was monitored via biweekly 5-day food records, bodyweight checks, and meetings with study personnel. There were no significant differences between groups in intake of dietary fat, cholesterol, total carbohydrate, sugar, or calories throughout the study. Dietary fiber intake increased by 22% with whole apple consumption. Body weight, fasting serum lipid concentration, and other lipoprotein parameters were unchanged. Apple juice consumption increased ex vivo copper (Cu(++))-mediated LDL oxidation lag time by 20% compared with baseline. Apples and apple juice both reduced conjugated diene formation. Moderate apple juice consumption provides in vivo antioxidant activity. In view of the current understanding of CAD, the observed effect on LDL might be associated with reduced CAD risk and supports the inclusion of apple juice in a healthy human diet.

  18. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  19. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  20. Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Animal feces are a suspected source of contamination of apples by disease-causing organisms such as Escherichia coli O157. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to detect different amounts of feces from dairy cows, deer, and a dairy pasture applied to Red Delicious apples. One day after application, detection for 1:2 and 1:20 dilutions was nearly 100%, and for 1:200 dilutions (<15 ng of dry matter) detection was >80%. Detection after apples had been washed and brushed was lowest for pasture feces; detection for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 dilutions of feces was 100%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. This technology may encourage development of commercial systems for detecting fecal contamination of apples.

  1. Use of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit as a bridge to salvage a major upper-extremity replant in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Patrick J; Cordisco, Michael; Rodriguez, Daniel; Newberger, Jordanna; Legatt, Alan D; Garfein, Evan S

    2010-10-01

    Major replantation of the upper extremity is defined as replantation at or above the level of the wrist. Selection of appropriate candidates is complex and requires consideration of many patient- and injury-associated factors including patient age, associated injuries, patient desire, mechanism of injury, ischemia time, wound condition, and presence of multiple-level injury. With respect to age, younger patients, especially children, are deemed to have a distinct advantage over more elderly patients due to improved nerve regeneration, and many advocate making every effort to replant this population. The risks of major upper-extremity replantation are significant and include bleeding, depletion of coagulation factors, secondary infection, and sepsis. As a result, major systemic illness and significant associated injuries are accepted as contraindications to limb salvage in this patient population. Herein we describe the use of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit as a potential bridge for short-term preservation of the extremity in a young patient with an acute, concomitant systemic illness. In the authors' opinion, use of ECMO perfusion is a viable means of maintaining extremity perfusion over hours or even days and may lead to broadened replant criteria in patients with associated injuries.

  2. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after treatment with minocycline and doxycycline assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, radiography, and histology.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra Luisa de Souza; Ritter, André Vicente; Murrah, Valerie; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Trope, Martin

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of topical antibiotic treatment on pulp revascularization in replanted teeth. Thirty-four immature teeth were selected from three young dogs. Baseline radiographs and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) readings were obtained. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups: Thirty-eight teeth were extracted, kept dry for 5 min, and either (Group 1) covered with minocycline mixture (G1, n = 11), (Group 2) soaked in doxycycline (G2, n = 11), or (Group 3) soaked in saline (G3-negative control, n = 6), and replanted. Teeth in Group 4 were not extracted (positive control, n = 6). Postoperative radiographs and LDF readings were obtained for 2 months after replantation. After sacrifice, the jaws were collected and processed for light microscopy. Pre- and postreplantation LDF readings and radiographs, and histologic findings were analyzed to assess revascularization. Pulp revascularization occurred in 91% (G1), 73% (G2), and 33% (G3) of the specimens. In conclusion, minocycline facilitates pulp revascularization in replanted immature teeth after replantation.

  3. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  4. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  5. Our Ten Favorite AppleWorks Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Warren; Merritt, Cathleen

    1991-01-01

    The monthly newsletter of the National AppleWorks Users Group (NAUG), "The AppleWorks Forum," serves as a clearinghouse for user-discovered applications and work-arounds. This article presents 10 of the most popular suggested applications for the program, including the development and use of word processing templates, the installation of…

  6. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  7. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  8. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  9. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  10. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  11. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  12. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  13. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  14. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  15. Active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wartak, Andreas; Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) swept source Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) approach, enabling three-dimensional velocity vector reconstruction of moving particles without prior knowledge of the orientation of motion. The developed APPLE DOCT setup allows for non-invasive blood flow measurements in vivo and was primarily designed for quantitative human ocular blood flow investigations. The system’s performance was demonstrated by in vitro flow phantom as well as in vivo retinal vessel bifurcation measurements. Furthermore, total retinal blood flow – a biomarker aiding in diagnosis and monitoring of major ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy or central/branch retinal vein occlusion – was determined in the eyes of healthy human volunteers. PMID:28018739

  16. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.

  17. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  18. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  19. Transverse gradient in Apple-type undulators

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.

    2017-01-01

    Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751

  20. A Comparison of the Macrofauna of Natural and Replanted Mangroves in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khayat, J. A.; Jones, D. A.

