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Sample records for apple trees grafted

  1. Root and stem hydraulic conductivity as determinants of growth potential in grafted trees of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C J; Else, M A; Taylor, L; Dover, C J

    2003-04-01

    The anatomy of the graft tissue between a rootstock and its shoot (scion) can provide a mechanistic explanation of the way dwarfing Malus rootstocks reduce shoot growth. Considerable xylem tissue disorganization may result in graft tissue having a low hydraulic conductivity (k(h)), relative to the scion stem. The graft may influence the movement of substances in the xylem such as ions, water and plant-growth-regulating hormones. Measurements were made on 3-year-old apple trees with a low-pressure flow system to determine k(h) of root and scion stem sections incorporating the graft tissue. A range of rootstocks was examined, with different abilities of dwarfing; both ungrafted and grafted with the same scion shoot cultivar. The results showed that the hydraulic conductivity (k(hroot)) of roots from dwarfing rootstocks was lower compared with semi-vigorous rootstocks, at least for the size class of root measured (1.5 mm diameter). Scion hydraulic conductivity (k(hs)) was linked to leaf area and also to the rootstock on to which it was grafted, i.e. hydraulic conductivity was greater for the scion stem on the semi-vigorous rootstock. Expressing conductivities relative to xylem cross-sectional areas (k(s)) did not remove these differences suggesting that there were anatomical changes induced by the rootstock. The calculated hydraulic conductivity of the graft tissue was found to be lower for grafted trees on dwarfing rootstocks compared to invigorating rootstocks. These observations are discussed in relation to the mechanism(s) by which rootstock influences shoot growth in grafted trees.

  2. Shifts in xylem vessel diameter and embolisms in grafted apple trees of differing rootstock growth potential in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, Taryn L; Centinari, Michela; Bauerle, William L

    2011-11-01

    We investigated responses of plant growth rate, hydraulic resistance, and xylem cavitation in scion-rootstock-combinations of Malus domestica L. cv. Honeycrisp scions grafted onto a high-shoot vigor (HSV) rootstock, (semi-dwarfing Malling111), or onto a low-shoot vigor (LSV) rootstock, (dwarfing Budagovsky 9), in response to substrate moisture limitation. Adjustments in xylem vessel diameter and frequency were related to hydraulic resistance measurements for high- versus low- vigor apple trees. We observed a greater tolerance to water deficit in the high-shoot compared to the low-shoot vigor plants under water deficit as evidenced by increased growth in several plant organs, and greater scion anatomical response to limited water availability with ca. 25% increased vessel frequency and ca. 28% narrower current season xylem ring width. Whereas water limitation resulted in greater graft union hydraulic resistance of high-shoot vigor trees, the opposite was true when water was not limiting. The graft union of the low-shoot vigor rootstock exhibited higher hydraulic resistance under well-watered conditions. Scions of high-shoot vigor rootstocks had fewer embolisms at low plant water status compared to scions of low-shoot vigor rootstocks, presumably as a result of large differences in xylem vessel diameter. Our results demonstrated that anatomical differences were related to shifts in hydraulic conductivity and cavitation events, a direct result of grafting, under limited soil water.

  3. Modification of gibberellin biosynthesis in the grafted apple scion allows control of tree height independent of the rootstock.

    PubMed

    Bulley, Sean M; Wilson, Fiona M; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Croker, Stephen J; James, David J

    2005-03-01

    The availability of short stature apple scions that required minimal applications of chemical growth retardants and could be used with a range of rootstocks would be of considerable benefit to fruit growers. We have suppressed the expression of a gene encoding the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic enzyme GA 20-oxidase to reduce the levels of bioactive GAs in a scion variety, resulting in significant reductions in stem height. Application of GA3 reversed the effect. The scion remained dwarfed after grafting on to normally invigorating rootstocks, whilst control plants of the same cultivar displayed the expected vigour when grafted on to these rootstocks. This approach could be applicable to any perennial crop variety, allowing dwarf trees to be obtained on any available rootstock or on their own roots without the need for chemical growth retardant application. In effect, seedlings that are well suited to local conditions (drought, salinity) could be employed as tree rootstocks, as could existing rootstocks valued for characters other than vigour control, such as pest and disease resistance.

  4. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  5. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  6. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  7. The history of Newton's apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  8. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  9. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    depleted and consistent with the local meteoric water line, whereas ii) soil water and sap have values more enriched and deviated from the meteoric line. Soil water shows a clear evaporation signal that decreases with increasing soil depth. Sap isotopic data are inconsistent with groundwater data but reflect well soil water data in the first 40 cm. This suggests that apple trees absorb a mixture of rainfall and irrigation water which undergo partial evaporation in the shallow soil layer. Water table varies between 40 cm and 140 cm making groundwater not easily intercepted by tree roots, consistently with the small root apparatus of the apple trees grafted on M9 rootstocks. Results reveal also a marked intra-field spatial variability in the isotopic composition of soil water, and significant differences between the two fields, with the one close to the river showing significantly more depleted values compared to the one farther form the river. This difference, which is reflected by sap isotopic composition in summer, is likely related to the different radiation that hits the two fields, due to the shading effect played by steep slopes on the orchard closer to the river.

  10. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  11. Clarifying the Effects of Dwarfing Rootstock on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth during Tree Development: A Study on Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    Costes, E.; García-Villanueva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the widespread use of dwarfing rootstocks in the fruit-tree industry, their impact on tree architectural development and possible role in the within-tree balance between growth and flowering are still poorly understood, in particular during the early years of growth. The present study addressed this question in apple trees, through a detailed analysis of shoot populations, i.e. both vegetative and flowering shoots, during tree development. Methods Architectural databases were constructed for trees of two cultivars that were either own-rooted or grafted on dwarfing rootstock. Within-tree shoot demographics and annual shoot characteristics, i.e. their dimensions, number of laterals and flowering, were observed from the first to the fifth year of growth and compared among scion/root system combinations. Key Results Differences in axis demographics appeared among scion/root system combinations after the second year of growth. Differences were found (a) in the number of long axes and (b) the number of medium axes. Dwarfing rootstock reduced the total number of axes developed in a tree, and this reduction resulted from proportionally more medium axes and spurs than long axes. The life span of spurs was also shortened. These phenomena appeared after an increase in flowering that started in the second year of growth and involved both axillary and terminal positions. Flowering regularity was also increased in grafted trees. Conclusions These results confirm that the number of long shoots and flowering potential depend on the cultivar. They indicate that tree architectural plasticity in response to its root system mainly derives from the number of medium shoots developed and follows priorities within the whole tree axis population. There was also evidence for dwarfing rootstock involvement in adjusting the flowering abundance and that differences in flowering occurrence take precedence over those regarding vegetative growth during tree development

  12. Growth of young apple trees in relation to reserve nitrogen and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lailiang; Fuchigami, Leslie H

    2002-12-01

    Bench-grafted Fuji/M.26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees were fertilized with a nutrient solution (fertigation) containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 or 20 mM nitrogen (N) in a modified Hoagland's solution from June 30 to September 1. In mid-October, half of the trees in each N treatment were sprayed twice with 3% urea, 1 week apart. The remaining trees served as controls. All trees were harvested after leaf fall and stored at 2 degrees C over winter. One group of trees from each treatment was destructively sampled before bud break to determine amounts of reserve N and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC); the remaining trees were transplanted to N-free medium in the spring. These trees were supplied with Hoagland's solution with or without 10 mM N (from 15N-depleted NH4NO3) for 60 days, starting from bud break. With increasing N supply from fertigation, tree N concentration increased, whereas TNC concentration decreased. Foliar urea applications increased tree N concentration and decreased TNC concentration in each N fertigation treatment. There was a negative linear relationship between tree N concentration and TNC concentration. Irrespective of whether N was provided the following spring, trees with high N reserves but low carbohydrate reserves produced a larger total leaf area at the end of the regrowth period than trees with low N reserves but high carbohydrate reserves. The pooled data on reserve N used for new growth showed that, regardless of the spring N supply, there was a linear relationship between total N accumulated in the tree during the previous season and the amount of reserve N remobilized for new shoot and leaf growth. About 50% of tree N content was remobilized to support new shoot and leaf growth over the range of tree N status examined. We conclude that the initial growth of young apple trees in the spring is determined mainly by reserve N, not reserve carbohydrates. The amount of reserve N remobilized for new growth in spring was

  13. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan.

  14. Prolonged Soil Frost Affects Hydraulics and Phenology of Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mittmann, Claudia; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of an adequate water supply in spring is a prerequisite for survival of angiosperm trees in temperate regions. Trees must re-establish access to soil water and recover xylem functionality. We thus hypothesized that prolonged soil frost impairs recovery and affects hydraulics and phenology of Malus domestica var. ‘Golden Delicious.’ To test this hypothesis, over two consecutive winters the soil around some trees was insulated to prolong soil frosting, From mid-winter to early summer, the level of native embolism, the water and starch contents of wood, bark and buds were quantified at regular intervals and findings correlated with various phenological parameters, xylogenesis and fine root growth. The findings confirm that prolonged soil frost affects tree hydraulics and phenology but the severity of the effect depends on the climatic conditions. In both study years, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) decreased from about 70% at the end of winter to about 10% in May. Thereby, xylem refilling strongly coincided with a decrease of starch in wood and bark. Also treated trees were able to restore their hydraulic system by May but, in the warm spring of 2012, xylem refilling, the increases in water content and starch depolymerization were delayed. In contrast, in the cold spring of 2013 only small differences between control and treated trees were observed. Prolongation of soil frost also led to a delay in phenology, xylogenesis, and fine root growth. We conclude that reduced water uptake from frozen or cold soils impairs refilling and thus negatively impacts tree hydraulics and growth of apple trees in spring. Under unfavorable circumstances, this may cause severe winter damage or even dieback. PMID:27379146

  15. Prolonged Soil Frost Affects Hydraulics and Phenology of Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mittmann, Claudia; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of an adequate water supply in spring is a prerequisite for survival of angiosperm trees in temperate regions. Trees must re-establish access to soil water and recover xylem functionality. We thus hypothesized that prolonged soil frost impairs recovery and affects hydraulics and phenology of Malus domestica var. 'Golden Delicious.' To test this hypothesis, over two consecutive winters the soil around some trees was insulated to prolong soil frosting, From mid-winter to early summer, the level of native embolism, the water and starch contents of wood, bark and buds were quantified at regular intervals and findings correlated with various phenological parameters, xylogenesis and fine root growth. The findings confirm that prolonged soil frost affects tree hydraulics and phenology but the severity of the effect depends on the climatic conditions. In both study years, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) decreased from about 70% at the end of winter to about 10% in May. Thereby, xylem refilling strongly coincided with a decrease of starch in wood and bark. Also treated trees were able to restore their hydraulic system by May but, in the warm spring of 2012, xylem refilling, the increases in water content and starch depolymerization were delayed. In contrast, in the cold spring of 2013 only small differences between control and treated trees were observed. Prolongation of soil frost also led to a delay in phenology, xylogenesis, and fine root growth. We conclude that reduced water uptake from frozen or cold soils impairs refilling and thus negatively impacts tree hydraulics and growth of apple trees in spring. Under unfavorable circumstances, this may cause severe winter damage or even dieback.

  16. [Graft hybridization and the specificity of heredity in fruit trees].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bao-Yin; Li, Gui-Rong; Zhou, Xiu-Mei

    2004-09-01

    Emphatically discusses the relationship between graft hybridization and the specificity of heredity in fruit trees on the basis of introducing the recent achievements in plant graft hybridization. We propose that genetic materials in rootstock being translocated and integrated into the genome of the germ cells and embryonic cells in scion are the main reasons why the majority of the hybrid seedlings have wild properties and the heredity of fruit trees violate Mendel's laws of heredity. The potential of graft hybridization in fruit breeding are also discussed.

  17. [Effect of nitrogen on water use efficiency of apple tree].

    PubMed

    Qu, G; Wang, H; Shu, H

    2000-04-01

    This paper studied the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on water use efficiency(WUE) and relevant parameters of two years old potted apple trees(Starkrimson/Malus hupenensis) under different soil moisture condition. The results showed that under adequate soil moisture, WUE was decreased with increasing application of nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizer application resulted in an increase of stomatal conductane. Consequently, the transpiration rate was increased more than photosynthetic rate did. Under soil drought, the WUE of plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer was apparently higher than that of control. The WUE value was in the order of high N > medium N > low N. The improvement of WUE was due to the increase of mesophyll capacity, which led to the promotion of photosynthesis.

  18. Nitrogen storage and its interaction with carbohydrates of young apple trees in response to nitrogen supply.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lailiang; Ma, Fengwang; Ranwala, Damayanthi

    2004-01-01

    Bench-grafted 'Fuji/M.26' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees received a constant nitrogen (N) supply (10.7 mM) from bud break to the end of June, and were then fertigated with 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 mM N in a modified Hoagland's solution for 2 months during the summer. In mid-October, half of the trees fertigated at each N concentration were sprayed twice with 3% urea, whereas the remaining trees served as controls. All trees were harvested after natural leaf fall and were stored at 2 degrees C. Five trees from each of the N treatment combinations were destructively sampled during dormancy to determine the composition of N and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). As the N supply from fertigation increased, amounts of N in both free amino acids and proteins increased, whereas C/N ratios decreased. Foliar urea applications in the fall significantly increased amounts of N in both free amino acids and proteins, but decreased their C/N ratios. Arginine, the most abundant amino acid in both free amino acids and in proteins, accounted for an increasing proportion of N in free amino acids and proteins with increasing N supply from fertigation or foliar urea application. The ratio of protein N to free amino acid N decreased from about 27.1 to 3.2 as N supply from fertigation increased from 0 to 20 mM, and decreased further to 3.0 in response to foliar urea applications in the fall. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose and TNC decreased as the N supply from fertigation increased, whereas concentrations of sorbitol and starch remained relatively unchanged. Foliar urea applications decreased the concentration of each TNC component and the TNC concentration in each N fertigation treatment. A negative linear relationship was found between carbon in TNC and N in proteins and free amino acids. The sum of carbon in TNC, proteins and free amino acids remained constant in response to N supply from fertigation. However, foliar urea applications decreased the sum of carbon in

  19. Performance of an Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor in Apple Tree Canopies

    PubMed Central

    Escolà, Alexandre; Planas, Santiago; Rosell, Joan Ramon; Pomar, Jesús; Camp, Ferran; Solanelles, Francesc; Gracia, Felip; Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture. PMID:22163749

  20. Performance of an ultrasonic ranging sensor in apple tree canopies.

    PubMed

    Escolà, Alexandre; Planas, Santiago; Rosell, Joan Ramon; Pomar, Jesús; Camp, Ferran; Solanelles, Francesc; Gracia, Felip; Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  1. The growth forecasting model for apple tree based on ground-based remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ronghua; Zheng, Lihua; Deng, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yao; Sun, Hong; Li, Minzan

    2012-11-01

    In order to monitor the growth statues of apple tree non-destructively and effectively, the field experiments were conducted at five different stages of apple tree annual growth season. The spectral reflectance of apple leaves was collected and the nutrient parameters of leaf (chlorophyll content (LCC) and moisture content (LMC)) were measured in the lab. The relationship between the apple tree leaf spectral reflectance and the apple growth parameters was analyzed. In order to select optimal spectral bands, the transformation forms of spectra were calculated including first derivative, second derivative, reciprocal, logarithm, the logarithm of reciprocal and the first derivative of logarithm. The sensitive detecting wavelengths were selected based on the correlation between the apple tree leaf spectra (original spectra and its transformation forms) and the apple tree growing parameters (LCC and LMC). The result showed that the original spectrum was most correlated with LCC from 511nm to 590nm and 688nm to 718nm; the correlation coefficients of September were the highest and the maximum value was 0.6. Three apple tree growth models were built using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) respectively. The result showed that the forecasting model based on PCA was the optimal model to predict the apple leaves chlorophyll, and its calibration R2 was 0.851 and validation R2 was 0.8289. The apple leaves moisture content forecasting model based on ANN was optimal, and its calibration R2 was 0.8561 and validation R2 was 0.8375.

  2. Exploring Within‐tree Architectural Development of Two Apple Tree Cultivars Over 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    COSTES, E.; SINOQUET, H.; KELNER, J. J.; GODIN, C.

    2003-01-01

    The present study addresses the prediction of apple tree development, taking into account both the number and within‐tree position of tree components. The architectural development of two trees per scion cultivar, ‘Fuji’ and ‘Braeburn’, was studied by describing all shoots over 6 years. Flowering and fruiting were observed over 3 years. The description included different scales [entire trees, axes, growth units (GUs) and metamers], and the analysis compared all axes of the trees as a function of their branching order and age. Three main aspects of vegetative development were investigated: the quantity of primary growth; the number and nature of developing axillary shoots; and meristem death. Results confirm the existence of within‐tree morphological gradients, and show that the decrease in growth was comparable in magnitude for all axes and GUs, irrespective of their position. This decrease results from a reduction in the number of metamers per GU, which was modelled by an exponential function. The decrease in growth involved changes in the number and nature of the axillary shoots, which could be described by simple functions. The probability of spur death was constant over the years but differed according to cultivar and type of bearing shoot. The within‐tree probability of flowering and fruiting was predictable for ‘Braeburn’ because axes, regardless of their position and type, had a high probability of flowering and a low probability of fruit set which led to a regular bearing habit. In contrast, ‘Fuji’ had an alternating bearing behaviour that was more complex to predict. This appeared to result from a synchronized increase in the probability that all GUs at tree scale are floral, combined with a high probability of fruit set. The consequences of these results for both yield prediction and architectural simulations are discussed. PMID:12495924

  3. Virulence characteristics accounting for fire blight disease severity in apple trees and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven A; Ngugi, Henry K; Halbrendt, Noemi O; O'Keefe, Grace; Lehman, Brian; Travis, James W; Sinn, Judith P; McNellis, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, the most destructive bacterial disease of rosaceous plants, including apple and pear. Here, we compared the virulence levels of six E. amylovora strains (Ea273, CFBP1367, Ea581a, E2002a, E4001a, and HKN06P1) on apple trees and seedlings. The strains produced a range of disease severity, with HKN06P1 producing the greatest disease severity in every assay. We then compared virulence characteristic expression among the six strains, including growth rates in immature apple fruit, amylovoran production, levansucrase activity, biofilm formation, carbohydrate utilization, hypersensitive cell death elicitation in tobacco leaves, and protein secretion profiles. Multiple regression analysis indicated that three of the virulence characteristics (amylovoran production, biofilm formation, and growth in immature apple fruit) accounted for >70% of the variation in disease severity on apple seedlings. Furthermore, in greenhouse-grown 'Gala' trees, >75% of the variation in disease severity was accounted for by five of the virulence characteristics: amylovoran production, biofilm formation, growth in immature apple fruit, hypersensitive cell death elicitation, and sorbitol utilization. This study demonstrates that virulence factor expression levels account for differences in disease severity caused by wild isolates of E. amylovora on apple trees.

  4. [Estimation of chlorophyll content in apple tree canopy based on hyperspectral parameters].

    PubMed

    Pan, Bei; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Liu, Hai-Teng; Liang, Shuang; Tian, Da-De

    2013-08-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of apple tree canopy during spring shoots stopping growth period was measured using ASD FieldSpec3 field spectrometer. Original spectral data were processed in deviation forms, and significant spectrum parameters correlated with chlorophyll content were found out with correlation analysis. The best vegetation indices were chosen and the apple canopy chlorophyll content estimation model was established by analyzing vegetation index of two-band combination in the sensitive region 400-1 350 nm. The result showed that (1) The sensitive band region of apple canopy chlorophyll content is 400-1 350 nm. (2) The vegetation index CCI(D(794)/D(763)) can commendably estimate the apple canopy chlorophyll content. (3) The model with CCI(D(794)/D(763)) as the independent variables was determined to be the best for chlorophyll content prediction of apple tree canopy. Therefore, using hyperspectral technology can estimate apple canopy chlorophyll content more rapidly and accurately, and provides a theoretical basis for rapid apple tree canopy nutrition diagnosis and growth monitoring.

  5. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  6. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  7. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  8. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    PubMed

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  9. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  10. [Quantitative remote sensing retrieval of apple tree canopy reflectance at blossom stage in hilly area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Wang, Rui-Yan; Chen, Hong-Yan; Chang, Chun-Yan

    2012-08-01

    By using the TM and ALOS images with different resolutions at the prosperous blossom stage of apple trees in Qixia City of Shandong Province, and taking the slope aspect coefficient and the ratio of canopy flower to leaf into account, the ground surface reflectance was retrieved through radiometric correction. The canopy reflectance of the apple trees was further retrieved by pixel unmixing method, and the retrieval effect and accuracy were assessed by the comparison of the retrieved reflectance with the measured canopy reflectance and apparent reflectance of 30 sample apple orchards. The results showed that radiometric correction effectively weakened the effects of atmosphere and topography, recovered the ground objects in the shadows, and obviously enhanced the analytical ability of ground surface retrieval reflectance images. Either TM or ALOS images, both the absolute and relative errors between retrieval reflectance and measured reflectance of apple tree canopy were the smallest. The relative errors of all bands were consistent, and its variation trend among the 30 sample apple orchards was also consistent with the measured reflectance, which showed the necessary of pixel unmixing. Moreover, the changes of the reflectance among the sample apple orchards showed similar characteristics when the retrieval method was used for different resolution images. The images with high resolution were more superior, but, because of band limitation, it would be better to integrate the high resolution images with moderate resolution images.

