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Sample records for apple replant disease

  1. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  2. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  3. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  4. Apple Replant Disease: Role of microbial ecology in cause and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. Development of non-fumigant alternatives for the control of this disease has been hindered by the absence of consensus concerning the etiology...

  5. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  6. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  7. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  8. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  9. Grass residues as a sustainable carbon source in application of anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of apple nursery replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for control of replant disease in an apple nursery setting. Treatments applied in a field trial conducted at an experimental orchard in Washington State included ASD using orchard grass residues (GR; 20 t ha-1) as ...

  10. A multi-phasic approach reveals that apple replant disease is caused by multiple biological agents, with some agents acting synergistically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of ARD in South Africa in six orchard soils, using a multiphasic approach under glasshouse ...

  11. Illumina Amplicon Sequencing of 16S rRNA Tag Reveals Bacterial Community Development in the Rhizosphere of Apple Nurseries at a Replant Disease Site and a New Planting Site

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jia; Wei, Qinping

    2014-01-01

    We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant) and a new planting site (NewPlant) in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of ‘Fuji’/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil) and from the new planting site (NewSoil) was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant). More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria). The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition. PMID:25360786

  12. Illumina amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA tag reveals bacterial community development in the rhizosphere of apple nurseries at a replant disease site and a new planting site.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jia; Wei, Qinping

    2014-01-01

    We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant) and a new planting site (NewPlant) in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of 'Fuji'/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil) and from the new planting site (NewSoil) was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant). More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria). The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition.

  13. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  14. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  15. Differential transcriptional regulation of defense-associated genes among apple rootstock genotypes in response to Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) poses a substantial threat to orchard establishment on replant sites. Deployment of resistant apple rootstocks is an ecologically desired, cost effective and durable disease control strategy particular for perennial production system. Candidate genes which function in pat...

  16. Managing the almond and stone fruit replant disease complex with less soil fumigant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As much as one-third of California’s almond and stone fruit acreage is infested with potentially debilitating plant parasitic nematodes, and even more of the land is impacted by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne disease complex that suppresses early growth and cumulative yi...

  17. Identification and Characterization of Salvia miltiorrhizain miRNAs in Response to Replanting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaole; Liu, Lin; He, Zhigui; Yang, Shushen; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Replanting disease is a major factor limiting the artificial cultivation of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. At present, little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to replanting disease. In this study, two small RNA libraries obtained from first-year (FPR) and second-year plant (SPR) roots were subjected to a high-throughput sequencing method. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 110 known and 7 novel miRNAs were annotated in the roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Moreover, 39 known and 2 novel miRNAs were identified and validated for differential expression in FPR compared with SPR. Thirty-one of these miRNAs were further analyzed by qRT-PCR, which revealed that 5 miRNAs negatively regulated the expression levels of 7 target genes involved in root development or stress responses. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of S. miltiorrhiza in response to replanting disease but also demonstrates that 5 miRNAs may be involved in these responses. Interactions among the differentially expressed miRNAs with their targets may form an important component of the molecular basis of replanting disease in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27483013

  18. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  19. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agent of ARD, the genetic response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. In t...

  20. Isolation and characterization of apple Pythium ultimum response genes and their ethylene and jasmonate mediated transcriptional regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agents of ARD, the molecular response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. I...

  1. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  2. Genotype-specific responses of apple roots to pathogenic infection by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance mechanisms employed to defend against soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are poorly understood, particularly with respect to perennial tree fruit crops such as apple. Pythium ultimum is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease (ARD). Different levels of tolera...

  3. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  4. Replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Bhardwaj, Praveen

    2011-06-01

    The current concepts of replantation surgery, a procedure that has been practiced for half a century, can be discussed in terms of patients' demands and expectations, present indications for the procedure, available evidence that influences decision making, and technical refinements practiced to produce better outcomes.

  5. Reduced rate brassica seed meal amendment efficacy is apple rootstock genotype-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal formulations have been shown to provide effect control of the biologically complex disease phenomenon termed apple replant disease (Mazzola et al., 2015). The seed meal formulation when used at an application rate of 3 ton ac-1 provided disease control that was in some instances ...

  6. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  7. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  8. Suppression of Specific Apple Root Pathogens by Brassica napus Seed Meal Amendment Regardless of Glucosinolate Content.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, M; Granatstein, D M; Elfving, D C; Mullinix, K

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT The impact of Brassica napus seed meal on the microbial complex that incites apple replant disease was evaluated in greenhouse trials. Regardless of glucosinolate content, seed meal amendment at a rate of 0.1% (vol/vol) significantly enhanced growth of apple and suppressed apple root infection by Rhizoctonia spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans. High glucosinolate B. napus cv. Dwarf Essex seed meal amendments did not consistently suppress soil populations of Pythium spp. or apple root infection by this pathogen. Application of a low glucosinolate containing B. napus seed meal at a rate of 1.0% (vol/vol) resulted in a significant increase in recovery of Pythium spp. from apple roots, and a corresponding reduction in apple seedling root biomass. When applied at lower rates, B. napus seed meal amendments enhanced populations of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., but these bacteria were not recovered from soils amended with seed meal at a rate of 2% (vol/vol). Seed meal amendments resulted in increased soil populations of total bacteria and actinomycetes. B. napus cv. Dwarf Essex seed meal amendments were phytotoxic to apple when applied at a rate of 2% (vol/vol), and phytotoxicity was not diminished when planting was delayed for as long as 12 weeks after application. These findings suggest that B. napus seed meal amendments can be a useful tool in the management of apple replant disease and, in the case of Rhizoctonia spp., that disease control operates through mechanisms other than production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products.

  9. Major upper limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Chew, W Y; Tsai, T M

    2001-08-01

    Major amputations remain a challenge to the replantation surgeon. Proper patient selection, good surgical skills, and cooperation among the patient, surgeon, and rehabilitation team help achieve a better outcome.

  10. Replantation after traumatic avulsion.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Huseyin; Atalayin, Cigdem; Kayrak, Gul

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the case of an accidentally avulsed maxillary central incisor kept in saline solution from the moment of trauma until its replantation 3 h later in a 13-year-old girl. The avulsed tooth was replanted back into the alveolar socket and splinted with composite resin. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was used to prevent inflammatory root resorption. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during 27 months follow-up. During the 15 months follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable functional position and did not reveal replacement resorption. But mild infraocclusion and root resorption were developed 21 months after replantation. The amount of damage to tooth and supporting structures, emergency treatment and follow-up period play a role in the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. It can be recommended to keep the avulsed tooth in saline solution at least when more appropriate storage media are not on handle immediately.

  11. Replantation after traumatic avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Huseyin; Atalayin, Cigdem; Kayrak, Gul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the case of an accidentally avulsed maxillary central incisor kept in saline solution from the moment of trauma until its replantation 3 h later in a 13-year-old girl. The avulsed tooth was replanted back into the alveolar socket and splinted with composite resin. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was used to prevent inflammatory root resorption. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during 27 months follow-up. During the 15 months follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable functional position and did not reveal replacement resorption. But mild infraocclusion and root resorption were developed 21 months after replantation. The amount of damage to tooth and supporting structures, emergency treatment and follow-up period play a role in the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. It can be recommended to keep the avulsed tooth in saline solution at least when more appropriate storage media are not on handle immediately. PMID:24883032

  12. Unfavorable results in replantation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abraham G

    2013-05-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  13. Virulence characteristics accounting for fire blight disease severity in apple trees and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven A; Ngugi, Henry K; Halbrendt, Noemi O; O'Keefe, Grace; Lehman, Brian; Travis, James W; Sinn, Judith P; McNellis, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, the most destructive bacterial disease of rosaceous plants, including apple and pear. Here, we compared the virulence levels of six E. amylovora strains (Ea273, CFBP1367, Ea581a, E2002a, E4001a, and HKN06P1) on apple trees and seedlings. The strains produced a range of disease severity, with HKN06P1 producing the greatest disease severity in every assay. We then compared virulence characteristic expression among the six strains, including growth rates in immature apple fruit, amylovoran production, levansucrase activity, biofilm formation, carbohydrate utilization, hypersensitive cell death elicitation in tobacco leaves, and protein secretion profiles. Multiple regression analysis indicated that three of the virulence characteristics (amylovoran production, biofilm formation, and growth in immature apple fruit) accounted for >70% of the variation in disease severity on apple seedlings. Furthermore, in greenhouse-grown 'Gala' trees, >75% of the variation in disease severity was accounted for by five of the virulence characteristics: amylovoran production, biofilm formation, growth in immature apple fruit, hypersensitive cell death elicitation, and sorbitol utilization. This study demonstrates that virulence factor expression levels account for differences in disease severity caused by wild isolates of E. amylovora on apple trees.

  14. Replantation in the mutilated hand.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Lee, W P Andrew; Pagenstert, Geert I; Pagensteert, Geert I; May, James W

    2003-02-01

    With the evolution of surgical techniques and scientific technology, replantation has become more refined, establishing specific indications for replantation, rituals for preparation, efficient techniques to ultimately minimize ischemia times, improved survival rates, guidelines for postoperative care, strategies for treating complications, and goals for outcomes. Patient satisfaction hinges on their level of expectation as defined and explained in the preoperative discussion and informed consent. Studies have demonstrated patients can be expected to achieve 50% function and 50% sensation of the replanted part. Initially all that was amputated was replanted, as surgeons adopted the philosophy of George C. Ross (1843-1892): "Any fool can cut off an arm or leg but it takes a surgeon to save one." Forty years after the first replant (1962-2002), however, we recognize the ultimate goal: not merely to preserve all living tissue through nonselective replantation, but rather to preserve one's quality of life by improving their function and appearance. This objective to care for the patient with the intent to optimize function and appearance is important not only to the replantation of amputations but to all mutilated hand injuries.

  15. Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum as a biocontrol agent of postharvest diseases of apple and citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two psycrotrophic yeasts isolated from the surface of lemons have been selected as biocontrol agents of the most common postharvest diseases of apples and citrus that develops during cold storage. The biocontrol yeasts were identified as Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum and Leucosporidium scottii....

  16. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  17. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sanchit; Date, Shivprasad V.; Gupta, Arunesh; Baliarsing, Amresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V. PMID:27274131

  18. [Replantation or prosthesis: individual planning].

    PubMed

    Jonas, H P

    2008-02-01

    Rehabilitation of a replanted upper limb is difficult and has to start close to the operation. Physical and occupational therapy are working close together. The unimpaired opposite upper extremity must be trained as well. Replantation of upper limb causes not only a lot of reoperations with extended morbidity, but also problems in social, family and psychic. After eventual amputation of the upper limb prosthetic compensation is necessary as soon as possible. There is a gap open between the technical and financial possibilities. To avoid spine disorders a shoulder cap is necessary if prosthetic compensation is not possible in higher amputations.

  19. Successful replantation of a forefoot.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T M

    1979-01-01

    This is a report of replantation of a completely severed forefoot which was divided through the distal tarsus by a samurai sword cut. Primary reconstruction of bone, vessels, nerve and skin was carried out 2 hours following amputation. Neither the long extensor nor the long flexor tendons were repaired. Three years following replantation the patient had an excellent result. His foot appeared normal and there was no evident atrophy of the soft tissue of the foot. No claw toe deformity developed. Protective sensation and temperature sense returned and the 2 point discrimination on plantar surface of the toe was 15 mm. The patient can walk and run with a normal gait.

  20. Wrist level and proximal-upper extremity replantation.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Douglas P; Chin, Simon H

    2007-02-01

    Since Malt and McKhan's first successful arm replantation in 1962, upper extremity replantation surgery techniques have been refined and spread worldwide. Nevertheless, replantation at or proximal to the wrist, referred to as wrist-proximal replants, remains a daunting challenge that presents the hand surgeon with an array of difficulties distinct from digital replantation.

  1. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  2. Above-elbow arm replantation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haws, M J; Erdmann, D; Brown, R E

    1996-01-01

    We report a successful replantation of an above-elbow amputated left arm in a 26-year-old female with a good, functional, long-term result. The patient was at 18 weeks estimated gestational age at the time of surgery. Major upper extremity replantation during pregnancy has not been previously described in the literature. Current operative and perioperative aspects, including considerations that favored microsurgical replantation in this unusual case, are discussed.

  3. Salvage of impending replant failure by temporary ectopic replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis; Navarro-Monzones, Angel; Soler-Nomdedeu, Santiago

    2006-03-01

    Temporary ectopic replantation of amputated parts has been reported previously as an alternative to orthotopic replantation in difficult cases. We report a case in which the left arm initially was replanted orthotopically with subsequent development of extensive infection. The impending vascular failure of the replanted arm was salvaged by reamputation and temporary ectopic transfer of the arm to the groin region. Nine days later the arm was transferred back to the clean humeral stump. The functional result was similar to that of a standard transhumeral replantation, with 30 degrees to 120 degrees of active range of elbow motion, basic grip pattern, and S3 sensibility.

  4. A comparative study of attitudes regarding digit replantation in the US and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Shauver, Melissa J.; Zhong, Lin; Chung, Kevin C.; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the societal preferences for finger replantation between US and Japan and to investigate factors influencing the preferences. Methods A sample of the general population without current hand disease or condition was recruited via flyers posted in public areas of 2 major academic centers in the US and Japan. The recruited subjects completed a survey presenting finger amputation scenarios and various factors that may affect treatment decisions. We performed univariate analysis using treatment preference as the outcome and all other factors as possible predictors using the chi-square test. Results The majority of respondents in both countries preferred replantation, and there was no significant difference between the US and Japan. Treatment preference was significantly associated with the importance of appearance, recovery time, and the chance of survival of the replanted digit. There was no association between treatment preference and attitudes on body integrity or estimate of stigma towards finger amputees. Japanese participants agreed more with statements of body integrity, and Japanese respondents rated appearance, sensation, and chance of survival of the replant as more important than American participants. Conclusions Patient preference is not driving the decrease in finger replantations in the US. The general public in both countries prefer replantation over wound closure for digit amputations. Level of Evidence Economic/Decision Analysis Level III PMID:26213200

  5. Replantation of upper extremity, hand and digits.

    PubMed

    Bumbasirević, Marko Z; Vucković, Cedo D; Vucetić, Cedomir; Manojlović, Radovan; Andjelkovic, Sladjana Z; Palibrk, Tomislav D; Milutinović, Suzana M; Raspopović, Emilija Dubljanin

    2013-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the part that has been completely amputated and there is no connection between the severed part and the patient. In Boston in 1962 Malt successfully replanted a completely amputated arm of a 12-year-old boy. Komatsu and Tamai reported the first successful replantation of an amputated digit by microvascular technique. There are no strict indications and contraindications for replantation. It's on surgeon to explain to the patient the chances of success of viability, expected function, length of operation, hospitalization and long rehabilitation protocol. Survival and useful function in replantation of upper extremity amputations is questionable. Success depends on microvascular anastomoses, but the final function is related with tendon, nerve, bone and joint repair.

  6. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon.

  7. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  8. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight disease of apple.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Yong; Pusey, Paul Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu; Korban, Schuyler S; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin

    2012-07-10

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), an antagonist to the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora that causes fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 μm in diameter, were fabricated to encapsulate E325 within the core, along with nutrients, to preserve viability and promote proliferation. Controlled release of E325 was achieved by separately adjusting alginate concentrations in the shell and core solutions, and by modifying the AMC size. Viability of E325 was monitored via fluorescent staining, revealing either lack of or minimal stress during or after encapsulation. Proliferation of E325 within AMCs, followed by their subsequent release, and colonization activities within confines of apple flowers were studied under different encapsulation conditions using rfp-labeled E325 to obtain highly promising results. This study provided a 'proof of concept' of the successful use of a microencapsulated biocontrol agent, E325, against E. amylovora, and could serve as a model for further studies on the development of effective plant disease management strategies.

  9. Forequarter Replantation and the Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Naren; Mashalkar, Narendra S.; Dsouza, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The literature on major upper limb replantation, especially those proximal to the elbow, is inadequate. An 18-year-old man presented to us with a left forequarter amputation. A replantation was attempted with a view to salvaging function and avoiding prosthesis. The procedure was technically challenging with a number of issues not highlighted in previous reports, particularly bony stabilization. The procedure was initially successful, with good perfusion. However, with time, the limb showed sepsis and had to be abandoned. We report this case to add to the literature on replantation at the shoulder level in the hope that this procedure may be reported successfully in the future. PMID:26495222

  10. Hand replantation: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a hand replantation. A 43-year-old male presented with an amputated right hand. After clinical and radiological examination of the amputated hand and the forearm stump, the patient was consented for hand replantation procedure. Both bones of the forearm were fixed using K-wires. Careful dissection, trimming and repair of the tendons, vessels (two arteries and one vein) and nerves was achieved. The patient tolerated the procedure well and 2 months later showed a progressive improvement in motor and sensory functions. We suggest that a single-vein repair is sufficient for a successful hand replantation. PMID:27489633

  11. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-02-17

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora.

  12. The Risk Factors for Failure of an Upper Extremity Replantation: Is the Use of Cigarettes/Tobacco a Significant Factor?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Yin; Chen, Shih-Heng; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the potential risk factors associated with the failure of an upper extremity replantation with a focus on cigarette or tobacco use. Patients and Methods A cohort of 102 patients with 149 replants (6 extremities, 143 digits) and a mean age of 41 years (range 5 to 72 years) was enrolled in this study. The data collected included age, gender, tobacco/cigarettes use, trauma mechanism, underlying disease (e.g., hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), etc.), and vein graft use. An analysis with a multivariable regression was conducted to identify the risk factors of replant failure and their respective odds ratios (ORs). Results Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a binomial distribution and logit link showed that smoking did not increase the risk of replant failure (p = 0.234). In addition, the survival of replants was not affected by DM or HTN (p = 0.285 and 0.938, respectively). However, the replantation results were significantly affected by the age of the patients and the mechanism of injury. Patients older than 50 years and those with avulsion or crush injuries tended to have a higher risk of replant failure (OR = 2.29, 6.45, and 5.42, respectively; p = 0.047, 0.028, and 0.032, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that the use of cigarettes/tobacco did not affect the replantation outcome. The main risks for replant failure included being older than 50 years and the trauma mechanism (avulsion or crush injuries). PMID:26513147

  13. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus x domestica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychrotrophic yeasts isolated from soils collected in Antarctica and selected by its capacity of growing in apple juice at low temperatures were evaluated for their potential as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, ...

  14. Digital replantation teaching model in rats.

    PubMed

    Ad-El, D D; Harper, A; Hoffman, L A

    2000-01-01

    Replant surgery is a complex procedure that requires advanced microsurgical skills and is usually performed as an emergency operation, lasting many hours. For these reasons, teaching replantation is difficult. Although teaching models exist, they are often too general or complicated for routine use and do not simulate the stages and the pitfalls of human replant surgery. We have designed a model that is simple and imitates human replant surgery. After reviewing the rat anatomy, students dissect and replant a rat hind limb that has been sharply amputated by the instructor. They follow the same principles of "real" surgery like debridement, minimizing ischemia time, and stable fixation before anatomosis of vessels. After marking the structures, bony fixation followed by vessel and nerve anastomosis are performed. Muscle is reattached to the skin and limb vascularity evaluated. After we designed this model, plastic surgery residents performed the technique on 10 rats. An 80% limb viability rate was achieved. This model is simple to perform, simulates all the relevant structures and pitfalls of human surgery, and the rats are relatively cheap and can be used for other parallel projects.

  15. Upper extremity replantation: three-year experience.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zárate, J L; Pastrana-Figueroa, J M; Granados-Martínez, R

    2000-01-01

    Microsurgery in Mexico was initiated in 1967, when the first report of the subspecialty was published. At our hospital, we have had a well-organized microsurgery department since 1995. This has improved our management of patients with amputations of the upper extremity. This article presents our experience with upper extremity replantation, including hand and fingers. During the first 3 years, we managed 55 patients, 42 male and 13 female, aged 2-52 years, who had suffered amputations of some part of their upper extremity or even of the complete limb. These patients underwent surgical exploration for replantation. We analyzed 103 amputations in the 55 patients operated. The amputated parts are summarized as follows: 11 thumbs, 25 index, 24 middle, 22 ring, and 12 little fingers; 5 hands, 5 forearms, and 2 arms. The average hospital stay was 10 days. The follow-up was 6-24 months. Replantation success was 82%, with 18% failure for survival of the replanted part. Functional recovery was satisfactory in the 50% of cases, and sensitive recovery was satisfactory in 75% of cases. We conclude that although our experience on upper extremity replantation is not so large, our results are similar to those from other series. We discussed our results.

  16. Actualities in big segments replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Clemente, Alessandra; Pontini, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Replantation of an amputation is no longer a difficult technical problem. Indeed, the experience gathered over the last few decades, right from the first concepts posed by the pioneers up to the present era and the improved technical aids, all go to suggest that the majority of amputated segments may now be reconstructed. However, what we really want from a replant is not just survival but function. Indications for replantations must follow careful and objective patient selection together with the evaluation of type and site of lesion and possible complications. Furthermore, the important role of emergency organization in this type of surgery is to be emphasized. Nowadays, clean cut injuries are rarer and are being substituted by high energy trauma which may produce extensive tissue lesions that increase complications and lead to poor functional results. Consequently, some authors were induced to describe evaluation systems for decision making which still present problems which are in part due to the large number of parameters to be taken into consideration as well as to the complex functionality of the upper limb. This led us to evaluate our case series of 52 major replantations of the upper limb over the last 10 years and to compare it with other published series. The best form of reconstruction following total amputation of a major limb segment is still its replantation. The highly significant increase in the quality of life is able to justify the higher social costs and the number of operations required.

  17. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  18. Low-drift nozzles vs. standard nozzles for pesticide application in the biological efficacy trials of pesticides in apple pest and disease control.

    PubMed

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Świechowski, Waldemar; Masny, Sylwester; Maciesiak, Alicja; Tartanus, Małgorzata; Bryk, Hanna; Hołownicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    The coarse spray air-induction nozzles have documented pesticide drift reducing potential and hence pose lower risk of environmental pollution than the standard fine spray hollow cone nozzles. However, it is questioned that use of the low-drift nozzles might not provide as effective crop protection as the standard nozzles. The objective of work was to assess the pest and disease control efficacy as affected by spray volume rate and nozzle type. The experiment was carried out in apple orchard, cv Jonagold/M26. The evaluated treatments were combinations of three spray volume rates: 250, 500 and 750lha(-1), and two types of nozzles: hollow cone nozzles generating very fine spray, and flat fan air induction nozzles producing coarse droplets. The biological performance of treatments was determined based on severity of diseases: apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.), as well as population or damage caused by pests: green apple aphid (Aphis pomi), rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.), woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali) and apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum L.). In general apple scab was equally controlled by all treatments. Only in the years of high infection pressure efficacy of powdery mildew control was better for fine spray nozzles and high volume rates. Green and rosy apple aphids were better controlled with higher volume rates, though significance of the advantage over the lower rates was occasional. No effect of spray quality on efficacy of aphid and mite control was found for any spray volume rate. Better control of apple blossom weevil and woolly apple aphid was achieved with the high spray volume rate providing heavy coverage to the point of run-off. The air induction nozzles having drift reducing potential are biologically efficacious alternative to conventional hollow cone nozzles.

  19. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice.