    1999-08-01

    The present investigation quantifies the biodiversity of the Brachyura and fish living within the natural mangrove Avicennia marina, salt marsh and replanted mangal, and compares relevant features of the abiotic and biotic environments of these habitats. Measurements of sediment organic matter, grain size, soil water pH and the moisture content indicate that the natural mangrove areas have lowest mean grain size, pH, and highest organic and moisture contents. Planted mangrove areas have a higher mean grain size and slightly higher pH, but lower organic and moisture contents. Differences occur between brachyurans in planted and natural mangrove areas, but the biodiversity was similar between salt marsh and natural mangrove areas. Nasima dotilliformis was the only crab which did not occur at all planted mangrove sites, while Serenella leachii was missing from natural mangrove. Juvenile fish species enter mangroves, using these as nursery grounds, and quantitative sampling indicates that mangrove areas, especially pneumatophores, form a special habitat for these small fish.

  1. Anti-cancer properties of phenolics from apple waste on colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCann, M J; Gill, C I R; O' Brien, G; Rao, J R; McRoberts, W C; Hughes, P; McEntee, R; Rowland, I R

    2007-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Western countries. The World Health Organisation identifies diet as a critical risk factor in the development and progression of this disease and the protective role of high levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Several studies have shown that apples contain several phenolic compounds that are potent anti-oxidants in humans. However, little is known about other beneficial properties of apple phenolics in cancer. We have used the HT29, HT115 and CaCo-2 cell lines as in vitro models to examine the effect of apple phenolics (0.01-0.1% apple extract) on key stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, namely; DNA damage (Comet assay), colonic barrier function (TER assay), cell cycle progression (DNA content assay) and invasion (Matrigel assay). Our results indicate that a crude extract of apple phenolics can protect against DNA damage, improve barrier function and inhibit invasion (p<0.05). The anti-invasive effects of the extract were enhanced with twenty-four hour pretreatment of cells (p<0.05). We have shown that a crude apple extract from waste, rich in phenolic compounds, beneficially influences key stages of carcinogenesis in colon cells in vitro.

  2. Effect of alternative postharvest control treatments on the storability of 'Golden Delicious' apples.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Roberto; Carletti, Letizia; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Stella, Elisabetta; Massantini, Riccardo

    2013-08-30

    Apples are subject to a high degree of fungal diseases, but the use of synthetic fungicides has been questioned because of public safety concerns, social rejection, and the development of resistance in pathogens. Thus, development of new postharvest treatments against apple fungal pathogens is necessary. Most studies have reported their effectiveness, but not all report the effects on the quality and storability of the fruit. In this study, the effects of physical (hot water), chemical (quercetin) and biological (yeast antagonist) microfungal control on the quality of 'Golden Delicious' apple during storage at 2 ± 0.5 °C, and 90 ± 2% of relative humidity, for 2 months were investigated and compared. Heat-treated apples exhibited peel fruit damage (surface browning and internal breakdown disorders) and promoted ripening in the fruit. The quercetin caustic spray caused the development of peel chemical burn in all treated fruit. Both yeast antagonist and quercetin treatments did not affect the apple ripening process but stimulated an increase in ethylene production and in respiratory activity. The data indicated that the effects on quality and storability were dependent on the method of treatment used, and antagonistic yeast was the best microfungal control because of it did not cause any disorders or negative effects on apple quality during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Replantation-revascularization and primary amputation in major hand injuries. Resources spent on treatment and the indirect costs of sick leave in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, J; Lindgren, B; Jutemark, R

    1996-10-01

    Thirty consecutive patients with amputation or devascularizing injuries of the thumb or two or more fingers proximal to the PIP joint were reviewed. Replantation or revascularization had been done in 27 patients, in 24 successfully. Three patients had primary amputation. The distribution of calculable costs was dominated by those for sick leave (49%), operation (26%) and ward costs (20%). Out-patient care, physiotherapy and travel together constituted only 6%. The cost of a successful replantation was equal to 1.6 times the mean annual salary of these patients and that of primary amputation about half as much. Mobility, power and performance of a standardized grip test were better for the successfully replanted or revascularized patients. Subjective evaluation of 23 parameters of function, cosmesis and quality of life did not disclose any differences. All patients except three had returned to their original work within 2 years.

  4. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  5. Influence of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and sodium fluoride on the healing process in delayed tooth replantation: histologic and histometric analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Poi, Wilson Roberto; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Manfrin, Thais Mara; Rodrigues, Thais da Silveira

    2007-02-01

    Although it has already been shown that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) promotes periodontal regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects, there is little information concerning its regenerative capacity in cases of delayed tooth replantation. To evaluate the alterations in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth after use of Emdogain, the central incisors of 24 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were extracted and left on the bench for 6 h. Thereafter, the dental papilla and the enamel organ of each tooth were sectioned for pulp removal by a retrograde way and the canal was irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were assigned to two groups: in group I, root surface was treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min (changing the solution every 5 min), rinsed with saline for 10 min and immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride for 10 min; in group II, root surfaces were treated in the same way as described above, except for the application of Emdogain instead of sodium fluoride. The teeth were filled with calcium hydroxide (in group II right before Emdogain was applied) and replanted. All animals received antibiotic therapy. The rats were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixated, decalcified and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The use of 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride provided more areas of replacement resorption. The use of Emdogain resulted in more areas of ankylosis and was therefore not able to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis. It may be concluded that neither 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride nor Emdogain were able to prevent root resorption in delayed tooth replantation in rats.