  11. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  12. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  13. Development of a portable spectroscopy-based device to detect nutrient status of apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Lihua; Li, Minzan; Deng, Xiaolei; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    In order to detect apple tree growth status fast and accurately, four sensitive wavebands (364nm, 652nm, 766nm, 810nm) were obtained by analyzing the correlation between the apple leaves spectra and their nitrogen contents plus adopting the segment reduced precise sampling methods. A rapid determination model of apple leaf nitrogen content suitable for portable detector was built. Then a portable spectroscopy-based device was developed. It consists of an optical unit and a control unit. The optical channel was consisted of convex lens, optical filter, photoelectric detector and airtight mechanical exine. The optical unit was used to capture, transit, transform and submit the optical signal. The controller was consisted of operation, input, display, data storage and power control unit adopting JN5139 as main control unit. Controller was the coordinator in building the wireless network. And it was also responsible for receiving the measured data from sensor, calculating vegetation index, and displaying and storing the calculated results. The experiments showed that the correlation coefficient between the measured nitrogen content and the predicted nitrogen content reached to 0.857. It illustrated that the apple tree nitrogen detector was practical and could be used to detect leaf nitrogen content in apple orchard.

  14. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  15. The transcriptomes of columnar and standard type apple trees (Malus x domestica) - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2012-05-01

    Columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) provide several economic advantages due to their specific growth habit. The columnar phenotype is the result of the dominant allele of the gene Co and is characterized by thick stems with short internodes and reduced lateral branching. Co is located on chromosome 10 and often appears in a heterozygous state (Co/co). The molecular explanation of columnar growth is not well established. Therefore, we studied the transcriptomes of columnar and standard type apple trees using 454 and Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. We analyzed the transcriptomes of shoot apical meristems (SAMs) because we expect that these organs are involved in forming the columnar growth phenotype. The results of the comparative transcriptome analysis show significant differences in expression levels of hundreds of genes. Many of the differentially expressed genes are associated with membrane and cell wall growth or modification and can be brought in line with the columnar phenotype. Additionally, earlier findings on the hormonal state of shoots of columnar apples could be affirmed. Our study resulted in a large number of genes differentially expressed in columnar vs. standard type apple tree SAMs. Although we have not unraveled the nature of the Co gene, we could show that the modified expression of these genes, most likely due to the presence of Co, can determine the columnar phenotype. Furthermore, the usefulness of NGS for the analysis of the molecular basis of complex phenotypes is discussed.

  16. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  17. [Quantitative models between canopy hyperspectrum and its component features at apple tree prosperous fruit stage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun; Lei, Tong; Dong, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Hyperspectral technique has become the basis of quantitative remote sensing. Hyperspectrum of apple tree canopy at prosperous fruit stage consists of the complex information of fruits, leaves, stocks, soil and reflecting films, which was mostly affected by component features of canopy at this stage. First, the hyperspectrum of 18 sample apple trees with reflecting films was compared with that of 44 trees without reflecting films. It could be seen that the impact of reflecting films on reflectance was obvious, so the sample trees with ground reflecting films should be separated to analyze from those without ground films. Secondly, nine indexes of canopy components were built based on classified digital photos of 44 apple trees without ground films. Thirdly, the correlation between the nine indexes and canopy reflectance including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed. The results showed that the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf was the best, among which the max coefficient reached 0.815, and the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of leaf was a little better than that between reflectance and the density of fruit. Then models of correlation analysis, linear regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the hyperspectral reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf with the softwares of DPS and LIBSVM. It was feasible that all of the four models in 611-680 nm characteristic band are feasible to be used to predict, while the model accuracy of BP neural network and support vector regression was better than one-variable linear regression and multi-variable regression, and the accuracy of support vector regression model was the best. This study will be served as a reliable theoretical reference for the yield estimation of apples based on remote sensing data.

  18. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  19. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  20. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals. An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions. Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15−20% of variance. Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  1. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals.An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions.Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15-20% of variance.Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit.

  2. Trichloroethylene uptake by apple and peach trees and transfer to fruit.

    PubMed

    Chard, Brandon K; Doucette, William J; Chard, Julie K; Bugbee, Bruce; Gorder, Kyle

    2006-08-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify 14C-trichloroethylene (TCE) uptake and transfer into the edible fruit of apple and peach trees. Trees were subsurface irrigated with solutions of 14C [TCE] that bracketed groundwater concentrations (5 and 500 microg/L) found in residential areas surrounding Hill Air Force Base, UT, where trace amounts of TCE had been found in several fruits during a preliminary field survey. Nondosed control trees were grown within the canopy of the dosed trees and in a separate greenhouse. Tissue samples were analyzed for 14C and TCE using combustion/liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and headspace/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/GC/MS). Tissue was also extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and trichloroethanol (TCEt), three specific TCE metabolites that have been previously identified in laboratory and field studies. No 14C was detected in the nonexposed control trees. Exposed trees contained levels of 14C that were proportional to the exposure concentration. 14C concentrations were greatest in leaves followed by branches and fruits. At the end of the study, TCE was detected only in roots implying that the 14C in the leaves, branches, and fruit was associated with unidentified nonvolatile TCE transformation products and/or is nonextractable. However, TCAA and DCAA were positively identified only in leaves collected during the first year from an apple tree exposed to the high dose treatment. Additional data for other chemicals and fruittrees are needed to better understand the potential transfer of organic compounds to edible fruit.

  3. [Crown interception of apple trees in loess hilly and gully region, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Jing; Bai, Gang-Shuan

    2013-02-01

    Taking the apple trees at their full-fruit stage in the loess hilly and gully region of Shaanxi as test objects, a three-year consecutive monitoring was conducted on the precipitation outside the tree crown, the through fall of the crown, and the stem flow from 2008 to 2010, with the effects of different precipitation factors on the crown interception analyzed. In the study region, the stem flow rate and crown interception rate of the trees accounted for 0. 8% and 8.9% of the precipitation, respectively, the inter-plant interception was higher than the inter-row interception, and the interception increased with the decreasing distance to the stem. In rainy season, the crown interception was greater while the interception rate was smaller; in drought season, it was in adverse. The crown interception increased with increasing precipitation amount, precipitation intensity, precipitation duration, and precipitation interval, and the relationships followed power function or logarithmic function. The interception rate was negatively correlated with precipitation amount, precipitation intensity, and precipitation duration, but positively correlated with precipitation interval, and the relationships were in power function. Among the precipitation factors, precipitation amount had the greatest effects on the crown interception capability of the apple trees.

  4. Predicting apple tree leaf nitrogen content based on hyperspectral applying wavelet and wavelet packet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Lihua; Li, Minzan; Deng, Xiaolei; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    The visible and NIR spectral reflectance were measured for apple leaves by using a spectrophotometer in fruit-bearing, fruit-falling and fruit-maturing period respectively, and the nitrogen content of each sample was measured in the lab. The analysis of correlation between nitrogen content of apple tree leaves and their hyperspectral data was conducted. Then the low frequency signal and high frequency noise reduction signal were extracted by using wavelet packet decomposition algorithm. At the same time, the original spectral reflectance was denoised taking advantage of the wavelet filtering technology. And then the principal components spectra were collected after PCA (Principal Component Analysis). It was known that the model built based on noise reduction principal components spectra reached higher accuracy than the other three ones in fruit-bearing period and physiological fruit-maturing period. Their calibration R2 reached 0.9529 and 0.9501, and validation R2 reached 0.7285 and 0.7303 respectively. While in the fruit-falling period the model based on low frequency principal components spectra reached the highest accuracy, and its calibration R2 reached 0.9921 and validation R2 reached 0.6234. The results showed that it was an effective way to improve ability of predicting apple tree nitrogen content based on hyperspectral analysis by using wavelet packet algorithm.

  5. Physiological and biochemical leaf and tree responses to crop load in apple.

    PubMed

    Wünsche, Jens N; Greer, Dennis H; Laing, William A; Palmer, John W

    2005-10-01

    Seven-year-old apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees cv. 'Braeburn' on rootstock M.26 were flower-thinned to establish four crop loads, resulting in final mean fruit numbers per tree of 0, 100, 225 and 400. Mean fruit mass decreased by about 35% with each decrease in cropping density. Fruit from light-cropping trees had significantly advanced maturity as indicated by the harvest management criteria of background color and starch/iodine score, and other fruit quality characteristics such as soluble solids. Flesh firmness and dry matter also increased with decreasing crop load. Compared with fruiting trees, mean leaf photosynthetic rates of non-cropping trees were significantly lower (40%) between 75 days after full bloom (dafb) and fruit harvest, with a maximum reduction of almost 60% at 118 dafb. Photosynthetic activity decreased linearly with increasing concentration of leaf starch, but was positively and significantly related to stomatal conductance. Consequently, the accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in leaves of light-cropping or non-cropping trees may have led to end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Increases in xanthophyll cycle carotenoids mediated non-radiative thermal energy dissipation in non-cropping trees, providing increased capacity for photoprotection but reducing photochemical efficiency.

  6. Modelling fruit-temperature dynamics within apple tree crowns using virtual plants

    PubMed Central

    Saudreau, M.; Marquier, A.; Adam, B.; Sinoquet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Fruit temperature results from a complex system involving the climate, the tree architecture, the fruit location within the tree crown and the fruit thermal properties. Despite much theoretical and experimental evidence for large differences (up to 10 °C in sunny conditions) between fruit temperature and air temperature, fruit temperature is never used in horticultural studies. A way of modelling fruit-temperature dynamics from climate data is addressed in this work. Methods The model is based upon three-dimensional virtual representation of apple trees and links three-dimensional virtual trees with a physical-based fruit-temperature dynamical model. The overall model was assessed by comparing model outputs to field measures of fruit-temperature dynamics. Key Results The model was able to simulate both the temperature dynamics at fruit scale, i.e. fruit-temperature gradients and departure from air temperature, and at the tree scale, i.e. the within-tree-crown variability in fruit temperature (average root mean square error value over fruits was 1·43 °C). Conclusions This study shows that linking virtual plants with the modelling of the physical plant environment offers a relevant framework to address the modelling of fruit-temperature dynamics within a tree canopy. The proposed model offers opportunities for modelling effects of the within-crown architecture on fruit thermal responses in horticultural studies. PMID:21474503

  7. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.

  8. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  9. UAV based tree height estimation in apple orchards: potential of multiple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vilardi, Andrea; Zebisch, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Canopy height, as part of vegetation structure, is ecologically important for ecological studies on biomass, matter flows or meteorology. Measuring the growth of canopy can be undertaken by the use multiple remote sensing techniques. In this study, we firstly use data generated from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) with a simultaneous consumer-grade RGB and modified IR cameras, configured in nadir and multi-angle views to generate 3D models for Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) in order to estimate tree height in apple orchards in South Tyrol, Italy. We evaluate the use of Ground Control Points (GCP) to minimize the error in scale and orientation. Then, we validate and compare the results of our primary data collection with data generated by geolocated field measurements over several selected tree species. Additionally, we compare DSM and DTM obtained from a recent 1-meter resolution LIDAR campaign (Light Detection and Ranging). The main purpose of this study is to contrast multiple estimation approaches and evaluate their utility for the estimation of canopy height, highlighting the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and non-expensive technique especially for small scale applications. The study is conducted in a homogenous tree canopy consisting of apple orchards located in Caldaro -South Tyrol, Italy. We end with proposing a potential low-cost and inexpensive application combining models for DSM from the UAV with DTM obtained from LIDAR for applications that should be updated frequently.

  10. Multiple infection of apple trees by distinct strains of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' and its pathological relevance.

    PubMed

    Seemüller, Erich; Kiss, Emese; Sule, Sandor; Schneider, Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Forty-eight apple trees infected by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' were examined using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analysis of a variable hflB gene fragment and the immunodominant membrane protein-encoding imp gene. SSCP analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified hflB gene fragments revealed diverse profiles, differing in number and position of the bands. The 'Ca. P. mali' content of a single infected apple tree was termed an accession. Cloning of fragments from accessions that yielded fewer bands resulted in clone populations showing uniform or moderately polymorphic SSCP patterns and largely homogenous nucleotide sequences. In contrast, inserts from accessions yielding more bands were heterogeneous and formed two to four distinct groups of profiles. DNA fragments from such accessions were diverse and clustered distantly when subjected to phylogenetic analysis, mostly as two homogenous groups plus one or a few other sequences. Similar results were obtained upon imp gene examination. The collective data indicate that accessions exhibiting more complex patterns were composed of two or three distinct 'Ca. P. mali' strains. There is evidence that multiple infections are of pathological relevance due to strain interactions leading to shifts in the populations. In triply infected trees of one accession, no specific symptoms were induced by the presence of two of the strains. The rare appearance of pronounced symptoms was associated with a separate strain that possessed a unique SSCP profile and a unique hflB sequence. The two mild strains from this apple accession also induced only mild symptoms on periwinkle and tobacco and occurred specifically in one of these plants.

  11. [Satellite remote sensing retrieval of canopy nitrogen nutritional status of apple trees at blossom stage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Wang, Rui-Yan; Chang, Chun-Yan

    2013-10-01

    Taking Qixia City of Shandong, China as the study area, and based on the Landsat-5 TM and ALOS AVNIR-2 images, the canopy retrieval reflectance of apple trees at blossom stage was acquired. In combining with the measured reflectance of sample trees, the nitrogen-sensitive spectral indices were constructed and selected. By using the sensitive spectral indices as the independent variables, the nitrogen retrieval models were established, and the model with the best accuracy was used for spatial retrieve. The correlations between the spectral indices and the nitrogen nutritional status were in the order of canopy > leaf > flower. The sensitive indices were mainly composed of green, red, and near infrared bands. The accuracy of the retrieval models was in the order of support vector regression > multi-variable stepwise regression > one-variable regression. The retrieval results based on different images were similar, and showed that the leaf nitrogen content was mainly of grades 3-4 (27-33 g x kg(-1)), and the canopy nitrogen nutrient indices were mainly of grades 2-4 (TM: 38-47 g x kg(-1); ALOS: 32-41 g x kg(-1)). The spatial distribution of the retrieval nitrogen nutritional status based on different images also showed the similar trend, i. e., the nitrogen nutritional status was higher in the north and south than that in the middle part of the study area, and the areas with the high grades of leaf nitrogen and canopy nitrogen were mainly located in Sujiadian Town and Songshan subdistrict in the northwest, Zangjiazhuang Town and Tingkou Town in the northeast, and Shewopo Town in the south, which were consistent with the distribution of the key towns for apple production in Qixia City. This study provided a feasible method for the acquisition of nitrogen nutritional status of apple trees on macroscopic scale, and also, provided reference for other similar remote sensing retrievals.

  12. [Hyperspectral Estimation of Apple Tree Canopy LAI Based on SVM and RF Regression].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-ying; Zhu, Xi-cun; Fang, Xian-yi; Wang, Zhuo-yuan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Yuan-mao

    2016-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is the dynamic index of crop population size. Hyperspectral technology can be used to estimate apple canopy LAI rapidly and nondestructively. It can be provide a reference for monitoring the tree growing and yield estimation. The Red Fuji apple trees of full bearing fruit are the researching objects. Ninety apple trees canopies spectral reflectance and LAI values were measured by the ASD Fieldspec3 spectrometer and LAI-2200 in thirty orchards in constant two years in Qixia research area of Shandong Province. The optimal vegetation indices were selected by the method of correlation analysis of the original spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The models of predicting the LAI were built with the multivariate regression analysis method of support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The new vegetation indices, GNDVI527, ND-VI676, RVI682, FD-NVI656 and GRVI517 and the previous two main vegetation indices, NDVI670 and NDVI705, are in accordance with LAI. In the RF regression model, the calibration set decision coefficient C-R2 of 0.920 and validation set decision coefficient V-R2 of 0.889 are higher than the SVM regression model by 0.045 and 0.033 respectively. The root mean square error of calibration set C-RMSE of 0.249, the root mean square error validation set V-RMSE of 0.236 are lower than that of the SVM regression model by 0.054 and 0.058 respectively. Relative analysis of calibrating error C-RPD and relative analysis of validation set V-RPD reached 3.363 and 2.520, 0.598 and 0.262, respectively, which were higher than the SVM regression model. The measured and predicted the scatterplot trend line slope of the calibration set and validation set C-S and V-S are close to 1. The estimation result of RF regression model is better than that of the SVM. RF regression model can be used to estimate the LAI of red Fuji apple trees in full fruit period.

  13. The bone-grafting decision tree: a systematic methodology for achieving new bone.

    PubMed

    Smiler, Dennis; Soltan, Muna

    2006-06-01

    Successful bone grafting requires that the clinician select the optimal bone grafting material and surgical technique from among a number of alternatives. This article reviews the biology of bone growth and repair, and presents a decision-making protocol in which the clinician first evaluates the bone quality at the surgical site to determine which graft material should be used. Bone quantity is then evaluated to determine the optimal surgical technique. Choices among graft stabilization techniques are also reviewed, and cases are presented to illustrate the use of this decision tree.

  14. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  15. Responses of apple fruit size to tree water status and crop load.

    PubMed

    Naor, A; Naschitz, S; Peres, M; Gal, Y

    2008-08-01

    The combined effects of irrigation rate and crop load on apple yield and fruit size were examined in two commercial apple orchards (cv. Golden Delicious) in a semi-arid zone. The irrigation rates applied were 1, 3 and 7 mm day(-1), and the two fruit thinning treatments involved adjusting crop load to 100 and 300 fruits per tree at Ortal and 50 and 150 fruits per tree at Matityahu. Unthinned trees served as the control. The fruit from each tree was picked separately, and fruit size distribution was determined with a commercial grading machine. Midday stem water potentials varied from -0.9 to -2.8 MPa, crop load varied from 80,000 to 1,900,000 fruit ha(-1) and crop yield varied from 10 to 144 Mg ha(-1). Midday stem water potential decreased with increasing crop load in all irrigation treatments at Matityahu, but only in the 1 mm day(-1) treatment at Ortal. The extent of the lowering of midday stem water potential by crop load decreased with increasing soil water availability. At both orchards, a similar response of total crop yield to crop load on a per hectare basis was observed. Mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter increased with midday stem water potential, with the low crop loads having similar but steeper slopes than the high crop load. The responses of mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter to midday stem water potential were similar at both orchards, perhaps indicating that thresholds for irrigation scheduling are transferable to other orchards within a region. Factors that may limit the transferability of these thresholds are discussed.

  16. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  17. How rainfall, relative humidity and temperature influence volatile emissions from apple trees in situ.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Armelle; Gu, Hainan; Dorn, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    Headspace volatiles from apple-bearing twigs were collected in the field with a Radiello sampler during three different diurnal periods over the complete fruit growing season. Analyses by thermal desorption-GC-MS identified a total of 62 compounds in changing quantities, including the terpenoids alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, limonene, beta-caryophyllene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde and nonanal, and the alcohol (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. The variations in emission of these plant odours were statistically related to temperature, humidity and rainfall in the field. Remarkably, rainfall had a significant positive influence on changes in volatile release during all three diurnal periods, and further factors of significance were temperature and relative humidity around noon, relative humidity in the late afternoon, and temperature and relative humidity during the night. Rainfall was associated consistently with an increase in the late afternoon in terpene and aldehyde volatiles with a known repellent effect on the codling moth, one of the key pests of apple fruit. During the summer of 2003, a season characterized by below-average rainfall, some postulated effects of drought on trees were tested by establishing correlations with rainfall. Emissions of the wood terpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene were negatively correlated with rainfall. Another monoterpene, camphene, was only detected in this summer but not in the previous years, and its emissions were negatively correlated with rainfall, further supporting the theory that drought can result in higher formation of secondary metabolites. Finally, the two green leaf volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol were negatively correlated with rainfall, coinciding well with the expectation that water deficit stress increases activity of lipoxygenase. To our knowledge, this work represents the first empirical study concerning the influence of abiotic factors on volatile

  18. Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata; Deckers, Tom; Eckert, Caroline; Heisel, Francine; Valcke, Roland L.; Miehe, Joseph-Albert

    1998-07-01

    The work aims to validate the laser-induced fluorescence imaging method for detecting nutrient deficiency of fruit- trees and testing the storage ability of the fruits. Measurements concerned apple-trees (Malus x domestica Borkh.cv.Jonagold 2361) submitted or not to nitrogen fertilization (60 kg/ha) via roots. Besides recordings of fluorescence images of fruits and of leaves at the characteristic emission wavelengths, images which always showed an effect of the nitrogen, chemical and physiological analysis have been performed. The essential results were: (1) For rosette leaves, with a total chlorophyll content significantly lower for nitrogen depleted leaves, and a Chl a/b ratio as well as (phi) po (PS II efficiency of open reaction centers) independent of the treatment, images recorded in the red and in the far-red (690 and 740 nm chlorophyll a emissions) showed red/far-red intensities ratios higher in the absence of fertilization, in agreement with the lower chlorophyll a content. (2) For leaves of one year shoots, having all similar chlorophyll content and PS II efficiency, nitrogen supply led to a slight decrease of the red/far-red ratio value for 532 nm excitation, and for 355 nm excitation to an important decrease of the blue fluorescence/chlorophyll emission ratio, that was not observed for rosette leaves. (3) For apple fruits, presenting a high K/Ca ratio (approximately equals 42) i.e. a bad storage ability, the chlorophylls content of the green face skin as well as (phi) po were the same for both samplings, with a dramatic decrease of (phi) po (0.68 till to 0.45) during conservation (6 months). Under 355 nm excitation, the fluorescence ratios the most sensitive to the nitrogen deficiency were for the green face the blue/red ratios which decreased with nitrogen supply and increased with time, and the blue/green ratio for the apple red face.

  19. Determining the role of N remobilization for growth of apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees by measuring xylem-sap N flux.