  20. Two receptor-like genes, Vfa1 and Vfa2, confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis inciting apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Malnoy, Mickael; Xu, Mingliang; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Korban, Schuyler S; Aldwinckle, Herb S

    2008-04-01

    The Vf locus, originating from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. Previously, a cluster of four receptor-like genes, Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4, was identified within the Vf locus. Because the amino-acid sequence of Vfa3 is truncated, it was deemed nonfunctional. In this study, each of the three full-length Vfa genes was introduced into a plant cloning vector, pCAMBIA2301, and used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of two apple cultivars, Galaxy and McIntosh, to assess functionality of these genes and to characterize their roles in resistance to V. inaequalis. Transformed apple lines carrying each of Vfa1, Vfa2, or Vfa4 were developed, analyzed for the presence of the transgene using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting, and assayed for resistance to apple scab following inoculation with V. inaequalis. Transformed lines expressing Vfa4 were found to be susceptible to apple scab, whereas those expressing either Vfa1 or Vfa2 exhibited partial resistance to apple scab. Based on Western blot analysis as well as microscopic analysis of plant resistance reactions, the roles of Vfa1 and Vfa2 in apple scab disease resistance response are discussed.

  1. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2011-08-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously not affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology depending on actual weather conditions and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  2. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  3. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions. PMID:27721696

  4. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-10-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  5. Management of complications with flap procedures and replantation.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Douglas M

    2015-05-01

    Replantation and flap procedures employ microvascular techniques to salvage or reconstruct a severely damaged limb or digit. The most devastating complications include complete or partial flap loss, or replantation failure due to vascular complications. Often, these complications can be prevented by appropriate patient selection, careful surgical planning, meticulous technique, and proper postoperative management. This article discusses complications related to replantation and flap procedures in the upper limb, focusing on preventing and managing these complications.

  6. Malus sieversii, a valuable genetic resource for disease resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domesticated crop cultivars inevitably represent a subset of the genetic variation found in their wild ancestors (progenitors) due to genetic bottlenecks that result during the process of crop domestication. Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, is one of the ancestral proge...

  7. Replantation of large segments in children.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, P L; Petrolati, M; Delaria, G

    2000-11-01

    If one looks at the final results obtained in children, one should conclude that replantation of large segments is more often indicated in children than in adult patients. Nevertheless, the more common components of crush or avulsion and the frequent severe associated lesions must restrain the surgeon's enthusiasm when indicating replantation of a large segment in children. The possible dramatic consequences of a late revascularization syndrome can be easily foreseen as an outcome of replantation of a large segment in children. Moreover, the problem of growth must be faced from the start, programming secondary surgery either for soft tissue assessment (skin retraction treatments, tendon lengthening, muscle sliding) or for bone lengthening. The final outcome being a functional arm, special care has to be taken in nerve repair integrated with possible secondary tendon transfers to compensate the functional deficit. With all these limitations in indications, care in emergency, and correct timing and planning for secondary surgery, the final functional results of macroreplantations in children will certainly be improved.

  8. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential.

  9. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by management system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards.

  10. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  11. Apple Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY part of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. The PGRU maintains 55 species of apple (Malus) in both field and seed collections. The main field collection of apples has 2621 diverse clones grafted onto EMLA 9 rootstock. Ninety-seven p...

  12. Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations are infrequently reported. It is believed that replantation is indicated for amputations at all levels in children and for all distal amputations in adults. Replantations of arm or proximal forearm amputations in adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of major upper extremity replantations, defined as those that are transmetacarpal, through the wrist, forearm, elbow or arm. METHODS: A review of these types of replantations performed at the authors’ institution from 2002 to 2012 was conducted. Patients’ strength, range of motion and two-point discrimination were assessed. Patients completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: Seventeen patients underwent major upper extremity replantation surgery. The majority (16 of 17 [94%]) of the included patients were male. Of 17 patients, 13 (76.5%) required reoperations. The mean (± SD) DASH score of seven patients who consented to completing all questionnaires was 75.4±14.2 of 100 (range 59.2 to 91.1). On the MHQ, the mean score for affected hand function was 16% compared with 84% in the unaffected hand. Patients generally demonstrated at least mild levels of anxiety and depression on the HADS. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that major upper extremity injuries and replantations have a significant impact on patients’ long-term hand function, and produce long-term anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:25152640

  13. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  14. Replantation vs revision amputation in single digit zone II amputations.

    PubMed

    El-Diwany, M; Odobescu, A; Bélanger-Douet, M; Berbiche, D; Arsenault, J; Bou-Merhi, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of zone II amputations treated with either replantation or revision amputation at our institution to better aid patients in their decision making process regarding these treatment options. We conducted a comparative retrospective study. All cases of single digit amputations received at our replantation center between 2007 and 2011 were screened for single digit zone II injuries. These patients were stratified based on the treatment received: replantation vs revision amputation. Patients were called and invited to participate in the research project. Those who accepted to enter the study were asked to complete the Quick-DASH, the Beck Depression Inventory-short form, and a custom made questionnaire. There were seventeen patients with single digit zone II replantation and fourteen patients with similar injuries who underwent revision amputation and agreed to take part in the study. Our data revealed that the duration of sick leave, occupation after injury, professional and social reintegration, discontinued activities, and self-confidence were not statistically different between the two groups. The average hospital stay and the follow-up period of replanted individuals were longer. The replantation group did not have higher levels of pain or cold intolerance, and the global functional and esthetic satisfaction levels were similar between the two groups. Also, Beck Depression Inventory and Quick-DASH scores were not statistically different. Yet, significantly more patients in the replantation group would opt to repeat the replantation than revised patients would opt for revision amputation. From a functional viewpoint, our study suggests that revision amputation is not superior to replantation in zone II single digit amputations. This is valuable information that should be given to patients when deciding on the treatment process and to insure a proper informed consent.

  15. [Replantation in the complete amputation of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Yahya; Ezirmik, Naci; Vural, Unsal; Velioğlu, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    Trauma of the upper extremity can be a cause of significant morbidity and disability to otherwise productive people. Wounded extremity can be saved by replantation of the amputated parts. Replantation of traumatic amputations can be performed with reasonable success at a regional medical center when experienced surgeons, appropriate and experienced equipment, and skilled ancillary care are available. Successful replantation significantly reduces the morbidity of upper extremity amputations. We presented one case that, 9 year-old, was bridged to our hospital because of total arm amputation after sustained during use of a lawn mover. His arm was saved by urgency surgery.

  16. Replantation of degloved skin of the hand.

    PubMed

    Adani, R; Busa, R; Castagnetti, C; Castagnini, L; Caroli, A

    1998-05-01

    The treatment of a degloving injury is one of the most difficult problems in hand surgery. Various reconstructive procedures have been adopted in the past years, all with poor results. Between 1988 and 1995, nine patients with degloving injuries of the hand and fingers were treated by microsurgical replantation. The injury involved the thumb in three patients, the ring finger in three patients, the little finger in one patient, and multiple fingers in two patients. Successful complete revascularization was obtained in seven patients. In one case a superficial necrosis of the replanted thumb skin occurred with good preservation of the subcutaneous layer. In one patient with a degloving injury involving multiple fingers, revascularization was achieved only in the middle finger, and the first ray was secondarily resurfaced by a free flap from the foot. In our experience revascularization of the degloved skin does represent the best solution and must be managed as an emergency procedure. Coverage obtained in this way offers the best cosmetic result and allows early mobilization with good recovery of joint movement. Reestablishing sensibility is more difficult. It is not always possible to suture the nerves damaged by the trauma, and even when a careful primary nerve anastomosis is performed, the results often are unsatisfactory, probably because of the avulsive mechanism of nerve injury.

  17. Training community health workers to reduce health disparities in Alabama's Black Belt: the Pine Apple Heart Disease and Stroke Project.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Cornell, Carol E; Brownstein, J Nell; Littleton, Mary Ann; Stalker, Varena G; Bittner, Vera A; Lewis, Cora E; Raczynski, James M

    2006-01-01

    African American women have significantly higher mortality rates from heart disease and stroke than White women despite advances in treatment and the management of risk factors. Community health workers (CHWs) serve important roles in culturally relevant programs to prevent disease and promote health. This article describes the Pine Apple Heart and Stroke Project's activities to (1) revise the Women's Wellness Sourcebook Module III: Heart and Stroke to be consistent with national guidelines on heart disease and stroke and to meet the needs of African American women living in rural southern communities; (2) train CHWs using the revised curriculum; and (3) evaluate the training program. Revisions of the curriculum were based on recommendations by an expert advisory panel, the staff of a rural health clinic, and feedback from CHWs during training. Questionnaires after training revealed positive changes in CHWs' knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and self-reported risk reduction behaviors related to heart disease, stroke, cancer, and patient-provider communication. This study provides a CHW training curriculum that may be useful to others in establishing heart disease and stroke programs in rural underserved communities.

  18. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca2+ concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  19. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  20. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  1. Cross-over limb replantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Holmes, W J M; Williams, A; Everitt, K J M; Kay, S P J; Bourke, G

    2013-10-01

    Following traumatic bilateral arm amputation in a 46-year-old woman, orthotopic replantation was not possible. The patient underwent replantation of the left forearm to the right proximal forearm. At two years she has a sensate hand, with good recovery of her long flexors of the hand and wrist extensors. DASH score is 93.9 and Chen's score is III (medium). We demonstrate a high level of function compared to the contralateral prosthetic limb. There have only been four similar cases described. Although a rare circumstance, a cross-limb replant can provide a level of function and independence superior to a simple prosthesis. Cross-limb transfer should be considered in situations where bilateral arm amputation is present and neither can be orthotopically replanted.

  2. Lymphatic drainage in patients after replantation of extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.; van Alphen, W.A.; van der Pompe, W.B.

    1987-02-01

    Lymph drainage was studied by means of lymph scintigraphy in eight patients in whom successful replantation of a totally or subtotally amputated extremity had been performed. Scintigrams were made after subcutaneous injection of technetium-99m in the replanted part of the patient and the contralateral, normal extremity. In all scintigrams, axillary or inguinal lymph node activity is seen, implying drainage of lymph by means of the lymph vessels. Retention of colloid in the replanted part (79 to 94 percent) shows no significant difference with the contralateral, normal side (86 to 94 percent). Unquestionable evidence of regeneration of lymphatics in humans is delivered in the three patients, in whom lymph node activity and normal retention percentages are seen on the scintigrams after total amputation of an extremity followed by replantation without anastomosing of interrupted lymph vessels.

  3. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  4. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  5. [Experiment and clinical application of squeezing technique in venous crisis after replantation of finger].

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Zhu, Z; Xu, G

    1997-11-01

    In search of a new method for treating venous crisis after replantation of the finger, the effect of instantaneous, quick and forceful squeezing on the belly of replanted finger (the so-called SQUEEZINGG TECHNIQUE) was studied. In the animal experiment, 20 SD rats were used. The femoral veins and arteries were separated in order to measure the venous pressure. The result showed that the venous pressure was (8.33 +/- 1.29) x 10(-2) kPa in normal condition, (20.61 +/- 2.34) x 10(-2) kPa in the condition simulating venous crisis and (73.9 +/- 5.74) x 10(-2) kPa on carrying out the squeezing technique. The second part of the experiment was performed on ten human fingers which were amputated because of trauma or other diseases. One of the arteriae digitales palmares propriae and two of its accompanied veins were disected, and all other blood vessels were ligated. The artery was irrigated with normal saline at a pressure of 12 kPa. When both veins were left open, the venous pressure was (1.32 +/- 0.17) kPa; (4.29 +/- 0.49) kPa, when both were ligated; and (16.88 +/- 5.25) kPa when the squeezing technique was applied at the time venous crisis developed. From May 1991 to May 1996, this method was used for 43 times in 25 cases (35 fingers) with venous crisis after replantation. It was successful for 39 times in 21 cases (30 fingers). It was very important that the performer should use the thumb and the index finger to squeeze just the belly of the involved finger, and that every squeeze should be forceful, quick and instantaneous. It was suggested that if this method was properly performed it could improve the survival rate of replanted fingers. The mechanism of squeezing technique in the treatment of venous crisis following replantation of finger was proposed.

  6. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  7. A few bad apples: a model of disease influenced agent behaviour in a heterogeneous contact environment.

    PubMed

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent's disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence.

  8. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm.

    PubMed

    Rayidi, V Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome.

  9. Resection replantation of the upper limb for aggressive malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    Stage IIB malignant tumors of the upper limb have been traditionally treated by amputation or disarticulation. There have been isolated reports on the technique of segmental resection of the tumor-bearing segment complete with the skin, and replanting the distal arm or forearm with or without neurovascular repair. The present paper describes four cases in which a wide resection margin was achieved in all by resecting the affected cylinder of the limb. Functional reconstruction was performed by appropriate tendon transfer. The main vessels and nerves were dealt with according to the findings revealed by preoperative investigations. If they had to be sacrificed, end-to-end suture was performed, but if the main nerves could be spared, it greatly enhanced the functional outcome. Local and systemic recurrences occurred in one case, and systemic recurrence occurred in another case. The other two cases remained disease-free at more than 4 years' follow-up. This operation is as radical as amputation, while the esthetic and functional results are equivalent to those of resection-arthrodesis.

  10. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  11. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  12. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

    PubMed

    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  13. Long term functional results from major limb replantations.

    PubMed

    Laing, T A; Cassell, O; O'Donovan, D; Eadie, P

    2012-07-01

    Replantation is now firmly established as a viable treatment option in traumatic limb amputation, yet there are few long-term studies describing the functional outcome of these cases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate long-term results in a population of such patients to determine overall success and patient satisfaction. Since 1981, twenty macro-replants involving nineteen patients have been performed in our unit. All patients were reviewed by means of case note analysis, patient questionnaire, and follow-up clinical evaluation for functional outcome using the Tamai scoring system. Acute limb salvage was successful in 18/20 (90%) cases. One patient is still undergoing secondary reconstructive surgery and was unable to be assessed for final outcome leaving 17 replanted limbs that underwent full functional assessment. Overall functional results were good in 7/17 (41%) limbs, fair in 7/17 (41%) and poor in 3/17 (18%). The majority of patients (12/17) claimed to be highly or well satisfied with their outcome and eleven have returned to work since their injury. The current study of major limb replantation demonstrates favorable or acceptable long term functional outcomes in the majority of cases. High patient satisfaction rates even where results were poor emphasise the positive psychological impact of successful replantation.

  14. Retrospective of the replantation of severed limbs in the People's Republic of China: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Zhong Wei

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-eight years have past since Chinese surgeons first reported the successful replantation of a severed limb. The following article reports the current status of replantation surgery in the People's Republic of China, addresses issues of complex replantation and reconstruction of severed limbs, and discusses future prospects and implications for replantation microsurgery.

  15. Meta-analysis to determine the effects of plant disease management measures: review and case studies on soybean and apple.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Henry K; Esker, Paul D; Scherm, Harald

    2011-01-01

    in epidemiology and disease management is illustrated with case studies from our work on Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean and Erwinia amylovora on apple. We show that although meta-analyses are often used to corroborate and validate general conclusions drawn from more traditional, qualitative reviews, they can also reveal new patterns and interpretations not obvious from individual studies.

  16. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  17. Lower limb replantations: indications and a new scoring system.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Pontini, Italo; Ferrero, Sebastiano

    2002-01-01

    The need for reconstruction of lower limb amputations is increasing, due to high-energy trauma in road accidents and work-related injuries. The indication for lower limb replantation is still controversial. Compared with upper limb replantations, indications are more select due to the frequent complications in lower limb salvage procedures, such as severe general complications or local complications such as necrosis, infections, nonunions, the need for secondary lengthening, or other reconstructive procedures. The satisfactory results given by artificial prosthesis, such as quicker recovery time and fewer secondary procedures, also contribute to the higher degree of selection for lower limb replantation candidates. Since 1993, we have replanted 14 amputations of the lower limb in 12 patients, including 2 bilateral cases. Although survival of the replanted segment was obtained in all patients, 5 cases were subsequently amputated for severe secondary complications. Of the remaining 9 cases, evaluated by means of Chen criteria, 7 had good results (3 Chen I and 4 Chen II), 1 sufficient (Chen III), and 1 poor (Chen IV). The best results were obtained in young patients. Our experience led us to examine the necessity for careful, objective patient selection. We developed a score evaluation system by modifying the international classifying method for severe limb traumas (mangled extremity severity score, or MESS system). This relatively simple system, based on the retrospective study of our cases, considers several parameters (patient's age, general conditions, level and type of lesion, time of injury, and associated lesions), giving each one a score. The total score gives the indication for replantation, predicts the functional outcome, and facilitates decision-making.

  18. Analysis of Bone Fixation Methods in Digital Replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Jin Soo; Roh, Si Young; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Adequate fixation of replanted digits is essential not only for short-term healing but for long-term function. Various bony fixation methods using Kirschner (K-) and intraosseous wire are available in replantation. We examined clinical and radiographic outcomes of fixation methods on bone union after digital replantation. Methods A single institutional retrospective review identified 992 patients who had undergone 1,247 successful replantations between July 2009 and September 2015. Exclusion criteria included amputations of the distal phalanx, comminuted fractures, and intra-articular fractures. Patients were classified according to 5 categories of fixation methods: single K-wire, double longitudinal K-wires, cross K-wires, wire with, and wire without K-wire support. Bone union was evaluated by 5-month postoperative X-ray and fixation outcomes were compared across the 5 groups. Results The exclusion criteria were applied, and 88 patients with 103 replanted digits remained for analysis. Single K-wire fixation was used in 40 digits, double longitudinal K-wires in 30, and cross fixation in 14. Wire with and without K-wire support was required in 15 and 4 digits. Nonunion was observed in 32 digits (31.1%), of which 13 required additional operations such as bone graft or corrective osteotomy. The highest percent of nonunion was observed after cross fixation (35.7%) and the lowest after wire alone (25.0%). Conclusions In this study, contrary to general knowledge, we found that single K-wire fixation was not associated with poorer outcomes. Successful bone union outcomes may be achieved by careful selection of bone fixation methods. This study provides useful information for planning bone fixation in digital replantation. PMID:28194348

  19. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8.

  20. [Loss of the replanted thumb by drug-induced ergotism].

    PubMed

    Coppeneur-Krieger, C; Plock, E B; Neugebauer, R

    1995-05-01

    Vasospastic reactions are known to be a complication of thromboembolic prophylaxis with Heparin-dihydroergotamine. We describe a rare case after successful replantation of an amputated thumb. On the third day after surgery, Heparin-dihydroergotamine was administered once. Within three hours, the thumb turned pale and cold. At revision, a spasm of the artery proved to be the cause of ischemia. Therapeutic efforts were unsuccessful, even intraarterial injection of Prostaglandin E1 and the interposition of a vein graft. Amputation became necessary. Because of the possible complication with ergotism and the consequence of a failed replantation, we suggest not to use Heparin-dihydroergotamine for thromboembolic prophylaxis in microsurgery.

  1. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes in Digital Replantation versus Revision Amputation.

    PubMed

    Tessler, Oren; Bartow, Matthew J; Tremblay-Champagne, Marie P; Lin, Alex M; Landes, Geneviève; Sebbag, Sarah; Nikolis, Andreas

    2017-03-22

    Background Earlier, digit viability judged the success of digital replantation. Now, utility health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures can better assess the impact of digital replantation. Methods Overall, 264 digital injury patients were sent a regimen of utility measures: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions, visual analog scale (VAS), time trade-off (TTO), and standard gamble (SG). Overall, 51 patients responded completely to all of these-36 replantation patients and 15 revision amputation patients. The utility results of these patients were stratified between replantation versus revision amputation; dominant hand replantation versus nondominant hand replantation; and dominant hand revision amputation versus nondominant hand revision amputation. Results The mean VAS score of replant (0.84) and revision amputation (0.75) groups was significantly different (p = 0.05). The mean DASH score of dominant hand replantations (29.72) and nondominant hand replantations (17.97) was significantly different (p = 0.027). The dominant hand revision amputation had higher anxiety levels in comparison to nondominant hand revision amputation (p = 0.027). Patients with two or more digits replanted showed a significant decrease in VAS, TTO, and SG scores in comparison to patients who only had one digit replanted (p = 0.009, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that HRQOL can offer better indices for outcomes of digital replantation. This shows some specific replantation cohorts have a significantly better quality of life when compared with their specific correlating revision amputation cohort. These findings can be employed to further refine indications and contraindications to replantation and help predict the quality of life outcomes.

  2. A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2002-12-01

    The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of approximately 290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves.

  3. A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2002-01-01

    The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of approximately 290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves. PMID:12524365

  4. Delayed, bilateral, non-microvascular ear replantation after violent amputation.

    PubMed

    García-Murray, E; Adán-Rivas, O; Salcido-Calzadilla, H

    2009-06-01

    Amputation of any body part is undoubtedly a traumatic experience leaving a terrible deformity, especially when the part or parts involved are visible and constitute an essential component of someone's facial whole. Bilateral ear amputation and successful subsequent replantation has been reported historically, but not in the modern surgical literature. We report the case of a 27-year-old female who was abducted and suffered a bilateral ear amputation at the hands of one of her captors to speed delivery of ransom money; the severed parts were sent to the parents approximately 2 hours after the amputation had taken place, and the girl was released some 48 hours after the ears were delivered. Microvascular replantation was attempted immediately after admission to the hospital some 2 hours after her release, but failed, and so a non-microvascular replantation was performed and was successful, after approximately 54 hours of ischaemia time. We consider this the first report of a complete bilateral, delayed, non-microvascular, successful ear replantation in a human being in the modern literature.

  5. Indications and Case Series of Intentional Replantation of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Alim Marvasti, Laleh; Kolahdouzan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This case series aims to comprehensively introduce intentional replantation with a focus on its indications and case selection in endodontics. In all represented cases, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement is used for root-end filling. This case series demonstrates twenty cases of IR and extraoral root-end resection and filling with CEM cement. All the selected teeth had a failed endodontic treatment and required surgical/nonsurgical endodontic (re)treatment or extraction. Subsequent to gentle tooth extraction, an appropriate root-end cavity was prepared and filled with CEM cement. Then the tooth was replanted; maximun procedure time was 15 min. A total of 18 cases (90%) were successful over a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. It can be concluded that intentional replantation with careful case selection can have a high success rate over 2 years. Intentional replantation may be a suitable treatment option for both trained general practitioners and specialists provided that the extraction is simple and straightforward. PMID:24396380

  6. Reorganization of human motor cortex after hand replantation.

    PubMed

    Röricht, S; Machetanz, J; Irlbacher, K; Niehaus, L; Biemer, E; Meyer, B U

    2001-08-01

    In 10 patients, reorganizational changes of the motor cortex contralateral to a replanted hand (MCreplant) were studied one to 14 years after complete traumatic amputation and consecutive successful replantation of the hand. The organizational state of MCreplant was assessed for the deafferentated and peripherally deefferentated hand-associated motor cortex and the adjacent motor representation of the proximal arm. For this, response maps were established for the first dorsal interosseus and biceps brachii muscle using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on a skull surface grid. Characteristics of the maps were center of gravity (COG), number of effective stimulation sites, amplitude sum, and amplitudes and response threshold at the optimal stimulation point. The COG is defined by the spatial distribution of response amplitudes on the map and lies over the cortex region with the most excitable corticospinal neurones supplying the recorded muscle. The COG of the biceps map in MCreplant was shifted laterally by 9.8 +/- 3.6 mm (range 5.0-15.7 mm). The extension of the biceps map in MCreplant was increased and the responses were enlarged and had lowered thresholds. For the muscles of the replanted hand, the pattern of reorganization was different: Response amplitudes were enlarged but thresholds, COG, and area of the cortical response map were normal. The different reorganizational phenomena observed for the motor cortical areas supplying the replanted hand and the biceps brachii of the same arm may be influenced by a different extent of deafferentation and by their different role in hand motor control.