  6. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  7. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  8. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  9. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  10. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  11. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  12. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  13. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  14. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  15. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  16. Cultivar and growing region determine the antioxidant polyphenolic concentration and composition of apples grown in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McGhie, Tony K; Hunt, Martin; Barnett, Laura E

    2005-04-20

    Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables contributes to improved health and well-being by providing protection from diseases including various cancers and cardiovascular disease. Although there is uncertainty about which components generate this effect, an attractive hypothesis is that the antioxidants are at least partly responsible. We measured the polyphenolic concentrations in 10 different apple cultivars grown commercially in New Zealand, each sourced from three different geographic regions. Our results showed that the concentration of polyphenolics varied among the apple cultivars, with Pacific Queen containing 2.7 times the amount of polyphenolics found in Cox's Orange. Furthermore, there were significant differences in polyphenolic concentrations in fruit from different regions for some cultivars but not for others. We also measured the polyphenolic concentrations in apple skin and flesh and found that on average 46% of the polyphenolics in whole apples were in the skin. Essentially all of the flavonols (quercetin derivatives) were present in the skin. To maximize the intake of apple polyphenols, it is necessary to consume apples of cultivars with high polyphenolic concentrations such as Pacific Queen and include the skin. Our results also showed that there is potential for promoting apple fruit from specific geographical regions because they contained elevated concentrations of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds.

  17. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  18. Apple polyphenol extracts prevent damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Graziani, G; D'Argenio, G; Tuccillo, C; Loguercio, C; Ritieni, A; Morisco, F; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; Fogliano, V; Romano, M

    2005-02-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables exert multiple biological effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa. To assess whether apple extracts counteract oxidative or indomethacin induced damage to gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo. Apple extracts were obtained from freeze dried apple flesh of the "Annurca" variety. Cell damage was induced by incubating MKN 28 cells with xanthine-xanthine oxidase or indomethacin and quantitated by MTT. In vivo gastric damage was induced by indomethacin 35 mg/kg. Intracellular antioxidant activity was determined using the (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) method. Malondialdehyde intracellular concentration, an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. (1) Apple extracts decreased xanthine-xanthine oxidase or indomethacin induced injury to gastric epithelial cells by 50%; (2) catechin or chlorogenic acid (the main phenolic components of apple extracts) were equally effective as apple extracts in preventing oxidative injury to gastric cells; and (3) apple extracts (i) caused a fourfold increase in intracellular antioxidant activity, (ii) prevented its decrease induced by xanthine-xanthine oxidase, (iii) counteracted xanthine-xanthine oxidase induced lipid peroxidation, and (iv) decreased indomethacin injury to the rat gastric mucosa by 40%. Apple extracts prevent exogenous damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to the rat gastric mucosa in vivo. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of apple phenolic compounds. A diet rich in apple antioxidants might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species.

  19. Age and timing of pulp extirpation as major factors associated with inflammatory root resorption in replanted permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Juliana Vilela; Ilma de Souza Côrtes, Maria; Andrade Goulart, Eugenio Marcos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas

    2014-03-01

    External root resorption (ERR) is a serious complication after replantation, and its progressive inflammatory and replacement forms are significant causes of tooth loss. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the factors related to the occurrence of inflammatory ERR (IERR) and replacement ERR (RERR) shortly after permanent tooth replantation in patients treated at the Dental Trauma Clinic at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Case records and radiographs of 165 patients were evaluated for the presence, type, and extension of ERR and its association with age and factors related to the management and acute treatment of the avulsed tooth by using the logistic regression model. The patient's age at the moment of trauma had a marked effect on the ERR prevalence and extension. The patients older than 16 years at the moment of trauma had less chance of developing IERR and RERR (77% and 87%, respectively) before the pulp extirpation, regardless of the extension of the resorption. The patients older than 11 years of age at the moment of trauma showed the lowest indices of IERR (P = .02). Each day that elapsed between the replantation and the pulp extirpation increased the risk of developing IERR and RERR by 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively, and also raised the risk of severe IERR by 0.5% per day. The risk of mature teeth developing severe IERR before the onset of endodontic therapy was directly affected by the timing of the pulpectomy and was inversely proportional to age. Systemic antibiotic therapy use had no effect on the occurrence and severity of IERR in mature teeth. The occurrence of RERR before the onset of endodontic treatment stimulates further investigations of the early human host response to trauma and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A study of the interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms and inflammatory external root resorption in replanted permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Bastos, J V; Côrtes, M I S; Silva, J F C; Goulart, E M A; Colosimo, E A; Gomez, R S; Dutra, W O