    PubMed

    Guak, S; Neilsen, D; Millard, P; Wendler, R; Neilsen, G H

    2003-09-01

    The contribution of N remobilization to the seasonal growth of field-grown Malus domestica (apple) trees was measured using two different techniques. 'Fuji' trees grafted on M.9 apple rootstocks were planted in the field and fertilized and irrigated for two growing seasons. During the second year, the trees received 15N-labelled fertilizer and destructive harvests were taken during the spring and summer to determine the pattern of N remobilization and uptake. At the same time, patterns of N translocation in the xylem were measured by sampling saps at each harvest and analysing them for their constituent amino acids and amides. Total water flux through the trunk xylem was also measured throughout the sampling period using the heat balance technique. The flux of amino compounds in the xylem was then calculated to see if this approach could quantify remobilization. Most of the N for leaf growth was provided by remobilization, which lasted for some 40 d following bud-burst. The labelled N was not taken up until 14 d after remobilization had started. The predominant amino compounds recovered in the xylem were Asn, Asp, Arg, and Gln, whose concentration peaked during remobilization, except for Arg whose concentration was highest at bud-break and declined thereafter. The amount of N translocated in the xylem as Asn, Asp and Gln correlated well with the amount of N remobilized (as measured by the recovery of unlabelled N in the new above-ground growth). The data suggest that Arg is translocated predominantly as a consequence of root uptake and they are discussed in relation to measuring N remobilization in field-grown trees.

  20. Differentiated Responses of Apple Tree Floral Phenology to Global Warming in Contrasting Climatic Regions.

    PubMed

    Legave, Jean-Michel; Guédon, Yann; Malagi, Gustavo; El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Bonhomme, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The responses of flowering phenology to temperature increases in temperate fruit trees have rarely been investigated in contrasting climatic regions. This is an appropriate framework for highlighting varying responses to diverse warming contexts, which would potentially combine chill accumulation (CA) declines and heat accumulation (HA) increases. To examine this issue, a data set was constituted in apple tree from flowering dates collected for two phenological stages of three cultivars in seven climate-contrasting temperate regions of Western Europe and in three mild regions, one in Northern Morocco and two in Southern Brazil. Multiple change-point models were applied to flowering date series, as well as to corresponding series of mean temperature during two successive periods, respectively determining for the fulfillment of chill and heat requirements. A new overview in space and time of flowering date changes was provided in apple tree highlighting not only flowering date advances as in previous studies but also stationary flowering date series. At global scale, differentiated flowering time patterns result from varying interactions between contrasting thermal determinisms of flowering dates and contrasting warming contexts. This may explain flowering date advances in most of European regions and in Morocco vs. stationary flowering date series in the Brazilian regions. A notable exception in Europe was found in the French Mediterranean region where the flowering date series was stationary. While the flowering duration series were stationary whatever the region, the flowering durations were far longer in mild regions compared to temperate regions. Our findings suggest a new warming vulnerability in temperate Mediterranean regions, which could shift toward responding more to chill decline and consequently experience late and extended flowering under future warming scenarios.

  1. Efficacy of tree trunk coating materials in the control of the apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis.

    PubMed

    Erler, Fedai

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of trunk treatment with three materials, cotton seed oil, lime and used motor oil, were evaluated for the control of apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in an apple orchard during two successive years (2004 and 2005). The weekly total number of adult catches and exuviae was recorded each year. No treatments caused significant reductions in mean numbers of adults caught in bait traps or the exuviae protruding from the barks of tree trunks and thick branches in the first year of the study whereas all of them differed significantly from each other or from water-treated control in the second year (P < 0.05). A comparison of the mean numbers of adult catches and exuviae in both years revealed significant differences between the used motor oil and cotton seed oil treatments (P < 0.05). The lime treatments in both years significantly differed in terms of adult catches, but not exuviae (P<0.05). In the second year, compared with those in water-treated control plots, the mean number of adult catches and exuviae decreased by 81.3% and 88.3% in the used motor oil-treated plots, and by 70.8% and 83.3% in the cotton seed oil-treated plots, respectively. Although population reductions in the lime treatment were significant in the second year, the effect was at a much reduced level in comparison to the two oil treatments. The overall results suggest that used motor oil and cotton seed oil may have potential for the control of apple clearwing.

  2. Molybdenum studies on absorption, translocation, distribution and response in apple seedlings and mature trees

    SciTech Connect

    Eltahir, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient solutions of 25 ppm Mo caused a marked growth reduction of apple seedlings, with the roots being the most sensitive indicators of toxicity symptoms. The toxicity symptoms could be alleviated with the addition of 50 ppm of sulfur to the nutrient solution. Several experiments proved that Mo could be readily absorbed through the leaves and then translocated to other organs and tissues of the plants. However, during the time period of these studies it was not possible to induce toxicity symptoms in apples by foliar applications of Mo. Apple seedlings can absorb and accumulate relatively large amounts of Mo from nutrient solutions. The highest levels were found in the roots, followed by the leaves and then stems. When applied to bearing trees, a higher concentration of Mo was found in skin of the fruit than in the flesh. In the growth chamber, nitrate-N was highest in all tissues in the 0 ppm Mo nutrient solution and then decreased as the Mo level was increased. The reverse relationship was present with the ascorbic acid content of the leaves, increasing as the level of Mo increased. There was also a reduction of leaf chlorophyll at both the 0 ppm and 25 ppm Mo in the nutrient solutions. When the Mo content of the nutrient solutions was increased from 0 ppm through 25 ppm, there was a significant effect on the leaf levels of P, Mg and Zn, and on P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, B and Zn in the roots. The greatest effect of 25 ppm Mo in the nutrient solutions. When the Mo content of the nutrient solutions was increased from 0 ppm through 25 ppm, there was a significant effect on the leaf levels of P, Mg and Zn, and on P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, B and Zn in the roots. The greatest effect of 25 ppm Mo in the nurient solutions were on P and Zn in the leaves, and on P, Zn, Ca and Fe in the roots.

  3. Apple Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY part of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. The PGRU maintains 55 species of apple (Malus) in both field and seed collections. The main field collection of apples has 2621 diverse clones grafted onto EMLA 9 rootstock. Ninety-seven p...

  4. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005.

  5. [Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Hao, Ming-De; She, Xiao-Yan

    2010-02-01

    Taking a nine-year-old Fuji apple orchard in Loess Plateau as test object, this paper studied the effects of different patterns surface mulching (clean tillage, grass cover, plastic film mulch, straw mulch, and gravel mulch) on the soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in this orchard. Grass cover induced the lowest differentiation of soil moisture profile, while gravel mulch induced the highest one. In treatment gravel mulch, the soil moisture content in apple trees root zone was the highest, which meant that there was more water available to apple trees. Surface mulching had significant effects on soil temperature, and generally resulted in a decrease in the maximum soil temperature. The exception was treatment plastic film mulch, in which, the soil temperature in summer exceeded the maximum allowable temperature for continuous root growth and physiological function. With the exception of treatment plastic film mulch, surface mulching increased the soil CO2 flux, which was the highest in treatment grass cover. Surface mulching also affected the proportion of various branch types and fruit yield. The proportion of medium-sized branches and fruit yield were the highest in treatment gravel mulch, while the fruit yield was the lowest in treatment grass cover. Factor analysis indicated that among the test surface mulching patterns, gravel mulch was most suitable for the apple orchards in gully region of Loess Plateau.

  6. Fruit self-thinning: a trait to consider for genetic improvement of apple tree.

    PubMed

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Martinez, Sébastien; Bechti, Abdel; Khelifi Touhami, Amina; James, Marie José; Durel, Charles-Eric; Laurens, François; Costes, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    In apple (Malus×domestica Borkh), as in many fruiting crops, fruit maintenance vs abscission is a major criteria for production profitability. Growers routinely make use of chemical thinning agents to control total fruit load. However, serious threats for the environment lead to the demand for new apple cultivars with self-thinning properties. In this project, we studied the genetic determinism of this trait using a F1 progeny derived from the cross between the hybrid INRA X3263, assumed to possess the self-thinning trait, and the cultivar 'Belrène'. Both counting and percentage variables were considered to capture the fruiting behaviour on different shoot types and over three consecutive years. Besides low to moderate but significant genetic effects, mixed models showed considerable effects of the year and the shoot type, as well as an interaction effect. Year effect resulted mainly from biennial fruiting. Eight Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) were detected on several linkage groups (LG), either independent or specific of the year of observation or the shoot type. The QTL with highest LOD value was located on the top third of LG10. The screening of three QTL zones for candidate genes revealed a list of transcription factors and genes involved in fruit nutrition, xylem differentiation, plant responses to starvation and organ abscission that open new avenues for further molecular investigations. The detailed phenotyping performed revealed the dependency between the self-thinning trait and the fruiting status of the trees. Despite a moderate genetic control of the self-thinning trait, QTL and candidate genes were identified which will need further analyses involving other progenies and molecular investigations.

  7. Total soil water content accounts for augmented ABA leaf concentration and stomatal regulation of split-rooted apple trees during heterogeneous soil drying.

    PubMed

    Einhorn, Todd C; Caspari, Horst W; Green, Steve

    2012-09-01

    A split-rooted containerized system was developed by approach grafting two, 1-year-old apple (Malus×domestica Borkh. cv 'Gala') trees to investigate the effect of soil moisture heterogeneity and total soil moisture content (θ(v)) on tree water relations, gas exchange, and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration [ABA(leaf)]. Four irrigation treatments comprising a 2×2 factorial experiment of irrigation volume and placement were imposed over a 30-day period: control (C) [>100% of crop evapotranspiration (ET(c))] applied to both containers; PRD100 (>100% ET(c)) applied to one container only; and two treatments receiving 50% ET(c) applied to either one (PRD50) or both containers (DI50). Irrigation between PRD (partial rootzone drying) root compartments was alternated when θ(v) reached ~35% of field capacity. Maximum daily sap flow of the irrigated roots of PRD100 exceeded that of C roots throughout the experimental period. Pre-dawn water potential (Ψ(pd)) was similar between C and PRD100; however, daily water use and mid-day gas exchange of PRD100 was 30% lower. Slightly higher [ABA(leaf)] was observed in PRD100, but the effect was not significant and could not explain the observed reductions in leaf gas exchange. Both 50% ET(c) treatments had similar, but lower θ(v), Ψ(pd), and gas exchange, and higher [ABA(leaf)] than C and PRD100. Regardless of treatment, the container having the lower θ(v) of a split-rooted system correlated poorly with [ABA(leaf)], but when θ(v) of both containers or θ(v) of the container possessing the higher soil moisture was used, the relationship markedly improved. These results imply that apple canopy gas exchange and [ABA(leaf)] are responsive to the total soil water environment.

  8. Thermotolerance of apple tree leaves probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection during seasonal shift.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Gao, Jin; Li, Pengmin; Goltsev, Vasilij; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-11-01

    During the seasonal shift from June to August, air temperatures increase. To explore how apple trees improve their thermotolerance during this shift, we examined the photochemical reaction capacity of apple tree leaves by simultaneous measurement of prompt chlorophyll fluorescence, delayed chlorophyll fluorescence, and modulated 820 nm reflection at varying temperatures. It was found that the reaction centers and antennae of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), the donor side of PSII, the electron transfer capacity from QA to QB, and the reoxidation capacity of plastoquinol were all sensitive to heat stress, particularly in June. As the season shifted, apple tree leaves improved in thermotolerance. Interestingly, the acclimation to seasonal shift enhanced the thermotolerance of PSII and PSI reaction centers more than that of their antennae, and the activity of PSII more than that of PSI. This may be a strategy for plant adaptation to changes in environmental temperatures. In addition, results from prompt and delayed fluorescence, as well as modulated 820 nm reflection corroborate each other. We suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the three independent signals may provide more information on thermal acclimation mechanisms of photochemical reactions in plant leaves.

  9. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  10. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  11. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  12. Functional characterization of the apple MhGAI1 gene through ectopic expression and grafting experiments in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Ze-Zhou; Sun, Chao; Shi, Qing-Hua; Yao, Yu-Xin; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-02-15

    DELLA proteins are essential components of GA signal transduction. MhGAI1 was isolated from the tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis Redh. var. pingyiensis), and it was found to encode a DELLA protein. Mhgai1 is a GA-insensitive allele that was artificially generated via a bridge-PCR approach. Ectopic expression of Mhgai1 reduced plant stature, decreased spontaneous fruit-set-ratio and enhanced drought-tolerance in transgenic tomatoes. In addition, we examined the long-distance movement of Mhgai1 mRNAs by grafting experiments and SqRT-PCR analysis. It was found that the wild-type scions accumulated Mhgai1 transcripts trafficked from the transgenic rootstocks and therefore exhibited dwarf phenotypes. Furthermore, transgenic tomato plants produced more soluble solids, sugars and organic acids compared to wild-type tomatoes, suggesting an involvement of GA signaling in the regulation of fruit quality. Despite noticeable accumulation in the leaves and stems of WT scions, Mhgai1 transcripts were undetectable in flowers and fruit. Therefore, fruit quality was less influenced by the grafting of WT scions onto transgenic rootstocks than they were by the ectopic expression of Mhgai1 in transgenic rootstocks. Taken together, MhGAI1, which functions as a repressor in the GA signaling pathway, and its GA-insensitive allele, Mhgai1, could turn out to be useful targets for the genetic improvement of dwarfing rootstocks in apples.

  13. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Cooley, D R; Tuttle, A F; Frenkel, M A; Bergweiler, C J

    2004-12-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA.

  14. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  15. Towards the onset of fruit tree growing north of the Alps: ancient DNA from waterlogged apple (Malus sp.) seed fragments.

    PubMed

    Schlumbaum, Angela; van Glabeke, Sabine; Roldan-Ruiz, Isabel

    2012-01-20

    Wild apples (Malus sp.) have been a major food source in the northern Alpine region since prehistory and their use is well understood. The onset of deliberate fruit tree growing in the area is, however, less clear. It is generally assumed that horticulture was practised in Roman times, but it might be even earlier. In the archaeological record seed testa and pericarp remains are particularly frequent at sites with waterlogged preservation such as lakeshore settlements or wells, pits and ditches, but the distinction between wild and domestic plants is not morphologically possible. With waterlogged remains being one main source of information about past fruit cultivation, we have tested the feasibility of analysing ancient DNA from waterlogged preserved bulk samples of testa fragments. We studied apple seeds from three Neolithic and three Roman sites with waterlogged preservation in the Alpine foreland. Chloroplast markers failed in all samples, but nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer region 1) of the ribosomal DNA was successfully typed in two Roman samples from the site Oedenburg/Biesheim-Kunheim (Haut-Rhin, F). The retrieved ITS1 sequences are identical to each other and are shared with wild Malus sylvestris and Malus sieversii, and with domestic apple cultivars, supporting the potential of using waterlogged remains for identifying the genetic status of apple diachronically.

  16. Photosynthesis of young apple trees in response to low sink demand under different air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pei G; Li, Lian S; Duan, Wei; Li, Wei D; Li, Shao H

    2010-03-01

    Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic end products and related enzymes in source leaves in response to low sink demand after girdling to remove the root sink were assessed in young apple trees (Malus pumila) grown in two greenhouses with different air temperatures for 5 days. Compared with the non-girdled control in the low-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature <32 degrees C), low sink demand resulted in lower net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) but higher leaf temperature on Day 5, while in the high-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature >36 degrees C), P(n), g(s) and E declined from Day 3 onwards. Moreover, gas exchange responded more to low sink demand in the high-temperature greenhouse than in the low-temperature greenhouse. Decreased P(n) at low sink demand was accompanied by lower intercellular CO(2) concentrations in the low-temperature greenhouse. However, decreased maximal photochemical efficiency, potential activity, efficiency of excitation capture, actual efficiency and photochemical quenching, with increased minimal fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II (PSII), were observed in low sink demand leaves only in the high-temperature greenhouse. In addition, low sink demand increased leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate content in both greenhouses but did not result in lower activity of enzymes involved in metabolism. Thus, decreased P(n) under low sink demand was independent of a direct effect of end-product feedback but rather depended on a high temperature threshold. The lower P(n) was likely due to stomatal limitation in the low-temperature greenhouse, but mainly due to non-stomatal limitation in the high-temperature greenhouse.

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Dai, Qingqing; Liu, Yangyang; Yang, Zhe; Song, Na; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf Thomas; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), which is the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree, causes heavy damage to apple production in eastern Asia. In this article, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) of Vmm and expression of gfp (green fluorescent protein) in this fungus. The transformation system was optimized to a transformation efficiency of approximately 150 transformants/10(6) conidia, and a library containing over 4,000 transformants was generated. The tested transformants were mitotically stable. One hundred percent hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) integration into Vmm was identified by PCR and five single-copy integration of T-DNA was detected in the eighteen transformants by Southern blot. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ATMT of Vmm. Furthermore, this library has been used to identify genes involved in the virulence of the pathogen, and the transformation system may also be useful to the transformation of other species of the genus Valsa.

  18. The amount of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fruits of different varieties of apple tree--Malus domectica L.

    PubMed

    Gogia, N; Bukia, Z; Atamashvili, Ts; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2015-05-01

    This article presents data on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the juice and residue, after squeezing the juice in the fruit of different varieties of Apple tree-Malus domestica L. The high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity is characterized by endemic grade Kekhura, compared with introduced varieties. Found that in the fruit all varieties of apples mainly there is a correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, except for fruit varieties of Golden, in which the average measurement of polyphenols fixed high antioxidant activity. Shows that in residue, after squeezing the juice content of high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, which implies its use as biologically active additives for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  19. Anthropogenic and natural drivers of gene flow in a temperate wild fruit tree: a basis for conservation and breeding programs in apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Feurtey, Alice; Gélin, Uriel; Ropars, Jeanne; Misvanderbrugge, Kristine; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Gene flow is an essential component of population adaptation and species evolution. Understanding of the natural and anthropogenic factors affecting gene flow is also critical for the development of appropriate management, breeding, and conservation programs. Here, we explored the natural and anthropogenic factors impacting crop-to-wild and within wild gene flow in apples in Europe using an unprecedented dense sampling of 1889 wild apple (Malus sylvestris) from European forests and 339 apple cultivars (Malus domestica). We made use of genetic, environmental, and ecological data (microsatellite markers, apple production across landscapes and records of apple flower visitors, respectively). We provide the first evidence that both human activities, through apple production, and human disturbance, through modifications of apple flower visitor diversity, have had a significant impact on crop-to-wild interspecific introgression rates. Our analysis also revealed the impact of previous natural climate change on historical gene flow in the nonintrogressed wild apple M. sylvestris, by identifying five distinct genetic groups in Europe and a north-south gradient of genetic diversity. These findings identify human activities and climate as key drivers of gene flow in a wild temperate fruit tree and provide a practical basis for conservation, agroforestry, and breeding programs for apples in Europe.

  20. Anthropogenic and natural drivers of gene flow in a temperate wild fruit tree: a basis for conservation and breeding programs in apples

    PubMed Central

    Cornille, Amandine; Feurtey, Alice; Gélin, Uriel; Ropars, Jeanne; Misvanderbrugge, Kristine; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow is an essential component of population adaptation and species evolution. Understanding of the natural and anthropogenic factors affecting gene flow is also critical for the development of appropriate management, breeding, and conservation programs. Here, we explored the natural and anthropogenic factors impacting crop-to-wild and within wild gene flow in apples in Europe using an unprecedented dense sampling of 1889 wild apple (Malus sylvestris) from European forests and 339 apple cultivars (Malus domestica). We made use of genetic, environmental, and ecological data (microsatellite markers, apple production across landscapes and records of apple flower visitors, respectively). We provide the first evidence that both human activities, through apple production, and human disturbance, through modifications of apple flower visitor diversity, have had a significant impact on crop-to-wild interspecific introgression rates. Our analysis also revealed the impact of previous natural climate change on historical gene flow in the nonintrogressed wild apple M. sylvestris, by identifying five distinct genetic groups in Europe and a north–south gradient of genetic diversity. These findings identify human activities and climate as key drivers of gene flow in a wild temperate fruit tree and provide a practical basis for conservation, agroforestry, and breeding programs for apples in Europe. PMID:25926882

  1. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    PubMed

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris, the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative, Malus domestica. With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  2. Extraction of palm tree cellulose and its functionalization via graft copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Al-Hoqbani, Abdulmajeed A; Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-09-01

    The work in this paper was planned with the aim of extracting the cellulosic component of palm tree waste and functionalizing this cellulose through graft copolymerization with acrylic acid. The cellulose extraction included hot alkali treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to remove the non-cellulosic binding materials. The alkali treatment was followed by an oxidative bleaching using peracid/hydrogen peroxide mixture with the aim of removing the rest of non-cellulosic materials to improve the fiber hydrophilicity and accessibility towards further grafting reaction. Optimum conditions for cellulose extraction are boiling in 5% (W/V) NaOH in a material to liquor ratio of 1:20 for 1 h then bleaching with 60 ml/l bleaching mixture at initial pH value of 6.5 for 30 min. The pH of the bleaching medium is turned to the alkaline range 11 and bleaching continues for extra 30 min. Graft copolymerization reaction was initiated by potassium bromate/thiourea dioxide redox system. Optimum conditions for grafting are 30 mmol of potassium bromate, 30 mmol of thiourea dioxide and 150 g of acrylic acid (each per 100 g of cellulose). The polymerization reaction was carried out for 120 min at 50°C using a material to liquor ratio of 1:20.