  7. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  8. Single centre experience of the upper limb replantation and revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Visnjic, Milan M; Kovacevic, Predrag T; Paunkovic, Ljiljana M; Milenkovic, Sasa S

    2004-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the amputated limb using the neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain the recovery of the limb. Fortunately, injuries causing limb amputation are rare. Adequate treatment within the optimal time scale can provide successful rehabilitation of the shape and function of the replanted part. We report the experience of our Clinical Centre (regional replantation centre) in the replantation of five forearms/hands and revascularisation of six hands between 1997 and 2001. The most frequent site of injury was the distal part of the forearm, while the major cause of injuries was a wood processing machine. The surgical procedures were performed under general anaesthesia within 2-6 hours after injury. Vascular anastomoses, nerve repair and muscle repair were performed following the external bone fixation. All patients were given anticoagulation treatment postoperatively. Thrombosis in the anastomotic site developed as an early complication in two patients who underwent thrombectomy; one of these patients developed gangrene and underwent amputation. Late postoperative results were good in 10 patients. One patient developed acral epidermolysis. Postoperative results after revascularisation were good in all patients.

  9. [An assessment of the results of upper limb replantation].

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej; Walaszek, Ireneusz

    2007-01-01

    During the period 1996-2005, in General and Hand Surgery Department in Szczecin, 47 patients, 45 males and 2 females, with a me an age of 42 years, with total (72%) and subtotal (28%) amputations within the metacarpus and more proximal were operated. 35 replants survived, however 10 (21%) necrotized, in 2 cases (5%) blood flow was not re-established during the operations. The study presents results of assessment of objective parameters of 19 patients who received replantation of amputated extremities at the level of metacarpus - 5 cases, wrist - 9, forearm - 3, elbow - 1 and arm - 1 case. Patients were followed-up at mean of 2.5 years after injury (range 6 months -10 years). The average active range of motion of fingers in replanted extremities was 116 degrees (range 26-224 degrees). The average total grip strength was 8.3 kG (range 2-12 kG). The subjective assessment of hand dexterity with DASH questionnaire was mean of 103 points, (range 72-148). Range of motion was satisfactory in most of metacarpals and wrist replantations and less pleasing in forearm and arm amputations. Simultaneously better objective results were achieved in metacarpals and wrist replantations (14 cases, mean DASH 98), than forearm and arm replantations (5 cases, mean DASH 117). The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing revealed feeling of light touch good in 2 cases, satisfactory in 4 cases (median nerve) and in 2 cases (ulnar nerve). Only protective sensation in 8 cases (median nerve) and 10 cases (ulnar nerve). In Chen's classification 3 patients were scored I grade, 2 patients II grade and 9 patients III grade. The patients underwent 78 corrective operations (mean 2.3 per patinet, range 1-5) in order to improve function or cover skin defect. The results support an opinion that these time consuming operations result in salvage of functionally acceptable extremity what advocates that in every case of major amputation, regardless the mechanism or extend of injury an attempt of replantation

  10. Replantation versus Prosthetic Fitting in Traumatic Arm Amputations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Iris A.; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, Arnold H.; van Minnen, L. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze whether replantation is functionally and psychologically more profitable than formalization and prosthetic fitting in patients with traumatic arm amputation. Methods Functional outcome and satisfaction levels were recorded of patients with amputation levels below elbow, through elbow, and above elbow. Results Functional outcomes of 301 replantation patients and 172 prosthesis patients were obtained. In the replantation group, good or excellent functional scores were reported in 39% of above elbow, 55% of through elbow, and 50% of below elbow amputation cases. Nearly 100% of patients were satisfied with the replanted limb. In the prosthesis group, full use of the prosthesis was attained in 48% of above elbow and in 89% of below elbow amputation patients. Here, 29% of patients elected not to use the prosthesis for reasons including pain and functional superfluity. In both replantation patients and prosthesis wearers, a below elbow amputation yielded better functional results than higher amputation levels. Conclusions Replantation of a traumatically amputated arm leads to good function and higher satisfaction rates than a prosthesis, regardless of the objective functional outcome. Sensation and psychological well-being seem the two major advantages of replantation over a prosthesis. The current review of the available literature shows that in carefully selected cases replantation could be the preferred option of treatment. PMID:26340003

  11. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  12. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  13. Salvage of replanted upper extremities with major soft-tissue complications.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C

    2007-01-01

    Soft-tissue complications in the replantation wound, either septic or non-septic, are the main cause of failure in major extremity replantations. In the presence of necrosis or infection, vascular errosion or thrombosis readily develops and can lead to limb loss. Very aggressive surgical treatment has been recommended to salvage the replanted limb in these highly unstable clinical situations. Over a 10-year period, 423 amputated parts were replanted, 56 of which were replants proximal to the wrist. The experience of the author in treating 11 cases of critical soft-tissue necrosis (four septic and seven non-septic) after major replantation of the upper extremity with aggressive debridement and flap coverage, is reported. All flaps and limbs survived.

  14. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm

    PubMed Central

    Rayidi, V. Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome. PMID:28216826

  15. Influence of triterpenoids present in apple peel on inflammatory gene expression associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    PubMed

    Mueller, Dolores; Triebel, Sven; Rudakovski, Olga; Richling, Elke

    2013-08-15

    Various ursanic, oleanic and lupanic pentacyclic triterpenoids found in apple peel were studied for anti-inflammatory effects in vitro using T84 colon carcinoma cells. After pretreatment with single triterpenoids, cells were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1β). Regulation of mRNA expression was analysed for three specific inflammation-associated marker genes (TNF-α, IL-8, IP-10) using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the effects of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) on the synthesis of certain pro-inflammatory proteins were examined. IP-10 expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by all the tested compounds at concentrations ≥25 μM. The mRNA expression of TNF-α was slightly affected and the IL-8 level was increased. At the protein level, UA and OA (25 μM) reduced the synthesis of IP-10; sICAM-1, IL-23 and GROα were slightly repressed. The TNF-α level was not modulated, whereas induction of IL-8 was increased. UA also enhanced the synthesis of IL-1ra, while OA suppressed the level of I-TAC. The present study confirms that triterpenoids present in apple peel and β-damascone may be implicated in the anti-inflammatory properties of apple constituents, suggesting that these substances might be helpful in the treatment of IBD as nutrient supplements.

  16. Considerations for double-hand replantation in a resource-constrained healthcare facility.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan; Mohanty, Nilamani; Patnaik, Annada Prasad; Bal, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral-hand amputation is extremely rare and double-hand replantation is even rarer. Only one case of successful double replantation at arm level has been reported from India. We present a case of double-hand replantation at proximal palmar level in a young adult executed in a small nursing home. The patient presented 5 h after injury with limbs preserved well in ice. There were difficulties in executing such an unusual case in a small nursing home set-up. The patient is performing his activities of daily living and basic functions independently. We share our experience of this double-hand replantation with special emphasis on problems encountered.

  17. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  18. Hand replantation: First experience in a sub-Saharan African country (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Komla Sena; Amakoutou, Komla; Bakriga, Batarabadja; Abalo, Anani; Dossim, Assang

    2016-01-01

    Fifty years after Chen has performed the first forearm replantation, we report our first case of hand replantation in a sub-Saharan African country. The etiology of the amputation was machete due to interpersonal violence. The amputation was trans-carpal, guillotine-type, subtotal non-viable maintained with a small skin bridge. The replantation procedure was successful. At one year follow-up, the functional result according to Chen's criteria was excellent. Through this first experience, we can state that hand replantation can be performed successfully both in survival and function in a non-specialized hospital of a sub-Saharan African country. PMID:27274133

  19. Cross-arm replantation for traumatic bilateral upper extremity amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kailu; Zhong, Gang; Yin, Jiahui; Xiang, Zhou; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo

    2011-02-01

    A 40-year-old woman had her right extremity avulsed at the proximal upper arm level and the wrist and hand of her left extremity irretrievably injured in a traffic accident. The right distal forearm was surgically amputated and replanted onto the stump of the left distal forearm. New strategy for nerve repair was applied and the function recovery of the cross-replanted hand was favorable. We thought that cross-extremity replantation was indicated when the patient suffered from bilateral total or subtotal amputation at different levels and orthotopic replantation was impossible.

  20. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  1. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  2. Systemic reperfusion injury during arm replantation requiring intraoperative amputation.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, C; Hennessy, B

    2002-02-01

    This case describes the attempted replantation of an arm following its traumatic amputation. After a five-and-a-half hour ischaemic time, perfusion of the arm was re-established. However over the ensuing hours, the patient developed hyperkalaemia, acidaemia and severe hypotension requiting high dose inotropic support. Ultimately re-amputation was necessary to treat the systemic effects of the ischaemia reperfusion syndrome.

  3. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization.

  4. Effect of IRM root end fillings on healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1994-08-01

    The effect of IRM as a root end filling placed in teeth prior to replantation was examined in 21 molar teeth in monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root end cavities prepared, and fillings of IRM or amalgam placed prior to replantation. After 8 wk the jaws were removed and prepared for histological examination. Bacteria were demonstrated in only 9 of 15 teeth filled with IRM; 18 of the roots (60%) were associated with inflammation, which was only moderate or severe around 5 (17%), and extended > 0.1 mm around only 2 roots. In contrast, of the 6 teeth filled with amalgam, all contained bacteria in the root canals and 11 roots were associated with moderate or severe inflammation, which around 8 roots extended > 0.5 mm. The difference in severity of inflammation for the two materials was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The tissue response to root end fillings of IRM in replanted teeth was less severe and less extensive than that to amalgam.

  5. Late occlusion of microvascular vein grafts in replantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, W A; Mitchell, G M; Hickey, M J

    1998-11-01

    Two cases are described in which patients presented 16 and 17 years, respectively, after complete or incomplete amputation/replantation of the arm. In case 1, the patient complained of coldness, pain, and tingling in the replanted arm in the previous 24 hours and noticed that his fingers had gone white. Arteriography and subsequent surgery revealed obliteration of the vein graft (inserted in the distal brachial artery) by neointimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque, which was confirmed in a subsequent morphologic examination. In case 2, the patient presented with discomfort and a pulsatile swelling on the inner aspect of his upper arm. Arteriography and surgery revealed an aneurysm in the previously inserted vein graft in the brachial artery, with some atherosclerotic degeneration. Both vein grafts were successfully replaced with a fresh autologous vein graft and the patients remain well several years later. The 2 cases suggest that as part of replantation surgery of a limb, it is essential to maintain postoperative clinical monitoring for signs of graft degeneration in all patients with long-term vein graft insertion.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  7. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  8. Cross-replantation of lower extremities in multilimbed amputation: case report and literature review in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Yin, Y S; Gao, F G; Lu, Z; Hu, S B

    1995-06-01

    Presented is a case of a 20-year-old man on whom cross-replantation of the right leg onto the stump of the left was successfully conducted by means of unusual bone fixation. Follow-up showed that the result was satisfactory, with firm bone union and functional recovery of the replanted leg.

  9. Fingertip Replantation Using Y-Shaped Vein Graft to Pulp Artery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Young Man

    2015-10-01

    Re-establishing adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for success of fingertip replantation. However, in zone I level, replantation is very difficult, especially in repairing venous circulation. The authors have made an attempt to replantation using Y-shaped vein (YSV) graft to identify and repair veins easily in fingertip replantation. From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 46 fingertip replantations in 44 consecutive patients with amputations in the Tamai zone I level were performed by using YSV graft. In all patients, arterial anastomosis was performed using YSV graft, and interpositional vein grafts were used for venous repair. The overall success rate of the YSV-grafted replantations was 91.3% (42/46). Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 6 YSV-grafted replantations (13%), and pulp atrophy in the YSV-grafted digits was 9.5% (4/42). Fingertip replantation in zone I level is a difficult territory to a microsurgeon, especially anastomosing veins. However, our YSV grafting technique has shown value in this setting, enabling better esthetic and functional results.

  10. Major replantation versus revision amputation and prosthetic fitting in the upper extremity: a late functional outcomes study.

    PubMed

    Graham, B; Adkins, P; Tsai, T M; Firrell, J; Breidenbach, W C

    1998-09-01

    The functional outcomes of amputated arms that were either replanted or had a prosthesis were compared. In addition, factors that influenced the functional outcome of replants were evaluated. The Carroll test was used to evaluate functional capacity of 22 successful upper extremity replantations at or proximal to the wrist as well as 22 amputees (at similar levels) fitted with a variety of prosthetic devices. The outcome was excellent or good in 8 (36%) replanted limbs. This proportion was statistically higher than those grades in the prosthetic group. When the groups were more closely matched (adults with below elbow injuries), the replantation group had 6 (50%) good or excellent outcomes and the prosthetic group had none. An analysis of covariance of the replantations demonstrated a statistical association between a better outcome in younger patients with more distal injuries. This study indicates that replantation produces superior functional results compared with amputation and a prosthesis.

  11. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  12. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  13. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  14. Ten-digit replantation with seven years follow-up: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cong, Haibo; Sui, Haiming; Wang, Chenlin; Wang, Zhumin; Yang, Qingmin; Wang, Buxing

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we present a case of successful replantation of 10-digit complete amputation and results of postoperative rehabilitation in 7 years follow-up. The rehabilitation program included psychotherapy, physical therapy, sensory re-education, and measurements. At the 7 years postoperatively, the static two-point discriminations of replanted digits ranged from 4 to 11 mm. Grasping powers ranged from 69 to 81 lb, and pinching powers ranged from 13 to 19 lb. The patient returned to the previous employment. Our experience has demonstrated that systemic postoperative rehabilitation and measurements could achieve satisfactory recovery of the sensory and motor functions of multiple-digit replantation.

  15. [Indications for replantation of lower limbs after their traumatic amputation at the shin level].

    PubMed

    Milanov, N O; Gusami, G M

    1994-09-01

    From analysis of the results of replantation of 37 lower limbs at the level of the leg, which were amputated as the result of injury in 33 patients, the authors determine the tactical approach to the choice of indications for replantation. The authors believe that replantation at the level of the leg is always indicated in children if it is executable technically and the patient's somatic status presents no general contraindications. In other cases the formation of a stump and subsequent prosthetics should be considered more advisable.

  16. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  17. Replantation of permanent incisors in children using Emdogain.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Edward J; Kenny, David J; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Sigal, Michael J; Johnston, Douglas H

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether application of an enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain (Biora AB Malmo, Sweden) to the root surface of avulsed permanent incisors would improve postreplantation outcomes in a pediatric population. Between June 1999 and May 2002, 25 avulsed permanent maxillary incisors (22 centrals and three laterals) were treated with Emdogain and followed for up to 32 months, mean duration 20.6 months (range: 6.9-32.5 months). Mean patient age at the time of treatment was 12.0 years (range: 7.7-17.6 years) and mean extra-alveolar duration was 185 min (range: 100-300 min). At the end of their follow-up each of the replanted incisors demonstrated radiographic evidence of replacement root resorption and clinical evidence of ankylosis. None of the replanted teeth were affected by inflammatory root resorption and there was no evidence of infection. When compared with the control samples from Barrett and Kenny (Endod Dent Traumatol 1997;15:269-72.) and Andersson et al. (Endod Dent Traumatol 1989;5:38-47.) this sample treated with the Emdogain protocol demonstrated significantly less root resorption than either of the control samples (anova, P < 0.0001). Although the Emdogain protocol did not produce periodontal regeneration, it did eliminate inflammatory resorption and infection and led to significantly less root resorption compared with the two historical controls.

  18. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  19. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  20. Which instrument should we use to assess hand function after digital replantation?

    PubMed

    Kamburoğlu, H O; Aksu, A E; Sönmez, E; Işçi, E T; Safak, T; Keçik, A

    2011-06-01

    The functional recovery of a replanted body part is as important as its viability. We compared four instruments frequently used for the evaluation of hand function after digital replantation. The functional results of 17 patients at least one year after replantation of a total digital amputation between 2004 and 2007 were evaluated according to the Tamai, Ipsen, Chen and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaires. Scores of each patient for each test were calculated and intra-individual comparisons were made. Correlation was significant at the 0.05 level (two tailed) for all tests. A high correlation (>0.71) was found between the Ipsen, Tamai and DASH tests. The Chen test had a moderate correlation with the other tests. We determined that Ipsen, Tamai and DASH tests have similar effectiveness in assessing hand function after replantation.

  1. Considerations for double-hand replantation in a resource-constrained healthcare facility

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan; Mohanty, Nilamani; Patnaik, Annada Prasad; Bal, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral-hand amputation is extremely rare and double-hand replantation is even rarer. Only one case of successful double replantation at arm level has been reported from India. We present a case of double-hand replantation at proximal palmar level in a young adult executed in a small nursing home. The patient presented 5 h after injury with limbs preserved well in ice. There were difficulties in executing such an unusual case in a small nursing home set-up. The patient is performing his activities of daily living and basic functions independently. We share our experience of this double-hand replantation with special emphasis on problems encountered. PMID:27274127

  2. [Completely severed unilateral alas nasi survived replantation: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Min; Xu, Hui-Xian; Yu, Li; He, Wei-Ping; Wang, Pei-Yuan

    2002-03-01

    We reported a case in which the right wing of the nose had been completely severed and heavily contaminated 3 h before successful replantation, and survival of the right wing was retained postoperatively.

  3. Embolisation of a leaking pseudoaneurysm of the main artery supplying a replanted arm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tan, J J; Low, C K

    1999-07-01

    A 51-year-old patient suffered a near amputation of the right arm. Replant of the arm was performed and the brachial artery was grafted with a vein. A week later, there was severe bleeding from a leaking pseudoaneurysm at the proximal junction of the grafted artery. This was managed with embolization using coils and resulted in successful obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm without necrosis of the replanted arm.

  4. Successful replantation following an accidental forearm amputation. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sauma, A; Quiroga, R; Brockmann, C; Montaño, M; Flores, G; Barrenechea, J P

    2002-04-01

    We report a patient who suffered an accidental complete amputation of the right forearm followed by a successful replantation and comment on the indications and management of macro-replantations of the upper limbs. This is the first time that a successful surgical procedure of this nature has been performed in Bolivia, with no post-operative complications and excellent long-term functional recovery.

  5. Somatic variation plays a key role in the evolution of the Vf gene family residing in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of four receptor-like genes has been previously identified in the Vf locus of the crabapple Malus floribunda clone 821 that confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the casual agent of apple scab disease. Pairwise comparisons of the four Vf paralogs in both promoter and coding regions reveal their timeline evolutionary history. The four Vf paralogs have evolved from four ancient Vf members resulting from two sequential duplication events of a single Vf progenitor initially present in the Malus genome. The coding sequences of the four Vf paralogs are characterized with high numbers of unique polymorphic nucleotides, a number of short duplications/deletions, various deletions of complete LRR copy units, and a casual insert of a transposon-like element. Significant high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions, Ka/Ks, are observed in the putative ligand binding residues in the LRR domains. No sequence exchange between the four Vf paralogs is observed. Compared with promoter regions, only nucleotide substitutions are dramatically elevated in the coding regions. The results presented in this study strongly indicate that the Vf locus is under strong and steady horizontal selective pressures imposed by the fungal pathogen V. inaequalis, and divergent selection on somatic variations plays a key role in shaping the resistance specificity.

  6. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  7. Long-term outcome of replantation of proximal-third amputated arm: a worthwhile endeavor.

    PubMed

    Dagum, Alexander B; Slesarenko, Yury; Winston, Lucy; Tottenham, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    We report a successful replantation of a proximal-third avulsed left arm in a 26-year-old female with maintenance of good functional, clinical, Short Form 36, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcomes results at 10 years. An organized approach combining staged surgical reconstruction and intense hand therapy allowed for both successful replantation and outcome. There exist no clear guidelines in making the decision between replantation and revision amputation. Controversy regarding the value of upper limb replantation seems to increase with ascending levels of amputation. A case report cannot provide guidelines, but several points can be made that may be of help to hand surgeons confronting this uncommon situation. In a highly motivated patient with realistic expectation, a preoperatively intact functioning shoulder should be considered an indication for attempt at replantation. With further staged reconstruction, a helper arm can still be achieved even in an avulsion-type amputation. Current operative and perioperative aspects of microsurgical replantation and subsequent reconstruction are discussed.

  8. Delayed Replantation of Avulsed Teeth: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Akcay, Merve; Koseoglu, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents two cases of delayed replantation of avulsed maxillary central incisors after an extended dry extra-alveolar period. Eight-year-old boy and 10-year-old boy presented with avulsed maxillary central incisors due to trauma occurring 27 and 7 hours earlier, respectively. Treatment guidelines for avulsed mature/immature permanent teeth with prolonged extra-oral time were carried out for the teeth and the extra-oral endodontic treatment was completed. After having been repositioned, the teeth were stabilized for 4 weeks and prophylactic antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical and radiographic controls were done after 18 months for Case I and 12 months for Case II. During the follow-up periods the teeth reported in these cases have remained in a stable, functional position but revealed clinical initial replacement resorption and ankylosis. PMID:25810928

  9. Cross-limb vascular shunting for major limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Lee, Jing-Wei

    2009-02-01

    In the management of traumatic major limb amputation, rapid re-establishment of circulation to the amputated part is imperative so as to prevent complications related to reperfusion injury, especially for those already suffering from prolonged ischemia. A temporary, extra-anatomic cross limb shunting with infusion lines can be used to perfuse the amputated part almost instantaneously. This allows the surgeon to carry out skeletal fixation and other reparative works in an unhurried manner. The cannulation site is targeted at intact vessels far away from the injury zone, obviating the need to explore and handle traumatized vessels at the mangled stump ends, thus greatly simplifying and expediting the revascularization process. Such a method had been successfully applied in 2 young people suffering traumatic arm amputation and thigh amputation, respectively. We suggested that such a procedure could be a useful adjunct in the field of major limb replantation.

  10. Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Soriano, José M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. Extensive research exists on apples and the health benefits of their beverages and phytochemicals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature in this area focusing on phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior.

  11. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  12. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  13. Resection-replantation for primary malignant tumours of the arm. An alternative to fore-quarter amputation.

    PubMed

    Windhager, R; Millesi, H; Kotz, R

    1995-03-01

    We describe a method of partial limb salvage for the treatment of large primary malignant tumours of the arm. The tumour-bearing area is resected as a cylindrical segment and the distal arm is then replanted with the necessary shortening. The method is suitable for stage-IIB tumours with or without neurovascular involvement which, because of their extent, could otherwise be adequately treated only by amputation. From 1987 to 1992 we used this method in 12 patients with primary malignant bone or soft-tissue sarcomas. Wide resection margins were achieved in all, but six patients died from their disease at a mean of 21.5 months (6 to 48), none with any local recurrence. Five patients have no evidence of disease at a mean follow-up period of 52.2 months (22 to 78), and one was lost to follow-up at 48 months postoperatively when there was no evidence of disease. The results of the functional evaluation of ten patients with a follow-up of over ten months were excellent in one, good in six and fair in three, by the criteria of Enneking (1987). Recovery after nerve reconstruction was satisfactory in all cases with sensation S3 or higher and motor function M2+ or higher. Detailed evaluation of hand function on the Millesi score rated only 22% (9.6% to 33.7%) as compared with the contralateral side, but the patients were satisfied and refused further operations for the improvement of function. These oncological and functional results allow us to recommend resection-replantation as a valuable alternative to amputation for the treatment of primary malignant tumours of the arm.