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL1) are associated with the occurrence and severity of inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Indexes of IERR were radiographically assessed in 182 mature replanted permanent teeth from 146 patients at the onset of endodontic therapy. DNA was extracted from buccal mucosa cells and genotyped using TaqMan probes-based assays for the SNPs IL1A -889C/T (rs 180058), IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) and IL1RN +2018C/T (rs419598). Teeth were grouped into two categories: IERR absent to mild (indexes ≤ 4) and moderate to severe IERR (indexes > 4). Genetic variations in the IL1 gene cluster were tested for their effect on the occurrence and extension of IERR using the GEE model (generalized estimation equation). Patient's age at the moment of injury, timing of pulpectomy, extra-alveolar period and storage condition of the avulsed teeth was included as possible confounders. No association was found between SNPs IL1A -889C/T, IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) and IL1RN +2018C/T (rs419598) and IERR indexes. Timing of pulpectomy (OR 3.5 IC 95% 2.0-6.2 P < 0.001) and patient's age at the moment of trauma (OR 0.29 IC 95% 0.12-0.67 P = 0.004) significantly affected the risk of developing severe IERR. While timing of pulpectomy and patient's age at the moment of trauma were confirmed as important risk factors, SNPs within the IL1 gene cluster did not affect the susceptibility for IERR after replantation of permanent teeth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  2. The effect of wind induced bottom shear stress and salinity on Zostera noltii replanting in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, E.; Roux, B.; Fougere, D.; Chen, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The paper concerns the wind influence on bottom shear stress and salinity levels in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal lagoon (Etang de Berre), with respect to a replanting program of Zostera noltii. The MARS3D numerical model is used to analyze the 3D current, salinity and temperature distribution induced by three meteorological, oceanic and anthropogenic forcings in this lagoon. The numerical model has been carefully validated by comparison with daily observations of the vertical salinity and temperature profiles at three mooring stations, for one year. Then, two modelling scenarios are considered. The first scenario (scen.#1), starting with a homogeneous salinity of S = 20 PSU and without wind forcing, studies a stratification process under the influence of a periodic seawater inflow and a strong freshwater inflow from a hydropower plant (250 m3/s). Then, in the second scenario (scen.#2), we study how a strong wind of 80 km/h can mix the haline stratification obtained at the end of scen.#1. The most interesting results concern four nearshore replanting areas; two are situated on the eastern side of EB and two on the western side. The results of scen.#2 show that all these areas are subject to a downwind coastal jet. Concerning bottom salinity, the destratification process is very beneficial; it always remains greater than 12 PSU for a N-NW wind of 80 km/h and an hydropower runoff of 250 m3/s. Special attention is devoted to the bottom shear stress (BSS) for different values of the bottom roughness parameter (for gravels, sands and silts), and to the bottom salinity. Concerning BSS, it presents a maximum near the shoreline and decreases along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. There exists a zone, parallel to the shoreline, where BSS presents a minimum (close to zero). When comparing the BSS value at the four replanting areas with the critical value, BSScr, at which the sediment mobility would occur, we see that for the smaller roughness values (ranging

  3. Unexpected Diversity during Community Succession in the Apple Flower Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; McManus, Patricia S.; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its importance to the host, the flower microbiome is poorly understood. We report a culture-independent, community-level assessment of apple flower microbial diversity and dynamics. We collected flowers from six apple trees at five time points, starting before flowers opened and ending at petal fall. We applied streptomycin to half of the trees when flowers opened. Assessment of microbial diversity using tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the apple flower communities were rich and diverse and dominated by members of TM7 and Deinococcus-Thermus, phyla about which relatively little is known. From thousands of taxa, we identified six successional groups with coherent dynamics whose abundances peaked at different times before and after bud opening. We designated the groups Pioneer, Early, Mid, Late, Climax, and Generalist communities. The successional pattern was attributed to a set of prevalent taxa that were persistent and gradually changing in abundance. These taxa had significant associations with other community members, as demonstrated with a cooccurrence network based on local similarity analysis. We also detected a set of less-abundant, transient taxa that contributed to general tree-to-tree variability but not to the successional pattern. Communities on trees sprayed with streptomycin had slightly lower phylogenetic diversity than those on unsprayed trees but did not differ in structure or succession. Our results suggest that changes in apple flower microbial community structure are predictable over the life of the flower, providing a basis for ecological understanding and disease management. PMID:23443006

  4. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  5. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of new and old apple varieties.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Oszmiański, Jan; Laskowski, Piotr

    2008-08-13

    There is considerable evidence to show that a greater intake of apple contributes to improved health by reducing the risk of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. Apple fruit is a major source of phenol compounds, because its consumption is widespread in many countries and it is available on the market for the whole year. The phenolic composition of 67 varieties of apple cultivars (new and old varieties) was examined for the concentration of some important phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. For the first time, we have looked at the correlation and compared polyphenolic coumpounds in Golden Delicious variety and new varieties grown from it. Up to 18 compounds, including catechin, procyanidin, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis of crude extracts and after thiolysis and LC-MS. The mean content of total polyphenols lay between 523.02 and 2723.96 mg/100 g dw and depending upon the apples variety. Flavanols (catechin and oligomeric procyanidins) are the major class of apple polyphenols, representing more than 80%, followed by hydroxycinnamic acids (1-31%), flavonols (2-10%), dihydrochalcones (0.5-5%), and in red apples, anthocyanins (1%). In this study, the best correlation was found for the total polyphenols and ABTS method, with a lower correlation for FRAP and DPPH methods ( r = 0.871, 0.839, and 0.804, respectively). The presented data clearly demonstrated that new varieties, i.e., Ozark Gold, Julyred, and Jester, of apple had the same or higher value of bioactive compounds in comparison to the old varieties, i.e., Golden Delicious, Idared, and Jonagold.