  3. Efficient recellularisation of decellularised whole-liver grafts using biliary tree and foetal hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Satoshi; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Fukumitsu, Ken; Ishii, Takamichi; Kojima, Hidenobu; Miyauchi, Yuya; Yamaoka, Ryoya; Komori, Junji; Katayama, Hokahiro; Kawai, Takayuki; Yoshitoshi, Elena Yukie; Kita, Sadahiko; Yasuda, Katsutaro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    A whole-organ regeneration approach, using a decellularised xenogeneic liver as a scaffold for the construction of a transplantable liver was recently reported. Deriving suitable scaffolds was the first step towards clinical application; however, effective recellularisation remains to be achieved. This report presents a strategy for the improvement of the recellularisation process, using novel cell-seeding technique and cell source. We evaluated recellularised liver grafts repopulated through the portal vein or the biliary duct with mice adult hepatocytes or E14.5 foetal hepatocytes. More than 80% of the cells seeded through the biliary tree entered the parenchyma beyond the ductule-lining matrix barrier and distributed throughout the liver lobule. In contrast, about 20% of the cells seeded through the portal tree entered the parenchyma. The gene expression levels of foetal hepatocyte albumin, glucose 6-phosphatase, transferrin, cytokeratin 19, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased in three-dimensional cultures in the native liver-derived scaffolds, and the activation of liver detoxification enzymes and formation of biliary duct-like structures were supported. The metabolic functions of liver grafts recellularised with different cell types were similar. These results suggest that biliary tree cell-seeding approach is promising, and that liver progenitor cells represent a good cell source candidate. PMID:27767181

  4. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  5. Total soil water content accounts for augmented ABA leaf concentration and stomatal regulation of split-rooted apple trees during heterogeneous soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    A split-rooted containerized system was developed by approach grafting two, 1-year-old apple (Malus×domestica Borkh. cv ‘Gala’) trees to investigate the effect of soil moisture heterogeneity and total soil moisture content (θv) on tree water relations, gas exchange, and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration [ABAleaf]. Four irrigation treatments comprising a 2×2 factorial experiment of irrigation volume and placement were imposed over a 30-day period: control (C) [>100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)] applied to both containers; PRD100 (>100% ETc) applied to one container only; and two treatments receiving 50% ETc applied to either one (PRD50) or both containers (DI50). Irrigation between PRD (partial rootzone drying) root compartments was alternated when θv reached ~35% of field capacity. Maximum daily sap flow of the irrigated roots of PRD100 exceeded that of C roots throughout the experimental period. Pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd) was similar between C and PRD100; however, daily water use and mid-day gas exchange of PRD100 was 30% lower. Slightly higher [ABAleaf] was observed in PRD100, but the effect was not significant and could not explain the observed reductions in leaf gas exchange. Both 50% ETc treatments had similar, but lower θv, Ψpd, and gas exchange, and higher [ABAleaf] than C and PRD100. Regardless of treatment, the container having the lower θv of a split-rooted system correlated poorly with [ABAleaf], but when θv of both containers or θv of the container possessing the higher soil moisture was used, the relationship markedly improved. These results imply that apple canopy gas exchange and [ABAleaf] are responsive to the total soil water environment. Abbreviations:Aassimilation[ABAleaf]leaf ABA concentrationBdbulk densityDIdeficit irrigationDOYday of yeardwdry weightEtranspirationETccrop evapotranspirationFCfield capacitygsstomatal conductanceLAleaf areaPARphotosynthetic active radiationPRDpartial rootzone dryingΨpdpre-dawn leaf

  6. Evaluation of the hormonal state of columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) based on high throughput gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Lokan, Stefanie; Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Braun, Peter; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2013-02-01

    The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10 which can appear in a heterozygous (Co/co) or homozygous (Co/Co) state. Although two deep sequencing approaches could shed some light on the transcriptome of columnar shoot apical meristems (SAMs), the molecular mechanisms of columnar growth are not yet elaborated. Since the influence of phytohormones is believed to have a pivotal role in the establishment of the phenotype, we performed RNA-Seq experiments to study genes associated with hormone homeostasis and clearly affected by the presence of Co. Our results provide a molecular explanation for earlier findings on the hormonal state of columnar apple trees. Additionally, they allow hypotheses on how the columnar phenotype might develop. Furthermore, we show a statistically approved enrichment of differentially regulated genes on chromosome 10 in the course of validating RNA-Seq results using additional gene expression studies.

  7. Dissecting apple tree architecture into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects: mixed linear modelling of repeated spatial and temporal measures.

    PubMed

    Segura, Vincent; Cilas, Christian; Costes, Evelyne

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to dissect tree architectural plasticity into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects over the first 4 yr of growth of an apple (Malus x domestica) F1 progeny by means of mixed linear modelling of repeated data. Traits related to both growth and branching processes were annually assessed on different axes of the trees planted in a staggered-start design. Both spatial repetitions, (i.e. different axis types) and temporal repetitions (i.e. successive ages of trees) were considered in a mixed linear model of repeated data. A significant genotype effect was found for most studied traits and interactions between genotype and year and/or age were also detected. The analysis of repeated temporal measures highlighted that the magnitude of the decrease in primary growth is mainly determined by the first year of growth, and the decrease in bottom diameter increment is concomitant with the first fruiting occurrence. This approach allowed us to distinguish among the traits that were under genetic control, those for which this control is exerted differentially throughout tree life or depending on climatic conditions or an axis type. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are specific to these different effects will constitute the next step in the research.

  8. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  9. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  10. Combining Genome-Wide Information with a Functional Structural Plant Model to Simulate 1-Year-Old Apple Tree Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Migault, Vincent; Pallas, Benoît; Costes, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    In crops, optimizing target traits in breeding programs can be fostered by selecting appropriate combinations of architectural traits which determine light interception and carbon acquisition. In apple tree, architectural traits were observed to be under genetic control. However, architectural traits also result from many organogenetic and morphological processes interacting with the environment. The present study aimed at combining a FSPM built for apple tree, MAppleT, with genetic determinisms of architectural traits, previously described in a bi-parental population. We focused on parameters related to organogenesis (phyllochron and immediate branching) and morphogenesis processes (internode length and leaf area) during the first year of tree growth. Two independent datasets collected in 2004 and 2007 on 116 genotypes, issued from a ‘Starkrimson’ × ‘Granny Smith’ cross, were used. The phyllochron was estimated as a function of thermal time and sylleptic branching was modeled subsequently depending on phyllochron. From a genetic map built with SNPs, marker effects were estimated on four MAppleT parameters with rrBLUP, using 2007 data. These effects were then considered in MAppleT to simulate tree development in the two climatic conditions. The genome wide prediction model gave consistent estimations of parameter values with correlation coefficients between observed values and estimated values from SNP markers ranging from 0.79 to 0.96. However, the accuracy of the prediction model following cross validation schemas was lower. Three integrative traits (the number of leaves, trunk length, and number of sylleptic laterals) were considered for validating MAppleT simulations. In 2007 climatic conditions, simulated values were close to observations, highlighting the correct simulation of genetic variability. However, in 2004 conditions which were not used for model calibration, the simulations differed from observations. This study demonstrates the possibility

  11. Similarities and gradients in growth unit branching patterns during ontogeny in "Fuji" apple trees: a stochastic approach.

    PubMed

    Renton, Michael; Guédon, Yann; Godin, Christophe; Costes, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to explore and model the changes in growth unit (GU) branching patterns during tree ontogeny. The question was addressed in apple trees cv. "Fuji", by analysing the relative impact of GU length and within-tree position. The development of two 6-year-old trees was recorded over 6 years. The fate of axillary buds along each GU was represented as a sequence of symbols corresponding to five types of lateral growth: latent buds, short, medium, long, and floral lateral GUs. Based on an exploratory analysis of data and a priori hypotheses, a hidden semi-Markov chain was estimated from all of these GU sequences. This model was composed of six transient states representing successive branching zones along the GUs. The accuracy of this global model was a posteriori assessed by fitting the characteristic distributions computed from model parameters to the corresponding empirical characteristic distributions extracted from the observed sequences. The observed sequences were then grouped hierarchically according to the GU length, year of growth, and branching order. Comparing model parameters between these sub-groups revealed similarities between GUs. These similarities were based on particular branching zones whose composition and relative position within the GUs remained invariant across the subgroups: the latent zones, floral zone, and short-lateral zone. The probability of occurrence of the floral zone varied with the year, showing the alternate fruiting of "Fuji". It is shown that, during tree ontogeny, as GU length decreases, branching patterns tend to progressively simplify due to the disappearance of the most central zones and a progressive reduction in the length of the floral zone.

  12. Root-zone temperatures affect phenology of bud break, flower cluster development, shoot extension growth and gas exchange of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica) apple trees.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are < or = 15 degrees C have delayed bud break and up to 20% fewer clusters than apple trees exposed to root zone temperatures of > or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.

  13. New insights for estimating the genetic value of segregating apple progenies for irregular bearing during the first years of tree production.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Guitton, Baptiste; Peyhardi, Jean; Holtz, Yan; Guédon, Yann; Trottier, Catherine; Costes, Evelyne

    2013-11-01

    Because irregular bearing generates major agronomic issues in fruit-tree species, particularly in apple, the selection of regular cultivars is desirable. Here, we aimed to define methods and descriptors allowing a diagnostic for bearing behaviour during the first years of tree maturity, when tree production is increasing. Flowering occurrences were collected at whole-tree and (annual) shoot scales on a segregating apple population. At both scales, the number of inflorescences over the years was modelled. Two descriptors were derived from model residuals: a new biennial bearing index, based on deviation around yield trend over years and an autoregressive coefficient, which represents dependency between consecutive yields. At the shoot scale, entropy was also considered to represent the within-tree flowering synchronicity. Clusters of genotypes with similar bearing behaviours were built. Both descriptors at the whole-tree and shoot scales were consistent for most genotypes and were used to discriminate regular from biennial and irregular genotypes. Quantitative trait loci were detected for the new biennial bearing index at both scales. Combining descriptors at a local scale with entropy showed that regular bearing at the tree scale may result from different strategies of synchronization in flowering at the local scale. The proposed methods and indices open an avenue to quantify bearing behaviour during the first years of tree maturity and to capture genetic variations. Their extension to other progenies and species, possible variants of descriptors, and their use in breeding programmes considering a limited number of years or fruit yields are discussed.

  14. Oligo-DNA Custom Macroarray for Monitoring Major Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria in the Phyllosphere of Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Background To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. Methods and Findings First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 103 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. Conclusions The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of

  15. Horizontal gene transfer drives adaptive colonization of apple trees by the fungal pathogen Valsa mali

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Baitao; Feng, Hao; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) often has strong benefits for fungi. In a study of samples from apple canker in Shaanxi Province, China, diverse microbes, along with the necrotrophic pathogen Valsa mali, were found to colonize the apple bark, thus providing ample opportunity for HGT to occur. In the present study, we identified 32 HGT events in V. mali by combining phyletic distribution-based methods with phylogenetic analyses. Most of these HGTs were from bacteria, whereas several others were from eukaryotes. Three HGTs putatively functioned in competition with actinomycetes, some of which showed a significant inhibitory effect on V. mali. Three HGTs that were probably involved in nitrogen uptake were also identified. Ten HGTs were thought to be involved in pathogenicity because they were related to known virulence factors, including cell wall-degrading enzymes and candidate effector proteins. HGT14, together with HGT32, was shown to contribute to bleomycin resistance of V. mali.These results suggest that HGT drives the adaptive evolution of V. mali. The HGTs identified here provide new clues for unveiling the adaptation mechanisms and virulence determinants of V. mali. PMID:27634406

  16. Distance of response to host tree models by female apple maggot flies,Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Interaction of visual and olfactory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Green, T A; Prokopy, R J; Hosmer, D W

    1994-09-01

    Mature female apple maggot flies,Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), were released individually onto a single potted, fruitless hawthorne tree in the center of an open field. The tree was surrounded by four 1-m(2) plywood host tree models painted green or white, with or without synthetic host fruit odor (butyl hexanoate), and placed at one of several distances from the release tree. Each fly was permitted to forage freely on the release tree for up to 1 hr, or until it left the tree. Flies left the tree significantly sooner when green models with host fruit were present at 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 m distance from the release tree than when these models were placed at a greater distance (4.5 m) from the release tree or when no models were present. Flies responded detectably to 1-m(2) models without odor up to a maximum distance of 1.5 m. These results suggest that female apple maggot flies did not detect green 1-m(2) models with odor 4.5 m away or models without odor 2.5 m or more away. Flies responded to white models with and without odor to a much lesser extent, both in terms of response distance and flight to and alightment upon models. Increasing model size to 2 m(2) increased the distance to 2.5 m at which flies responded to green models without odor. Decreasing model size to 0.5 m(2) reduced fly responsiveness to green or white models. The presence of host fruit odor alone, without the visual stimulus of a green model, did not influence residence time on the release tree.

  17. A dsRNA-binding protein MdDRB1 associated with miRNA biogenesis modifies adventitious rooting and tree architecture in apple.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Xing-Bin; Feng, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Although numerous miRNAs have been already isolated from fruit trees, knowledge about miRNA biogenesis is largely unknown in fruit trees. Double-strand RNA-binding (DRB) protein plays an important role in miRNA processing and maturation; however, its role in the regulation of economically important traits is not clear yet in fruit trees. EST blast and RACE amplification were performed to isolate apple MdDRB1 gene. Following expression analysis, RNA binding and protein interaction assays, MdDRB1 was transformed into apple callus and in vitro tissue cultures to characterize the functions of MdDRB1 in miRNA biogenesis, adventitious rooting, leaf development and tree growth habit. MdDRB1 contained two highly conserved DRB domains. Its transcripts existed in all tissues tested and are induced by hormones. It bound to double-strand RNAs and interacted with AtDCL1 (Dicer-Like 1) and MdDCL1. Chip assay indicated its role in miRNA biogenesis. Transgenic analysis showed that MdDRB1 controls adventitious rooting, leaf curvature and tree architecture by modulating the accumulation of miRNAs and the transcript levels of miRNA target genes. Our results demonstrated that MdDRB1 functions in the miRNA biogenesis in a conserved way and that it is a master regulator in the formation of economically important traits in fruit trees.

  18. "Jesus Christ the Apple Tree": Preparing for Good Friday in a Literature and Environment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on a visit by Christian poet John Terpstra to the final class session (on a Maundy Thursday) of my Literature and Environment course, to read his poetry suite on making a cross for his church out of a fruit-tree in an orchard being ploughed under for construction. Terpstra plays on the Stations of the Cross by interweaving the…

  19. Decrease in diversity and changes in community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of apple trees with increasing orchard management intensity across a regional scale.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Maarten; Ceustermans, An; van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Lievens, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Understanding which factors drive the diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important due to the role of these soil micro-organisms in ecosystem functioning and current environmental threats to AMF biodiversity. Additionally, in agro-ecosystems, this knowledge may help to evaluate their use in making agriculture more sustainable. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing of small subunit rRNA gene amplicons to quantify AMF diversity and community composition in the roots of cultivated apple trees across 24 orchards in central Belgium. We aimed at identifying the factors (soil chemical variables, organic vs. conventional farming, and geographical location) that affect AMF diversity and community composition. In total, 110 AMF OTUs were detected, of which the majority belonged to the Glomeraceae (73%) and the Claroideoglomeraceae (19%). We show that soil characteristics and farming system, rather than the geographical location of the orchards, shape AMF communities on apple trees. Particularly, plant-available P content of the soil was associated with lower AMF diversity. In orchards with a lower plant-available P content of the soil (P < 100 mg/kg soil), we also found a significantly higher AMF diversity in organically managed orchards as compared to conventionally managed orchards. Finally, the degree of nestedness of the AMF communities was related to plant-available P and N content of the soil, pointing at a progressive loss of AMF taxa with increasing fertilization. Overall, we conclude that a combination of organic orchard management and moderate fertilization may preserve diverse AMF communities on apple trees and that AMF in the roots of apple trees appear not to be dispersal limited at the scale of central Belgium.

  20. Plant growth promoting traits of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria isolated from apple trees in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, C K

    2013-05-01

    Two hundred and six phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria (PSB) were isolated from rhizosphere soil (RS) and root endosphere (ER) of apple trees from different sites of four locations viz., Chamba, Shimla, Kinnaur and Kullu of Himachal Pradesh, Northern India, and were screened for plant growth promoting traits (PGPTs) by using culture dependent procedures. Indole acetic acid (IAA) production was detected in 50 isolates (24.2 %), siderophore synthesis in 53 isolates (25.7 %), hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in 40 isolates (19.4 %) and percentage growth inhibition against Dematophora necatrix in 61 isolates (29.6 %). Overall, 54.3 % of PSB isolates from RS and 64.4 % from ER showed none of the PGPTs tested. Among the PSB showing PGPTs, 10.6 % had single trait and 30.6 % had multiple traits showing two (10.7 %), three (14.1 %) and four (5.8 %) types of PGPTs. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H') revealed that PGPT-possessing PSBs in RS were more abundant than ER. Clustering analysis by principal component analysis showed that ER was most important factor influencing the ecological distribution and physiological characterization of PGPT-possessing PSB. There was a positive correlation (0.94, p < 0.05) between HCN and antifungal activity producers, and IAA and antifungal activity producers (0.99, p < 0.05). Significant positive correlation (0.42, p < 0.05) between HCN producers and altitude was also noted.

  1. Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Riquelme, María T; Porras, Ignacio; Ferreres, Federico

    2004-01-28

    The grafting of the rootstock with the lemon tree is an agronomical technique used to improve production and/or quality of the fruit. The interstock has been used with different fruit trees to modulate the tree size, fruit production and quality, and the aging of the tree. The lemon trees grafted with interstocks increase their longevity, lemon production and quality; interstocks are also used to decrease the thickness of the trunk at the grafting point. This enlarging of the trunk provokes a decrease of the sap flow. In our study, "Verna" lemon trees were grafted with interstock between the rootstock and the lemon tree to follow the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. The lemon juice was obtained from the lemons collected of the grafted lemon trees. Two types of rootstocks were used: Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus macrophylla L. Seven interstocks from five cultivars of orange tree, one cultivar of lime tree, and one cultivar of tangerine tree were used. "Verna" lemon trees were also grafted directly to the rootstock. The rootstock was more important agronomic factor than the interstock on the total flavonoid content of lemon juice. The interstock grafting had only a small influence on the flavonoid content of the lemon juice, and it modulated the individual flavonoid content. Citrus aurantium L. rootstock and "Berna" and "Washington Navel" interstocks were the most appropriate to graft in the lemon tree. This interstock grafting technique does not increase the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. Regarding the individual flavonoids, the 6,8-di-C-glucosyl diosmetin was the most affected flavonoid by the type of rootstock used. The interstock used is able to alter the individual quantitative flavonoid order of eriocitrin, diosmin, and hesperidin. In addition, the HPLC-ESI/MS(n) analyses provided the identification of two new flavonoids in the lemon juice: Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and chrysoeriol 6,8-di-C-glucoside (stellarin-2). The occurrence of

  2. Down-regulation of sorbitol dehydrogenase and up-regulation of sucrose synthase in shoot tips of the transgenic apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Cheng, Lailiang; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2006-01-01

    Both sorbitol and sucrose are translocated to, and utilized in, sink tissues of apple (Malus domestica). Considering that antisense suppression of aldose 6-phosphate reductase resulted in lower concentrations of sorbitol and higher concentrations of sucrose in source leaves without altering the vegetative growth of apple trees, it was hypothesized that sorbitol metabolism is down-regulated and sucrose metabolism is up-regulated in shoot tips of the transgenic plants. Carbohydrate measurements indicated that sorbitol concentration was lower whereas sucrose concentration was higher in the shoot tips of transgenic apple plants with decreased sorbitol synthesis compared with the untransformed control. However, the shoot relative growth rate was not altered in the transgenic plants. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was decreased; acid invertase activity and neutral invertase activity remained the same, whereas sucrose synthase (SUSY) activity was increased in shoot tips of the transgenic plants. The SDH transcript level was lower whereas the SUSY transcript level was higher in shoot tips of the transgenic plants. SDH activity and SDH transcript level were specifically stimulated by exogenous sorbitol fed to the shoot tips via the transpiration stream but were specifically inhibited by sucrose. SUSY activity and SUSY transcript level were dramatically enhanced by sucrose, but decreased by glucose and fructose. Neither acid invertase nor neutral invertase activity responded to sucrose, glucose, fructose, or any other sugars tested. It is concluded that sorbitol dehydrogenase is down-regulated, whereas sucrose synthase is up-regulated in shoot tips of the transgenic apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis, leading to homeostasis of vegetative growth. Sorbitol and sucrose act as signal molecules to modulate the expression and activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase and sucrose synthase, both of which play an important role in determining the sink strength of apple

  3. Detection of natural and stress-induced variability in reflectance spectra of apple trees using hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delalieux, Stephanie; Keulemans, Wannes; van Aardt, Jan; Schrevens, Eddie; Coppin, Pol

    2005-10-01

    Early detection of biotic and abiotic stresses and subsequent steering of agricultural systems using hyperspectral sensors potentially could contribute to the pro-active treatment of production-limiting factors. Venturia inaequalis (apple scab) is an important biotic factor that can reduce yield in apple orchards. Previous hyperspectral research focused on (i) determining if Venturia inaequalis leaf infections could be differentiated from healthy leaves and (ii) investigating at which developmental stage Venturia inaequalis infection could be detected. Logistical regression and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to select the hyperspectral bands that best define differences among treatments. It was clear that hyperspectral data provide the contiguous, high spectral resolution data that are needed to detect subtle changes in reflectance values between healthy and stressed vegetation. The research was extended to include tree-based modeling as an alternative classification method. Results suggested that good predictability could be achieved when classifying infected plants based on this supervised classification technique. It was concluded that the spectral domain around 1600 nm was best suited to discriminate between infected and non-infected leaves immediately after infection, while the visible spectral region became more important at a well-developed infection stage. Research was focused on young leaves, because of the decreased incidence of infection in older leaves, the so-called 'ontogenic resistance'. Additional research was performed to gain a better understanding of the processes occurring during the first days after leaf unfolding and to evaluate the natural spectral variability among leaves. An undisturbed 20-day growth profile was examined to assess variations in the reflectance spectra due to physiological changes at the different growth stages of the leaves. Results suggested that an accurate distinction could be made between

  4. Erwinia amylovora Expresses Fast and Simultaneously hrp/dsp Virulence Genes during Flower Infection on Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Doris; Milčevičová, Renáta; Schaffer, Johann; Wilhelm, Eva; Blümel, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathogen entry through host blossoms is the predominant infection pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora leading to manifestation of the disease fire blight. Like in other economically important plant pathogens, E. amylovora pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system encoded by hrp genes. However, timing and transcriptional order of hrp gene expression during flower infections are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Using quantitative real-time PCR analyses, we addressed the questions of how fast, strong and uniform key hrp virulence genes and the effector dspA/E are expressed when bacteria enter flowers provided with the full defense mechanism of the apple plant. In non-invasive bacterial inoculations of apple flowers still attached to the tree, E. amylovora activated expression of key type III secretion genes in a narrow time window, mounting in a single expression peak of all investigated hrp/dspA/E genes around 24–48 h post inoculation (hpi). This single expression peak coincided with a single depression in the plant PR-1 expression at 24 hpi indicating transient manipulation of the salicylic acid pathway as one target of E. amylovora type III effectors. Expression of hrp/dspA/E genes was highly correlated to expression of the regulator hrpL and relative transcript abundances followed the ratio: hrpA>hrpN>hrpL>dspA/E. Acidic conditions (pH 4) in flower infections led to reduced virulence/effector gene expression without the typical expression peak observed under natural conditions (pH 7). Conclusion/Significance The simultaneous expression of hrpL, hrpA, hrpN, and the effector dspA/E during early floral infection indicates that speed and immediate effector transmission is important for successful plant invasion. When this delicate balance is disturbed, e.g., by acidic pH during infection, virulence gene expression is reduced, thus partly explaining the efficacy of acidification in fire blight control on a molecular

  5. Remobilization and uptake of N by newly planted apple (Malus domestica) trees in response to irrigation method and timing of N application.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, D; Millard, P; Herbert, L C; Neilsen, G H; Hogue, E J; Parchomchuk, P; Zebarth, B J

    2001-05-01

    Environmentally sound management of N in apple orchards requires that N supply meets demand. In 1997, newly planted apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Golden Delicious on M.9 rootstock) received daily applications of N for six weeks as Ca(15NO3)(2) through a drip irrigation system at a concentration of 112 mg l(-1) at 2-8, 5-11 or 8-14 weeks after planting. Irrigation water was applied either to meet estimated evaporative demand or at a fixed rate. In 1997, trees were harvested at 5, 8, 11 and 14 weeks after planting; and in 1998 at 3 weeks after full bloom. The amount of fertilizer N recovered was similar in trees in both irrigation treatments, but efficiency of fertilizer use was greater for trees receiving demand-controlled irrigation than fixed-rate irrigation. This was attributed to lower N inputs, greater retention time in the root zone and less N leaching in the demand-controlled irrigation treatments compared with fixed-rate irrigation treatments. Less fertilizer N was recovered by trees receiving an early application of N than a later application of N and this was related to the timing of N supply with respect to tree demand. Demand for root-supplied N was low until 11 weeks after planting, because early shoot and root growth was supported by N remobilized from woody tissue, which involved 55% of the total tree N content at planting. Rapid development of roots > 1 mm in diameter occurred between 11 and 14 weeks after planting, after remobilization ended, and was greater for trees receiving an early application of N than for trees receiving a later application of N. Late-season tree N demand was supplied by native soil N, and uptake and background soil solution N concentrations were higher for trees receiving demand-supplied irrigation compared with fixed-rate irrigation. Total annual N uptake by roots was unaffected by treatments and averaged 6-8 g tree(-1). Nitrogen applications in 1997 affected growth and N partitioning in 1998. Trees receiving

  6. A simple and rapid protocol of crude DNA extraction from apple trees for PCR and real-time PCR detection of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'.