  14. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  15. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  16. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  17. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  18. Replantation in scapulothoracic avulsion amputation of the right upper limb in a 3-year-old child- A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Sanjay; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Jawed, Akram; Aggarwal, Aditya; Singh, Hardeep; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Replantations for major amputations of upper extremity have been widely performed. We report a unique case of successful replantation of scapulothoracic avulsion amputation in a child. In this manuscript, we discuss the various challenges faced during the procedure and chances of neural recovery. PMID:27833298

  19. Perioperative evaluation and outcomes of major limb replantations with ischemia periods of more than 6 hours.

    PubMed

    Tantry, Thrivikrama Padur; Kadam, Dinesh; Shenoy, Sunil P; Bhandary, Sanath; Adappa, Karunakara K

    2013-03-01

    Early revascularization is cardinal for successful replantation of proximal limb amputations. Prolonged ischemia time potentially leads to reperfusion syndrome and morbidity. The dilemma persists regarding safe duration of cold ischemia time for replantation. The study was conducted to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of major replantation in terms of limb survival, reperfusion events, morbidity, and potential mortality with respect to the ischemia time and level of amputations. Fourteen patients with proximal amputations at the arm, elbow, and forearm with total ischemia time beyond 6 hours were replanted. All had warm ischemia time of less than 2 hours and were closely monitored to record and correct reperfusion events. Nine out of 14 limbs survived. Five patients had reperfusion events. Proximal limb amputations with larger muscle mass were at higher risk of developing reperfusion syndrome and such events had higher chances of limb loss. Major limb amputations within 2 hours of warm ischemia time even with prolonged cold ischemia can be successfully replanted with closed perioperative monitoring.

  20. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm) on repair of dental replantation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; Santos, Laila; dos Santos Barbosa, Artur F.; Aguiar, Marcio C.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana M.

    2014-02-01

    Up to date the success of tooth replantation is still limited. The majority of the teeth is lost due to progressive external root resorption. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the effect of laser photobiomodulation on repair after tooth replantation. Sixty Wistar Albinus rats had the right upper incisor extracted and then divided into 4 groups: G1 - absence of storage medium; G2 - milk u s e d as storage medium; G3 - milk used as storage medium a n d followed by GaAlAs laser irradiation on dental surfaces and at the entrance of alveolus; G4 - milk used as storage medium associated with laser irradiation as in G3 before and after replantation on the buccal and palatal mucosa every 48 hours for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation. The results showed that after 15 days G4 exhibit more intense chronic inflammation, with presence of clastic cells and moderate inflammatory root resorption (p<0.05) when compared to G3, which presented absence of those parameters. At day 30 in G1, G2 and G4 mild to moderate chronic inflammation and severe external root resorption were observed. G3 remained with no inflammation and inflammatory root resorption with 30 and 60 days of healing experimental times. The results suggest that laser irradiation on the dental entrance of the dental alveolus prior to tooth replantation has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process in rats.

  1. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Shaun D; Sawyer, Justin D; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization.

  2. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Shaun D.; Sawyer, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization. PMID:28101290

  3. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  4. Salvage of amputated upper extremities with temporary ectopic implantation followed by replantation at a second stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Wang, Shou-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Zhao, Gui-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Salvage of the complex amputation of extremities, such as combined with devastating segmental injuries, extensive soft tissue defect, and multiple important organ injuries, continues to be a challenge for plastic surgeons. Temporary ectopic implantation of the amputated part to a healthy recipient site allows the patient to recover from critical combined injuries, radical debridements, and soft tissue repair. In this article, the authors report two cases of temporary ectopic implantation of complexly amputated forearms, followed by successful replantation to their anatomic positions at a second stage. The contralateral upper extremity is an acceptable recipient site for temporary ectopic implantation. In secondary replantation, a cross-arm flap can be designed to carry the vascular pedicle from the ectopic implantation recipient to improve blood supply to the replanted part when the second blood supply is established. The authors validated that temporary ectopic implantation of amputated parts provides an alternative procedure for the salvage of amputated extremities under special circumstances.

  5. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    PubMed

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  6. Local subcutaneous heparin as treatment for venous insufficiency in replanted digits.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, M; Butrón, P

    1999-05-01

    In the treatment of venous insufficiency unsuitable for surgical correction in replanted digits, a small ungual window was surgically created to infiltrate subcutaneous heparin in the congested digit. The initial heparin dose was 1000 units. This dose made possible a continuous bleeding during 24 to 48 hours, solely through the ungual window. Further doses were applied based on the degree of congestion of the replanted digit, but usually it was necessary to infiltrate up to 500 units of heparin every 24 to 48 hours until vascular stability was achieved. Three patients were treated with this technique. One opted for quitting the treatment. A replanted thumb suffered venous congestion on the seventh postoperative day and was treated with local subcutaneous heparin for 3 days. A replanted fingertip suffered venous thrombosis 24 hours after surgery and was treated likewise for 18 days. In these two patients, success was attained. Blood transfusions were carried out in the latter two, and none had any systemic changes in partial thromboplastin or thrombin time. This treatment is based on the mechanism of action of heparin at high doses but applied only to the congested segment. Besides their anticoagulant effect through antithrombin, high doses of heparin slow platelet aggregation, may induce angiogenesis, and have a longer-than-normal half-life. With the above technique, heparin has been applied to the congested segment at an approximate dose of 33,000 to 40,000 units/kg, and continuous bleeding solely through the ungual window for 24 to 48 hours has been achieved, which has allowed us to save two replanted segments with no complications at all. This method may offer another alternative for the medical treatment of venous insufficiency in replanted segments.

  7. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos

    2017-02-13

    Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  8. An interesting healing outcome of a replanted immature permanent tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyunsook; Kim, Miri; Yang, Wonkyung; Ko, Hyunjung

    2011-02-01

    A case of an avulsed upper left central incisor that was replanted after 3 h in a 7-year-old girl is presented. The tooth showed signs of an acute periapical abscess at 2 weeks after replantation. Apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) following application of calcium hydroxide was attempted. At 3-year and 6-month follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with adequate clinical function. The radiograph showed resolution of the periapical lesion and apparent radiopaque tissue under MTA plug resembling root end morphology.

  9. Spectacularly successful microsurgical penile replantation in an assaulted patient: one case report.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elfassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare condition for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. We present herein one case of a 27-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department after his wife cut his penis. The penis was replanted microsurgically. The deep dorsal penile veins and superficial veins were anastomosed. Although we could not reanastomose the arteries, wound healing occurred without any problem one week postoperatively and the patient regained erectile function 4 weeks after surgery. At 1-year follow-up examinations he reported on restored erectile function and a normal urinary function.

  10. Spectacularly Successful Microsurgical Penile Replantation in an Assaulted Patient: One Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elfassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare condition for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. We present herein one case of a 27-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department after his wife cut his penis. The penis was replanted microsurgically. The deep dorsal penile veins and superficial veins were anastomosed. Although we could not reanastomose the arteries, wound healing occurred without any problem one week postoperatively and the patient regained erectile function 4 weeks after surgery. At 1-year follow-up examinations he reported on restored erectile function and a normal urinary function. PMID:22606628

  11. Resection replantation of the arm for sarcoma: an alternative to amputation.

    PubMed

    Athanasian, Edward A; Healey, John H

    2002-02-01

    Resection-replantation for primary malignant tumors of the arm as an alternative to forequarter amputation first was reported in 1995. Segmental resection of the upper arm and replantation of the distal segment to the proximal humerus as an alternative to shoulder disarticulation for a large tumor of the humerus is reported. This procedure provides the patient with an aesthetically acceptable single-segment arm, which is useful for activities of daily living and recreation. There has been no local recurrence or metastasis at 5 years followup.

  12. Vascularized nail transfer from non-replantable digit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Taleb, Chihab; Goukodadja, Oswald; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a traumatic amputation by circular saw of the ring and small fingers, associated with middle finger nail matrix loss and tendon, bone and joint exposure. The replantation was not attempted with patient's consent. Since the nail unit from the ring finger was intact, we decided to harvest the ring finger nail unit for major finger reconstruction. Although the principle of vascularized transfer from a severely damaged finger is widely recognized and the vascularized nail transfer from toe is a relatively common procedure, there is no description of a vascularized nail transfer from a non-replantable digit in the literature.

  13. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR < 0.001) by RNA-Seq. During the early phase of infection, 12 h post inoculation (HPI), AAAP exhibited limited fungal development and little change in the transcript accumulation status (950 DEGs). During the intermediate phase of infection, the period between 18 and 36 HPI, increased fungal development, active infection, and increased transcript accumulation were detected (4111 and 3838 DEGs detected at each time point, respectively). The majority of DEGs were detected by 72 HPI, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of apples' AAAP infection. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs are predominately involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways; results showed that almost gene associated with photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction were down-regulated, while transcription factors (i.e., WRKY, MYB, NAC, and Hsf) and DEGs involved in cell wall modification, defense signaling, the synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related (PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP

  14. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  15. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  16. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  17. The effect of apple feeding on markers of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Langkilde, Søren; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended to lower DNA damage in the liver (P = 0.136 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.284 in noninitiated rats). Liver alanine aminotransferase was significantly increased in rats fed apples (P = 0.008 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.019 in noninitiated rats). In conclusion, feeding whole fresh apple may affect the occurrence of preneoplastic changes in the rat colon, but the effect was not gradual.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  19. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  20. Apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  1. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  2. [Contralateral replantation after bilateral traumatic lower leg amputation. Case report with 6 year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Betz, A; Stock, W; Hierner, R; Sebisch, E; Schweiberer, L

    1995-05-01

    A 66-year-old patient attempted suicide by jumping in front of a train. The lower extremities were amputated at different levels. On the right side, there was a complete amputation within the distal third of the lower leg. Proximal to the amputation site, there was an extensive soft-tissue and bone defect. On the left side, there was a crush injury of the tarsal and mid-tarsal bones. The left lower leg showed only few injuries. An ipsilateral (anatomical) replantation was not possible. In order to save one lower extremity, we decided to carry out a cross-over (contralateral) replantation of the right foot to the left lower leg. After a follow-up of six years, the patient is able to walk well with her prosthesis on the right side and the right foot hooked up to the left lower leg. Functionally, this treatment (cross-over replantation-one-side prosthesis of the lower leg) is much better than the prosthesis on both extremities, as the result has shown. Also from a psychological point of view, it seems to be better for the patient to preserve one extremity even with a cross-over replanted foot.

  3. Anxiety and trauma perception and quality of life in patients who have undergone replantation.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Alper; Bekler, Halil; Karacaoglu, Ercan; Servet, Erkan; Gokay, Nevzat Selim

    2011-10-01

    The difficulty in keeping an amputated limb biologically alive is overcome day by day thanks to the successful replantation procedures applied in the early period. However, the reflections of this biological success on patients in functional and psychological terms may not be pleasing all the time. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the perceptual responses of patients to trauma after replantation and their possible effects on clinical results. We conducted a retrospective study of 43 patients who underwent replantation. The average age was 32.4 years and the average follow-up period was 38.6 months. When the results of the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck's Depression Inventory, and the assessment scores of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand survey were evaluated, there was a negative correlation between the patients diagnosed with depression and all SF-36 subunits. A negative correlation between the severity of trauma and the average physical and mental values included in the SF-36 evaluations was observed (R = 0.48, R = 0.51, respectively),. These results revealed that the psychology of the patient was one of the important factors that could not be ignored in the success of replantation.

  4. [Replantation and revascularization in acute upper limb amputation--the Sheba Medical Center experience].

    PubMed

    Oron, Amir; Yaffe, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Replantation and revascularization in acute upper-limb amputations are well-accepted surgical techniques in hand surgery. All medical staff members treating patients in emergency settings should be familiar with the indications, timetable, setup and transportation of patients rendered suitable for such surgery. While replantation surgery is not considered a simple surgical procedure by any means, viability rates approach ninety percent. The amputated part should be wrapped with gauze soaked in saline, placed in a sterile plastic bag and then put in an ice-filled container. The patient should be transferred to a medical center with a team dedicated to performing replantation procedures, following notification in advance. Time from the initial insult to the initiation of treatment should be minimized. Combined efforts employed by the primary caregivers and the microsurgical team will lead to optimization of patient treatment and improve the final outcome. During the years 1991-2007 a total of 383 upper limb replantation or revascularization procedures were performed at the Sheba Medical Center and are presented in this article.

  5. Emdogain does not prevent progressive root resorption after replantation of avulsed teeth: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Schjøtt, M; Andreasen, J O

    2005-02-01

    Emdogain has been shown in clinical and experimental studies to promote regeneration of all periodontal tissues: cementum with anchoring fibres, a functional, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in connection with treatment of marginal periodontitis. The intention of this study was to analyse whether this regenerative capacity upon the periodontal ligament also worked in a trauma situation where a significant number of PDL cells have been eliminated because of unphysiologic storage or actual damage during avulsion or replantation. Furthermore if ankylosis sites already established because of earlier replantation after avulsion could be surgical removed and application of Emdogain could revert the ankylosis stage to a normal PDL situation. The first treatment situation was tested in seven patients with a total of 16 avulsed teeth with varying time of extra oral storage. The teeth were extra-orally endodontically treated and the root and socket covered with Emdogain before replantation. All teeth demonstrated subsequent ankylosis, primarily diagnosed by a percussion test. The second treatment situation where an ankylosis was already established constituted of seven patients with a total of 11 teeth because of previous replantation after avulsion. These teeth were all extracted, the ankylosis sites removed and the root and socket treated with Emdogain. After 6 months all teeth showed recurrence of ankylosis. It is concluded that Emdogain was not able to prevent or cure ankylosis.

  6. The effect of Emdogain and 24% EDTA root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Martínez, Nayelli; Silva-Herzog, Flores Daniel; Méndez, González Verónica; Martín-Pérez, Silvia; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Cohenca, Nestor

    2009-02-01

    Controversies still exist as for the regenerative role of enamel matrix derivatives and the need for removal of the periodontal ligament in replanted teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain and 24% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth. Teeth were extracted, endodontically treated and preconditioned as follows: group 1, Emdogain; group 2, Emdogain + EDTA and group 3, EDTA. Teeth were replanted after 30 min extraoral time, splinted for 15 days and animals sacrificed after 8 weeks of observation. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome and results scored based on previously reported criteria for histological evaluation. Replacement root resorption was histologically diagnosed in all groups except in the negative control. A parametric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between experimental groups. Root preconditioning with Emdogain alone or in combination with 24% EDTA showed no evidence of regeneration of collagen fibers and consequently did not prevent the development of replacement root resorption on replanted dog's teeth.

  7. A Low-Cost High-Definition Video System for Microsurgical Hindlimb Replantation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Rui; de Barros, Monteiro; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Leal, Rafael Aquino; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Sabbá, Marcelo Ferreia; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Vieira

    2017-03-01

    Background The surgical microscope is still essential for microsurgery, but several alternatives that show promising results are currently under development, such as endoscopes and laparoscopes with video systems; however, as yet, these have only been used for arterial anastomoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a low-cost video-assisted magnification system in replantation of the hindlimbs of rats. Methods Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two matched groups according to the magnification system used: the microscope group, with hindlimb replantation performed under a microscope with an image magnification of 40× and the video group, with the procedures performed under a video system composed of a high-definition camcorder, macrolenses, a 42-in television, and a digital HDMI cable. The camera was set to 50× magnification. We analyzed weight, arterial and venous caliber, total surgery time, arterial and venous anastomosis time, patency immediately and 7 days postoperatively, the number of stitches, and survival rate. Results There were no significant differences between the groups in weight, arterial or venous caliber, or the number of stitches. Replantation under the video system took longer (p < 0.05). Patency rates were similar between groups, both immediately and 7 days postoperatively. Conclusion It is possible to perform a hindlimb replantation in rats through video system magnification, with a satisfactory success rate comparable with that for procedures performed under surgical microscopes.

  8. Prognosis of intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-03-01

    There is no particular treatment established to preserve vertically fractured teeth. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of the intentional replantation of 26 vertically fractured roots after reconstruction with 4-META/MMA-TBB dentin-bonded resin. Replanted teeth were evaluated according to clinical criteria and radiographic examinations for periods ranging from 4 to 76 months. Eighteen cases were functional and retained, with six fully successful; the others needed further observation. Eight cases failed to respond to treatment because of refracture, recurrence of gingival inflammation, or both. Longevity was calculated as 88.5% at 12 months after replantation, 69.2% at 36 months, and 59.3% at 60 months. All failures occurred in premolar and molar teeth. Longitudinal fractures extending more than 2/3 from the cervical portion toward the apex showed significantly shorter longevity compared with fractures within the 2/3 area (log-rank test, p = 0.02). Intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin may be considered for incisors as an alternative to extraction, although the long-term success is not optimal.

  9. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes within a Caramel-Coated Apple Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Max C.; Wanless, Brandon J.; Bedale, Wendy; Czuprynski, Charles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple’s skin, stem, and calyx. Half of the apples had sticks inserted into the core, while the remaining apples were left intact. Apples were dipped into hot caramel and stored at either 7°C or 25°C for up to 11 or 28 days, respectively. Data revealed that apples with inserted sticks supported significantly more L. monocytogenes growth than apples without sticks under both storage conditions. Within 3 days at 25°C, L. monocytogenes populations increased >3 log10 in apples with sticks, whereas only a 1-log10 increase was observed even after 1 week for caramel-coated apples without sticks. When stored at 7°C, apples with sticks exhibited an approximately 1.5-log10 increase in L. monocytogenes levels at 28 days, whereas no growth was observed in apples without sticks. We infer that insertion of a stick into the apple accelerates the transfer of juice from the interior of the apple to its surface, creating a microenvironment at the apple-caramel interface where L. monocytogenes can rapidly grow to levels sufficient to cause disease when stored at room temperature. PMID:26463161

  10. Central adaptation following heterotopic hand replantation probed by fMRI and effective connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, S B; Dafotakis, M; Grefkes, C; Shah, N J; Zilles, K; Piza-Katzer, H

    2008-07-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined changes--relative to healthy controls--in the cortical activation and connectivity patterns of two patients who had undergone unilateral heterotopic hand replantation. The study involved the patients and a group of control subjects performing visually paced hand movements with their left, right, or both hands. Changes of effective connectivity among a bilateral network of core motor regions comprising M1, lateral premotor cortex (PMC), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) were assessed using dynamic causal modelling. Both patients showed inhibition of ipsilateral PMC and SMA when moving the healthy hand, potentially indicating a suppression of inference with physiological motor execution by the hemisphere controlling the replanted hand. Moving the replanted hand, both patients showed increased activation of contralateral PMC, most likely reflecting the increased effort involved, and a pathological inhibition of the ipsilateral on the active contralateral M1 indicative of an unsuccessful modulation of the inhibitory M1-M1 balance. In one patient, M1 contralateral to the replanted hand experienced increased tonic (intrinsic connectivity) and phasic (replanted hand movement) facilitating input, whereas in the other, pathological suppression was present. These differences in effective connectivity correlated with decreased behavioural performance of the latter as assessed by kinematic analysis, and seemed to be related to earlier and more intense rehabilitative exercise commenced by the former. This study hence demonstrates the potential of functional neuroimaging to monitor plastic changes of cortical connectivity due to peripheral damage and recovery in individual patients, which may prove to be a valuable tool in understanding, evaluating and enhancing motor rehabilitation.

  11. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  12. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  13. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  14. First successful replantation of face and scalp with single-artery repair: model for face and scalp transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Kang, Robert H; Movassaghi, Kiumars; Ganchi, Parham A; Lee, W P Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Successful replantation of the scalp with microanastomosis of a single artery and vein has been reported to produce reliable results. In fact, there have been several reports of scalp replantations based on one-artery and vein repair. There has been a face and scalp replantation reported in the literature, but this was as two separate parts and was based on several arterial and venous repairs. The authors performed the first successful replantation of a face and scalp with repair of a single artery and, of course, two veins. A 21-year-old man presented after his face and scalp were completely severed. The patient's long hair was caught in a conveyor belt at work. The face and scalp underwent replantation, with repair of the right superficial temporal artery with an interposition vein graft. A multiteam approach allowed for minimization of overall ischemic time and simultaneous preparation of the vessels on the patient and amputated part as well as vein graft harvest from the arm. Also critical to the success of the procedure, the small portions of the vessels of the amputated part were sent for frozen section to differentiate artery from vein. Initially, only the right superficial temporal vein was repaired. One week after replantation, the patient returned for treatment of venous congestion of an area to the opposite side of the forehead partial transection, with repair of the left superficial temporal vein, also. This saved the entire part that underwent replantation, and the entire part survived. The face and scalp can undergo replantation based on single-artery repair.

  15. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  16. Above-the-knee replantation in a child: a case report with a 24-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Durban, Claire Marie C; Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Replantation of an amputated limb is generally contraindicated in crushing and traction injuries. Injury to muscle tissue and skin also creates difficulties in coverage, and bony fractures may shorten limb length which can impede lower extremity function. Numerous cases have been reported on the successful replantation of the lower limb in children; however, review of previous English literature has documented only very few replantation at the thigh level, and those with severe crushing injury resulted in subsequent amputation. We report a case of successful thigh-level replantation in a 3-year-old child who sustained a crushing-traction type of injury with a follow-up of 24 years. After the replantation, early and late complications developed but these were successfully managed. On her last visit, the patient had pain-free ambulation without assistance, had intact protective sensation distal to the injury, and was very satisfied with the outcome. Replantation of the lower limb in children with crushing or avulsion type of injuries is still a worthwhile procedure. However, both the patient and the family should be aware that multiple surgeries may be needed to accommodate to long-term complications such as joint stiffness, scar contractures, and limb length discrepancies.

  17. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  18. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  19. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  20. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    PubMed

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris, the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative, Malus domestica. With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  1. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in monitoring blood perfusion in digital replantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jian-Min; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    Using a near-infrared optical device developed by ViOptix, Inc., a clinical study on post-operative non-invasive monitoring of finger blood perfusion has been conducted for 48 patients undergoing digital replantation at the California Pacific Medical Center. The study showed that non-survival digits have their tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) values significantly lower than those for the controls in general, but survival digits did not. Further, the StO2 values can be used to define a survival index, in terms of which a digit survival criterion was tentatively suggested. Applying the criterion to the 64 digits (with 3 of them non-survival) involved in the clinical study, the sensitivity and the specificity were high. Therefore the device may have potential to be used in post-operative monitoring for digit replantation.

  2. Replantation of an avulsive amputation of a foot after recovering the foot from the sea.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, F; Karacaoğlu, E; Ulkür, E; Güler, M M

    2000-04-01

    A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery.

  3. Management of a complicated crown-root fracture in a young permanent incisor using intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyan; Heffernan, Michelle; Vann, William F

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this case presentation is to review the rationale for and illustrate the clinical procedures involved in intentional replantation of a maxillary central incisor following a complicated crown-root fracture. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures in children often is compromised by a fracture below the gingival margin and/or bone. This makes isolation difficult and comprises the hermetic seal that is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. Orthodontic or surgical extrusion with gingivectomy has been suggested; however, these approaches can be expensive, time-consuming, esthetically compromising, and unsatisfactory when the fracture line is deep below the gingiva. Our presentation will discuss the treatment options for such cases and introduce the concept of intentional replantation as an option to manage complicated crown-root fractures in young permanent anterior teeth.

  4. Combined Endodontic Therapy and Intentional Replantation for the Treatment of Palatogingival Groove.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Iván; Abella, Francesc; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    A palatogingival groove is an anatomic malformation that predisposes the involved tooth to a severe periodontal defect. When the condition is complicated by pulpal necrosis, affected teeth often present a dilemma in terms of diagnosis and treatment planning. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove extending to the root apex and severe periodontal destruction (local pocketing). Suggested treatment modalities included curettage of the affected tissues, elimination of the groove by grinding and/or sealing with a variety of filling materials, and surgical procedures. In this case, a combined treatment approach, involving both endodontic therapy and intentional replantation after restoration with a self-etching flowable composite, resulted in periodontal healing and significant healing of the periradicular radiolucency at 12 months. In short, intentional replantation offers a predictable procedure and should be considered a viable treatment modality for the management of palatogingival grooves, especially for single-rooted teeth.