  6. Muscle Is a Target for Preservation in a Rat Limb Replantation Model

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yuki; Teratani, Takumi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ischemia exceeding 6 hours makes clinical limb replantation difficult and places the patient at risk of functional deficit or limb loss. We investigated the preservation of muscle function and morphology with solutions in rat hindlimb in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Quadriceps femoris muscles from luciferase transgenic rats were preserved for 24 hours at 4°C in extracellular-type trehalose containing Kyoto (ETK), University of Wisconsin (UW), or lactated Ringer’s (LR) solution (control). Muscle luminescence was measured with a bioimaging system. Amputated limbs of Lewis rats preserved with ETK, UW, or LR for 6 or 24 hours at 4°C were transplanted orthotopically. At week 8, terminal latency and amplitude were measured in the tibialis anterior muscle. The muscles were also analyzed histologically. Results: Isolated muscles preserved in ETK or UW had significantly higher luminescence than did muscles immersed in LR (P < 0.05). In the 6-hour-preserved limb transplantation model, although the 3 groups had almost the same terminal latency, electrical amplitude was significantly lower in the LR group. Histologically, muscles preserved with LR showed the most atrophic changes. In the 24-hour-preserved model, the survival rate of the LR group was 37.5% in contrast to 80% in the ETK and UW groups. Electrical signals were not detected in the LR group owing to severe muscle atrophy and fibrosis. The ETK and UW groups showed good muscle function electrophysiologically. Conclusions: Preservation solutions can protect muscle function and morphology in ischemia–reperfusion limbs and improve recipient survival rates after transplantation of long-term-preserved limbs. PMID:25289265

  7. Population dynamics of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northeast Italy and its role in the apple proliferation epidemiology in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Baldessari, Mario; Mazzoni, Valerio; Trona, Federica; Angeli, Gino

    2012-04-01

    In the current study, incidence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' in an experimental apple orchard in northeast Italy, in addition to abundance and phytoplasma infectivity of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was determined and the role of this psyllid as a vector of 'Ca. P. mali' in this region was reviewed. Insect samples collected in the orchard by the beating method indicated high abundance of C. melanoneura (up to 7.92 specimens/branch); however, the psyllid C. picta was not observed. Molecular analyses revealed presence of 'Ca. P. mali' in 6.25% of overwintered psyllids. This infection rate is quite high in comparison to other localities where C. melanoneura is known as the main vector of the phytoplasma. This finding supports the assumption that C. melanoneura also is paramount in the epidemiology of the apple proliferation disease also in northeast Italy. Moreover, we correlated immigration dynamics to the temperatures registered in the apple orchard, and defined an immigration index to predict the progressive arrival of the overwintered adults from winter sites. Psyllids start to reach the apple orchards when either the average of the maximum temperature of the 7 d is above 9.5 degrees C or the immigration index has a positive value. This index will be a useful tool for the growers to prevent apple proliferation phytoplasma spread with well-timed insecticide treatments targeted against C. melanoneura. However, further research is needed to validate or adjust the index to other apple growing regions, which may affect more efficacious management of this disease and psyllid vector.

  8. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    healthy subjects; this was caused by the fructose-induced rise of serum uric acid levels, but was not due to the presence of antioxidant polyphenols in juice. Thus, short-term consumption of apple juice seems not to be the effective dietary intervention to augment plasma antioxidant activity due to the concomitant possibility for uric acid to be a risk factor for several diseases, as verified by other authors.

  9. Whole apple extracts increase lifespan, healthspan and resistance to stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Vayndorf, Elena M; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-07-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of age-related functional decline and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These effects are primarily attributed to phytochemicals, plant compounds with a wide range of biological activities and health benefits. Apples, the top contributor of fruit phenolics in American diets, have high antioxidant, antiproliferative and chemopreventive activity in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about their effects on aging. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of whole apple phytochemical extracts on lifespan, healthspan and resistance to various stresses in vivo using C. elegans as a model. The mean and maximum lifespan of animals treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml whole apple extracts increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner by up to 39 and 25%, respectively. Healthspan also significantly improved as indicated by improved motility and reduced lipofuscin accumulation. Animals pre-treated with whole apple extracts were more resistant to stresses such as heat, UV radiation, paraquat-induced oxidative stress, and pathogenic infection, suggesting that cellular defense and immune system functions also improved. Our findings indicate that, in C. elegans, whole apple extracts slow aging, extend lifespan, improve healthspan, and enhance resistance to stress.