    PubMed

    Aldaghi, M; Massart, S; Dutrecq, O; Bertaccini, A; Jijakli, M H; Lepoivre, P

    2009-03-01

    Different PCR protocols have been established for detection of European fruit trees phytoplasmas; however the majority of the procedures for extracting phytoplasma DNA are complex, time consuming, and expensive, with a risk of contamination or loss of target DNA. In present study, a crude extract preparation method previously used to detect other plant pathogens was adapted to samples from apple trees infected by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. End-point and real-time PCR detection of 'Ca. P. mali' were used to compare this extraction procedure with an established method for efficient extraction of purified DNA. The crude extract proved fully adequate for phytoplasma detection in samples from 86 in vitro and 35 in vivo apple shoots or plants and 10 periwinkle plants. High inter- and intra-run reproducibility was obtained for phytoplasma detection with different TaqMan MGB- or SYBR Green-based real-time PCR protocols applied to the crude extracts. Real-time PCR applied to serially diluted crude and purified extracts revealed the same phytoplasma detection limit (dilution up to 10(5)). All results confirm the suitability of this simple, quick, efficient extraction technique for accurate detection of 'Ca. P. mali' in different types of apple and periwinkle samples.

  7. [Effects of sand-covering on apple trees transpiration and fruit quality in dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiao-ning; Liu, Xiao-yong; Wang, Fa-lin

    2010-11-01

    Aiming at the seasonal drought in the dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu Province, a sand-covering experiment was conducted with 15-year-old Nagafu No. 2 apple trees, with the soil water content, temperature, stem sap flow velocity, leaf stomatal conductance, and fruit quality measured. In the orchard covered with 5-cm-thick riversand, the increment of soil temperature in February-April was lower than 1 degrees C, while in June-July, it was 2.44 degrees C and 2.61 degrees C on sunny and cloudy days, respectively. The soil water content was over 60% of field capacity throughout the growing season. On sunny days with high soil water content (H season), the stem sap flow curve presented a wide peak. Under sand- covering, the sap flow started 0.6 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 25.5% higher than the control. On cloudy days of H season, the maximum sap flow velocity was 165.6% higher than the control. On sunny days with low soil water content (L season), the sap flow curve had a single peak, and under sand covering, the sap flow started 0.5-1 h earlier than the control on sunny days. The maximum sap flow velocity was 794 g x h(-1). On cloudy days of L season, the sap flow started 1 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 311.0% higher than the control. The evaporation of the control was 156.0% higher than that of sand-covering from March to July, suggesting that excessive ground water evaporation was the main reason to cause soil drought. Under sand-covering, single fruit mass was improved obviously whereas fruit firmness was reduced slightly, and soluble solids, vitamin C, total sugar, and organic acid contents were somewhat promoted.

  8. Differentiation of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in European fruit trees by PCR using specific primers derived from the sequence of a chromosomal fragment of the apple proliferation MLO.

    PubMed

    Jarausch, W; Saillard, C; Dosba, F; Bové, J M

    1994-08-01

    A 1.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment of the mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) associated with apple proliferation was sequenced. Three putative open reading frames were observed on this fragment. The protein encoded by open reading frame 2 shows significant homologies with bacterial nitroreductases. From the nucleotide sequence four primer pairs for PCR were chosen to specifically amplify DNA from MLOs associated with European diseases of fruit trees. Primer pairs specific for (i) Malus-affecting MLOs, (ii) Malus- and Prunus-affecting MLOs, and (iii) Malus-, Prunus-, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs were obtained. Restriction enzyme analysis of the amplification products revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms between Malus-, Prunus, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs as well as between different isolates of the apple proliferation MLO. No amplification with either primer pair could be obtained with DNA from 12 different MLOs experimentally maintained in periwinkle.

  9. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  10. Architecture of the Pruned Tree: Impact of Contrasted Pruning Procedures Over 2 Years on Shoot Demography and Spatial Distribution of Leaf Area in Apple (Malus domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Jean; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Dones, Nicolas; Haddad, Nicolas; Talhouk, Salma; Sinoquet, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Demography and spatial distribution of shoots are rarely studied on pruned trees. The present 2-year study deals with the effect of pruning strategies on shoot demography and development, and consequences on the spatial distribution of leaf area in three architecturally contrasted — from type II to IV — apple cultivars: ‘Scarletspur Delicious’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Granny Smith’. Methods All trees were initially subjected during 5 years to Central Leader training with winter heading on all long shoots. For 2 years, half of the trees were further trained with Centrifugal training, where removal of flowering shoots — called extinction pruning — was carried out along the trunk and at the bottom of branches at flowering time. During these 2 years, shoot type (vegetative, inflorescence) and length, and the three-dimensional spatial distribution of all shoots were assessed with an electromagnetic digitizer. Key Results Shoot demography, frequency of transitions toward an inflorescence from either an inflorescence (bourse-over-bourse) or a vegetative shoot (trend toward flowering), and the number of bourse-shoots per bourse were strongly affected by cultivar, with little influence of tree manipulation. In contrast, the proportion of vegetative long shoots developing from previous year latent buds was significantly lower in Centrifugal-trained trees for the three cultivars. Canopy volume showed large variations between cultivars, but only that of ‘Granny Smith’ was affected by tree manipulation in the 2 years. Spatial distribution of shoots varied significantly according to cultivar and manipulation. In ‘Scarletspur Delicious’ and, to a lesser extent ‘Golden Delicious’, the distribution of vegetative and flowering shoots in the outer and the inner parts, respectively, was not affected by tree manipulation. In contrast, in ‘Granny Smith’, vegetative shoots were stimulated in the periphery of Central Leader trees

  11. Contributions of foliage distribution and leaf functions to light interception, transpiration and photosynthetic capacities in two apple cultivars at branch and tree scales.

    PubMed

    Massonnet, C; Regnard, J L; Lauri, P E; Costes, E; Sinoquet, H

    2008-05-01

    Both the spatial distribution of leaves and leaf functions affect the light interception, transpiration and photosynthetic capacities of trees, but their relative contributions have rarely been investigated. We assessed these contributions at the branch and tree scales in two apple cultivars (Malus x domestica Borkh. 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn') with contrasting architectures, by estimating their branch and tree capacities and comparing them with outputs from a radiation absorption, transpiration and photosynthesis (RATP) functional-structural plant model (FSPM). The structures of three 8-year-old trees of each cultivar were digitized to obtain 3-D representations of foliage geometry. Within-tree foliage distribution was compared with shoot demography, number of leaves per shoot and mean individual leaf area. We estimated branch and tree light interception from silhouette to total leaf area ratios (STAR), transpiration from sap flux measurements and net photosynthetic rates by the branch bag method. Based on a set of parameters we previously established for both cultivars, the outputs of the RATP model were tested against STAR values, sap fluxes and photosynthetic measurements. The RATP model was then used to virtually switch foliage distribution or leaf functions (stomatal and photosynthetic properties), or both, between cultivars and to evaluate the effects on branch and tree light interception, transpiration and photosynthetic capacities in each cultivar. 'Fuji' trees had a higher proportion of leaf area borne on long shoots, fewer leaves per unit shoot length and a larger individual leaf area than 'Braeburn' trees. This resulted in a lower leaf area density and, consequently, a higher STAR in 'Fuji' than in 'Braeburn' at both branch and tree scales. Transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in 'Fuji' than in 'Braeburn'. Branch heterogeneity was greater in 'Braeburn' than in 'Fuji'. An analysis of the virtual switches of foliage distribution or

  12. Shaping the shoot: the relative contribution of cell number and cell shape to variations in internode length between parent and hybrid apple trees.

    PubMed

    Ripetti, V; Escoute, J; Verdeil, J L; Costes, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic control of plant size and shape is a promising perspective, particularly in fruit trees, in order to select desirable genotypes. A recent study on architectural traits in an apple progeny showed that internode length was a highly heritable character. However, few studies have been devoted to internode cellular patterning in dicotyledonous stems, and the interplay between the two elementary cell processes that contribute to their length, i.e. cell division and elongation, is not fully understood. The present study aimed at unravelling their contributions in the genetic variation of internode length in a selection of F(1) and parent genotypes of apple tree, by exploring the number of cells and cell shape within mature internodes belonging to the main axes. The results highlighted that both the variables were homogeneous in samples collected either along a sagital line or along the pith width, and suggest that cell lengthening was homogeneous during internode development. They allowed the total number of cells to be estimated on the internode scale and opened up new perspectives for simplifying tissue sampling procedures for further investigations. Differences in internode length were observed between the genotypes, in particular between the parents, and partly resulted from a compensation between cell number and cell length. However, genetic variations in internode length primarily involved the number of cells, while cell length was more secondary. These results argue for an interplay between cellular and organismal control of internode shape that may involve the rib meristem.

  13. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  14. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes.

    PubMed

    Aćimović, Srđan G; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Wise, John C

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  15. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Aćimović, Srđan G.; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C.; Sundin, George W.; Wise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1–2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control. PMID:25717330

  16. Mitigation of Water Stress on Apple Trees under Rotational Irrigation Conditions by Increasing the Application Rate of Organic Fertilizers to Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Ramadan Eid, Abdelraouf; Mohsmed Rabie Abdellatif Abdelaziz, Adel; Fathy Abdelsalam Essa, El-Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Egypt, as part of Mediterranean regions, is characterized by irregular and low rainfall amount which varies between (30-150 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. On the other hand, New reclaimed soils are mostly occupies around 84 % of total area of Egypt, which is mainly sandy soils. These soils generally characterized by low water capacity holding, soil organic matter, and weak in nutrients retention. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency and increasing of nutrient retention in sandy soils. In this context, two field experiments were carried out on sand soil located in north Cairo-Egypt at the experimental farm of National Research Center, El-NUBARIA, (latitude 30° 30' N, and longitude 30° 19' E). The effect of compost rates on soil hydraulic characteristics, fruit yields, quality traits, and water use efficiency and productivity of apple tree (Apple Anna Cultivar), was studied under deficit irrigation conditions. Four rates of compost [I1: control, I2: 12 ton.ha-1., I3: 24 ton.ha-1., I4: 36 ton.ha-1. and I5:48 ton.ha-1.] were applied under irrigation frequencies of (IF1 :once per week; IF2 :twice per week, IF3 :three times per week). The obtained results indicated that by increasing the application rate of compost, the available water capacity and saturated water content of sandy soil have been enhanced. In the same time, the fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity were increased by increasing the application rate of compost. It is worthy to mention that the I5IF3 treatment gave the highest values of fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity, whereas I1IF1 treatment gave the lowest values of all the above mentioned variables. As result, for apple cultivation in El-NUBARIA region, the recommended rate of compost is 48 ton.ha-1 and irrigation frequency

  17. Rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens by Repeated Grafting of Shoot Tips onto Juvenile Rootstocks in Vitro: Model for Phase Reversal of Trees.

    PubMed

    Huang, L C; Lius, S; Huang, B L; Murashige, T; Mahdi, el F M; Van Gundy, R

    1992-01-01

    Repeated grafting of 1.5-centimeter long shoot tips from an adult Sequoia sempervirens tree onto fresh, rooted juvenile stem cuttings in vitro resulted in progressive restoration of juvenile traits. After four successive grafts, stem cuttings of previously adult shoots rooted as well, branched as profusely, and grew with as much or more vigor as those of seedling shoots. Reassays disclosed retention for 3 years of rooting competence at similar levels as originally restored. Adventitious shoot formation was remanifested and callus development was depressed in stem segments from the repeatedly grafted adult. The reversion was associated with appearance and disappearance of distinctive leaf proteins. Neither gibberellic acid nor N(6)-beneyladenine as nutrient supplements duplicated the graft effects.

  18. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  19. Influence of the variation of geometrical and topological traits on light interception efficiency of apple trees: sensitivity analysis and metamodelling for ideotype definition

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, David; Han, Liqi; Faivre, Robert; Costes, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The impact of a fruit tree's architecture on its performance is still under debate, especially with regard to the definition of varietal ideotypes and the selection of architectural traits in breeding programmes. This study aimed at providing proof that a modelling approach can contribute to this debate, by using in silico exploration of different combinations of traits and their consequences on light interception, here considered as one of the key parameters to optimize fruit tree production. Methods The variability of organ geometrical traits, previously described in a bi-parental population, was used to simulate 1- to 5-year-old apple trees (Malus × domestica). Branching sequences along trunks observed during the first year of growth of the same hybrid trees were used to initiate the simulations, and hidden semi-Markov chains previously parameterized were used in subsequent years. Tree total leaf area (TLA) and silhouette to total area ratio (STAR) values were estimated, and a sensitivity analysis was performed, based on a metamodelling approach and a generalized additive model (GAM), to analyse the relative impact of organ geometry and lateral shoot types on STAR. Key Results A larger increase over years in TLA mean and variance was generated by varying branching along trunks than by varying organ geometry, whereas the inverse was observed for STAR, where mean values stabilized from year 3 to year 5. The internode length and leaf area had the highest impact on STAR, whereas long sylleptic shoots had a more significant effect than proleptic shoots. Although the GAM did not account for interactions, the additive effects of the geometrical factors explained >90% of STAR variation, but much less in the case of branching factors. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the proposed modelling approach could contribute to screening architectural traits and their relative impact on tree performance, here viewed through light interception. Even

  20. [Vertical temperature distribution and its forecast for two tree structures of apple orchard during the blooming period in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen-jiang; Shang, Xiao-ning; Wang, Jing-hong; Liang, Yi; Gao, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Temperature is the most sensitive environment factor for the blooming period of apple. Temperatures at different levels were measured by automatic micro-climatic gradient system in the blooming periods from 2011 to 2014, in two Fuji apple orchards with two different tree ages and structures [small canopy open center shape (SMCOCS) and freedom spindle shape (FSS)], respectively, which were typical in the Loess Plateau. Variations of the temperature gradient in both canopy and tree body were analyzed in sunny, overcast, cloudy, and rainy weather conditions, and a predicting model was established that could predict the temperature of the canopy (TL) according to the temperature observed in nearby meteorological station (TM). The results showed that the vertical distribution of canopy temperature and its difference to the outside of orchard was mainly due to the tree structure, rather than the weather condition. The average temperature and daily minimum temperature increased while the daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range decreased from the bottom to the upper of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the diurnal temperature range reached its peak under the canopy in the clear days, and the diurnal temperature range was less than that for FSS in the middle and upper canopy in cloudy or overcast conditions. The daily variation of temperature difference between inside and outside the orchard behaved as a single peak-valley-peak for FSS but as a single peak for SMCOCS. The minimum temperature outside the orchard was closer to that in the middle of canopy, but higher than that in the bottom of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the minimum temperature in the bottom of its canopy was rather lower than that in the orchard outside, especially in cloudy or overcast day, while in the middle or upper canopy, the minimum temperature difference with the orchard outside was smaller than that for the FSS. The linear model was found to be able to predict the TL with absolute errors below

  1. Pathogen-Induced Leaf Chlorosis: Products of Chlorophyll Breakdown Found in Degreened Leaves of Phytoplasma-Infected Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Trees Relate to the Pheophorbide a Oxygenase/Phyllobilin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mittelberger, Cecilia; Yalcinkaya, Hacer; Pichler, Christa; Gasser, Johanna; Scherzer, Gerhard; Erhart, Theresia; Schumacher, Sandra; Holzner, Barbara; Janik, Katrin; Robatscher, Peter; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard; Oberhuber, Michael

    2017-04-05

    Phytoplasmoses such as apple proliferation (AP) and European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) cause severe economic losses in fruit production. A common symptom of both phytoplasma diseases is early yellowing or leaf chlorosis. Even though chlorosis is a well-studied symptom of biotic and abiotic stresses, its biochemical pathways are hardly known. In particular, in this context, a potential role of the senescence-related pheophorbide a oxygenase/phyllobilin (PaO/PB) pathway is elusive, which degrades chlorophyll (Chl) to phyllobilins (PBs), most notably to colorless nonfluorescent Chl catabolites (NCCs). In this work, we identified the Chl catabolites in extracts of healthy senescent apple and apricot leaves. In extracts of apple tree leaves, a total of 12 Chl catabolites were detected, and in extracts of leaves of the apricot tree 16 Chl catabolites were found. The seven major NCC fractions in the leaves of both fruit tree species were identical and displayed known structures. All of the major Chl catabolites were also found in leaf extracts from AP- or ESFY-infected trees, providing the first evidence that the PaO/PB pathway is relevant also for pathogen-induced chlorosis. This work supports the hypothesis that Chl breakdown in senescence and phytoplasma infection proceeds via a common pathway in some members of the Rosaceae family.

  2. KNAP2, a class I KN1-like gene is a negative marker of bud growth potential in apple trees (Malus domestica [L.] Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Brunel, Nicole; Leduc, Nathalie; Poupard, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe; Mauget, Jean-Claude; Viémont, Jean-Daniel

    2002-11-01

    The determinism of bud bursting pattern along the 1-year-old shoot was studied at the molecular and morphological levels in the apple tree variety 'Lodi' which shows an acrotonic tendency. At the molecular level, the expression of KNAP2, which belongs to the class I KN1-like gene family, was studied. Measurements were carried out during dormancy (October), breaking dormancy (January) and just before bud bursting (March). The results showed that KNAP2 is more highly expressed in buds that will remain at rest in the spring. Expression of KNAP2 was found in the meristem and in the marginal meristem of the two latest shaped primordia. In the January and March buds, this gene is also expressed in the procambial zone underneath the apical meristem. This study therefore suggests that KNAP2 may be considered as a negative marker of bud growth potential and that the growth inhibition in proximal buds could partially result from differential gene activity. At the morphological level, it was shown that no organogenetic activity took place between October and March as revealed by the constant number of leaf primordia in buds. Nevertheless, those buds likely to grow the following spring had a larger size and fewer hard scales than other buds. This suggests that genetic control may act together with other mechanisms, possibly physical (number of scales) or biochemical, to control bud inhibition.

  3. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  4. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  5. Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-11-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  6. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)-'McIntosh', 'Gala' and 'Mutsu'-were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of 'McIntosh' and the flesh of 'Mutsu'. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality.