  5. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... insects and diseases through the pathway of all varieties of M. domestica fresh apples to be very low... of introducing insects and diseases through the pathway of all varieties of M. domestica fresh...

  6. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yanpiset, K; Trope, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).

  7. [Hand replantation: differences in functional outcome considering patient age and sociomedical aspects].

    PubMed

    Reichl, H; Schütz, T; Gabl, M; Angermann, P; Russe, E; Wechselberger, G

    2013-12-01

    By presenting 2 cases of successful hand replantation with similar trauma mechanism, level of amputation and ischaemia time of an 18-year-old female patient and a 48-year-old depressive male patient, the influence of age and sociomedical status on the postoperative outcome is discussed. DASH- (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand) score and Biometrics E-LINK power and sensitivity measurement were used to evaluate the outcomes.

  8. Transient bone resorption following finger replantation: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Lucchina, Stefano; Becker, Hillary-A; Fusetti, Cesare; Shin, Alexander-Y

    2011-06-01

    Radiographic changes consisting of alterations in mineral content, osteopaenia or destructive neuropathy that occur following successful finger replantation have already been described. We report our experience about four fingers in three individuals in whom bone changes developed in the first three months postoperatively with complete "restitution ad integrum". Three patients, 21-49 years old (average 36 years) sustained a clean-cut amputation of four fingers. The first patient had an amputation at the base of the middle phalanx of the index finger and the second patient at the base of the proximal phalanx of the ring finger. The third had an amputation at the base of the first metacarpal bone and the proximal phalanx of the small finger in a five finger amputation. In the first case, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were repaired. In the second case, one palmar artery and one dorsal vein were reanastomosed. In the third case at the thumb, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were reconstructed. At the small finger, one dorsal vein, one palmar digital artery and two digital nerves were reconstructed. Bone fixation was achieved with two and three K-wires or tension-band wiring. Replantation was successful in all cases. Three weeks after replantation, the X-rays showed rapid development of osteopaenia in the juxtaarticular region and metaphyses of the bone. These changes were followed by subperiosteal, intracortical and endosteal bone resorption. No further surgical procedures or splintage were needed and hand therapy was not discontinued. At 10-13 weeks (average 12 weeks) postoperatively, the X-rays showed a complete recovery with new periosteal bone formation. We suggest that the radiographic changes after finger replantation are transient, first evident subperiosteally and progressing centrally. They may reflect small-vessel compromise and microinfarction and transient hyperemia secondary to neurovascular damage

  9. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  10. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  11. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  12. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples.

  13. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  14. Functional transposition of the latissimus dorsi muscle for biceps reconstruction after upper arm replantation.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Thomas; Wechselberger, Gottfried; Hussl, Heribert; Huemer, Georg M

    2007-01-01

    Major upper arm amputations are often accompanied by different levels of soft-tissue divisions involving crushing, traction, and avulsion injuries to various structures. In these cases the goal is not only the re-establishment of circulation, but also functional outcome. Some patients require further reconstruction for functional restoration of elbow flexion and additional soft tissue coverage. Five patients underwent functional latissimus dorsi transfer for restoration of elbow flexion after successful upper arm replantation at our institution. The transfer was unipolar in four patients and bipolar in one. The patients' ages ranged from seven to 55 years. The time period between replantation and transfer ranged from two weeks to 12 months. All flaps healed well with minimal donor site morbidity. At mean 43-month follow-up (range: 22-65 months), functional results were good with M4 in three patients and M3 in two patients for elbow flexion. The pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a valuable tool to restore elbow flexion and provide coverage of soft tissue defects after major upper arm replantations.

  15. Contralateral abdominal pocketing in salvation of replanted fingertips with compromised circulation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.

  16. [The problems in replantation of limbs amputated through the arm region].

    PubMed

    Jabłecki, Jerzy; Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Kaczmarzyk, Leszek; Lapczyński, Deodat; Kocieba, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    The problems in replantation of arms were analysed on the ground of nine such replantations performed in Center of Replantations of Limbs in Trzebnica in the same number of patients (7 men, 2 children, 1 woman) during the seven year period 1993-2000. The range of age of the patients was from 12 to 62 years (35.5 on average). Among the problems discussed were such as qualification for the operation, operative technique (limb shortening, perfusion of vessels, half-open anastomosis of veins, neurotisation of remaining nerves) evaluation scale. Eight of the amputations were the results of crush-avulsion mechanism, one was guillotine-type. The patients required 15 secondary operations; all of them were able to perform an arm abduction and active flexion of the elbow joint. They all had at least protective sensibility on the palm. The results were rated (acc. to Chen-Yu scale) III(o)--four patients, IV(o)--four patients (one patient did not appear for control check-up). Despite of such a poor evaluation, all of the patients are satisfied with the operation.

  17. Racial Variation in Treatment of Traumatic Finger/Thumb Amputation: A National Comparative Study of Replantation and Revision Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic finger/thumb amputations are some of the most prevalent traumatic injuries affecting Americans each year. Rates of replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation, however, have been steadily declining across U.S. hospitals, which may make these procedures less accessible to minorities and vulnerable populations. The specific aim of this study was to examine racial variation in finger replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Methods Using a two-level hierarchical model, we retrospectively compared replantation rates for African-American patients with those of Whites, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients younger than 65 with traumatic finger/thumb amputation injuries who sought care at a U.S. trauma center between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study sample. Results We analyzed 13,129 patients under 65 years of age with traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Replantation rates declined over time from 19% to 14% (p = 0.004). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, African-Americans (OR=0.81; CI: 0.66–0.99; p = 0.049) were less likely to undergo replantation procedures than Whites, and uninsured patients (OR=0.73; CI: 0.62–0.84; p < 0.0001) were less likely than those who were privately insured. Conclusions Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques and the increasing use of reconstructive surgery in other fields, finger/thumb replantation rates are declining in the U.S. and vulnerable populations are less likely to undergo replantation after amputation injuries. Regionalization of care for these injuries may not only provide a higher quality care but also reduce variations in treatment. PMID:26910702

  18. Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kd allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y

    1995-12-01

    Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.

  19. The soil microbiome – what does it tell us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When young blueberry bushes are planted in an established field that already contains mature blueberry bushes, the young bushes tend not to perform well. This syndrome is called replant disease. In other systems, such as apple replant disease, the causal organisms vary by geographic region and usual...

  20. Implementation of molecular marker technologies in the apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva - challenges and successes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program was initiated in the early 1970’s with the overarching goal of developing disease resistant, productive and precocious apple rootstocks. Near the turn of the century the program was joined with USDA ARS resources and in addition to focusing on releasing ...

  1. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  2. First report of pyrimethanil resistance in Botrytis cinerea from stored apples in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...

  3. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  4. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  5. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  6. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  7. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  8. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  9. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  10. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  11. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  12. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  13. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection.

  14. Functional latissimus dorsi island pedicle musculocutaneous flap to restore elbow flexion in replantation or revascularisation of above-elbow amputations.

    PubMed

    Parmaksizoglu, F; Beyzadeoglu, T

    2003-01-01

    Two total and one subtotal above-elbow amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged upper extremities followed by functional latissimus dorsi island pedicle musculocutaneous flap to restore elbow flexion. The mean follow-up was 68 months (range: 14 to 121 months). At final follow-up examinations, the patients had sufficient range-of-motion of their elbows with good strength. Restoring elbow function eliminates one of the most important limiting factors for above-elbow replantations. Functional latissimus dorsi island pedicle musculocutaneous flap is very reliable, has minimal donor-site morbidity and offers a wider choice when deciding about arm replantation in the upper arm region by providing a chance of restoring functions.

  15. Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.

  16. Continued root formation after replantation and root canal treatment in an avulsed immature permanent tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Hsin; Chung, Ming-Pang; Su, Wen-Song; Cheng, Jen-Chan; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2010-04-01

    This case report describes the continued root formation following replantation and conventional root canal therapy of a traumatically avulsed open-apex tooth with suppurative apical periodontitis. A 7-year-old male patient had an avulsed upper left central incisor (tooth 21) replanted approximately 50 min after traumatic avulsion. A root canal procedure was initiated due to pulp necrosis and periapical abscess detected in the follow-up period. After endodontic treatment with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dressing, a normal root length developed including an apical segment beyond the hard tissue barrier. Regeneration of the root occurred without pathology or ankylosis at 1-year of follow up.

  17. Using early flowering transgenic apple to accelerate the breeding of donor parents with multiple loci for disease resistance (Malus x domestica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the goals of the USDA-NIFA-SCRI RosBREED project is to develop donor parents with multiple loci for disease resistance. Due to the long generation time of tree fruit crops, the accumulation of pyramided resistance loci for multiple diseases by conventional breeding methods could require deca...

  18. Fatal bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following single digit replantation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anderson S M; Fok, Margaret W M; Fung, Boris K K

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism in hand surgery is rare. There is no report in the literature on postoperative mortality from venous thromboembolism following microsurgery in upper limbs. We report the case of a 56-year-old Chinese man who died from pulmonary embolism as a result of bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis following prolonged surgery under general anaesthesia after replantation of a finger. This case raises awareness of the need for precautions against venous thromboembolism following prolonged microsurgery and identification of high-risk patients.

  19. Surgical and technical aspects of hand transplantation: is it just another replant?

    PubMed

    Hartzell, Tristan L; Benhaim, Prosper; Imbriglia, Joseph E; Shores, Jaimie T; Goitz, Robert J; Balk, Marshall; Mitchell, Scott; Rubinstein, Roee; Gorantla, Vijay S; Schneeberger, Stefan; Brandacher, Gerald; Lee, W P Andrew; Azari, Kodi K

    2011-11-01

    The ultimate goal of hand allotransplantation is to achieve graft survival and useful long-term function. To achieve these goals, selection of the appropriate patient, detailed preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique are of paramount importance. Transplantation should be reserved for motivated consenting adults in good general heath, who are psychologically stable and have failed a trial of prosthetic use. While the key surgical steps of transplantation are similar to those of replantation, there are major differences. This article describes the steps in hand allotransplantation, and the importance of patient selection as well as preoperative and postoperative care.

  20. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  1. Flying solo: a single year-single surgeon community hospital replantation/ revascularization experience.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, J Scott

    2002-08-01

    A recent 12-month review of the emergent replantation/revascularization experience of a solo practice microsurgeon in a community hospital environment is presented. A total of 67 digits and/or hands/limbs were operated on in 51 patients with a success rate of 87 percent. There were nine failures, all in digits with crush-avulsion etiologies. These results support the position that the single microsurgeon practicing in a community hospital environment can provide levels of care for patients with amputated or devascularized digits and parts comparable to tertiary medical centers.

  2. Microsurgical replantation and postoperative leech treatment of a large severed nasal segment.

    PubMed

    Stemann Andersen, Peter; Elberg, Jens Jørgen

    2012-12-01

    The survival of a microsurgically replanted segment of nose in a 41-year-old woman was facilitated by the assistance of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. An arterial microanastomosis was made to a severed partial segment of nose with no possibility of recreating a venous anastomosis. The resulting venous congestion was treated with nine days of treatment with a medical leech until venous neovascularisation had been achieved. At follow-up six months after discharge there was a well-heeled nasal segment and a satisfying functional - as well as cosmetic - result.

  3. Surgical management with intentional replantation on a tooth with palato-radicular groove

    PubMed Central

    Forero-López, Jorge; Gamboa-Martínez, Luis; Pico-Porras, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A palato-radicular groove (PRG) is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed. PMID:25984480

  4. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  5. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  6. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia.

  7. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  8. Efficacy of enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain) in treatment of replanted teeth--a systematic review based on animal studies.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the current systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) (Emdogain) on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth. A review of the published literature [search term: (Emdogain OR enamel matrix derivative OR enamel matrix protein] AND [avulsion OR replantation OR autotransplantation)] was conducted by two independent investigators according to defined selection criteria. For data extraction of the identified animal studies, the following histomorphometric findings were considered: (i) healed PDL, (ii) surface resorption, (iii) inflammatory resorption and (iv) replacement resorption. The heterogeneity of data collection and the small amount of identified publications did not allow for statistical analysis. Four controlled trials (CT) conducted in animals, but no randomized controlled trials (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) could be received from the systematic search. From the selected studies, two CT gave evidence of EMD treatment to be effective in inducing healing of replanted teeth, while one CT found no differences between EMD treated teeth and controls. Finally, one CT compared EMD and sodium fluoride application, but revealed no differences between the treatments. The data of controlled trials available are limited and conflicting. No firm conclusion regarding the efficacy of EMD application on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth can be drawn because of lack of RCT and CCT.

  9. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  10. Bull’s-eye rot management: understanding the disease cycle of Neofabraea spp. occurring on apples grown in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US Pacific Northwest, bull’s-eye rot of pome fruit, caused by Neofabraea spp., is a major quarantine concern. Of the four fungi causing this disease, Neofabraea perennans and N. kienholzii are common in north central Washington. In addition to fruit decay, N. perennans causes perennial cank...

  11. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  12. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  13. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  14. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  15. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan.

  16. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in different species of apples grown in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness.

  17. Transcriptomic profiling of apple in response to inoculation with a pathogen (P. expansum) and a non-pathogen (P. digitatum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mould of pome fruits, is a major postharvest pathogen in all producing countries. To develop a better understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in apples, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of apple gene expression in response to a compatibl...

  18. Infection of apple fruit by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in the orchard in relation to Sphaeropsis rot in storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot, caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, is a recently recognized postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard in relation to development of Sphaeropsis rot in storage and ...

  19. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  20. Bilateral Leg Replantation in a 3-Month-Old Baby After a Knee Level Crush Amputation-A 2-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bulic, Kresimir; Antabak, Anko; Dujmovic, Anto; Kisic, Hrvoje; Lorencin, Mia

    2017-03-01

    We present a case of a successful bilateral leg replantation in a 3-month-old baby after a knee-level crush amputation with the loss of both knee joints. The legs were replanted after 4 hours of warm and an additional 2.5 and 3.5 hours of cold ischemia time. Both legs show motor and sensory reinnervation, without additional procedures performed on the right leg, and after a nerve reconstruction with cadaveric allografts on the left leg. Both replanted legs exhibit excellent bony and soft tissue growth. Two years after the injury, the patient is progressing well with rehabilitation, with favourable odds of having knee reconstructions performed at a later age. This is the youngest patient reported to have had successful replantation of both legs.

  1. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  2. Rehabilitation after the replantation on a 2-year-old girl with both amputated legs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Heon; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yong Ha; Seul, Jung Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin

    2005-04-01

    We had an opportunity to perform replantation of both legs on a 2-year-old girl, and our decision to perform replantation rather than amputation surgery was carefully made taking her age, degree of crushing injury, ischaemic time and level of the amputation into consideration. Painstakingly designed rehabilitation treatments were continuously performed on this girl from the early stage after the operation, and the treatments were comprised of four parts; that is, flexion and extension exercise for the ankle in order to prevent it from stiffness or contracture, functional electrical stimulation (FES) in order to prevent muscular atrophy on the lower extremities, muscle strengthening exercise for the lower extremities, and electrical stimulation to regenerate the damaged nerves and to prevent muscular atrophy from occurring. For an objective assessment of the postoperative conditions, total active motion angles of the ankle joint were measured, and also EMG and NCV were conducted at the end of the first month as well as at the end of the 6th month. Total active motion angles of the ankle joint were increased progressively as time went on, from 15 to 60 degrees on the right and from 10 to 45 degrees on the left. NCV did not show any sensation or response from motor nerves, or amplitude decreased considerably 1 month after the operation; however, at the end of the 6th month conditions improved a great deal with both amplitude and latency. And most muscles that did not show any signals on EMG or showed less than normal at the end of the first month after the operation eventually recovered at the end of the 6th month. The patient had no particular difficulties in walking after 6 months or rather she started running in small steps showing her legs functioning superbly. An infant with both of lower extremities amputated is quite a rare case. We believe that the replantation surgery was successful due to the fact that carefully selected preoperative factors were taken into

  3. Placental immune response to apple allergen in allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Enke, Uta; Varosi, Frauke; Hoyer, Heike; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Jenmalm, Maria C; Markert, Udo R

    2014-12-01

    The immunological milieu in the placenta may be crucial for priming the developing foetal immune system. Early imbalances may promote the establishment of immune-mediated diseases in later life, including allergies. The initial exposure to allergens seems to occur in utero, but little is known about allergen-induced placental cytokine and chemokine release. The release of several cytokines and chemokines from placenta tissue after exposure to mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or apple allergen in placentas from allergic and healthy mothers was to be analysed. Four placentas from women with apple allergy and three controls were applied in a placental perfusion model with two separate cotyledons simultaneously perfused with and without apple allergen (Mal d 1). Two control placentas were perfused with compound 48/80. In outflow, histamine was quantified spectrophotofluorometrically, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ by a cytometric multiplex bead array and IL-13 and CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22 with an in-house multiplex Luminex assay. Compound 48/80 induced a rapid release of histamine, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22, but not of the other factors. Apple allergen induced a time-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF, but not of histamine, in placentas of women with apple allergy compared with the unstimulated cotyledon. CCL17 levels were slightly increased after allergen stimulation in control placentas. Allergens can induce placental cytokines and chemokines distinctly in allergic and healthy mothers. These mediators may affect the prenatal development of the immune system and modify the risk of diseases related to immune disorders in childhood such as allergies.

  4. Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags from Apple1

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing

    2006-01-01

    The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485

  5. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    PubMed

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed.

  6. Evaluation of fumigation and surface seal methods on fumigant emissions in an orchard replant field.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J; Schneider, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests and enabling successful replanting of orchards. Reducing emissions is required to minimize the possible worker and bystander risk and the contribution of fumigants to the atmosphere as volatile organic compounds that lead to the formation of ground-level ozone. A field trial was conducted in a peach orchard replant field to investigate the effects of fumigation method (shank-injection vs. subsurface drip-application treatments) and surface treatments (water applications and plastic tarps) on emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) from shank-injection of Telone C-35 and drip application of InLine. Treatments included control (no water or soil surface treatment); standard high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, and pre-irrigation, all over shank injection; and HDPE tarp over and irrigation with micro-sprinklers before and after the drip application. The highest 1,3-D and CP emission losses over a 2-wk monitoring period were from the control (36% 1,3-D and 30% CP) and HDPE tarp (43% 1,3-D and 17% CP) over shank injection. The pre-irrigation 4 d before fumigation and VIF tarp over shank injection had similar total emission losses (19% 1,3-D and 8-9% CP). The HDPE tarp and irrigations over subsurface drip-application treatments resulted in similar and the lowest emission losses (12-13% 1,3-D, and 2-3% CP). Lower fumigant concentrations in the soil-gas phase were observed with drip-application than in the shank-injection treatments; however, all treatments provided 100% kill to citrus nematodes in bags buried from 30 to 90 cm depth. Pre-irrigation and drip application seem to be effective to minimize emissions of 1,3-D and CP.

  7. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple.

  8. The chemopreventive activity of apple against carcinogenesis: antioxidant activity and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia A P; Gomes de Moura, Carolina F; Aguiar, Odair; de Oliveira, Flavia; Spadari, Regina C; Oliveira, Nara R C; Oshima, Celina T F; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2014-09-01

    Apples and their derivatives are rich in phytochemicals, including flavonoids (catechins, flavonols, quercetin) and phenolic acids (quercetin glycosides, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins), vitamins, and fibers, that confer an important antioxidant property. Chemoprevention is defined by the use of natural or synthetic agents to interfere with the progression, reverse, or inhibit carcinogenesis, thereby reducing the risk of developing clinically invasive disease. The aim of this article is to present data generated from the use of apples as a chemopreventive agent in carcinogenesis using in-vivo and in-vitro test systems. Apple and its bioactive compounds can exert chemopreventive properties as a result of antioxidant activity and cell cycle control. However, future focus of research on apple such as identifying the specific phytochemical responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, timing of consumption, and adequate amount of apples to achieve the best preventive effect using human large randomized-controlled trials is needed. Furthermore, animal studies are also relevant for better understanding the role of this fruit in human health as well as modulation of degenerative diseases such as cancer. Therefore, this area warrants further investigation as a new way of thinking, which would apply not only to apples but also to other fruit used as promising therapeutic agents against human diseases.

  9. Infection courts and timing of infection of apple fruit by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis in the orchard in relation to speck rot during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is the cause of speck rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. The pathogen is believed to incite infections in the field, and disease symptoms become evident only during storage. To determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard i...

  10. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W; Jenkins, D J; Southgate, D A; Houston, H; James, W P

    1978-01-07

    Approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, and guar gum was added to the controlled basal diet of nineteen healthy volunteers. Faecal weight increased by 12% on bran, 69% on cabbage, 59% on carrot, 40% on apple, and 20% on guar gum. These changes in faecal weight were correlated with an increased intake of pentose-containing polysaccharides from the fibre. On the basal diet there were pronounced individual differences in faecal weight, and from these the response of subjects to the fibre preparations could be predicted. Addition of fibre shortened mean transit-time through the gut and significantly diluted an inert marker in the faeces. Diet-induced changes in colonic function may explain international differences in the prevalence of colonic disease, whilst personal variation in the response to dietary fibre may determine individual susceptibility to large-bowel disease within a community.

  11. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  12. Penile replantation.

    PubMed

    Wells, M D; Boyd, J B; Bulbul, M A

    1991-06-01

    Amputation of the penis is thankfully an uncommon injury. Because of its rarity, a uniform plan of management to deal with this difficult injury has yet to be agreed on. We describe a man who sustained such an injury and his subsequent clinical course. The relevant history and pertinent anatomy is highlighted. Additionally, a systematic approach to dealing with this devastating injury is presented.

  13. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  14. Toe-to-hand transfer from a cross-foot replantation in a traumatic four-extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Serkan; Akan, Mithat; Aköz, Tayfun

    2005-10-01

    Treatment of mutilating hand injuries often requires multiple innovative procedures. This report describes a case of multi-limbed amputations from a train injury and the extraordinary microsurgical approaches for a two-hand reconstruction. The first stage of the procedure was a cross replantation of the left foot to the right leg. The second stage was a combined second and third toe transfer from the cross replantation of the left foot to the right hand, and a sensate fibular osteocutaneous flap transfer for left hand reconstruction. Satisfactory function was restored, including good protective sensation. These kinds of extraordinary microsurgical approaches are useful salvage procedures for hand reconstruction, when presented with a case of multi-limb amputation.

  15. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  16. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  17. Osteosarcoma of the distal radius treated with segmental forearm resection, hand replantation, and subsequent limb lengthening: case report.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Hiroshi; Morita, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Iwabuchi, Yasuhiro

    2014-06-01

    A 9-year-old girl with osteosarcoma of the radius was treated with segmental forearm resection and replantation followed by forearm lengthening of 11 cm. At 9-year follow-up, she had recovered sensory function, and her pinch and grasp were sufficient for performing daily activities. Functional outcomes evaluated by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and International Society of Limb Salvage functional score system were 4/100 and 23/30, respectively.