  10. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  11. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  12. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  13. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  14. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  15. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  16. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  17. Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Beacham-Bowden, Tina; Keller, Susanne E; Adhikari, Chaitali; Taylor, Kirk T; Chirtel, Stewart J; Merker, Robert I

    2003-04-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. However, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. The purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars) but was found at levels of 40.2 to 374 microg/liter in cider pressed from four cultivars of fresh ground-harvested (dropped) apples. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from culled tree-picked apples stored for 4 to 6 weeks at 0 to 2 degrees C but was found at levels of 0.97 to 64.0 microg/liter in cider pressed from unculled fruit stored under the same conditions. Cider from controlled-atmosphere-stored apples that were culled before pressing contained 0 to 15.1 microg of patulin per liter, while cider made from unculled fruit contained 59.9 to 120.5 microg of patulin per liter. The washing of ground-harvested apples before pressing reduced patulin levels in cider by 10 to 100%, depending on the initial patulin levels and the type of wash solution used. These results indicate that patulin is a good indicator of the quality of the apples used to manufacture cider. The avoidance of ground-harvested apples and the careful culling of apples before pressing are good methods for reducing patulin levels in cider.

  18. Role of simple cold storage in preventing epiphyseal growth plate impairment after replantation surgery in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Toru; Ishida, Osamu; Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ischemia time on longitudinal bone growth after replantation, and to evaluate the usefulness of simple cold storage of an amputated limb in preventing epiphyseal growth-plate impairment. A hind-limb replantation model was produced with 5-week-old rats after various ischemia times. With more than 6 hr of warm ischemia, growth disturbance was observed, and extensive necrosis was histologically apparent in the central region of the growth plate of the proximal tibia, even at 1 week postoperatively. Destruction of the growth plate was complete at 4 weeks after surgery. By simple cold storage of the amputated limb, growth disturbance was not observed, even following ischemia for 9 hr, and no abnormal findings were observed histologically. Segmental necrosis and destruction of the growth plate observed histologically suggested the possibility of indirect impairment of the epipyseal chondrocytes due to disturbance of the epiphyseal arterial system, attributable to ischemia. The study confirmed experimentally that cold storage of the amputated part may prevent longitudinal bone-growth disturbance after extension of ischemia time.

  19. Treatment of replacement resorption by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites, and Emdogain--results of a 6-year survey.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Andreas; Pohl, Yango; von Arx, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    The present clinical study investigated the outcome of intentional replantation using resection of the ankylosed sites of the root, extraoral endodontic treatment using titanium posts and Emdogain for periodontal healing following trauma-related ankylosis. During an evaluation period of 6 years, 16 ankylosed teeth affected by replacement resorption were treated as described. Evaluation parameters before treatment and during the follow-up period included Periotest scores, percussion sound and periapical radiographs. All findings were compared to those of the adjacent teeth. In a second accident, one tooth was lost after 7 months and was excluded as a dropout. Ankylosis did not recur in seven replanted teeth, which were observed for an average of 52.3 months (range: 24-68 months). Ankylosis recurred in eight teeth after an average period of 12 months (range: 4-26 months). An infraocclusion, normal or only slightly reduced Periotest scores and normal percussion sound were preoperatively found in six of seven successfully replanted teeth, which corresponded to a relatively small area of ankylosis. The majority of the teeth showing recurrent ankylosis preoperatively presented with normal position, negative Periotest scores and a high percussion sound which corresponded to an extended area of ankylosis. Statistically significant relationship between preoperative findings and the treatment outcome (P = 0.031) have become apparent. The results indicate that the treatment of minor areas of ankylosis by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites and Emdogain appeared to prevent or delay the recurrence of ankylosis in 7 of 15 teeth.

  20. Dental pulp in mature replanted human teeth: morphological alterations and metalloproteineses-2 and -9, Annexin-5, BCL-2 and iNOS modulation.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Uzzo, M L; Spatola, G F; Jurjus, A; Vandevska-Radunovic, V

    2015-01-01

    Tooth replantation, as a treatment concept, has been subject to controversies regarding the mechanism as well as the various parameters underlying this process. This work aimed to study time-related changes in the pulp of replanted mature human premolars through the changes in the levels of certain factors involved in the underlying mechanisms of pulpal tissue healing after replantation. Eleven experimental mature teeth were extracted, immediately replanted in the original socket and left without any other intervention for 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks before re-extraction. Three premolars served as control. All specimens were subject to histological analysis and the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic family) were analyzed employing immunohistochemistry. The results showed degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammatory cell infiltrate, loss in pulpo-dentine interface and loss of odontoblasts in the dental pulp tissue. This was accompanied by increase over time of MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and a decrease of BCL-2 and MMP-2, suggesting that apoptosis increased throughout the experimental period.

  1. Stability and anti-glycation properties of intermediate moisture apple products fortified with green tea.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2011-07-15

    Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs.