  7. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)—‘McIntosh’, ‘Gala’ and ‘Mutsu’—were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of ‘McIntosh’ and the flesh of ‘Mutsu’. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  8. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  9. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  10. Stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Martin, Pamela A; Bishop, Christine A; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relative effects of pesticides in current use and persistent residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), we examined endocrine and immune responses in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks from pesticide-sprayed apple orchards and reference sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000 to 2001. Nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five mixtures of pesticides during the egg-incubation and chick-rearing stage. Eggs collected from sprayed orchards contained higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than eggs from reference sites. In 16-d-old tree swallows, no significant differences were found in body mass, basal corticosterone concentration, or the corticosterone stress response following a 10-min restraint of chicks sampled from sprayed orchards and reference sites. Challenge with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), however, produced a higher level of corticosterone secretion in tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards relative to chicks from reference sites. Multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between corticosterone concentrations and exposure to pesticide sprays or p,p'-DDE in tree swallow chicks. In contrast, bluebird chicks from sprayed orchards were less responsive to challenge with ACTH and a significant negative association was found between the response to ACTH challenge and p,p'-DDE concentration in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response was similar between exposure groups in both tree swallow and bluebird nestlings. Examination of immune organs revealed that tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards had significantly greater thymic lymphocyte density and cortical/ medullary ratios and significant splenic B-cell hyperplasia relative to reference chicks. Our results indicate that modulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in songbird chicks tested are most associated

  11. An apple rootstock overexpressing a peach CBF gene alters growth and flowering in the scion but does not impact cold hardiness or dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Artlip, Timothy S; Wisniewski, Michael E; Arora, Rajeev; Norelli, John L

    2016-01-01

    The C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factor is involved in responses to low temperature and water deficit in many plant species. Overexpression of CBF genes leads to enhanced freezing tolerance and growth inhibition in many species. The overexpression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) gene in a transgenic line of own-rooted apple (Malus×domestica) M.26 rootstock (T166) trees was previously reported to have additional effects on the onset of dormancy and time of spring budbreak. In the current study, the commercial apple cultivar ‘Royal Gala’ (RG) was grafted onto either non-transgenic M.26 rootstocks (RG/M.26) or transgenic M.26 (T166) rootstocks (RG/T166) and field grown for 3 years. No PpCBF1 transcript was detected in the phloem or cambium of RG scions grafted on T166 rootstocks indicating that no graft transmission of transgene mRNA had occurred. In contrast to own-rooted T166 trees, no impact of PpCBF1 overexpression in T166 rootstocks was observed on the onset of dormancy, budbreak or non-acclimated leaf-cold hardiness in RG/T166 trees. Growth, however, as measured by stem caliper, current-year shoot extension and overall height, was reduced in RG/T166 trees compared with RG/M.26 trees. Although flowering was evident in both RG/T166 and RG/M.26 trees in the second season, the number of trees in flower, the number of shoots bearing flowers, and the number of flower clusters per shoot was significantly higher in RG/M.26 trees than RG/T166 trees in both the second and third year after planting. Elevated levels of RGL (DELLA) gene expression were observed in RG/T166 trees and T166 trees, which may play a role in the reduced growth observed in these tree types. A model is presented indicating how CBF overexpression in a rootstock might influence juvenility and flower abundance in a grafted scion. PMID:26981253

  12. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  13. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  14. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  15. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  16. First report of apple (Malus sylvestris) as a host of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of Pennsylvania fruit tree orchards in 2013-2015, some apple trees were found to exhibit abnormally small fruits, clumps of small leaves, blind wood, or premature reddening and curling of leaves. DNA was extracted from symptomatic leaves collected from three apple trees, and the DN...

  17. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  18. Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Beacham-Bowden, Tina; Keller, Susanne E; Adhikari, Chaitali; Taylor, Kirk T; Chirtel, Stewart J; Merker, Robert I

    2003-04-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. However, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. The purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars) but was found at levels of 40.2 to 374 microg/liter in cider pressed from four cultivars of fresh ground-harvested (dropped) apples. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from culled tree-picked apples stored for 4 to 6 weeks at 0 to 2 degrees C but was found at levels of 0.97 to 64.0 microg/liter in cider pressed from unculled fruit stored under the same conditions. Cider from controlled-atmosphere-stored apples that were culled before pressing contained 0 to 15.1 microg of patulin per liter, while cider made from unculled fruit contained 59.9 to 120.5 microg of patulin per liter. The washing of ground-harvested apples before pressing reduced patulin levels in cider by 10 to 100%, depending on the initial patulin levels and the type of wash solution used. These results indicate that patulin is a good indicator of the quality of the apples used to manufacture cider. The avoidance of ground-harvested apples and the careful culling of apples before pressing are good methods for reducing patulin levels in cider.

  19. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  20. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  1. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia coli in apple cider manufactured in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Dingman, D W

    1999-06-01

    Cider samples obtained from 11 cider mills operating in Connecticut during the 1997 to 1998 production season were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli. Cider production began in mid August and continued through March, with peak production in September and October. Of 314 cider samples tested, 11 (4%) were found to contain E. coli. Of the 11 mills, 6 (55%) tested positive for E. coli in the cider at least once during the production year. E. coli was first observed in cider samples produced in mid to late October and was not detected in samples made after January. A trend was observed for cider to decrease in acidity and increase in Brix (soluble sugars) throughout the production season. No correlation between pH and soluble sugars of cider and the presence of E. coli was detected. Eight mills used both dropped apples and tree-picked apples, whereas three mills used tree-picked apples only. The use of dropped apples in cider production began 5 weeks before the first detection of E. coli in cider. E. coli was isolated from cider samples produced using dropped apples and from samples produced using only tree-picked apples. No direct correlation between the use of dropped apples or tree-picked apples and the presence of E. coli in the cider was observed. An association between the time of apple harvest and the appearance of E. coli in cider was noted. For mills providing adequate records, all contaminated cider was produced from apples harvested between mid October and mid November.

  3. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  4. One-Step Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Four Pome Tree Viroids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd), Apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd), Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd), and Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) cause natural infections in pome (apple, pear, quince) fruit trees. These viroids are found worldwide and are important quarantine pathogens for the internati...

  5. Effects of transgenic rootstocks on growth and development of non-transgenic scion cultivars in apple.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Anders; Li, Xue-Yuan; Heikelt, Catrin; Welander, Margareta; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Although cultivation of genetic modified (GM) annual crops has been steadily increasing in the recent 10 years, the commercial cultivation of GM fruit tree is still very limited and reports of field trials on GM fruit trees are rare. This is probably because development and evaluation of GM fruit trees require a long period of time due to long life cycles of trees. In this study, we report results from a field trial on three rolB transgenic dwarfing apple rootstocks of M26 and M9 together with non-transgenic controls grafted with five non-transgenic scion cultivars. We intended to investigate the effects of transgenic rootstock on non-transgenic scion cultivars under natural conditions as well as to evaluate the potential value of using the rolB gene to modify difficult-to-root rootstocks of fruit trees. The results showed that all rolB transgenic rootstocks significantly reduced vegetative growth including tree height regardless of scion cultivar, compared with the non-transgenic rootstocks. Flowering and fruiting were also decreased for cultivars grown on the transgenic rootstocks in most cases, but the fruit quality was not clearly affected by the transgenic rootstocks. Cutting experiment and RT-PCR analysis showed that the rolB gene was stably expressed under field conditions. PCR and RT-PCR analyses displayed that the rolB gene or its mRNA were not detectable in the scion cultivars, indicating no translocation of the transgene or its mRNA from rootstock to scion. Our results suggest that rolB modified rootstocks should be used in combination with vigorous scion cultivars in order to obtain sufficient vegetative growth and good yield. Alternatively, the rolB gene could be used to dwarf vigorous rootstocks of fruit trees or produce bonzai plants as it can significantly reduce the vegetative growth of plants.

  6. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  7. Diversity in wild apple species of Chinese origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Malus collection in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System has twelve wild species of apple collected from China at the Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY. Between 8 and 148 individual trees represent each species. The assignment of seedling trees to specific species has be...

  8. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies such as cont...

  9. Use of right lobe graft with type IV portal vein accompanied by type IV biliary tree in living donor liver transplantation: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Mahmoud Refaat; Jung, Sung-Won; Yu, Young-Dong; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2014-01-01

    Anatomic variations of the portal vein (PV) and bile duct (BD) are more common on the right lobe as compared with left lobe grafts in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We recently experienced a case of LDLT for hepatocellular carcinoma combined with liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. The only available donor had right lobe graft with type IV PV associated with type IV BD. The patient underwent relaparotomy for PV stenting due to PV stenosis. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was done for a stricture at the site of biliary reconstruction. Thereafter, the patient was discharged in good health. Our experience suggests that, the use of right lobe graft with type IV PV accompanied by type IV BD should be the last choice for LDLT, because of its technical difficulty and risks of associated complications. PMID:24949326

  10. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Incomplete and convoluted vascular connections impede the vital upward and downward whole plant transfer routes. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The ‘graft hybrid’ historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species

  11. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  12. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  13. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  14. Tree and root architecture of Malus sieversii seedlings for rootstock breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foundation of a successful apple orchard is in large part the rootstock used to establish the trees in that orchard. Apple rootstocks can impart several important architectural tree characters to the scion, among which are reduction in tree size and early production of flowers/fruit. It is pro...

  15. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  16. Effects of different dwarfing interstocks on key enzyme activities and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism in Red Fuji apples.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Li, F F; Ma, H; Li, Z Y; Xu, J Z

    2015-12-22

    In this experiment, the test materials were 'Red Fuji' apple trees grafted onto three interstocks (No. 53, No. 111, and No. 236), which were chosen from SH40 seeding interstocks. The content of malic acid, the enzyme activities, and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism were determined during fruit development.The results showed that malic acid content in the ripe fruit on interstock No. 53 was higher than that in the interstock No. 111 fruit. The malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) activity in apples on interstock No. 53 was highest on Day 30, Day 100, and Day 160 after bloom, and the malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity in apples on interstock No. 111 was higher than in the interstock No. 53 fruit from Day 70 to Day 100 after bloom. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in interstock No. 53 fruit was higher than in No. 236 fruit on Day 100 after bloom, but the relative expression of NADP-ME in No. 236 interstock fruit was lower than in No. 53 fruit. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in No. 53 interstock fruit was highest on Day 160 after bloom. This might have been the main reason for the difference in the accumulation of malic acid in the ripe apples.There was a positive correlation between the relative expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the malic acid content of the fruit, and the content of malic acid in the apples was affected by the PEPC activity during the early developmental stage.

  17. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  18. Genotype-specific responses of apple roots to pathogenic infection by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance mechanisms employed to defend against soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are poorly understood, particularly with respect to perennial tree fruit crops such as apple. Pythium ultimum is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease (ARD). Different levels of tolera...

  19. Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kd allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y

    1995-12-01

    Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.

  20. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  1. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  2. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  3. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... chap 17. Read More Burns Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Review Date 3/13/ ...

  4. Metagenomic approach to tracking microorganisms on apples - a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding to the microflora species composition and frequency on apple trees is important in understanding the potential for biocontrol to succeed. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is an environmental factor that limits microbial growth and SurroundTM particle film and is highly reflective of UV r...

  5. Development of a strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit species. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique alleli...

  6. A strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources: Survey results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit genus. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique allelic ...

  7. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

  8. EFFICACY OF METAMITRON IN APPLE THINNING IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, M; Dolovac, N; Marisavljevic, D; Andjelkovic, A; Radivojevic, L; Aleksic, G; Gavrilovic, V

    2015-01-01

    The thinning of fruits is a required pomotechnical measure in intensive fruit production which ensures the production of good quality fruits and high yields. Metamitron, known as inhibitor of photosynthesis, has been successfully used in the thinning of apple fruits. This study had the aim to determine the efficacy of metamitron on the thinning of apple fruits in the agroecological conditions of Serbia and to evaluate the possibility of its practical application. Two varieties of apples that are widely grown in Serbia, dared and Golden Delicious, have been chosen for this research. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 according to the EPPO PP 1/158 (3) method. Metamitron has shown a good efficacy in the thinning of apple fruits. The effect of metamitron on the thinning of apple fruits depends on multiple factors, pri- marily the application dose, time of application, apple variety, but also on the number of fruits developed. The best efficacy on the Idared variety was in plots where metamitron was applied at a dose of 1.1 kg ha⁻¹, once (in the growth stage when the fruits were 8 mm in diameter) or twice (in the growth stages when the fruits were 8 mm and 12 mm in diameter), when the number of developed fruits per tree is smaller, or 1.65 kg ha⁻¹ applied once when the fruits are 12 mm in size when a larger number of fruits per tree is developed. On the Golden Delicious variety, the best efficacy was in treatments when metamitron was applied twice (in the growth stages when the fruits were 8 mm and 12 mm in diameter) in quantities of 1.1 kg ha⁻¹, when less fruits per tree were formed or 1.65 kg ha⁻¹, applied once or twice when a larger number of fruits per tree were formed.

  9. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  10. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf ‘M.27’ to the semi-invigorating rootstock ‘M.116’. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  11. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-03-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf 'M.27' to the semi-invigorating rootstock 'M.116'. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified.

  12. Aphis pomi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population development, shoot characteristics, and antibiosis resistance in different apple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    In high-value crops such as apple, Malus X domestica (Borkh.), insecticidal pest control is of high relevance. The use of resistant apple cultivars can increase the sustainability of pest management in apple orchards. Besides variation in plant chemistry that may influence plant resistance by antibiosis or antixenosis, plant growth characteristics also can affect plant susceptibility to pests such as aphids. Variable susceptibility to the apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been described for different apple cultivars. These observations were based on phenotypic surveys and no information on genetically based apple resistance to A. pomi is yet available. The objective of this study was to relate shoot growth characteristics with aphid population development, and to assess the genetic background of apple antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Aphid population development was repeatedly studied in the field in sleeve cages attached to 200 apple trees of different genotypes. Aphid population development was positively correlated to shoot length and growth, and it also was affected by climatic conditions. Indications for antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi remained weak in the studied apple genotypes, and the only detected putative QTL on linkage group 11 of'Fiesta' apples was not stable for the different replications of the experiment. This lack of quantifiable resistance may be partly explained by environmental conditions related to aphid development in sleeve cages.

  13. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  14. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  15. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  16. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  17. Apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of canopy spectral characteristics in apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolei; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Zhang, Yao; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    Plant nutritional status can be evaluated with remote sensing. In order to detect the temporal and spatial variation of spectral characteristics in apple orchard, the experiments were carried out. Firstly the flower/ leaf samples from 15 year-on trees and 5 year-off t rees were collected. The real time reflectance spectra of flowers/leaves from three parts (base, middle, top) of each main branch were measured by using the ASD spectrometer. And then the temporal and spatial variations of spectral characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that leaves from the top of the branch had higher reflectance than the other parts of the branch at the same time. The reflectance spectra of apple trees changed significantly at different stages. Furthermore, the reflectance spectra varied in different parts of the apple trees as well as in different trees. Accordingly the temporal curve and spatial figure were obtained and the growing informat ion can be analyzed from them.

  19. Plant grafting: insights into tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant. Thus, it presents an elegant and efficient way to improve plant productivity in vegetables and trees using traditional techniques. Despite this horticultural importance, we are only beginning to understand how plants regenerate tissues at the graft junction. By understanding grafting better, we can shed light on fundamental regeneration pathways and the basis for self/non‐self recognition. We can also better understand why many plants efficiently graft whereas others cannot, with the goal of improving grafting so as to broaden the range of grafted plants to create even more desirable chimeras. Here, I review the latest findings describing how plants graft and provide insight into future directions in this emerging field. PMID:28316790

  20. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  1. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  2. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  3. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  4. Conservation of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System Apple Collection using dormant bud cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Since 1993, dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in For...

  5. Propagation of almond rootstocks and trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of almond trees in production in California and elsewhere were propagated by nurseries using the grafting technique called budding. This gives a uniform orchard and allows the grower to select nut cultivar (scion) and rootstock combinations. Grafting is a form of clonal propagation and resu...

  6. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  7. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  8. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of the risk of contamination of apples with Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Siobain; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-10-25

    Quantitative descriptions of the frequency and extent of contamination of apple cider with pathogenic bacteria were obtained using literature data and computer simulation. Probability distributions were chosen to describe the risk of apple contamination by each suspected pathway. Tree-picked apples may be contaminated by birds infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7 when orchards were located near a sewage source (ocean or landfill). Dropped apples could become contaminated from either infected animal droppings or from contaminated manure if used as fertilizer. A risk assessment model was created in Analytica. The results of worst-case simulations revealed that 6-9 log CFU E. coli O157:H7 might be found on a harvest of 1000 dropped apples, while 3-4 log CFU contamination could be present on 1000 tree-picked apples. This model confirms that practices such as using dropped apples and using animal waste as fertilizer increase risk in the production of apple cider, and that pasteurization may not eliminate all contamination in juice from heavily contaminated fruit. Recently published FDA regulations for juices requiring a 5-log CFU/ml reduction of pathogenic bacteria in fresh juices should be a fail-safe measure for apples harvested in all but the worst-case scenarios.

  10. Conservation biological control of rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R

    2007-10-01

    Because of the potentially serious damage rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera: Aphididae), can cause to apple fruit and branch development, prophylactic insecticides are often used for control. If biological control could be relied on, the amount of pesticide applied in orchards could be reduced. This study examined biological control of rosy apple aphid in eastern West Virginia and the potential for enhancement through conservation biological control, in particular, the effect of interplanting extrafloral nectar-bearing peach trees. By 20 d after first bloom, only 2% of fundatrices initially present survived to form colonies based on regression of data from 687 colonies. Exclusion studies showed that many of the early colonies were probably destroyed by predation; the major predator responsible seemed to be adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mortality before apple bloom was most important in controlling rosy apple aphid population growth but by itself is not sufficiently reliable to prevent economic injury. Interplanting of extrafloral nectar-bearing trees did not increase biological control, and interplanting with 50% trees with extrafloral nectar glands reduced biological control. The number of leaf curl colonies in the 50% interplanted orchards was lower than in monoculture orchards, suggesting a preference of alate oviparae for more diverse habitats, supporting the resource concentration hypothesis but not at a level sufficient to prevent injury. Predation and parasitism after the formation of leaf curl colonies was not adequate to control rosy apple aphid populations.

  11. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  12. Influence of fruit variety, harvest technique, quality sorting, and storage on the native microflora of unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Chirtel, Stuart J; Merker, Robert I; Taylor, Kirk T; Tan, Hsu Ling; Miller, Arthur J

    2004-10-01

    Apple variety, harvest, quality sorting, and storage practices were assessed to determine their impact on the microflora of unpasteurized cider. Seven apple varieties were harvested from the tree or the ground. The apples were used fresh or were stored at 0 to 4 degrees C for < or = 5 months and were pressed with or without quality selection. Cider yield, pH, Brix value, and titratable acidity were measured. Apples, postpressing apple pomace, and cider samples were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Aerobic bacterial plate counts (APCs) of ciders from fresh ground-picked apples (4.89 log CFU/ml) were higher than those of ciders made from fresh, tree-picked apples (3.45 log CFU/ml). Quality sorting further reduced the average APC to 2.88 log CFU/ml. Differences among all three treatment groups were significant (P < 0.0001). Apple and pomace microbial concentrations revealed harvest and postharvest treatment-dependent differences similar to those found in cider. There were significant differences in APC among apple varieties (P = 0.0001). Lower counts were associated with varieties exhibiting higher Brix values and higher titratable acidity. Differences in APC for stored and fresh apples used for cider production were not significant (P > 0.05). Yeast and mold counts revealed relationships similar to those for APCs. The relationship between initial microbial load found on incoming fruit and final cider microbial population was curvilinear, with the weakest correlations for the lowest apple microflora concentrations. The lack of linearity suggests that processing equipment contributed to cider contamination. Tree-picked quality fruit should be used for unpasteurized cider production, and careful manufacturing practices at cider plants can impact both safety and quality of the final product.

  13. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  14. The impact of long-term water stress on tree architecture and production is related to changes in transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth in the 'Granny Smith' apple cultivar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; Pallas, Benoît; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Martinez, Sébastien; Han, Mingyu; Costes, Evelyne

    2016-11-01

    Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths. In this study, the impact of long-term WS (7 years) on the fate of terminal and axillary buds was investigated in relation to flowering occurrence and production pattern (biennial vs regular) in the 'Granny Smith' cultivar. It was observed that WS decreased the total number of GUs per branch, regardless of their type. Conversely, WS did not modify the timing of the two successive developmental phases characterized by the production of long and medium GUs and an alternation of floral GUs over time, respectively. The analysis of GU successions over time using a variable-order Markov chain that included both the effects of the predecessor and water treatment revealed that WS reduced the transition towards long and medium GUs and increased the transition toward floral, short and dead GUs. WS also slightly increased the proportion of axillary floral GUs. The higher relative frequency of floral GUs compared with vegetative ones reduced the tendency to biennial bearing under WS. The accelerated ontogenetic trend observed under WS suggests lower vegetative growth that could, in turn, be beneficial to floral induction and fruit set.

  15. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  16. Immunoglobulin E-reactive proteins in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2008-07-23

    Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate.

  17. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  18. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  19. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples.

  20. [Variation characteristics of soil moisture in apple orchards of Luochuan County, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ping; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Sen; Dang, Yong-Jian; Qu, Jun-Tao

    2012-03-01

    To have an overall understanding on the soil moisture characteristics in the apple orchards of Luochuan County can not only provide theoretical basis for selecting apple orchard sites, choosing the best root-stock combination, and improving the soil water management, but also has reference importance in increasing the productive efficiency of our apple orchards. In this study, a fixed-point continuous monitoring was conducted on the overall soil moisture environment and the variation characteristics of soil moisture in the County apple orchards differed in age class, stand type, and tree type (standard or dwarfed). For the apple orchards in the County, the rhizosphere (0-200 cm) soils of most apple trees were water-deficient, and the deficit in 0-60 cm soil layer was less than that in 60-200 cm layer. During growth season, the water storage in 0-60 cm soil layer had the same variation trend as the rainfall pattern. The relative soil moisture content in most orchards was less than 60% , and seasonal drought was quite severe. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content decreased with soil depth. With the increasing age of the orchards, soil water storage decreased. At the same planting density, the orchards with dwarfed trees had more water storage in 0-5 m soil layer than the orchards with standard trees. However, when the orchards were planted with dwarfed trees at a higher density, the soil water storage in the orchards with dwarfed trees was lesser than that in the standard orchards. The mature orchards on highland had the highest soil moisture content, followed by the mature orchards on flat land, and on terraced land. Tree density had great effects on the soil moisture content. When the tree density was the same, planting dwarfed trees could decrease the water consumption, and increase the soil moisture content significantly. To decrease the planting density through the removal of trees would be an effective way to maintain the soil water balance of

  1. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  2. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  3. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  4. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  5. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  6. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  7. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  8. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694

  9. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  10. 75 FR 25103 - Tree Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...), Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE) (which covers losses to tree crops such as apples and..., LFP, LIP, SURE, and TAP. Subpart B specifies administration of the programs, general requirements to... that one person or legal entity may receive from LIP, LFP, ELAP, and SURE.) For the purpose...