  18. Evaluating Emdogain and healing of replanted teeth using an intra-individual experimental-control study design.

    PubMed

    Fridström, Margareta; Schollin, Jens; Crossner, Claes-Göran

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to use an intra-individual experimental-control study design to explore if application of Emdogain prior to re-plantation after a dry extra-alveolar period of 60 min would promote a favorable healing of the periodontal ligament cells. Ten patients, for whom already decisions had been taken to extract two maxillary premolars because of crowding, participated in the study. The teeth were extracted and endodontic treatment was performed extra orally. The experimental tooth and its alveolar socket were covered with Emdogain prior to replantation. The contra lateral tooth served as a control and was replanted without any prior treatment. The teeth were stabilized with a retainer for 3-7 days and the patients were followed up every third week. After 13 weeks, the teeth were finally extracted and prepared for histological examination. Radiographs were taken before the study period, at day 29 and prior to the final extraction. The results were in favor of Emdogain, but the overall difference between the Emdogain-treated tooth and its control was rather small, and it seemed questionable if the registered differences could be of any obvious practical clinical importance. Histologically, all the teeth showed some degree of pathology after such a long dry extra-oral time and the outcome seemed to be more correlated to the individual than to the treatment. Given more favorable conditions regarding storage medium and/or extra-oral time, Emdogain might still be of value for an uncomplicated healing after replantation.

  19. Successful treatment of a radicular groove by intentional replantation and Emdogain therapy: four years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Naghshbandi, Jafar; Simon, James H S; Rotstein, Ilan

    2009-03-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often causes severe periodontal defects. Treatments of such an anomaly present a clinical challenge to the operator. Presented is a case of successful treatment of radicular groove associated with a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old girl. A combination of endodontics, intentional replantation, and Emdogain therapy was used. At 4-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and complete resolution of the periapical pathology was evident.

  20. Biological control of major postharvest pathogens on apple with Candida sake.

    PubMed

    Viñas, I; Usall, J; Teixidó, N; Sanchis, V

    1998-03-03

    Epiphytic microorganisms isolated from apples, pears and the surfaces of apple leaves were screened for antagonistic activity against Penicillium expansum (blue-mold), Botrytis cinerea (gray-mold) and Rhizopus nigricans (Rhizopus rot) on apple (Malus domestica). A total of 933 bacteria and yeasts were tested in primary screening against P. expansum. Ninety-two strains reduced the lesion size on apples by more than 50%, 72 of which were isolated from the surface of apples. For secondary screening against P. expansum, B. cinerea and R. nigricans, 31 strains were selected. The most promising isolate, CPA-1, was identified as Candida sake. This yeast, isolated from apples in storage season was very effective against all three diseases. Wounded Golden Delicious apples protected with the yeast suspension at a concentration of 2.6 x 10(6) CFU/ml and inoculated with conidia of B. cinerea and R. nigricans of 10(5) and 10(4) conidia/ml, respectively, did not develop rot. Complete control of P. expansum was obtained at the same concentration of the antagonist with a pathogen inoculum concentration of 10(3) conidia/ml. This strain, also provided excellent control of rot development under cold storage conditions. The strain of Candida sake can grow actively in aerobic conditions. In drop-inoculated wounds of apples, the populations of C. sake increased by more than 50-fold during the first 24 h at 20 degrees C. The maximum population of C. sake on apple wounds was the same at 20 as at 1 degrees C and was recovered after three and twenty days, respectively.

  1. Apple juice consumption reduces plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Hyson, D; Studebaker-Hallman, D; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies show that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with beneficial effects on human health including reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fruits and their juices contain phytochemicals that inhibit in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and may account, in part, for their protective effect. However, reports of in vivo antioxidant effects from fruit intake are limited. We conducted a human trial to examine the in vivo effect of consumption of apples (both whole and juice) in an unblinded, randomized, crossover design. Healthy men and women added 375 ml of unsupplemented apple juice or 340 g of cored whole apple to their daily diet for 6 weeks, then crossed over to the alternate product for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after each dietary period. Compliance was monitored via biweekly 5-day food records, bodyweight checks, and meetings with study personnel. There were no significant differences between groups in intake of dietary fat, cholesterol, total carbohydrate, sugar, or calories throughout the study. Dietary fiber intake increased by 22% with whole apple consumption. Body weight, fasting serum lipid concentration, and other lipoprotein parameters were unchanged. Apple juice consumption increased ex vivo copper (Cu(++))-mediated LDL oxidation lag time by 20% compared with baseline. Apples and apple juice both reduced conjugated diene formation. Moderate apple juice consumption provides in vivo antioxidant activity. In view of the current understanding of CAD, the observed effect on LDL might be associated with reduced CAD risk and supports the inclusion of apple juice in a healthy human diet.

  2. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  3. Fingertip replantation at or distal to the nail base: use of the technique of artery-only anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Akyürek, M; Safak, T; Keçik, A

    2001-06-01

    The authors describe the functional and aesthetic results of microsurgical replantation of 21 fingertip amputations at or distal to the nail base-namely, zone I amputations. There were 15 male and 6 female patients, with an average age of 26 years (age range, 1-41 years). Replantations were performed using the anastomosis of the artery-only technique, with neither vein nor nerve repair. Venous drainage was provided by an external bleeding method with a fish-mouth incision in "distal" zone I amputations for approximately 7 days, and by the use of leeches in more "proximal" zone I amputations for 10 to 12 days. Results indicated that the overall survival rate was 76%, with 16 of 21 digits surviving. Sensory evaluation at an average follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-18 months) revealed an average static two-point discrimination of 6.1 mm (range, 2.0-8.0 mm). Considering the unfavorable results and the donor site morbidity of various fingertip reconstructions, a microsurgical fingertip replantation should always be considered except in extremely distal, clean-cut, pediatric cases, in which case a composite graft is a possibility. The results of this series indicate that an amputated fingertip in zone I can be salvaged successfully by microvascular anastomosis of the artery only, with a nonmicrosurgical method of venous drainage. Furthermore, acceptable sensory recovery can be expected without any nerve coaptation.

  4. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  5. Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Animal feces are a suspected source of contamination of apples by disease-causing organisms such as Escherichia coli O157. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to detect different amounts of feces from dairy cows, deer, and a dairy pasture applied to Red Delicious apples. One day after application, detection for 1:2 and 1:20 dilutions was nearly 100%, and for 1:200 dilutions (<15 ng of dry matter) detection was >80%. Detection after apples had been washed and brushed was lowest for pasture feces; detection for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 dilutions of feces was 100%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. This technology may encourage development of commercial systems for detecting fecal contamination of apples.

  6. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  7. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  8. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after treatment with minocycline and doxycycline assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, radiography, and histology.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra Luisa de Souza; Ritter, André Vicente; Murrah, Valerie; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Trope, Martin

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of topical antibiotic treatment on pulp revascularization in replanted teeth. Thirty-four immature teeth were selected from three young dogs. Baseline radiographs and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) readings were obtained. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups: Thirty-eight teeth were extracted, kept dry for 5 min, and either (Group 1) covered with minocycline mixture (G1, n = 11), (Group 2) soaked in doxycycline (G2, n = 11), or (Group 3) soaked in saline (G3-negative control, n = 6), and replanted. Teeth in Group 4 were not extracted (positive control, n = 6). Postoperative radiographs and LDF readings were obtained for 2 months after replantation. After sacrifice, the jaws were collected and processed for light microscopy. Pre- and postreplantation LDF readings and radiographs, and histologic findings were analyzed to assess revascularization. Pulp revascularization occurred in 91% (G1), 73% (G2), and 33% (G3) of the specimens. In conclusion, minocycline facilitates pulp revascularization in replanted immature teeth after replantation.

  9. Use of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit as a bridge to salvage a major upper-extremity replant in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Patrick J; Cordisco, Michael; Rodriguez, Daniel; Newberger, Jordanna; Legatt, Alan D; Garfein, Evan S

    2010-10-01

    Major replantation of the upper extremity is defined as replantation at or above the level of the wrist. Selection of appropriate candidates is complex and requires consideration of many patient- and injury-associated factors including patient age, associated injuries, patient desire, mechanism of injury, ischemia time, wound condition, and presence of multiple-level injury. With respect to age, younger patients, especially children, are deemed to have a distinct advantage over more elderly patients due to improved nerve regeneration, and many advocate making every effort to replant this population. The risks of major upper-extremity replantation are significant and include bleeding, depletion of coagulation factors, secondary infection, and sepsis. As a result, major systemic illness and significant associated injuries are accepted as contraindications to limb salvage in this patient population. Herein we describe the use of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit as a potential bridge for short-term preservation of the extremity in a young patient with an acute, concomitant systemic illness. In the authors' opinion, use of ECMO perfusion is a viable means of maintaining extremity perfusion over hours or even days and may lead to broadened replant criteria in patients with associated injuries.

  10. Active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wartak, Andreas; Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) swept source Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) approach, enabling three-dimensional velocity vector reconstruction of moving particles without prior knowledge of the orientation of motion. The developed APPLE DOCT setup allows for non-invasive blood flow measurements in vivo and was primarily designed for quantitative human ocular blood flow investigations. The system’s performance was demonstrated by in vitro flow phantom as well as in vivo retinal vessel bifurcation measurements. Furthermore, total retinal blood flow – a biomarker aiding in diagnosis and monitoring of major ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy or central/branch retinal vein occlusion – was determined in the eyes of healthy human volunteers. PMID:28018739

  11. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.

  12. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  13. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  14. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  15. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  16. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  17. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  18. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  19. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  20. Molecular characterization of cisgenic lines of apple 'Gala' carrying the Rvi6 scab resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Flachowsky, Henryk; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2014-01-01

    Using resistance genes from a crossable donor to obtain cultivars resistant to diseases and the use of such cultivars in production appears an economically and environmentally advantageous approach. In apple, introgression of resistance genes by classical breeding results in new cultivars, while introducing cisgenes by biotechnological methods maintains the original cultivar characteristics. Recently, plants of the popular apple 'Gala' were genetically modified by inserting the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) under control of its own regulatory sequences. This gene is derived from the scab-resistant apple 'Florina' (originally from the wild apple accession Malus floribunda 821). The vector used for genetic modification allowed a postselection marker gene elimination to achieve cisgenesis. In this work, three cisgenic lines were analysed to assess copy number, integration site, expression level and resistance to apple scab. For two of these lines, a single insertion was observed and, despite a very low expression of 0.07- and 0.002-fold compared with the natural expression of 'Florina', this was sufficient to induce plant reaction and reduce fungal growth by 80% compared with the scab-susceptible 'Gala'. Similar results for resistance and expression analysis were obtained also for the third line, although it was impossible to determine the copy number and TDNA integration site-such molecular characterization is requested by the (EC) Regulation No. 1829/2003, but may become unnecessary if cisgenic crops become exempt from GMO regulation.

  1. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  2. Influence of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and sodium fluoride on the healing process in delayed tooth replantation: histologic and histometric analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Poi, Wilson Roberto; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Manfrin, Thais Mara; Rodrigues, Thais da Silveira

    2007-02-01

    Although it has already been shown that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) promotes periodontal regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects, there is little information concerning its regenerative capacity in cases of delayed tooth replantation. To evaluate the alterations in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth after use of Emdogain, the central incisors of 24 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were extracted and left on the bench for 6 h. Thereafter, the dental papilla and the enamel organ of each tooth were sectioned for pulp removal by a retrograde way and the canal was irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were assigned to two groups: in group I, root surface was treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min (changing the solution every 5 min), rinsed with saline for 10 min and immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride for 10 min; in group II, root surfaces were treated in the same way as described above, except for the application of Emdogain instead of sodium fluoride. The teeth were filled with calcium hydroxide (in group II right before Emdogain was applied) and replanted. All animals received antibiotic therapy. The rats were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixated, decalcified and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The use of 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride provided more areas of replacement resorption. The use of Emdogain resulted in more areas of ankylosis and was therefore not able to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis. It may be concluded that neither 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride nor Emdogain were able to prevent root resorption in delayed tooth replantation in rats.

  3. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  4. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  5. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  6. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  7. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  8. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of new and old apple varieties.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Oszmiański, Jan; Laskowski, Piotr

    2008-08-13

    There is considerable evidence to show that a greater intake of apple contributes to improved health by reducing the risk of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. Apple fruit is a major source of phenol compounds, because its consumption is widespread in many countries and it is available on the market for the whole year. The phenolic composition of 67 varieties of apple cultivars (new and old varieties) was examined for the concentration of some important phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. For the first time, we have looked at the correlation and compared polyphenolic coumpounds in Golden Delicious variety and new varieties grown from it. Up to 18 compounds, including catechin, procyanidin, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis of crude extracts and after thiolysis and LC-MS. The mean content of total polyphenols lay between 523.02 and 2723.96 mg/100 g dw and depending upon the apples variety. Flavanols (catechin and oligomeric procyanidins) are the major class of apple polyphenols, representing more than 80%, followed by hydroxycinnamic acids (1-31%), flavonols (2-10%), dihydrochalcones (0.5-5%), and in red apples, anthocyanins (1%). In this study, the best correlation was found for the total polyphenols and ABTS method, with a lower correlation for FRAP and DPPH methods ( r = 0.871, 0.839, and 0.804, respectively). The presented data clearly demonstrated that new varieties, i.e., Ozark Gold, Julyred, and Jester, of apple had the same or higher value of bioactive compounds in comparison to the old varieties, i.e., Golden Delicious, Idared, and Jonagold.

  9. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  10. The effect of wind induced bottom shear stress and salinity on Zostera noltii replanting in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, E.; Roux, B.; Fougere, D.; Chen, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The paper concerns the wind influence on bottom shear stress and salinity levels in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal lagoon (Etang de Berre), with respect to a replanting program of Zostera noltii. The MARS3D numerical model is used to analyze the 3D current, salinity and temperature distribution induced by three meteorological, oceanic and anthropogenic forcings in this lagoon. The numerical model has been carefully validated by comparison with daily observations of the vertical salinity and temperature profiles at three mooring stations, for one year. Then, two modelling scenarios are considered. The first scenario (scen.#1), starting with a homogeneous salinity of S = 20 PSU and without wind forcing, studies a stratification process under the influence of a periodic seawater inflow and a strong freshwater inflow from a hydropower plant (250 m3/s). Then, in the second scenario (scen.#2), we study how a strong wind of 80 km/h can mix the haline stratification obtained at the end of scen.#1. The most interesting results concern four nearshore replanting areas; two are situated on the eastern side of EB and two on the western side. The results of scen.#2 show that all these areas are subject to a downwind coastal jet. Concerning bottom salinity, the destratification process is very beneficial; it always remains greater than 12 PSU for a N-NW wind of 80 km/h and an hydropower runoff of 250 m3/s. Special attention is devoted to the bottom shear stress (BSS) for different values of the bottom roughness parameter (for gravels, sands and silts), and to the bottom salinity. Concerning BSS, it presents a maximum near the shoreline and decreases along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. There exists a zone, parallel to the shoreline, where BSS presents a minimum (close to zero). When comparing the BSS value at the four replanting areas with the critical value, BSScr, at which the sediment mobility would occur, we see that for the smaller roughness values (ranging

  11. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  12. Whole apple extracts increase lifespan, healthspan and resistance to stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Vayndorf, Elena M; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-07-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of age-related functional decline and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These effects are primarily attributed to phytochemicals, plant compounds with a wide range of biological activities and health benefits. Apples, the top contributor of fruit phenolics in American diets, have high antioxidant, antiproliferative and chemopreventive activity in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about their effects on aging. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of whole apple phytochemical extracts on lifespan, healthspan and resistance to various stresses in vivo using C. elegans as a model. The mean and maximum lifespan of animals treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml whole apple extracts increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner by up to 39 and 25%, respectively. Healthspan also significantly improved as indicated by improved motility and reduced lipofuscin accumulation. Animals pre-treated with whole apple extracts were more resistant to stresses such as heat, UV radiation, paraquat-induced oxidative stress, and pathogenic infection, suggesting that cellular defense and immune system functions also improved. Our findings indicate that, in C. elegans, whole apple extracts slow aging, extend lifespan, improve healthspan, and enhance resistance to stress.

  13. Muscle Is a Target for Preservation in a Rat Limb Replantation Model

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yuki; Teratani, Takumi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ischemia exceeding 6 hours makes clinical limb replantation difficult and places the patient at risk of functional deficit or limb loss. We investigated the preservation of muscle function and morphology with solutions in rat hindlimb in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Quadriceps femoris muscles from luciferase transgenic rats were preserved for 24 hours at 4°C in extracellular-type trehalose containing Kyoto (ETK), University of Wisconsin (UW), or lactated Ringer’s (LR) solution (control). Muscle luminescence was measured with a bioimaging system. Amputated limbs of Lewis rats preserved with ETK, UW, or LR for 6 or 24 hours at 4°C were transplanted orthotopically. At week 8, terminal latency and amplitude were measured in the tibialis anterior muscle. The muscles were also analyzed histologically. Results: Isolated muscles preserved in ETK or UW had significantly higher luminescence than did muscles immersed in LR (P < 0.05). In the 6-hour-preserved limb transplantation model, although the 3 groups had almost the same terminal latency, electrical amplitude was significantly lower in the LR group. Histologically, muscles preserved with LR showed the most atrophic changes. In the 24-hour-preserved model, the survival rate of the LR group was 37.5% in contrast to 80% in the ETK and UW groups. Electrical signals were not detected in the LR group owing to severe muscle atrophy and fibrosis. The ETK and UW groups showed good muscle function electrophysiologically. Conclusions: Preservation solutions can protect muscle function and morphology in ischemia–reperfusion limbs and improve recipient survival rates after transplantation of long-term-preserved limbs. PMID:25289265

  14. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  15. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  16. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  18. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  19. Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Beacham-Bowden, Tina; Keller, Susanne E; Adhikari, Chaitali; Taylor, Kirk T; Chirtel, Stewart J; Merker, Robert I

    2003-04-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. However, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. The purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars) but was found at levels of 40.2 to 374 microg/liter in cider pressed from four cultivars of fresh ground-harvested (dropped) apples. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from culled tree-picked apples stored for 4 to 6 weeks at 0 to 2 degrees C but was found at levels of 0.97 to 64.0 microg/liter in cider pressed from unculled fruit stored under the same conditions. Cider from controlled-atmosphere-stored apples that were culled before pressing contained 0 to 15.1 microg of patulin per liter, while cider made from unculled fruit contained 59.9 to 120.5 microg of patulin per liter. The washing of ground-harvested apples before pressing reduced patulin levels in cider by 10 to 100%, depending on the initial patulin levels and the type of wash solution used. These results indicate that patulin is a good indicator of the quality of the apples used to manufacture cider. The avoidance of ground-harvested apples and the careful culling of apples before pressing are good methods for reducing patulin levels in cider.

  20. Stability and anti-glycation properties of intermediate moisture apple products fortified with green tea.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2011-07-15

    Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs.

  1. Role of simple cold storage in preventing epiphyseal growth plate impairment after replantation surgery in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Toru; Ishida, Osamu; Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ischemia time on longitudinal bone growth after replantation, and to evaluate the usefulness of simple cold storage of an amputated limb in preventing epiphyseal growth-plate impairment. A hind-limb replantation model was produced with 5-week-old rats after various ischemia times. With more than 6 hr of warm ischemia, growth disturbance was observed, and extensive necrosis was histologically apparent in the central region of the growth plate of the proximal tibia, even at 1 week postoperatively. Destruction of the growth plate was complete at 4 weeks after surgery. By simple cold storage of the amputated limb, growth disturbance was not observed, even following ischemia for 9 hr, and no abnormal findings were observed histologically. Segmental necrosis and destruction of the growth plate observed histologically suggested the possibility of indirect impairment of the epipyseal chondrocytes due to disturbance of the epiphyseal arterial system, attributable to ischemia. The study confirmed experimentally that cold storage of the amputated part may prevent longitudinal bone-growth disturbance after extension of ischemia time.

  2. Dental pulp in mature replanted human teeth: morphological alterations and metalloproteineses-2 and -9, Annexin-5, BCL-2 and iNOS modulation.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Uzzo, M L; Spatola, G F; Jurjus, A; Vandevska-Radunovic, V

    2015-01-01

    Tooth replantation, as a treatment concept, has been subject to controversies regarding the mechanism as well as the various parameters underlying this process. This work aimed to study time-related changes in the pulp of replanted mature human premolars through the changes in the levels of certain factors involved in the underlying mechanisms of pulpal tissue healing after replantation. Eleven experimental mature teeth were extracted, immediately replanted in the original socket and left without any other intervention for 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks before re-extraction. Three premolars served as control. All specimens were subject to histological analysis and the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic family) were analyzed employing immunohistochemistry. The results showed degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammatory cell infiltrate, loss in pulpo-dentine interface and loss of odontoblasts in the dental pulp tissue. This was accompanied by increase over time of MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and a decrease of BCL-2 and MMP-2, suggesting that apoptosis increased throughout the experimental period.

  3. Treatment of replacement resorption by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites, and Emdogain--results of a 6-year survey.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Andreas; Pohl, Yango; von Arx, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    The present clinical study investigated the outcome of intentional replantation using resection of the ankylosed sites of the root, extraoral endodontic treatment using titanium posts and Emdogain for periodontal healing following trauma-related ankylosis. During an evaluation period of 6 years, 16 ankylosed teeth affected by replacement resorption were treated as described. Evaluation parameters before treatment and during the follow-up period included Periotest scores, percussion sound and periapical radiographs. All findings were compared to those of the adjacent teeth. In a second accident, one tooth was lost after 7 months and was excluded as a dropout. Ankylosis did not recur in seven replanted teeth, which were observed for an average of 52.3 months (range: 24-68 months). Ankylosis recurred in eight teeth after an average period of 12 months (range: 4-26 months). An infraocclusion, normal or only slightly reduced Periotest scores and normal percussion sound were preoperatively found in six of seven successfully replanted teeth, which corresponded to a relatively small area of ankylosis. The majority of the teeth showing recurrent ankylosis preoperatively presented with normal position, negative Periotest scores and a high percussion sound which corresponded to an extended area of ankylosis. Statistically significant relationship between preoperative findings and the treatment outcome (P = 0.031) have become apparent. The results indicate that the treatment of minor areas of ankylosis by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites and Emdogain appeared to prevent or delay the recurrence of ankylosis in 7 of 15 teeth.

  4. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  5. The infection capacity of P. expansum and P. digitatum on apples and histochemical analysis of host response.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Teixidó, N; Torres, R; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2012-07-16

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a variety of biochemical changes and is also associated with increased susceptibility to pathogens. The present study determined the effects of fruit maturity and storage conditions on the infection capacity of a host (P. expansum) and non-host (P. digitatum) pathogen on apple. A range of inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were utilized. Exposure to P. expansum at 20 °C resulted in significant differences in rot dynamics in apples collected at the earliest harvest date compared to all later harvest dates and inoculum concentrations assayed. Greater differences in infection capacity between harvests were obtained when fruit was stored at low temperature (0 °C). In contrast, P. digitatum was able to infect apples only under specific conditions and disease symptoms were limited to the initial wound inoculation site. When apples were resistant to P. digitatum, a visible browning reaction around the infection site was observed. Histochemical analyses of tissues surrounding the wound site were conducted. A positive reaction for lignin was observed in immature apples as early as 1 day after inoculation with either pathogen. Experiments conducted with the non-host pathogen indicated that lignification was an essential component of resistance in apples harvested prior to maturity or at commercial maturity. Apples harvested at an over-mature stage and inoculated with P. digitatum did not show evidence of staining for lignin until 7 days post-inoculation. Control samples only showed positive reaction in immature harvest. Results demonstrated that the maturity stage of fruit is an important factor in apple resistance to both P. expansum and P. digitatum and that lignin accumulation seems to play an important role when resistance is observed. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that P. digitatum, a non-host pathogen, has a limited capacity to infect apples.