  2. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  3. VIEWPOINT – Vitiligo and alopecia areata: Apples and oranges?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336

  4. La replantation digitale, résultats et complications: étude d’une série de 18 cas

    PubMed Central

    Idrissi, Mohammed El; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Shimi, Mohammed; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    Les amputations digitales sont des lésions fréquentes, la majorité étant provoquée par des accidents de travail. Les techniques microchirurgicales représentent une alternative pour réparer ces amputations. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter notre expérience dans la replantation digitale à travers l'étude de 18 cas. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée entre Juin 2013 et Janvier 2015, incluant 14 patients présentant une amputation totale ou subtotale des doigts. Nous avons inclus dans notre série toutes les replantations unidigitales et multidigitales réalisées en aval de l'insertion distale du tendon fléchisseur superficiel ainsi que les replantations digitales réalisées en amont de l'insertion distale du tendon fléchisseur superficiel. Nous avons opéré ces patients selon le procédé classique de réimplantation digitale. Cinq replantations ont été secondairement régularisées. Parmi les 18 replantations, huit replantions digitales ont favorablement évolué puisque la replantation a permis de restituer un secteur complet de mobilité passive et active du doigt opéré sans chirurgie de reprise et sans complication secondaire précoce et tardive. Dans notre étude nous avons noté des résultats satisfaisants, malgré les conditions difficiles notamment le conditionnement initial du doigt amputé, et le délai de prise en charge retardé. Le développement et la maîtrise de la microchirurgie a permis de changer le pronostic de ces amputations à retentissement fonctionnel et psychologique difficile, les résultats de notre série sont encourageants pour a mise en place d'un service SOS main au Maroc. PMID:27795781

  5. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  6. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  7. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a…

  8. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  9. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  10. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  11. The history of Newton's apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  12. The infection capacity of P. expansum and P. digitatum on apples and histochemical analysis of host response.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Teixidó, N; Torres, R; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2012-07-16

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a variety of biochemical changes and is also associated with increased susceptibility to pathogens. The present study determined the effects of fruit maturity and storage conditions on the infection capacity of a host (P. expansum) and non-host (P. digitatum) pathogen on apple. A range of inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were utilized. Exposure to P. expansum at 20 °C resulted in significant differences in rot dynamics in apples collected at the earliest harvest date compared to all later harvest dates and inoculum concentrations assayed. Greater differences in infection capacity between harvests were obtained when fruit was stored at low temperature (0 °C). In contrast, P. digitatum was able to infect apples only under specific conditions and disease symptoms were limited to the initial wound inoculation site. When apples were resistant to P. digitatum, a visible browning reaction around the infection site was observed. Histochemical analyses of tissues surrounding the wound site were conducted. A positive reaction for lignin was observed in immature apples as early as 1 day after inoculation with either pathogen. Experiments conducted with the non-host pathogen indicated that lignification was an essential component of resistance in apples harvested prior to maturity or at commercial maturity. Apples harvested at an over-mature stage and inoculated with P. digitatum did not show evidence of staining for lignin until 7 days post-inoculation. Control samples only showed positive reaction in immature harvest. Results demonstrated that the maturity stage of fruit is an important factor in apple resistance to both P. expansum and P. digitatum and that lignin accumulation seems to play an important role when resistance is observed. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that P. digitatum, a non-host pathogen, has a limited capacity to infect apples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  13. Early prognostic indicators and outcome prediction model for replanted avulsed teeth.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, O; McMahon, A D; Welbury, R R

    2012-08-01

    To identify early clinical variables that are most predictive of treatment outcome and to develop a model that will allow prediction of treatment outcomes based on these variables. A dental trauma database was used to randomly identify patients who had received treatment for avulsed teeth between 1998 and 2007. A data extraction form was designed and completed for each tooth. Demographic, diagnostic and treatment information recorded in the patient's records, in addition to radiographs, were viewed retrospectively. The significance and the predictive power for each early clinical variable were assessed using a univariate logistic regression model. Only significant variables (p<0.05) were considered eligible for the prediction model and a c-index was then constructed for their respective predictive power (0.5 = no predictive power, 1.0 = perfect prediction). Of the original sample of 213 patients who had received treatment for avulsed teeth between 1998-2007 only 105 fulfilled the criteria for evaluation. Two models ('At first visit' and 'at initial treatment visits') were produced with a total of five variables that were significant and holding the greatest predictive power (high c-index): patient age (p=0.001, c=0.80); stage of root formation (p=0.001, c=0.76); storage medium (p=0.047, c=0.58); tooth mobility after dressing (p=0.001, c=0.70); and tooth mobility after splinting (p=0.003, c=0.70). These variables underwent multi-variate analysis and the final models had good predictive abilities (c-index of 0.80 and 0.74). These predictive models based on patient age, stage of root formation, storage medium, tooth mobility after dressing and tooth mobility after splinting were shown to have high predictive value and will enable a clinician to estimate the long term prognosis of avulsed and replanted teeth. It will enable planning for further treatment with a realistic view of outcome at an early stage.

  14. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  15. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  16. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  17. Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis: inoculum availability, persistence and seasonal host susceptibility in Washington apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    P. washingtonensis infects apple fruit in the orchard but decay symptoms develop during storage. Pycnidia on diseased shoots are believed to be the inoculum source for fruit infection in the orchard. However, the period of twig susceptibility and availability of viable inoculum in the field are un...