  11. Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags from Apple1

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing

    2006-01-01

    The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485

  12. Development of laser-guided precision sprayers for tree crop applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree crops in nurseries and orchards have great variations in shapes, sizes, canopy densities and gaps between in-row trees. The variability requires future sprayers to be flexible to spray the amount of chemicals that can match tree structures. A precision air-assisted sprayer was developed to appl...

  13. Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An electrostrictive graft elastomer has a backbone molecule which is a non-crystallizable, flexible macromolecular chain and a grafted polymer forming polar graft moieties with backbone molecules. The polar graft moieties have been rotated by an applied electric field, e.g., into substantial polar alignment. The rotation is sustained until the electric field is removed. In another embodiment, a process for producing strain in an elastomer includes: (a) providing a graft elastomer having a backbone molecule which is a non-crystallizable, flexible macromolecular chain and a grafted polymer forming polar graft moieties with backbone molecules; and (b) applying an electric field to the graft elastomer to rotate the polar graft moieties, e.g., into substantial polar alignment.

  14. Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes.

    PubMed

    Espley, Richard V; Bovy, Arnaud; Bava, Christina; Jaeger, Sara R; Tomes, Sumathi; Norling, Cara; Crawford, Jonathan; Rowan, Daryl; McGhie, Tony K; Brendolise, Cyril; Putterill, Jo; Schouten, Henk J; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-05-01

    Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10. These apples have very high concentrations of foliar, flower and fruit anthocyanins, especially in the fruit peel. Independent lines were examined for impacts on tree growth, photosynthesis and fruit characteristics. Fruit were analysed for changes in metabolite and transcript levels. Fruit were also used in taste trials to study the consumer perception of such a novel apple. No negative taste attributes were associated with the elevated anthocyanins. Modification with this one gene provides near isogenic material and allows us to examine the effects on an established cultivar, with a view to enhancing consumer appeal independently of other fruit qualities.

  15. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  16. Promotion of flowering and reduction of a generation time in apple seedlings by ectopical expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene using the Apple latent spherical virus vector.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Sasaki, Shintaro; Yamagata, Kousuke; Komori, Sadao; Nagase, Momoyo; Wada, Masato; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Tree crops have a long juvenile period which is a serious constraint for genetic improvement and experimental research. For example, apple remains in a juvenile phase for more than five years after seed germination. Here, we report about induction of rapid flowering in apple seedlings using the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector expressing a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Apple seedlings could be flowered at 1.5-2 months after inoculation to cotyledons of seeds just after germination with ALSV expressing the FT gene. A half of precocious flowers was normal in appearance with sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. Pollen from a precocious flower successfully pollinated flowers of 'Fuji' apple from which fruits developed normally and next-generation seeds were produced. Our system using the ALSV vector promoted flowering time of apple seedlings within two months after germination and shortened the generation time from seed germination to next-generation seed maturation to within 7 months when pollen from precocious flowers was used for pollination.

  17. Nomenclature and Genetic Relationships of Apples and Pears from Terceira Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritage apple (Malus domestica Borkh. hybrids) and pear (Pyrus communis L. hybrid) trees grow in villages throughout Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Some of these pears have different names but similar morphology. The objective of this study was to determine synonymy, homology, and phylogeny of ...

  18. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  19. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  20. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  1. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740

  2. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  3. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  4. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards.

  5. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  6. Confirmation of a purple-leaved plum graft hybrid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X M; Liu, Y S; Li, X J

    2013-03-11

    Fifty-seven scions from an adult purple-leaved plum tree were grafted onto the crown of a 6-year-old Yuhuang plum tree and compared to the control of a non-grafted tree. The floral buds of the purple-leaved plum were fully removed before blossoming to avoid sexual hybridization between the two species. The seeds of the Yuhuang plum were picked in July and sown in the spring after stratification. Three, eleven and eight variants with purplish red leaves were found among the seedlings that grew from the seeds picked in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The ratio of variant occurrence ranged from 2.3 to 15.8%. Our results confirmed the observation of a graft hybrid by Luther Burbank.

  7. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  8. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  9. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  10. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  11. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  12. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  13. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  14. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  15. Involvement of Auxin and Brassinosteroid in Dwarfism of Autotetraploid Apple (Malus × domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Xue, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Ou, Chunqing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    The plant height is an important trait in fruit tree. However, the molecular mechanism on dwarfism is still poorly understood. We found that colchicine-induced autotetraploid apple plants (Malus × domestica) exhibited a dwarf phenotype. The vertical length of cortical parenchyma cells was shorter in autotetraploids than in diploids, by observing paraffin sections. Hormone levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroid (BR) were significantly decreased in 3- and 5-year-old autotetraploid plants. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in IAA and BR pathways. microRNA390 was significantly upregulated according to microarray analysis. Exogenous application of IAA and BR promoted stem elongation of both apple plants grown in medium. The results show that dwarfing in autotetraploid apple plants is most likely regulated by IAA and BR. The dwarf phenotype of autotetraploid apple plants could be due to accumulation of miR390 after genome doubling, leading to upregulation of apple trans-acting short-interfering RNA 3 (MdTAS3) expression, which in turn downregulates the expression of MdARF3. Overall, this leads to partial interruption of the IAA and BR signal transduction pathway. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dwarfism in autopolyploid apple plants. PMID:27216878

  16. Apple leaf extract as a potential candidate for suppressing postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2012-01-01

    While the industrial value of fruits has long been recognized, only recently have the leaves of fruit trees been considered to have immense and mostly-untapped potential. In the present study, the physiological effects of apple leaf extract in mice were investigated. In addition, we sought to elucidate the active principle(s) and examined its potential for application. Apple leaf extract suppressed postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level and increased the residual amount of glucose in the small intestine in glucose-loaded mice compared with those in control mice. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to an active component that was identified as phloridzin, a known SGLT inhibitor, based on an analysis of its spectral data. With regard to an anti-hyperglycemic effect, extraction with ethanol from leaves of apple tree gave the best results. These effects decreased with heating during the extraction procedure. Since bolus ingestion of the extract did not affect blood glucose levels in normal mice with or without an overnight fast, the inhibitory effects on glucose absorption were not considered to be associated with unspecific gastrointestinal impairment and the extract did not cause hypoglycemia at a normally effective dose. Therefore, the leaf parts of apple tree may be a promising candidate as an industrial resource for maintaining good health in the future.

  17. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  18. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  19. Beating the Apple Tree: How the University Coerces Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Universities in the United States are increasingly trading their academic mission for a social mission. They see themselves as responsible for contributing to solutions for the great problems of today. These conscience-troubling problems include racism, the unequal distribution of wealth, and impending environmental catastrophe. To combat these…

  20. Hyperspectral image analysis for water stress detection of apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant stress significantly reduces plant productivity. Automated on-the-go mapping of plant stress would allow for a timely intervention and mitigation of the problem before critical thresholds are exceeded, thereby maximizing productivity. The spectral signature of plant leaves was analyzed by a ...

  1. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  2. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  3. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  4. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed.

  5. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5–12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the

  6. Detection of phytoplasmas of temperate fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are associated with hundreds of plant diseases globally. Many fruit tree phytoplasmas are transmitted by insect vectors or grafting, are considered quarantine organisms and a major economic threat to orchards. Diagnosis can be difficult, but immunochemical and molecular methods have been developed.

  7. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  8. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  9. Calcar bone graft

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  10. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  11. Grafts in "closed" rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Scattolin, A; D'Ascanio, L

    2013-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is a fascinating and complex surgical procedure aiming at attaining a well-functioning and aesthetically pleasant nose. The use of grafts is of the utmost importance for the nasal surgeon to achieve such results. However, the philosophy and technical use of nasal grafts are different in "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. The aim of this paper is not detailed description of the numerous grafts reported in the literature; we will describe the main principles of grafts use in "closed" rhinoplasty derived from our experience, with special reference to the philosophical and technical differences in their employment between "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. Some cases are reported as an example of graft use in "endonasal" approach rhinoplasty.

  12. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  13. Mouse models for graft arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lingfeng; Yu, Luyang; Min, Wang

    2013-05-14

    Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-γ in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-γ followed by administration of mouse IFN-γ (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional

  14. Molecular characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like genes of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Kotoda, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Hidehiro; Suzuki, Motoko; Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Kidou, Shin-Ichiro; Igasaki, Tomohiro; Nishiguchi, Mitsuru; Yano, Kanako; Shimizu, Tokurou; Takahashi, Sae; Iwanami, Hiroshi; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2010-04-01

    The two FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.), MdFT1 and MdFT2, have been isolated and characterized. MdFT1 and MdFT2 were mapped, respectively, on distinct linkage groups (LGs) with partial homoeology, LG 12 and LG 4. The expression pattern of MdFT1 and MdFT2 differed in that MdFT1 was expressed mainly in apical buds of fruit-bearing shoots in the adult phase, with little expression in the juvenile tissues, whereas MdFT2 was expressed mainly in reproductive organs, including flower buds and young fruit. On the other hand, both genes had the potential to induce early flowering since transgenic Arabidopsis, which ectopically expressed MdFT1 or MdFT2, flowered earlier than wild-type plants. Furthermore, overexpression of MdFT1 conferred precocious flowering in apple, with altered expression of other endogenous genes, such as MdMADS12. These results suggest that MdFT1 could function to promote flowering by altering the expression of those genes and that, at least, other genes may play an important role as well in the regulation of flowering in apple. The long juvenile period of fruit trees prevents early cropping and efficient breeding. Our findings will be useful information to unveil the molecular mechanism of flowering and to develop methods to shorten the juvenile period in various fruit trees, including apple.

  15. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  16. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  17. Subcellular localization and vacuolar targeting of sorbitol dehydrogenase in apple seed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Zi-Ying; You, Chun-Xiang; Kong, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Pu

    2013-09-01

    Sorbitol is the primary photosynthate and translocated carbohydrate in fruit trees of the Rosaceae family. NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), which mainly catalyzes the oxidation of sorbitol to fructose, plays a key role in regulating sink strength in apple. In this study, we found that apple NAD-SDH was ubiquitously distributed in epidermis, parenchyma, and vascular bundle in developing cotyledon. NAD-SDH was localized in the cytosol, the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles, and the vacuolar lumen in the cotyledon at the middle stage of seed development. In contrast, NAD-SDH was mainly distributed in the protein storage vacuoles in cotyledon at the late stage of seed development. Sequence analysis revealed there is a putative signal peptide (SP), also being predicated to be a transmembrane domain, in the middle of proteins of apple NAD-SDH isoforms. To investigate whether the putative internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of NAD-SDH, we analyzed the localization of the SP-deletion mutants of MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 (two NAD-SDH isoforms in apple) by the transient expression system in Arabidopsis protoplasts. MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 were not localized in the vacuoles after their SPs were deleted, suggesting the internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of apple NAD-SDH.

  18. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  19. Efficient Genome Editing in Apple Using a CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Chikako; Hirai, Narumi; Komori, Sadao; Wada, Masato; Okada, Kazuma; Osakabe, Keishi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Osakabe, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is a powerful technique for genome modification in molecular research and crop breeding, and has the great advantage of imparting novel desired traits to genetic resources. However, the genome editing of fruit tree plantlets remains to be established. In this study, we describe induction of a targeted gene mutation in the endogenous apple phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Four guide RNAs (gRNAs) were designed and stably transformed with Cas9 separately in apple. Clear and partial albino phenotypes were observed in 31.8% of regenerated plantlets for one gRNA, and bi-allelic mutations in apple PDS were confirmed by DNA sequencing. In addition, an 18-bp gRNA also induced a targeted mutation. These CRIPSR/Cas9 induced-mutations in the apple genome suggest activation of the NHEJ pathway, but with some involvement also of the HR pathway. Our results demonstrate that genome editing can be practically applied to modify the apple genome. PMID:27530958

  20. Soil respiration in apple orchards, poplar plantations and adjacent grasslands in Artvin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Ozbayram, Ali Kemal; Kucuk, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    In this study influence of land-use type on soil respiration was investigated in poplar plantation, apple orchard (apple trees with understory grasses) and adjacent grassland sites in Seyitler Area, Artvin, Turkey. Soil respiration was measured approximately monthly in three sampling plots in each land use type from January 2005 to November 2005 using the soda-lime technique. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.63-3.59 g Cm(-2) d(-1). Mean soil respiration in apple orchard, poplar plantation and grassland sites were 1.98, 1.45 and 1.12 g C m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Mean soil respiration was significantly greater in apple orchard than in poplar plantations and grasslands. Seasonal changes in soil respiration were related to soil moisture and temperature changes. Mean soil respiration rate correlated strongly with subsurface soil (15-35cm) pH (R = -0,73; p < 0.05), sand content (R = 0.96, p < 0.001), soil silt content (R = -0.75; p < 0.05), soil clay content (R = -0.83; p < 0.001) and organic matter content (R = 0.88; p < 0.001). No significant correlations were observed between soil respiration and surface (0-15 cm) soil properties and root biomass. Overall, our results indicate that apple orchards with understory grasses have higher soil biological activity compared to poplar and grassland sites.

  1. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    PubMed

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  2. Bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Reena A; Rozental, Tamara D

    2012-11-01

    Replacement of missing bone stock is a reconstructive challenge to upper extremity surgeons and decision-making with regards to available choices remains difficult. Preference is often given to autograft in the form of cancellous, cortical, or corticocancellous grafts from donor sites. However, the available volume from such donor sites is limited and fraught with potential complications. Advances in surgical management and medical research have produced a wide array of potential substances that can be used for bone graft substitute. Considerations in selecting bone grafts and substitutes include characteristic capabilities, availability, patient morbidity, immunogenicity, potential disease transmission, and cost variability.

  3. Concentrations and dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil, determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Jia, Chunhong; Zhao, Ercheng; Chen, Li; Yu, Pingzhong; Jing, Junjie; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    A new combined difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad fungicide formulation, as an 11.7 % suspension concentrate (SC), has been introduced as part of a resistance management strategy. The dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad applied to apples and the residues remaining in the apples were determined. The 11.7 % SC was sprayed onto apple trees and soil in Beijing, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, China, at an application rate of 118 g a.i. ha(-1), then the dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad was monitored. The residual difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad concentrations were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The difenoconazole half-lives in apples and soil were 6.2-9.5 and 21.0-27.7 days, respectively. The fluxapyroxad half-lives in apples and soil were 9.4-12.6 and 10.3-36.5 days, respectively. Difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil after the 11.7 % SC had been sprayed twice and three times, with 10 days between applications, at 78 and 118 g a.i. ha(-1) were measured. Representative apple and soil samples were collected after the last treatment, at preharvest intervals of 14, 21, and 28 days. The difenoconazole residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.052 and 0.002-0.298 mg kg(-1), respectively. The fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.093 and 0.008-1.219 mg kg(-1), respectively. The difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples were lower than the maximum residue limits (0.5 and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively). An application rate of 78 g a.i. ha(-1) is therefore recommended to ensure that treated apples can be considered safe for humans to consume.

  4. Fine genetic mapping of the Co locus controlling columnar growth habit in apple.

    PubMed

    Bai, Tuanhui; Zhu, Yuandi; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Keulemans, Johan; Brown, Susan; Xu, Kenong

    2012-05-01

    Tree architecture is an important, complex and dynamic trait affected by diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors. 'Wijcik McIntosh', a columnar (reduced branching) sport of 'McIntosh' and a valuable genetic resource, has been used intensively in apple-breeding programs for genetic improvement of tree architecture. The columnar growth habit is primarily controlled by the dominant allele of gene Co (columnar) on linkage group-10. But the Co locus is not well mapped and the Co gene remains unknown. To precisely map the Co locus and to identify candidate genes of Co, a sequence-based approach using both peach and apple genomes was used to develop new markers linked more tightly to Co. Five new simple sequence repeats markers were developed (C1753-3520, C18470-25831, C6536-31519, C7223-38004 and C7629-22009). The first four markers were obtained from apple genomic sequences on chromosome-10, whereas the last (C7629-22009) was from an unanchored apple contig that contains an apple expressed sequence tag CV082943, which was identified through synteny analysis between the peach and apple genomes. Genetic mapping of these five markers in four F(1) populations of 528 genotypes and 290 diverse columnar selections/cultivars (818 genotypes in total) delimited the Co locus in a genetic interval with 0.37 % recombination between markers C1753-3520 and C7629-22009. Marker C18470-25831 co-segregates with Co in the 818 genotypes studied. The Co region is estimated to be 193 kb and contains 26 predicted gene in the 'Golden Delicious' genome. Among the 26 genes, three are putative LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) containing transcription factor genes known of essential roles in plant lateral organ development, and are therefore considered as strong candidates of Co, designated MdLBD1, MdLBD2, and MdLBD3. Although more comprehensive studies are required to confirm the function of MdLBD1-3, the present work represents an important step forward to better

  5. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  6. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  7. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  8. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  9. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  10. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  11. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon.

  12. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-02

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus.

  13. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  14. Effect of the width of the herbicide strip on mite dynamics in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Bostanian, N J; Thistlewood, H M A

    2011-03-01

    Herbicide strips are used in apple orchards to promote tree growth and survival, to increase yield and to reduce the risk of rodent damage to tree bark. However, herbicide strips, particularly wider ones, may cause problems including soil erosion, reduced organic matter, leaching of nitrates into ground water and increased incidence of plant diseases and pests, including two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In this 2 year study we monitored mite dynamics in apple trees and used sticky bands on tree trunks to determine rates of T. urticae immigration into Nova Spy apple trees in plots with wide (2 m) or narrow (0.5 m) herbicide strips. Use of wider herbicide strips promoted two risk factors that could trigger outbreaks of tetranychid mites. First, concentrations of leaf N in apple trees were higher and those of P and K were lower with the wide strips. Such changes in nutritional quality of leaves would increase the potential for more rapid population growth of T. urticae, and to a lesser extent, the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Second, there were higher rates of T. urticae immigration from the ground cover vegetation into the trees. In 2006, and for most of 2007, densities of T. urticae were higher with wide herbicide strips, whereas densities of P. ulmi were not enhanced. However, by late August to early September in 2007, densities of both tetranychids were lower with wide herbicide strips. This is because both risk factors were counterbalanced, and eventually negated, by the enhanced action of phytoseiid predators, mostly Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. From July through September 2006, ratios of phytoseiids to tetranychids were always several-fold lower with wide herbicide strips but in 2007, from mid-July onwards, predator-prey ratios were usually several-fold higher with wide strips. However, this numerical response of phytoseiids to prey density can only occur where the pesticide program in orchards is not too harsh on phytoseiids

  15. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  16. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  17. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  18. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  19. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  20. Prediction of the processing factor for pesticides in apple juice by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Gil Garcia, M D; Malato, O; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to establish a mathematical function that correlates pesticide residue levels in apple juice with the levels of the pesticides applied on the raw fruit, taking into account some of their physicochemical properties such as water solubility, the octanol/water partition coefficient, the organic carbon partition coefficient, vapour pressure and density. A mixture of 12 pesticides was applied to an apple tree; apples were collected after 10 days of application. After harvest, apples were treated with a mixture of three post-harvest pesticides and the fruits were then processed in order to obtain apple juice following a routine industrial process. The pesticide residue levels in the apple samples were analysed using two multi-residue methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The concentration of pesticides was determined in samples derived from the different steps of processing. The processing factors (the coefficient between residue level in the processed commodity and the residue level in the commodity to be processed) obtained for the full juicing process were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. In order to investigate the relationships between the levels of pesticide residue found in apple juice samples and their physicochemical properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using two sets of samples (one of them using experimental data obtained in this work and the other including the data taken from the literature). In both cases the correlation was found between processing factors of pesticides in the apple juice and the negative logarithms (base 10) of the water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient and organic carbon partition coefficient. The linear correlation between these physicochemical properties and the processing factor were established using a multiple linear regression technique.

  1. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees.

  2. Global identification and expression analysis of stress-responsive genes of the Argonaute family in apple.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruirui; Liu, Caiyun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Shizhong

    2016-12-01

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which are found in yeast, animals, and plants, are the core molecules of the RNA-induced silencing complex. These proteins play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic stresses. The complete analysis and classification of the AGO gene family have been recently reported in different plants. Nevertheless, systematic analysis and expression profiling of these genes have not been performed in apple (Malus domestica). Approximately 15 AGO genes were identified in the apple genome. The phylogenetic tree, chromosome location, conserved protein motifs, gene structure, and expression of the AGO gene family in apple were analyzed for gene prediction. All AGO genes were phylogenetically clustered into four groups (i.e., AGO1, AGO4, MEL1/AGO5, and ZIPPY/AGO7) with the AGO genes of Arabidopsis. These groups of the AGO gene family were statistically analyzed and compared among 31 plant species. The predicted apple AGO genes are distributed across nine chromosomes at different densities and include three segment duplications. Expression studies indicated that 15 AGO genes exhibit different expression patterns in at least one of the tissues tested. Additionally, analysis of gene expression levels indicated that the genes are mostly involved in responses to NaCl, PEG, heat, and low-temperature stresses. Hence, several candidate AGO genes are involved in different aspects of physiological and developmental processes and may play an important role in abiotic stress responses in apple. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report a comprehensive analysis of the apple AGO gene family. Our results provide useful information to understand the classification and putative functions of these proteins, especially for gene members that may play important roles in abiotic stress responses in M. hupehensis.