  6. La replantation digitale, résultats et complications: étude d’une série de 18 cas

    PubMed Central

    Idrissi, Mohammed El; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Shimi, Mohammed; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    Les amputations digitales sont des lésions fréquentes, la majorité étant provoquée par des accidents de travail. Les techniques microchirurgicales représentent une alternative pour réparer ces amputations. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter notre expérience dans la replantation digitale à travers l'étude de 18 cas. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée entre Juin 2013 et Janvier 2015, incluant 14 patients présentant une amputation totale ou subtotale des doigts. Nous avons inclus dans notre série toutes les replantations unidigitales et multidigitales réalisées en aval de l'insertion distale du tendon fléchisseur superficiel ainsi que les replantations digitales réalisées en amont de l'insertion distale du tendon fléchisseur superficiel. Nous avons opéré ces patients selon le procédé classique de réimplantation digitale. Cinq replantations ont été secondairement régularisées. Parmi les 18 replantations, huit replantions digitales ont favorablement évolué puisque la replantation a permis de restituer un secteur complet de mobilité passive et active du doigt opéré sans chirurgie de reprise et sans complication secondaire précoce et tardive. Dans notre étude nous avons noté des résultats satisfaisants, malgré les conditions difficiles notamment le conditionnement initial du doigt amputé, et le délai de prise en charge retardé. Le développement et la maîtrise de la microchirurgie a permis de changer le pronostic de ces amputations à retentissement fonctionnel et psychologique difficile, les résultats de notre série sont encourageants pour a mise en place d'un service SOS main au Maroc. PMID:27795781

  7. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  8. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  9. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  10. Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis: inoculum availability, persistence and seasonal host susceptibility in Washington apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    P. washingtonensis infects apple fruit in the orchard but decay symptoms develop during storage. Pycnidia on diseased shoots are believed to be the inoculum source for fruit infection in the orchard. However, the period of twig susceptibility and availability of viable inoculum in the field are un...

  11. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  12. Using an apple (Malus) microarray for expression analysis of responses to compatible and incompatible pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). Ea enters the plant through blossom nectaries or wounds, multiplies in the apoplast and spreads through the plant via vascular tissues. When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea ind...

  13. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  14. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  15. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  16. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  17. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a…

  18. The history of Newton's apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  19. Scab resistance in 'Geneva' apple is conditioned by a resistance gene cluster with complex genetic control.

    PubMed

    Bastiaanse, Héloïse; Bassett, Heather C M; Kirk, Christopher; Gardiner, Susan E; Deng, Cecilia; Groenworld, Remmelt; Chagné, David; Bus, Vincent G M

    2016-02-01

    Apple scab, caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, is one of the most severe diseases of apple worldwide. It is the most studied plant-pathogen interaction involving a woody species using modern genetic, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches in both species. Although 'Geneva' apple was recognized long ago as a potential source of resistance to scab, this resistance has not been characterized previously. Differential interactions between various monoconidial isolates of V. inaequalis and six segregating F1 and F2 populations indicate the presence of at least five loci governing the resistance in 'Geneva'. The 17 chromosomes of apple were screened using genotyping-by-sequencing, as well as single marker mapping, to position loci controlling the V. inaequalis resistance on linkage group 4. Next, we fine mapped a 5-cM region containing five loci conferring both dominant and recessive scab resistance to the distal end of the linkage group. This region corresponds to 2.2 Mbp (from 20.3 to 22.5 Mbp) on the physical map of 'Golden Delicious' containing nine candidate nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes. This study increases our understanding of the complex genetic basis of apple scab resistance conferred by 'Geneva', as well as the gene-for-gene (GfG) relationships between the effector genes in the pathogen and resistance genes in the host.

  20. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  1. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples.

  2. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples. PMID:26635764

  3. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  4. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  5. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  6. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  7. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  8. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  9. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  10. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  11. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  12. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  13. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  14. Apples and cardiovascular health--is the gut microbiota a core consideration?

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2015-05-26

    There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.

  15. Apples and Cardiovascular Health—Is the Gut Microbiota a Core Consideration?

    PubMed Central

    Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26016654

  16. [Radical tumour resection in the upper extremity and heterotopic replantation of the hand. Analyses of functional results in two patients].

    PubMed

    Piza-Katzer, H; Baur, E-M; Estermann, D

    2008-10-01

    We describe here two cases treated 17 years apart from each other. The patients were young males with malignant soft tissue tumours of the forearm and elbow joint. Radical tumour resection involved removal of the elbow joint. Neither of the patients consented to upper arm amputation, but agreed to undergo heterotopic replantation of the amputated distal third of the forearm together with the hand to the stump of the upper arm. The tendons of the forearm were attached to the three muscles of the upper arm, and the distal nerves were coapted with the nerve trunks of the upper arm. However, the reconstructive procedures carried out in these two patients were anatomically different. In the first patient, for technical reasons, only the deep flexor tendons were sutured. Furthermore, development of a postoperative haematoma necessitated revision surgery with split-thickness skin graft to cover the defect of the forearm. Long-term immobilisation together with a conservative approach to mobility had resulted in less than optimal results so that it appeared meaningful to re-operate the patient even 17 years after the primary operation to help him gain improved sensibility as well as motor function. These goals were achieved to a surprising extent by scar release, Z-plasty, removal of split-thickness skin graft, neurolysis, arthrodesis of the IP joint of the thumb, and tendon transposition together with intensive early postoperative sensibility and mobility training. In the second patient, longitudinal division of the muscles of the upper arm into different compartments and interweaving of the long tendons of the forearm into these muscles as well as early intensive mobility training and reintegration of the replanted hand in the body scheme resulted in the rapid gain of extremely good functional results so that the patient is now able to employs his heterotopically replanted hand quite effectively in his activities of daily living as a farmer. We believe that the

  17. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  18. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  19. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  20. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  1. Enhanced recovery of Salmonella from apple cider and apple juice with universal preenrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Thomas S; Johnson, Mildred L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H

    2002-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative efficiencies of Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth and lactose broth for the recovery of a variety of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice. Bulk portions of juice were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars at high and low levels of 0.4 and 0.04 CFU/mL, respectively. The juice was aged for a minimum of 5 days at 2-5 degrees C. On the day analysis was initiated, each of 20 test portions (25 mL) of the contaminated juice was preenriched in UP broth and in lactose broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter. For pasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly (p < 0.05) more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (112 and 75, respectively). For unpasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (326 and 221, respectively). For pasteurized apple juice, UP broth recovered more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (93 and 81, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that UP broth should replace lactose broth for the analysis of pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice.

  2. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  3. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  4. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  5. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  6. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  8. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  9. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding…

  10. First morphomolecular identification of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum toxicogenic isolates associated with blue mold on apple.

    PubMed

    Moslem, Mohmed; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Yassin, Mohamed; Bahkali, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Postharvest blue mold decay caused by Penicillium spp. is the most important disease of fresh apple fruit in the world, which extend from the field to the store. Two new Penicillium spp. responsible for apple fruit decay were recovered. The morphological and molecular features of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum isolated from apple fruits were characterized morphologically and molecularly. Pathogenicity test exhibited that both P. griseofulvum and P. aurantiogriseum were responsible for blue mold decay in storage apple fruits. Lesion diameter indicated that P. aurantiogriseum was more aggressive than P. griseofulvum. All tested isolates were able to synthesize citrinin in addition to patulin. Not all of the isolates belonging to the same species showed the same profile of secondary metabolites. Microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction was able to differentiate these isolates at the species level and divided the analyzed isolates into two genetically different groups. Little intraspecific variability was evident. Microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction analysis proved to be an objective, rapid, and reliable tool to identify Penicillium spp. involved in blue mold of apple. This is the first report of occurrence of P. griseofulvum and P. aurantiogriseum on imported apple fruits in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Evolution of the population structure of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab fungus, associated with the domestication of its host.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.

  12. Effect of apple extracts on NF-kappaB activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul A; Polagruto, John A; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Phung, Anh; Soucek, Karel; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2006-05-01

    The mechanisms by which foods, such as fruit, are able to reduce the risk of chronic disease are still unclear. Several fruit products, including apples and apple juice, that are flavonoid-rich are reported to increase antioxidant levels in human subjects. This is supported by the finding from our previous studies that the chronic consumption of apple juice by human subjects reduced ex vivo low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation; we hypothesized that this was due to the flavonoid in the apple juice, which, as we reported earlier, reduced in vitro LDL oxidation. To further explore whether the mixture of flavonoids and other phytochemicals in apples are biologically relevant antioxidants, we tested the effects of this flavonoid-rich apple extract (AE) on oxidant-related pathways in a model of the endothelium: human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The effects of AE on oxidant-responsive (i.e., tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha-induced) nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB signaling in cell culture were assessed in transfected HUVECs by using a construct that expressed luciferase under the control of NF-kappaB. Incubation of HUVEC for 24 hrs with up to 10 mM (as gallic acid equivalents) of AE demonstrated no cytotoxicity, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase release, caspase 3 activation, and apoptosis marker-based FACS analysis. AE after a 24-hr incubation period at either 200 or 2000 nM showed a complex pattern of decreased basal and TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB signaling (63% maximal decrease) as assessed by luciferase activity in the transfected HUVECs, as well as by reduced levels of IkappaBalpha protein phosphorylation detected by Western blot analysis. We suggest that AE downregulates NF-kappaB signaling and that this is indicative of an antioxidant effect of the flavonoids present in AE.

  13. Membrane-targeted HrpNEa can modulate apple defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vergne, E; de Bernonville, T Dugé; Dupuis, F; Sourice, S; Cournol, R; Berthelot, P; Barny, M A; Brisset, M N; Chevreau, E

    2014-02-01

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora is the major bacterial disease of tribe Maleae, including apple. Among the proteins secreted by this bacterium, HrpNEa, also called harpin, is known to induce hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and to form amyloid oligomers leading to pore opening in the plasma membrane and alteration of membrane homeostasis. To better understand the physiological effects of HrpNEa in the host plant, we produced transgenic apple plants expressing HrpNEa with or without a secretion signal peptide (SP). HrpNEa expressed with a SP was found to be associated within the membrane fraction, in accordance with amyloidogenic properties and the presence of transmembrane domains revealed by in silico analysis. Expression analysis of 28 apple defense-related genes revealed gene modulations in the transgenic line expressing membrane-targeted HrpNEa. While apple transgenic trees displaying a high constitutive expression level of SP-HrpNEa showed a slight reduction of infection frequency after E. amylovora inoculation, there was no decrease in the disease severity. Thus HrpNEa seems to act as an elicitor of host defenses, when localized in the host membrane.

  14. Exercising AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Print Options with the Apple IIgs Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a step-by-step guide to using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIGS computer to print AppleWorks database files in two types of formats--labels and tables. Steps covered for printing labels include naming the report, arranging or sorting, deleting a category, inserting a category, printing the category name and entry, selecting…

  15. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the…

  16. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages…

  17. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  18. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  19. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  20. Free galactose concentrations in fresh and stored apples (Malus domestica) and processed apple products.

    PubMed

    Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol

    2004-02-11

    Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.

  1. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  2. Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shalika; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-04-01

    Humankind is presently engulfed by convenience quench, modern life style and urbanized diet system leading to progression in array of health disorders. The past decade confronted cardiometabolic disorder (21.8 %), lower respiratory and chronic obstructive lung disease (12.5 %) as the major causes of death world over. In anticipation, scientific communities' have demonstrated the role of healthy diets, especially those rich in fruits and vegetables, for management of such health related issues. These horticultural  crops are considered as a good source of polyphenols such as dihydrochalcones, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The present article reviews the efforts made to assess the potential of apple phenolic compounds present in fresh fruits, leaves, bark and pomace as dietary polyphenols. Considering the positive impact of such phytochemicals on human health, various nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and phenolic-rich food products are presently available on market shelves. On analytical front, improved instrumentation based on liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC, LC/MS/MS) have made the assessment of phenolics more rapid and reliable. Thus, owing to the emergent interest in natural compounds, it is pertinent to discuss the latest significant research findings on therapeutic aspects along with probable metabolic mechanisms of dietary polyphenols found in apples and their implications on human health.

  3. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  4. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  5. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  6. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  7. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  8. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  9. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  10. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  11. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  12. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  13. Identification of a QTL for postharvest disease resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit. Little attention has been devoted to postharvest disease resistance in apple breeding programs due both to a lack of sources of genetic resistance and to the time required for seedlings t...

  14. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  15. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  16. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  17. DNA-Free Genetically Edited Grapevine and Apple Protoplast Using CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Malnoy, Mickael; Viola, Roberto; Jung, Min-Hee; Koo, Ok-Jae; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo; Velasco, Riccardo; Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda

    2016-01-01

    The combined availability of whole genome sequences and genome editing tools is set to revolutionize the field of fruit biotechnology by enabling the introduction of targeted genetic changes with unprecedented control and accuracy, both to explore emergent phenotypes and to introduce new functionalities. Although plasmid-mediated delivery of genome editing components to plant cells is very efficient, it also presents some drawbacks, such as possible random integration of plasmid sequences in the host genome. Additionally, it may well be intercepted by current process-based GMO regulations, complicating the path to commercialization of improved varieties. Here, we explore direct delivery of purified CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to the protoplast of grape cultivar Chardonnay and apple cultivar such as Golden delicious fruit crop plants for efficient targeted mutagenesis. We targeted MLO-7, a susceptible gene in order to increase resistance to powdery mildew in grape cultivar and DIPM-1, DIPM-2, and DIPM-4 in the apple to increase resistance to fire blight disease. Furthermore, efficient protoplast transformation, the molar ratio of Cas9 and sgRNAs were optimized for each grape and apple cultivar. The targeted mutagenesis insertion and deletion rate was analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. Our results demonstrate that direct delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 RNPs to the protoplast system enables targeted gene editing and paves the way to the generation of DNA-free genome edited grapevine and apple plants. PMID:28066464

  18. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum.

  19. Mapping Quantitative Field Resistance Against Apple Scab in a 'Fiesta' x 'Discovery' Progeny.

    PubMed

    Liebhard, R; Koller, B; Patocchi, A; Kellerhals, M; Pfammatter, W; Jermini, M; Gessler, C

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT Breeding of resistant apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) as a disease management strategy relies on the knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of molecular markers and genetic linkage maps enables the detection and the analysis of major resistance genes as well as of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to the resistance of a genotype. Such a genetic linkage map was constructed, based on a segregating population of the cross between apple cvs. Fiesta (syn. Red Pippin) and Discovery. The progeny was observed for 3 years at three different sites in Switzerland and field resistance against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) was assessed. Only a weak correlation was detected between leaf scab and fruit scab. A QTL analysis was performed, based on the genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 chromosomes of apple. With the maximum likelihood-based interval mapping method, eight genomic regions were identified, six conferring resistance against leaf scab and two conferring fruit scab resistance. Although cv. Discovery showed a much stronger resistance against scab in the field, most QTL identified were attributed to the more susceptible parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated a high degree of homozygosity at the scab resistance loci in 'Discovery', preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.

  20. Polygalacturonase gene pgxB in Aspergillus niger is a virulence factor in apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Li, Yan-Hong; Liu, He-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger, a saprophytic fungus, is widely distributed in soil, air and cereals, and can cause postharvest diseases in fruit. Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the main enzymes in fungal pathogens to degrade plant cell wall. To evaluate whether the deletion of an exo-polygalacturonase gene pgxB would influence fungal pathogenicity to fruit, pgxB gene was deleted in Aspergillus niger MA 70.15 (wild type) via homologous recombination. The ΔpgxB mutant showed similar growth behavior compared with the wild type. Pectin medium induced significant higher expression of all pectinase genes in both wild type and ΔpgxB in comparison to potato dextrose agar medium. However, the ΔpgxB mutant was less virulent on apple fruits as the necrosis diameter caused by ΔpgxB mutant was significantly smaller than that of wild type. Results of quantitive-PCR showed that, in the process of infection in apple fruit, gene expressions of polygalacturonase genes pgaI, pgaII, pgaA, pgaC, pgaD and pgaE were enhanced in ΔpgxB mutant in comparison to wild type. These results prove that, despite the increased gene expression of other polygalacturonase genes in ΔpgxB mutant, the lack of pgxB gene significantly reduced the virulence of A. niger on apple fruit, suggesting that pgxB plays an important role in the infection process on the apple fruit. PMID:28257463

  1. Influence of variety and storage on the polyphenol composition of apple flesh.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Aurora; Cascone, Annunziata; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Scalfi, Luca; Di Vaio, Claudio; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2004-10-20

    Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide. It is available on the market for the whole year being a major source of dietary polyphenols. Several studies suggested that apple polyphenols could play a role in prevention of degenarative diseases. The action of these compounds has been partially ascribed to their antioxidative ability, and fruit antioxidants profile is influenced by apple variety and by the postharvest storage. In this work, the polyphenols composition of the flesh of four apple varieties cultivated in southern Italy were investigated by HPLC, and a flow injection MS/MS procedure to quantify cholorogenic acid and catechins was set up. Phenolic composition and the radical scavenging activity were monitored during a postharvest storage of four months. The quantification by flow injection procedure gives results comparable to those obtained by HPLC, and the increase of the antioxidant activity during storage correlated with an increase of the concentration of catechin and phloridzin. This trend is particularly evident for the variety "Annurca" which is a typical product cultivated in the area around Naples. The genetic characteristics of the Annurca variety together with the anticipated harvest time and the peculiar postharvest conditions are likely responsible for this increase of the antioxidant activity.

  2. DNA-Free Genetically Edited Grapevine and Apple Protoplast Using CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Malnoy, Mickael; Viola, Roberto; Jung, Min-Hee; Koo, Ok-Jae; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo; Velasco, Riccardo; Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda

    2016-01-01

    The combined availability of whole genome sequences and genome editing tools is set to revolutionize the field of fruit biotechnology by enabling the introduction of targeted genetic changes with unprecedented control and accuracy, both to explore emergent phenotypes and to introduce new functionalities. Although plasmid-mediated delivery of genome editing components to plant cells is very efficient, it also presents some drawbacks, such as possible random integration of plasmid sequences in the host genome. Additionally, it may well be intercepted by current process-based GMO regulations, complicating the path to commercialization of improved varieties. Here, we explore direct delivery of purified CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to the protoplast of grape cultivar Chardonnay and apple cultivar such as Golden delicious fruit crop plants for efficient targeted mutagenesis. We targeted MLO-7, a susceptible gene in order to increase resistance to powdery mildew in grape cultivar and DIPM-1, DIPM-2, and DIPM-4 in the apple to increase resistance to fire blight disease. Furthermore, efficient protoplast transformation, the molar ratio of Cas9 and sgRNAs were optimized for each grape and apple cultivar. The targeted mutagenesis insertion and deletion rate was analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. Our results demonstrate that direct delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 RNPs to the protoplast system enables targeted gene editing and paves the way to the generation of DNA-free genome edited grapevine and apple plants.

  3. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  4. Apple ethanol extract promotes proliferation of human adult stem cells, which involves the regenerative potential of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Mi Ok; Jang, Sunghee; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Jung, Kwangseon; Park, Yong Seek; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-09-01

    Tissue regeneration using adult stem cells (ASCs) has significant potential as a novel treatment for many degenerative diseases. Previous studies have established that age negatively affects the proliferation status and differentiation potential of ASCs, suggesting a possible limitation in their potential therapeutic use. Therefore, we hypothesized that apple extract might exert beneficial effects on ASCs. The specific objectives were to investigate the proliferative effect of apple ethanol extract on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs), and identify the possible molecular mechanisms. Apple extract promoted proliferation of ADSCs and CB-MSCs as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Click-iT 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine flow cytometry assays. In addition, phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4B and eIF4E was induced stepwise in ADSCs. Furthermore, apple extract significantly induced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in both ADSCs and CB-MSCs. Similarly, apple extract-induced phosphorylation of the mTOR/p70S6K/S6RP/eIF4B/eIF4E pathway was blocked by pretreatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. These results indicate that apple extract-induced proliferation of ADSCs under serum-free conditions is mediated by ERK-dependent cytokine production. Moreover, the beneficial effect of apple extract on proliferation of ASCs may overcome the limitation in therapeutic use of stem cells in tissue regeneration and maintenance of stem cell homeostasis.

  5. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  6. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  7. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  8. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider.

  9. Evaluation of two formulations containing mineral trioxide aggregate on delayed tooth replantation: relevance of RANKL/RANK/OPG system.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Beatriz Farias; Souza, Carlos Eduardo Chrzanowski Pereira; Silva, Daniela Nascimento; Etges, Adriana; Campos, Maria Martha

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of White MTA (WMTA) and MTA Fillapex(®) on root resorption, when used for root canal filling, in a rat model of delayed tooth replantation, with special focus on the RANKL/RANK/OPG system. Maxillary right central incisors of male rats were extracted (total N = 48), and exposed to dry environment for 30 min. The animals were allocated into four groups: (1) WMTA; (2) MTA Fillapex; (3) Calcium hydroxide; (4) Negative control. After periodontal ligament removal, root canals were filled with the corresponding material and replanted. After 10 and 60 days, qualitative and semi-quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc adjustment was used, at 10 and 60 days, to compare the experimental groups in terms of the inflammatory scores and in terms of the changes in OPG, RANK and RANKL. Both WMTA and MTA Fillapex groups displayed inflammatory and replacement resorption, with the presence of dento-alveolar ankylosis, similarly to that observed for calcium hydroxide, in either 10 or 60 days. Notably, a slight increase of the inflammatory process was observed in both MTA groups. Quantitatively, inflammation score analysis showed a significant difference between the calcium hydroxide and the control group at 10 days. On 60 days, dento-alveolar ankylosis was found significantly increased in the MTA Fillapex, in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). For immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of both RANK and RANKL was reduced in calcium hydroxide and WMTA groups, from 10 to 60 days of evaluation, an effect that was accompanied by increased OPG immunolabelling. Otherwise, the MTA Fillapex group presented a general increase of RANKL immunopositivity, similarly to that observed in the negative control group. Our data showed that none of tested materials was able to fully prevent the root resorption, although the white MTA cement presented an outcome

  10. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  11. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves.

  12. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice.

  13. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last.

  14. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus 6domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden...

  15. An analysis of ash and isotopic carbon discrimination (delta13C) methods to evaluate water use efficiency in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple cultivars are selected for fruit quality, disease and insect resistance, not water use efficiency (WUE), however, the need for more water use efficient crops is accelerating due to climate change and increased competition for water resources. On a whole plant basis, calculation of water use e...

  16. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caused...

  17. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Infection of fruit by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caus...

  18. Development of PCR assays for diagnosis of the pathogens Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard but remains latent before harvest. Symptoms develop after harvest and are simil...

  19. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease in many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-...

  20. TRANSGENIC EXPRESSION OF THE ERWINIA AMYLOVORA (FIRE BLIGHT) EFFECTOR PROTEIN EOP1 SUPRESSES HOST BASAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN MALUS (APPLE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear. Like many other plant and animal bacterial pathogens Ea utilizes a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, effector protei...

  1. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  2. Acidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N

    2014-05-16

    New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications.

  3. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  4. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  5. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  6. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE-/- mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE-/- mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice.

  7. Cold hypersensitivity 6 to 10 years after replantation or revascularisation of fingers: consequences for work and leisure activities.