  18. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  19. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  20. Simultaneous identification and molecular characterization of viruses associated with an apple tree with mosaic symptom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted genomic sequencing to identify viruses associated with mosaic disease of an apple tree using the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) Illumina RNA-seq platform. The objective was to examine if rapid identification and characterization of viruses could be effectively achieved by RNA-seq anal...

  1. Using an apple (Malus) microarray for expression analysis of responses to compatible and incompatible pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). Ea enters the plant through blossom nectaries or wounds, multiplies in the apoplast and spreads through the plant via vascular tissues. When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea ind...

  2. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  3. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  4. Red-fleshed Apples: Old Autochthonous Fruits as a Novel Source of Anthocyanin Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases.

  5. Mapping in an apple (Malus x domestica) F1 segregating population based on physical clustering of differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Philip J; Fazio, Gennaro; Altman, Naomi; Praul, Craig; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-04-04

    Apple tree breeding is slow and difficult due to long generation times, self-incompatibility, and complex genetics. The identification of molecular markers linked to traits of interest is a way to expedite the breeding process. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes whose steady-state transcript abundance was associated with inheritance of specific traits segregating in an apple (Malus × domestica) rootstock F1 breeding population, including resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) disease and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum). Transcription profiling was performed for 48 individual F1 apple trees from a cross of two highly heterozygous parents, using RNA isolated from healthy, actively-growing shoot tips and a custom apple DNA oligonucleotide microarray representing 26,000 unique transcripts. Genome-wide expression profiles were not clear indicators of powdery mildew or woolly apple aphid resistance phenotype. However, standard differential gene expression analysis between phenotypic groups of trees revealed relatively small sets of genes with trait-associated expression levels. For example, thirty genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. Interestingly, the genes encoding twenty-four of these transcripts were physically clustered on chromosome 12. Similarly, seven genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to woolly apple aphid, and the genes encoding five of these transcripts were also clustered, this time on chromosome 17. In each case, the gene clusters were in the vicinity of previously identified major quantitative trait loci for the corresponding trait. Similar results were obtained for a series of molecular traits. Several of the differentially expressed genes were used to develop DNA polymorphism markers linked to powdery mildew disease and woolly apple aphid resistance. Gene expression profiling

  6. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples. PMID:26635764

  7. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples.

  8. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  9. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  10. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  11. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  12. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  13. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  14. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  16. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  18. Processing of apple pomace for bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Shashi; Kalia, Kalpana; Sharma, Madhu; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, P S

    2008-01-01

    The growth of horticulture industries worldwide has generated huge quantities of fruit wastes (25%-40% of the total fruits processed). These residues are generally a good source of carbohydrates, especially cell wall polysaccharides and other functionally important bioactive molecules such as proteins, vitamins, minerals and natural antioxidants. "Apple pomace" is a left-over solid biomass with a high moisture content, obtained as a by-product during the processing of apple fruits for juice, cider or wine preparation. Owing to the high carbohydrate content, apple pomace is used as a substrate in a number of microbial processes for the production of organic acids, enzymes, single cell protein, ethanol, low alcoholic drinks and pigments. Recent research trends reveal that there is an increase in the utilization of apple pomace as a food processing residue for the extraction of value added products such as dietary fibre, protein, natural antioxidants, biopolymers, pigments and compounds with unique properties. However, the central dogma is still the stability, safety and economic feasibility of the process(s)/product(s) developed. This review is mainly focused on assessing recent research developments in extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules from apple pomace, along with their commercial utilization, in food fortification.

  19. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather.

  20. [Radical tumour resection in the upper extremity and heterotopic replantation of the hand. Analyses of functional results in two patients].

    PubMed

    Piza-Katzer, H; Baur, E-M; Estermann, D

    2008-10-01

    We describe here two cases treated 17 years apart from each other. The patients were young males with malignant soft tissue tumours of the forearm and elbow joint. Radical tumour resection involved removal of the elbow joint. Neither of the patients consented to upper arm amputation, but agreed to undergo heterotopic replantation of the amputated distal third of the forearm together with the hand to the stump of the upper arm. The tendons of the forearm were attached to the three muscles of the upper arm, and the distal nerves were coapted with the nerve trunks of the upper arm. However, the reconstructive procedures carried out in these two patients were anatomically different. In the first patient, for technical reasons, only the deep flexor tendons were sutured. Furthermore, development of a postoperative haematoma necessitated revision surgery with split-thickness skin graft to cover the defect of the forearm. Long-term immobilisation together with a conservative approach to mobility had resulted in less than optimal results so that it appeared meaningful to re-operate the patient even 17 years after the primary operation to help him gain improved sensibility as well as motor function. These goals were achieved to a surprising extent by scar release, Z-plasty, removal of split-thickness skin graft, neurolysis, arthrodesis of the IP joint of the thumb, and tendon transposition together with intensive early postoperative sensibility and mobility training. In the second patient, longitudinal division of the muscles of the upper arm into different compartments and interweaving of the long tendons of the forearm into these muscles as well as early intensive mobility training and reintegration of the replanted hand in the body scheme resulted in the rapid gain of extremely good functional results so that the patient is now able to employs his heterotopically replanted hand quite effectively in his activities of daily living as a farmer. We believe that the