    PubMed

    Vaksvik, T; Hetland, K; Røkkum, M; Holm, I

    2009-02-01

    We investigated cold hypersensitivity and activity in 81 adults (male/female 76/5), 6 to 10 years after finger replantation/revascularisation (mean age at injury 43 (SD 15) years). Questionnaires included the McCabe Cold Sensitivity Severity Scale, Potential Work-Exposure Scale and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score. Eighty per cent of the respondents were cold hypersensitive; 20% were severely or extremely cold hypersensitive. Of the 74 patients employed at injury, 7% had changed work and 4% were not working due to cold hypersensitivity. The median score for cold exposure at work at follow-up was 153 (scale 0-300). The correlation between cold sensitivity and DASH work was low. One-third of the respondents experienced limitations in their leisure activities because of cold complaints. Long-term cold sensitivity was mild or moderate for most patients. Many cold hypersensitive patients managed to continue to work even under cold conditions and cold hypersensitivity was a greater problem in leisure activities.

  8. Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk…

  9. Intake of hot water-extracted apple protects against myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Young; Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

    2014-11-01

    Intakes of apple and its products are shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by delaying occlusion of coronary arteries. In our previous study, we showed that apple pectin protected against myocardial injury by prohibiting apoptotic cascades in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, we hypothesized that water-extracted apple, into which apple pectin was released from the cell wall, might exhibit the same efficacy as apple pectin. To test this hypothesis, we fed rats either cold water- (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or hot water-extracted apples (HWEA; 40, 100, and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Three days later, the rats were subjected to myocardial injuries by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (30 minutes), and subsequently, the heart (3 hours) reperfused by releasing the ligation. Only the rats that were supplemented with HWEA (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) showed significant reductions in infarct size, which was 28.5% smaller than that of the control group. This infarct size reduction could be partly attributed to the prevention of steps leading to apoptosis. These steps are manifested by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio, lower procaspase-3 conversion to caspase-3, and inhibition of DNA nick generation, which reflects the extent of apoptosis. The findings indicate that HWEA supplementation reduces myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that apple intake, specifically boiled apple, might reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by inhibiting postocclusion steps, such as myocardial injury after artery occlusion, as well as preocclusion steps, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation.

  10. Evolution of pathogenicity traits in the apple scab fungal pathogen in response to the domestication of its host.

    PubMed

    Lê Van, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Lemaire, Christophe; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Durel, Charles-Eric; Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno

    2012-11-01

    Understanding how pathogens emerge is essential to bring disease-causing agents under durable human control. Here, we used cross-pathogenicity tests to investigate the changes in life-history traits of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis associated with host-tracking during the domestication of apple and subsequent host-range expansion on the wild European crabapple (Malus sylvestris). Pathogenicity of 40 isolates collected in wild and domesticated ecosystems was assessed on the domesticated apple, its Central Asian main progenitor (M. sieversii) and M. sylvestris. Isolates from wild habitats in the centre of origin of the crop were not pathogenic on the domesticated apple and less aggressive than other isolates on their host of origin. Isolates from the agro-ecosystem in Central Asia infected a higher proportion of plants with higher aggressiveness, on both the domesticated host and its progenitor. Isolates from the European crabapple were still able to cause disease on other species but were less aggressive and less frequently virulent on these hosts than their endemic populations. Our results suggest that the domestication of apple was associated with the acquisition of virulence in the pathogen following host-tracking. The spread of the disease in the agro-ecosystem would also have been accompanied by an increase in overall pathogenicity.

  11. Evolution of pathogenicity traits in the apple scab fungal pathogen in response to the domestication of its host

    PubMed Central

    Lê Van, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Lemaire, Christophe; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Durel, Charles-Eric; Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how pathogens emerge is essential to bring disease-causing agents under durable human control. Here, we used cross-pathogenicity tests to investigate the changes in life-history traits of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis associated with host-tracking during the domestication of apple and subsequent host-range expansion on the wild European crabapple (Malus sylvestris). Pathogenicity of 40 isolates collected in wild and domesticated ecosystems was assessed on the domesticated apple, its Central Asian main progenitor (M. sieversii) and M. sylvestris. Isolates from wild habitats in the centre of origin of the crop were not pathogenic on the domesticated apple and less aggressive than other isolates on their host of origin. Isolates from the agro-ecosystem in Central Asia infected a higher proportion of plants with higher aggressiveness, on both the domesticated host and its progenitor. Isolates from the European crabapple were still able to cause disease on other species but were less aggressive and less frequently virulent on these hosts than their endemic populations. Our results suggest that the domestication of apple was associated with the acquisition of virulence in the pathogen following host-tracking. The spread of the disease in the agro-ecosystem would also have been accompanied by an increase in overall pathogenicity. PMID:23144656

  12. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  13. Erwinia amylovora modifies phenolic profiles of susceptible and resistant apple through its type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Pontais, Isabelle; Treutter, Dieter; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2008-03-01

    Fire blight is a disease affecting Maloideae caused by the necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, which requires the type III protein secretion system (TTSS) for pathogenicity. Profiles of methanol-extractable leaf phenolics of two apple (Malus x domestica) genotypes with contrasting susceptibility to this disease were analyzed by HPLC after infection. Some qualitative differences were recorded between the constitutive compositions of the two genotypes but in both of them dihydrochalcones accounted for more than 90% of total phenolics. Principal component analysis separated leaves inoculated with a virulent wild-type strain from those inoculated with a non-pathogenic TTSS-defective mutant or with water. The changes in levels of the various groups of phenolics in response to the virulent bacterium were similar between the two genotypes, with a significant decrease of dihydrochalcones and a significant increase of hydroxycinnamate derivatives. Differences between genotypes were, however, recorded in amplitude and kinetic of variation in these groups. Occurrence of oxidation and polymerization reactions is proposed, based on the browning process of infected tissues, but whether some by-products act in defense as toxic compounds remain to be tested. Among direct antibacterial constitutive compounds present in apple leaves, the dihydrochalcone phloretin only was found at levels close to lethal concentrations in both genotypes. However, E. amylovora exhibited the ability to stabilize this compound at sublethal levels even in the resistant apple, rejecting the hypothesis of its involvement in the resistance of this genotype.

  14. In vitro and in vivo antimammary tumor activities and mechanisms of the apple total triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangjiu; Wang, Yihai; Hu, Hui; Zhang, Zhenxue

    2012-09-19

    Consumption of apples has been linked to the prevention of various chronic diseases, including tumors and cardiovascular diseases. The apple total triterpenoid content (ATT) was extracted and concentrated from apple peels. The in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities, related antitumor mechanisms, were investigated. In vitro, ATT showed potent antiproliferative activities against human breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), human colon cancer (Caco-2), and human liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. In vivo antitumor experiments showed that ATT could substantially reduce the occurrence and growth of mammary tumor with a good dose-dependent manner in a rat model. During the apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells induced by ATT, the caspase-independent pathway was involved in the process of apoptosis, and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential was markedly reduced. Also the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway was activated. These results indicated that ATT-induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells may involve a mitochondrial-related pathway.

  15. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  16. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple.

  17. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  18. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  19. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  20. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  1. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  2. Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several β-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

  3. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  4. Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

  5. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  6. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  7. Classworks: AppleWorks for the Classroom. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick

    This book provides a brief and succinct introduction to AppleWorks and is designed for use by teachers who are already familiar with the three AppleWorks tools: the word processor, the database, and the spreadsheet. "Classworks" (developed for grades 8 and 9) emphasizes computer work in which the teacher serves as troubleshooter,…

  8. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  9. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  10. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  11. Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S M; Villamil, K; Suriano, R A; Egolf, B P

    1996-01-01

    During 1989, a major environmental and health risk issue, the spraying of Alar on apples, created a furor among the American people. After hearing charges from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that eating Alar-laden apples significantly increased a child's risk of developing cancer, numbers of school districts dropped apples from their menus and parents poured apple juice down the drains. Apple sales plummeted. The NRDC's charges, which were disseminated by a well-planned and effective public relations campaign, brought counter-charges from the US environmental Protection Agency, which accused the NRDC of basing its study on poor data, among other things. The core of the dispute was in the risk figures and risk interpretations being used by each organization.

  12. Prevalence of Escherichia coli in apple cider manufactured in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Dingman, D W

    1999-06-01

    Cider samples obtained from 11 cider mills operating in Connecticut during the 1997 to 1998 production season were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli. Cider production began in mid August and continued through March, with peak production in September and October. Of 314 cider samples tested, 11 (4%) were found to contain E. coli. Of the 11 mills, 6 (55%) tested positive for E. coli in the cider at least once during the production year. E. coli was first observed in cider samples produced in mid to late October and was not detected in samples made after January. A trend was observed for cider to decrease in acidity and increase in Brix (soluble sugars) throughout the production season. No correlation between pH and soluble sugars of cider and the presence of E. coli was detected. Eight mills used both dropped apples and tree-picked apples, whereas three mills used tree-picked apples only. The use of dropped apples in cider production began 5 weeks before the first detection of E. coli in cider. E. coli was isolated from cider samples produced using dropped apples and from samples produced using only tree-picked apples. No direct correlation between the use of dropped apples or tree-picked apples and the presence of E. coli in the cider was observed. An association between the time of apple harvest and the appearance of E. coli in cider was noted. For mills providing adequate records, all contaminated cider was produced from apples harvested between mid October and mid November.

  13. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  14. Characteristics and performance of four new apple rootstock from the Cornell-USDA apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the apple rootstock breeding program at Geneva, NY released 4 new apple rootstocks (Geneva® 210, Geneva® 214, Geneva® 890 and Geneva® 969). G.210 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock with vigor similar to M.7, with high productivity similar to M.9 and resistance to fire blight, phytophthora root ro...

  15. Dw2 a new dwarfing locus in apple rootstocks and relationship to induction of early bearing in apple scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of certain apple rootstocks to dwarf their scions has been known for centuries and spurred a revolution in apple production. In this investigation, several breeding populations, in multiple replicated field and pot experiments were used to ascertain the degree of dwarfing of segregating...

  16. Obtaining Help with AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for obtaining help with AppleWorks version 2.0 word processing files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading; selecting the help list; and using the help list to copy text, delete text, find parts of a document,…

  17. Merging Spreadsheet and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging spreadsheet and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet and word processor files, transferring spreadsheet files to the clipboard, merging…

  18. Using AppleWorks V2.0 To Construct Spreadsheet Files for the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for constructing spreadsheet files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading, selecting the spreadsheet option, setting column widths, naming columns and fields, entering category…

  19. Merging Data Base and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging database and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading database files, transferring database files to the clipboard, merging database files into word processor…

  20. Converting Spreadsheet Files into Data Base Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for converting spreadsheet files into database files using AppleWorks version 2.0 on the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files, transferring spreadsheet files to the monitor, printing spreadsheet files, and…

  1. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  2. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line.

  3. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  4. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state.

  5. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p < 0.05) when applied UV irradiance and sample thickness were consistent. The reaction rate constant of patulin degradation in apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p < 0.05). Although further investigations are still needed, the results of this study demonstrated that UV radiation may be an effective method for

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (P<0.05) in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  11. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  12. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  13. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  14. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples. PMID:27651916

  15. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  16. Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    While most risk assessments contrast a transgenic resistant to its isogenic line, an additional comparison between the transgenic line and a classically bred cultivar with the same resistance gene would be highly desirable. Our approach was to compare headspace volatiles of transgenic scab resistant apple plants with two representative cultivars (the isogenic 'Gala' and the scab resistance gene-containing 'Florina'). As modifications in volatile profiles have been shown to alter plant relationships with non-target insects, we analysed headspace volatiles from apple plants subjected to different infection types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Marked differences were found between healthy and leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) infested genotypes, where emissions between the transgenic scab resistant line and the two cultivars differed quantitatively in four terpenes and an aromatic compound. However, these modified odour emissions were in the range of variability of the emissions recorded for the two standard cultivars that proved to be crucial references.

  17. Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider.

    PubMed

    Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that

  18. Comparing Apples and Pears: Women's Perceptions of Their Body Size and Shape

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Croughan, Mary S.; Chen, Zhen; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a growing public health problem among reproductive-aged women, with consequences for chronic disease risk and reproductive and obstetric morbidities. Evidence also suggests that body shape (i.e., regional fat distribution) may be independently associated with risk, yet it is not known if women adequately perceive their shape. This study aimed to assess the validity of self-reported body size and shape figure drawings when compared to anthropometric measures among reproductive-aged women. Methods Self-reported body size was ascertained using the Stunkard nine-level figures and self-reported body shape using stylized pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple figures. Anthropometry was performed by trained researchers. Body size and body mass index (BMI) were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Fat distribution indicators were compared across body shapes for nonobese and obese women using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Percent agreement and kappa statistics were computed for apple and pear body shapes. Results The 131 women studied were primarily Caucasian (81%), aged 32 years, with a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m2 (range 16.6–52.8 kg/m2). The correlation between body size and BMI was 0.85 (p<0.001). Among nonobese women, waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were 0.75, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.82 for pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple, respectively (p<0.001). Comparing apples and pears, the percent agreement (kappa) for WHR≥0.80 was 83% (0.55). Conclusions Self-reported size and shape were consistent with anthropometric measures commonly used to assess obesity and fat distribution, respectively. Self-reported body shape may be a useful proxy measure in addition to body size in large-scale surveys. PMID:22873752

  19. Molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alwakeel, Suaad S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular identification of the fungal isolates. Thus, we collected 30 samples of red delicious and Granny Smith apples with obvious spoilage from different supermarkets between February and March of 2012 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Each apple was placed in a sterile plastic bag in room temperature (25–30 °C) for six days or until fungal growth was evident all over the sample. Growth of fungal colonies on PDA was counted and sent for molecular confirmation by PCR. Six fruit spoilage fungi were isolated, including Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium steckii, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus oryzae. P. chrysogenum was the most frequent isolate which was seen in 14 of a total of 34 isolates (41.2%), followed by P. adametzii and A. oryzae with seven isolates each (20.6%) and the least was P. steckii with six isolates (17.6%). Penicillium species comprised 27 of the total 34 (79.4%) isolates. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of the nuclear encoded rDNA showed significant alignments for P. chrysogenum, P. adametzii and A. oryzae. Most of these fungal isolates are useful and are rarely pathogenic; however they can still produce severe illness in immune-compromised individuals, and sometimes otherwise healthy people may also become infected. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the possible production of mycotoxins by these fungi to determine a potential danger and to establish its epidemiology in order to develop adequate methods of

  20. Mapping of the apple scab-resistance gene Vb.

    PubMed

    Erdin, N; Tartarini, S; Broggini, G A L; Gennari, F; Sansavini, S; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2006-10-01

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the major production constraint in temperate zones with humid springs. Normally, its control relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Because this control strategy has come under increasing criticism, major efforts are being directed toward the breeding of scab-resistant apple cultivars. Modern apple breeding programs include the use of molecular markers, making it possible to combine several different scab-resistance genes in 1 apple cultivar (pyramiding) and to speed up the breeding process. The apple scab-resistance gene Vb is derived from the Siberian crab apple 'Hansen's baccata #2', and is 1 of the 6 "historical" major apple scab-resistance genes (Vf, Va, Vr, Vbj, Vm, and Vb). Molecular markers have been published for all these genes, except Vr. In testcross experiments conducted in the 1960s, it was reported that Vb segregated independently from 3 other major resistance genes, including Vf. Recently, however, Vb and Vf have both been mapped on linkage group 1, a result that contrasts with the findings from former testcross experiments. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the precise position of Vb in a cross of 'Golden Delicious' (vbvb) and 'Hansen's baccata #2' (Vbvb). A genome scanning approach, a fast method already used to map apple scab-resistance genes Vr2 and Vm, was used, and the Vb locus was identified on linkage group 12, between the SSR markers Hi02d05 and Hi07f01. This finding confirms the independent segregation of Vb from Vf. With the identification of SSR markers linked to Vb, another major apple scab-resistance gene has become available; breeders can use it to develop durable resistant cultivars with several different resistance genes.

  1. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  2. Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  3. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  4. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  5. Activation of the pathogen-inducible Gst1 promoter of potato after elicitation by Venturia inaequalis and Erwinia amylovora in transgenic apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Malnoy, M; Reynoird, J P; Borejsza-Wysocka, E E; Aldwinckle, H S

    2006-02-01

    Rather than using a constitutive promoter to drive transgenes for resistance against fungal and bacterial diseases in genetic engineering of apple (Malus x domestica) cultivars, a promoter induced only after infection was preferred. The ability of the Pgst1 promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to drive expression of the gusA reporter gene was determined in two genotypes of apple: the fruit cultivar Royal Gala and the M.26 rootstock. beta-Glucuronidase activity in the transgenic lines grown in a growth chamber was determined quantitatively using fluorometric assays and compared to the activity in Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-driven transgenic lines. In both apple genotypes, the Pgst1 promoter exhibited a low level of expression after bacterial and fungal inoculation compared to the level obtained with the PCaMV35S promoter (15% and 8% respectively). The Pgst1 promoter was systematically activated in apple at the site of infection with a fungal pathogen. It was also activated after treatment with salicylic acid, but not after wounding. Taken together, these data show that, although the Pgst1 promoter is less active than the PCaMV35S promoter in apple, its pathogen responsiveness could be useful in driving the expression of transgenes to promote bacterial and fungal disease resistance.

  6. Characterization of fludioxonil-resistant and pyrimethanil-resistant phenotypes of Penicillium expansum from apple.

    PubMed

    Li, H X; Xiao, C L

    2008-04-01

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold, a major postharvest disease of apple. Fludioxonil and pyrimethanil are two newly registered postharvest fungicides for pome fruit in the United States. To evaluate the potential risk of resistance development in P. expansum to the new postharvest fungicides, one isolate of each of thiabendazole-resistant (TBZ-R) and -sensitive (TBZ-S) P. expansum was exposed to UV radiation to generate fungicide-resistant mutants. Four fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants (EC(50) > 1,000 microg/ml) and four pyrimethanil-resistant mutants (EC(50) > 10 microg/ml) were tested for sensitivities to thiabendazole, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil, and fitness parameters including mycelial growth, sporulation on potato dextrose agar (PDA), sensitivity to osmotic stress, and pathogenicity and sporulation on apple fruit. The stability of resistance of the mutants was tested on PDA and apple fruit. Efficacy of the three fungicides to control blue mold incited by the mutants was evaluated on apple fruit. Six fungicide-resistant phenotypes were identified among the parental wild-type isolates and their mutants based upon their resistance levels. All four fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants were sensitive to pyrimethanil and retained the same phenotypes of resistance to TBZ as the parental isolates. All four pyrimethanil-resistant mutants had a low level of resistance to fludioxonil with a resistance factor >15. The two pyrimethanil-resistant mutants derived from a TBZ-S isolate became resistant to TBZ at 5 microg/ml. After 20 successive generations on PDA and four generations on apple fruit, the mutants retained the same phenotypes as the original generations. All mutants were pathogenic on apple fruit at both 0 and 20 degrees C, but fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants were less virulent and produced fewer conidia on apple fruit than pyrimethanil-resistant mutants and their parental wild-type isolates. Compared with the parental isolates

  7. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  8. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  9. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  10. Polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity of skin and pulp of a rare apple from Marche region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. Results Catechins, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides, dihydrochalcone glycosides and one anthocyanin: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. Conclusion This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple. PMID:25067944

  11. Therapeutic effect of apple pectin in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Samout, Noura; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Dhibi, Sabah; Ncib, Sana; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder and is associated with significant comorbidities such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. This pathology is changing worldwide and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study, carried out on adult male Wistar rats, evaluates the inhibitory effects of supplementation with apple pectin molecule on obesity. Under our experimental conditions, administration of pectin molecule decreased 1) the total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-ch) and triglycerides (TG) levels as well as ASAT, ALAT, LDH, ALP, UREA and uric acid (UC) levels in blood serum; and 2) increased the creatinine levels (CREA), compared to HFD group. TBARS concentrations decreased in liver, kidney, and serum by 20%, 29% and 19%, respectively, in a group treated with high-fat diet and pectin (HFD+Pec) compared to a HFD-treated group. The same treatment with pectin molecule increased superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase and catalase activities by 39%, 14% and 16% in liver; 5%, 7% and 31% in kidney; and 9%, 32% and 22% in blood serum in the HFD Pec-treated group. The anti-obesity effects of the pectin molecule in several organs are mainly due to the interaction of this molecule with both the polysaccharide and the enzyme system which can be determined by phytochemical analysis.

  12. Effects of rhizobacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC136 and Bacillus subtilis APEC170 on biocontrol of postharvest pathogens of apple fruits*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. In vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates APEC136 and APEC170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences identified the two effective isolates as Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The two strains showed greater growth in brain-heart infusion broth than in other growth media. Treatment of harvested apples with suspensions of either strain reduced the symptoms of anthracnose disease caused by two fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum acutatum, and white rot disease caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Increased productions of amylase and protease by APEC136, and increased productions of chitinase, amylase, and protease by APEC170 might have been responsible for inhibiting mycelial growth. The isolates caused a greater reduction in the growth of white rot than of anthracnose. These results indicate that the isolates APEC136 and APEC170 are promising agents for the biocontrol of anthracnose and white rot diseases in apples after harvest, and suggest that these isolates may be useful in controlling these diseases under field conditions. PMID:27921398

  13. Effects of rhizobacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC136 and >Bacillus subtilis APEC170 on biocontrol of postharvest pathogens of apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    In this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. In vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates APEC136 and APEC170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences identified the two effective isolates as Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The two strains showed greater growth in brain-heart infusion broth than in other growth media. Treatment of harvested apples with suspensions of either strain reduced the symptoms of anthracnose disease caused by two fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum acutatum, and white rot disease caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Increased productions of amylase and protease by APEC136, and increased productions of chitinase, amylase, and protease by APEC170 might have been responsible for inhibiting mycelial growth. The isolates caused a greater reduction in the growth of white rot than of anthracnose. These results indicate that the isolates APEC136 and APEC170 are promising agents for the biocontrol of anthracnose and white rot diseases in apples after harvest, and suggest that these isolates may be useful in controlling these diseases under field conditions.

  14. Can an Apple a Day Keep COPD Away?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163759.html Can an Apple a Day Keep COPD Away? See which fruits, veggies may ... more servings of certain fruits and vegetables a day were 35 percent less likely to develop COPD ...

  15. Despite Raves for IBook, Tide Still Turns against Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Apple's latest laptop computer, the IBook, may have many admirers, but that few believe the company will ever regain prominence in higher education. Issues include increased competition from other computer vendors and software availability (EV)

  16. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively.

  17. Is there room for improving the nutraceutical composition of apple?

    PubMed

    Farneti, Brian; Masuero, Domenico; Costa, Fabrizio; Magnago, Pierluigi; Malnoy, Mickael; Costa, Guglielmo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we assessed the main bioactive compounds of a broad apple germplasm collection, composed by 247 accessions of wild (97) and domesticated (150) species. Among the stilbenes, trans- and cis-piceid were found to be ubiquitary components of both wild and cultivated apples. Apple was suggested to be the second dietary source of resveratrols. Results confirmed that the selection pressure of breeding and domestication did not uniformly affect all the phytochemicals contained in apples. For instance, organic acids (malic and ascorbic acid) and some phenolics (stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) were significantly influenced by selection, while some relevant flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols) and triterpenoids (ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acids) were not. This comprehensive screening will assist in the selection of Malus accessions with specific nutraceutical traits suitable to establish innovative breeding strategies or to patent new functional foods and beverages.

  18. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control.

  19. A study of ethylene in apple, red raspberry, and cherry.

    PubMed

    Blanpied, G D

    1972-04-01

    High ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (Malus sylvestris) and cherry (Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus), "June drop" of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). However, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with June drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. During the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. Ethylene remained low throughout the period of sweet and tart cherry ripening. The data obtained indicated marked ethylene gradients between adjacent tissues. Increases of ethylene in some tissues may have resulted from ethylene diffusion from adjacent tissues containing high levels of ethylene.

  20. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study