  3. Grafting in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Bussi, M; Palonta, F; Toma, S

    2013-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most difficult aesthetic surgery procedures with a high rate of revision. In revision rhinoplasty the surgeon should explore the patient's concerns and then verify the possibility to satisfy expectations after complete internal and external examination of the nose. For the vast majority of complex secondaries, an open approach is the only reasonable method. In fact, in secondary nasal surgery, because of the scarring process following the primary operation, dissection is tedious, and landmarks are lost. One of the main objectives for the surgeon who approaches secondary rhinoplasty is to restore the structural support of the nose and to replace the lost volume of soft tissues. To achieve this purpose, the surgeon must often rely on grafts. An ideal grafting material must be easy to sculpt, resistant to trauma, infection and extrusion, mechanically stable, inert and readily available. For all these reasons, autogenous cartilage grafts harvested from septum, auricular concha and rib represent the first choice in rhinoplasty. In order to obtain a camouflage graft that provides natural contouring to the nose, temporalis fascia can be used. All these carefully trimmed grafts are useful in tip revision surgery, in secondary surgery of the dorsum and to resolve or reduce functional problems.

  4. Evaluating electrophysiological and behavioral responses to volatiles for improvement of odor-baited trap tree management of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Hock, Virginia; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel; Tuttle, Arthur; Eaton, Alan; Zhang, Aijun

    2014-06-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), one of the most important pests of apple in eastern and central North America, is usually managed in New England apple orchards by multiple full-block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include using an "attract and kill" approach: odor-baited trap trees deployed in the perimeter row of apple orchards. The standard approach is based on baiting apple trees with two olfactory stimuli, the fruit volatile benzaldehyde and the aggregation pheromone of plum curculio, grandisoic acid. We attempted to improve attraction, aggregation, and retention of adult plum curculios within specific baited trap tree canopies within apple orchards using an additional host plant volatile found to be highly stimulating in electroantennogram studies, trans-2-hexenal. We also attempted to increase aggregation using increased release rates of grandisoic acid. We found that trans-2-hexenal did not provide increased aggregation when deployed as an additional attractant within trap trees or when conversely deployed as a "push" component or repellent in perimeter trees lateral to the baited trap tree. Although increasing the release rate of grandisoic acid 5× actually appeared to increase overall aggregation within trap trees, it was not significantly different than that obtained using the standard dose. Therefore, we believe that the standard olfactory stimuli are sufficient to provide aggregation within trap trees, but that other means should be used to manage them after their arrival.

  5. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates.

  6. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  7. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  8. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  9. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  10. Graft-versus-host disease

    MedlinePlus

    GVHD; Bone marrow transplant - graft-versus-host disease; Stem cell transplant - graft-versus-host disease; Allogeneic transplant - ... GVHD may occur after a bone marrow, or stem cell, transplant in which someone receives bone marrow ...

  11. Constitutive expression of two apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) homolog genes of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 affects flowering time and whole-plant growth in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mimida, Naozumi; Kidou, Shin-Ichiro; Kotoda, Nobuhiro

    2007-09-01

    Fruit trees, such as apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.), are woody perennial plants with a long juvenile phase. The biological analysis for the regulation of flowering time provides insights into the reduction of juvenile phase and the acceleration of breeding in fruit trees. In Arabidopsis, LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1) is involved in epigenetic silencing of the target genes such as flowering genes. We isolated and characterized twin apple LHP1 homolog genes, MdLHP1a and MdLHP1b. These genes may have been generated as a result of ancient genome duplication. Although the putative MdLHP1 proteins showed lower similarity to any other known plant LHP1 homologs, a chromo domain, a chromo shadow domain, and the nuclear localization signal motifs were highly conserved among them. RT-PCR analysis showed that MdLHP1a and MdLHP1b were expressed constantly in developing shoot apices of apple trees throughout the growing season. Constitutive expression of MdLHP1a or MdLHP1b could compensate for the pleiotropic phenotype of lhp1/tfl2 mutant, suggesting that apple LHP1 homolog genes are involved in the regulation of flowering time and whole-plant growth. Based on these results, LHP1 homolog genes might have rapidly evolved among plant species, but the protein functions were conserved, at least between Arabidopsis and apple.

  12. Evidence from the domestication of apple for the maintenance of autumn colours by coevolution.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco

    2009-07-22

    The adaptive value of autumn colours is still a puzzle for evolutionary biology. It has been suggested that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects that use the trees as a host. I show that aphids (Dysaphis plantaginea) avoid apple trees (Malus pumila) with red leaves in autumn and that their fitness in spring is lower on these trees, which suggests that red leaves are an honest signal of the quality of the tree as a host. Autumn colours are common in wild populations but not among cultivated apple varieties, which are no longer under natural selection against insects. I show that autumn colours remain only in the varieties that are very susceptible to the effects of a common insect-borne disease, fire blight, and therefore are more in need of avoiding insects. Moreover, varieties with red leaves have smaller fruits, which shows that they have been under less effective artificial selection. This suggests a possible trade off between fruit size, leaf colour and resistance to parasites. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects, but not with other hypotheses.

  13. Characterization of an Autophagy-Related Gene MdATG8i from Apple

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Sun, Xun; Jia, Xin; Wang, Na; Gong, Xiaoqing; Ma, Fengwang

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies restrict apple (Malus sp.) tree growth and productivity in Northwest China. The process of autophagy, a conserved degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells, has important roles in nutrient-recycling and helps improve plant performance during periods of nutrient-starvation. Little is known about the functioning of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in apple. In this study, one of the ATG8 gene family members MdATG8i was isolated from Malus domestica. MdATG8i has conserved putative tubulin binding sites and ATG7 interaction domains. A 1865-bp promoter region cloned from apple genome DNA was predicated to have cis-regulatory elements responsive to light, environmental stresses, and hormones. MdATG8i transcriptions were induced in response to leaf senescence, nitrogen depletion, and oxidative stress. At cellular level, MdATG8i protein was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Yeast two-hybrid tests showed that MdATG8i could interact with MdATG7a and MdATG7b. In Arabidopsis, its heterologous expression was associated with enhanced vegetative growth, leaf senescence, and tolerance to nitrogen- and carbon-starvation. MdATG8i-overexpressing “Orin” apple callus lines also displayed improved tolerance to nutrient-limited conditions. Our results demonstrate that MdATG8i protein could function in autophagy in a conserved way, as a positive regulator in the response to nutrient-starvation. PMID:27252732

  14. Membrane-targeted HrpNEa can modulate apple defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vergne, E; de Bernonville, T Dugé; Dupuis, F; Sourice, S; Cournol, R; Berthelot, P; Barny, M A; Brisset, M N; Chevreau, E

    2014-02-01

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora is the major bacterial disease of tribe Maleae, including apple. Among the proteins secreted by this bacterium, HrpNEa, also called harpin, is known to induce hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and to form amyloid oligomers leading to pore opening in the plasma membrane and alteration of membrane homeostasis. To better understand the physiological effects of HrpNEa in the host plant, we produced transgenic apple plants expressing HrpNEa with or without a secretion signal peptide (SP). HrpNEa expressed with a SP was found to be associated within the membrane fraction, in accordance with amyloidogenic properties and the presence of transmembrane domains revealed by in silico analysis. Expression analysis of 28 apple defense-related genes revealed gene modulations in the transgenic line expressing membrane-targeted HrpNEa. While apple transgenic trees displaying a high constitutive expression level of SP-HrpNEa showed a slight reduction of infection frequency after E. amylovora inoculation, there was no decrease in the disease severity. Thus HrpNEa seems to act as an elicitor of host defenses, when localized in the host membrane.

  15. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  16. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  17. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  18. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  19. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  20. Bone Grafts in Craniofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Genecov, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects is a challenging task. The standard reconstruction method has been bone grafting. In this review, we shall describe the biological principles of bone graft healing, as pertinent to craniofacial reconstruction. Different types and sources of bone grafts will be discussed, as well as new methods of bone defect reconstruction. PMID:22110806

  1. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, vegetable grafting is rare and few experiments have been done to determine optimal grafting procedures and production practices for different geographical and climatic regions in America. Grafting vegetables to control soilborne disease is a common practice in Asia, parts of E...

  2. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  3. Skin graft - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  4. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  5. Grafting for disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary purpose of grafting vegetables worldwide has been to provide resistance to soilborne diseases. The potential loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant combined with pathogen resistance to commonly used pesticides will make resistance to soil born pathogens even more important in the futu...

  6. Grafting for disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary purpose of grafting vegetables worldwide has been to provide resistance to soil-borne diseases. The potential loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant combined with pathogen resistance to commonly used pesticides will make resistance to soil-borne pathogens even more important in the fu...

  7. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  8. The versatile autogenous rib graft in septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sherris, D A; Kern, E B

    1998-01-01

    In the graft depleted revision rhinoplasty patient and the patient with major tissue needs, alternatives to septal and conchal cartilage grafts are needed. The costal cartilage graft and rib bone/costal cartilage combination graft are excellent alternatives. In this study 14 patients received 40 grafts from 20 autogenous ribs harvested during septorhinoplasty. Materials were harvested for use as septal replacement grafts, cantilevered grafts, dorsal onlay grafts, columellar struts, and tip grafts. Patient followup was 6 to 31 months, and no evidence of graft resorption or warpage was evident during that period. Complications of harvest were minimal, and harvest techniques are detailed.

  9. Early Events in the Life of Apple Roots: Variation in Root Growth Rate is Linked to Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Fungal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize early events of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization in newly-emerging roots of mature apple (Malus domestica) trees and to determine the relationship to fine root growth rate and development. New roots were traced on root windows to measure growt...

  10. Bone Graft Substitution and Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Nauth, Aaron; Lane, Joseph; Watson, J Tracy; Giannoudis, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Selection of appropriate bone graft or bone graft substitute requires careful recognition of the bone healing needs of the patient's specific clinical problem and a thorough understanding of the different properties possessed by the available bone grafts and substitutes. Although autogenous iliac crest bone graft remains the gold standard of treatment for delayed unions, nonunions, and bone defects, there are a number of promising alternatives available, and emerging evidence suggests that they can be very effective when used in the proper setting. Among these, reamer-irrigator-aspirator bone graft, bone marrow concentrate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and calcium phosphate cements have received a great deal of attention in the literature. This review describes these grafts in detail along with the evidence for their use. In addition, a framework is provided for selecting the appropriate graft or substitute based on their provided properties.

  11. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  12. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  13. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  14. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a…

  15. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  16. Exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Burda, Z; Erdmann, J; Petersson, B; Wattenberg, M

    2003-02-01

    We discuss the scaling properties of free branched polymers. The scaling behavior of the model is classified by the Hausdorff dimensions for the internal geometry, d(L) and d(H), and for the external one, D(L) and D(H). The dimensions d(H) and D(H) characterize the behavior for long distances, while d(L) and D(L) for short distances. We show that the internal Hausdorff dimension is d(L)=2 for generic and scale-free trees, contrary to d(H), which is known to be equal to 2 for generic trees and to vary between 2 and infinity for scale-free trees. We show that the external Hausdorff dimension D(H) is directly related to the internal one as D(H)=alphad(H), where alpha is the stability index of the embedding weights for the nearest-vertex interactions. The index is alpha=2 for weights from the Gaussian domain of attraction and 0

  17. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  18. Genetic and environmental factors affecting allergen-related gene expression in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh).

    PubMed

    Botton, Alessandro; Lezzer, Paolo; Dorigoni, Alberto; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Ramina, Angelo

    2008-08-13

    Freshly consumed apples can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens, namely, Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, and Mal d 4, and their cross-reactivity with sensitizing allergens of other species. Knowledge of environmental and endogenous factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information to apple breeders, growers, and consumers for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, the adoption of agronomical practices decreasing the allergenic potential, and the consumption of fruits with reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, expression studies were performed by means of real-time PCR for all the known allergen-encoding genes in apple. Fruit samples were collected from 15 apple varieties and from fruits of three different trials, set up to assess the effect of shadowing, elevation, storage, and water stress on the expression of allergen genes. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for the classification of varieties according to gene expression values, pointing out that the cultivars Fuji and Brina were two good hypoallergenic candidates. Shadowing, elevation, and storage significantly affected the transcription of the allergen-encoding genes, whereas water stress slightly influenced the expression of only two genes, in spite of the dramatic effect on both fruit size and vegetative growth of the trees. In particular, shadowing may represent an important cultural practice aimed at reducing apple cortex allergenicity. Moreover, elevation and storage may be combined to reduce the allergenic potential of apple fruits. The possible implications of the results for breeders, growers, and consumers are discussed critically.

  19. Soil temperature and plant growth stage influence nitrogen uptake and amino acid concentration of apple during early spring growth.

    PubMed

    Dong, S; Scagel, C F; Cheng, L; Fuchigami, L H; Rygiewicz, P T

    2001-05-01

    In spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots begins about 3 weeks after bud break. We used 1-year-old 'Fuji' Malus domestica Borkh on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether the onset of N uptake in spring is dependent solely on the growth stage of the plant or is a function of soil temperature. Five times during early season growth, N uptake and total amino acid concentration were measured in trees growing at aboveground day/night temperatures of 23/15 degrees C and belowground temperatures of 8, 12, 16 or 20 degrees C. We used (15NH4)(15NO3) to measure total N uptake and rate of uptake and found that both were significantly influenced by both soil temperature and plant growth stage. Rate of uptake of 15N increased with increasing soil temperature and changed with plant growth stage. Before bud break, 15N was not detected in trees growing in the 8 degrees C soil treatment, whereas 15N uptake increased with increasing soil temperatures between 12 and 20 degrees C. Ten days after bud break, 15N was still not detected in trees growing in the 8 degrees C soil treatment, although total 15N uptake and uptake rate continued to increase with increasing soil temperatures between 12 and 20 degrees C. Twenty-one days after bud break, trees in all temperature treatments were able to acquire 15N from the soil, although the amount of uptake increased with increasing soil temperature. Distribution of 15N in trees changed as plants grew. Most of the 15N absorbed by trees before bud break (approximately 5% of 15N supplied per tree) remained in the roots. Forty-six days after bud break, approximately one-third of the 15N absorbed by the trees in the 12-20 degrees C soil temperature treatments remained in the roots, whereas the shank, stem and new growth contained about two-thirds of the 15N taken up by the roots. Total amino acid concentration and distribution of amino acids in trees changed with plant growth stage, but only the amino acid concentration in new growth and

  20. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  1. What Makes a Tree a Tree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on trees, focusing on the parts of trees and how they differ from other plants; (2) eight activities; and (3) ready-to-copy pages dealing with tree identification and tree rings. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  2. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected.

  3. Corneal grafting and banking.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Corneal transplantation was conceptualized at the end of the 18th century, but it took more than 100 years before human corneal grafting was introduced. The greatest step forward was the demonstration by Filatov that corneal tissue can be collected and used post mortem. The history of eye banking includes the development of preservation techniques. Storage in cold to minimize microbial growth and tissue disintegration was first choice but during the last 30 years this has been taken over by warm storage (organ culture) where the donor cornea proves its sterility and vitality before being transferred to the recipient. The long-term organ culture storage makes exchange between centres possible and allows for histocompatibility matching. The internationalization led to the establishing of the European Eye Bank Association but also to an increasing number of governmental regulations. Developments in years to come may lead to control of graft biomechanics and optics. This technical development tends to favour a centralization.

  4. [Grafting of carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Belov, Iu V; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Bazylev, V V; Seleznev, M N; Savichev, D D

    2005-01-01

    Over 5-years, 167 reconstructive surgeries for stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA) were performed in 124 patients. Mean age of the patients was 63.5 years. One hundred and twenty-nine carotid endarterectomies (CEAE) in 86 patients and 38 reconstructive operations of ICA in 38 patients were performed. There were no lethal outcomes in short- and long-term postoperative period. In short-term period after prosthesis of ICA restenosis was revealed in 3% patients, after eversion CEAE in 3% patients the embolism was seen, after standard CEAE restenosis were diagnosed in 8% patients and thrombosis -- in 3%. In long-term period after grafting of ICA the strokes were seen in 3%, stenosis -- in 6% patients, after eversion endarterectomy -- in 0 and 3% patients, and after standard CEAE -- in 3 and 24% patients, respectively. It is concluded that grafting of ICA is adequate surgical method of reconstruction and stroke prevention in specific variants of carotid atherosclerosis.

  5. [Soil moisture characteristics of apple-planting subarea in Weibei dry highland, Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhao; Yi, Huapeng; Li, Shitai

    2004-11-01

    Based on the data of regional scale and located field measurement, this paper investigated the soil moisture characteristics of the apple-planting subarea in Weibei dry highland, Shanxi Province. The results showed that the soil moisture characteristics in this subarea were affected by precipitation and evapotranspiration. At regional scale, the apple-land evapotranspiration in east Weibei area was the largest, and that in tableland gully and in west Weibei area was the medium and the smallest, respectively. Soil water deficit phenomenon was observed in three type areas. In east Weibei area, the mean water deficit amount was about 390.9 mm, the maximum was 674.6 mm, and the minimum value was 186.3 mm. In tableland gully area, the average and maximum values were 264.4 and 441.2 mm, respectively, and sometimes water surplus occurred. As a whole, soil moisture in west Weibei area was deficit, but the phenomena of water surplus were more prevalent than those in tableland gully area, and the maximum value was 151.8 mm. Soil moisture storage amount existed spatial and temporal variations in 3 different areas. The value of 2 m profile in apple growth season in west Weibei area was the largest, and that in Weibei tableland gully area and in Weibei east area was the medium and the smallest, respectively. The characteristics of soil moisture storage depended mainly on precipitation and its spatial-temporal distribution, as well as its consumed amount by apple trees. Water consumption in east Weibei area was the largest, the second was in gully area, and that in west Weibei area was the smallest. During apple growth season, the water consumption in dry year was less than that in wet year. In dry year, except for available precipitation, a considerable part of water used by apple trees came from deep (exceeded 3 m) soil moisture storage, which resulted in a dried soil layer and would affected the sustainable development of fruit production.

  6. Dacron Graft Aneurysm Treated by Endovascular Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Ofer, Amos; Nitecki, Samy; Hoffman, Aaron; Engel, Ahuva

    2001-01-15

    A 72-year old man who underwent aorto-bifemoral bypass with insertion of a Dacron graft 18 years previously presented with an aneurysm in the left limb of his graft. Angiography also demonstrated a bilateral occlusion of the popliteal arteries. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed and showed a localized dilation of 3 cm in the left limb of the graft, which had a diameter of 14 mm throughout. In view of the technical difficulties of a surgical procedure, an endovascular stent was considered. Through a left femoral arteriotomy, a stent graft was inserted and deployed in the left limb of the graft. This resulted in total exclusion of the Dacron graft aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a procedure.

  7. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  8. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Obligin, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional groups. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  9. Crop traceability and remote sensing in tree fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Eileen M.; Rupp, Richard; Davenport, Joan; Leal, Juliano; Pierce, Francis J.; Schulthess, Urs

    2004-01-01

    Fresh market fruit crops such as apples have not employed precision agriculture tools, partially due to the labor intensive nature of the cropping systems. In this paper we describe new research in the development of precision agriculture tools for tree fruit, including the ability to track spatially variable orchard data before harvest through to the packing plant. Remote sensing is a key component of this system, and remote sensing products are being evaluated for their usefulness in guiding orchard management.

  10. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  11. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  12. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  13. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  14. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  16. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  17. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  18. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  19. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  20. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  1. The MdTFL1 gene of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) reduces vegetative growth and generation time.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Peil, Andreas; Tränkner, Conny; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-10-01

    TFL1 is known as a floral repressor in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In apple there are two TFL1 homologs, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2. The MdTFL1-1 gene was silenced in transgenic clones expressing a hairpin gene construct of a 323 bp fragment of MdTFL1-1. The hairpin gene construct was transferred to three different apple genotypes. Of 22 transgenic clones, 21 showed a significant reduction in MdTFL1-1 mRNA expression. Precocious flowering was obtained for 20 clones, which flowered already during in vitro cultivation. Nineteen clones could successfully be transferred to the greenhouse where 18 of them flowered within a few weeks followed by the death or at least a strongly inhibited vegetative growth of the plant. Most of the transgenic flowers developed abnormally. Results obtained on greenhouse-grown plants of the transgenic clones and transgenic seedlings clearly demonstrated the major role of MdTFL1 genes in maintaining the vegetative growth as prerequisite for a perennial lifecycle. It was shown that MdTFL1 dsRNAi promotes a life history similar to annual plants. Preliminary results obtained from grafting experiments with non-transgenic scions grafted onto MdTFL1 dsRNAi transgenic rootstocks indicated that the flower-inducing signal obtained after silencing of MdTFL1 genes seems not to be graft-transmissible.

  2. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  3. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  4. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  5. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  6. Reduced generation time of apple seedlings to within a year by means of a plant virus vector: a new plant-breeding technique with no transmission of genetic modification to the next generation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Kishigami, Ryusuke; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Fruit trees have a long juvenile phase. For example, the juvenile phase of apple (Malus × domestica) generally lasts for 5-12 years and is a serious constraint for genetic analysis and for creating new apple cultivars through cross-breeding. If modification of the genes involved in the transition from the juvenile phase to the adult phase can enable apple to complete its life cycle within 1 year, as seen in herbaceous plants, a significant enhancement in apple breeding will be realized. Here, we report a novel technology that simultaneously promotes expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T gene (AtFT) and silencing of apple TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene (MdTFL1-1) using an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) to accelerate flowering time and life cycle in apple seedlings. When apple cotyledons were inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 immediately after germination, more than 90% of infected seedlings started flowering within 1.5-3 months, and almost all early-flowering seedlings continuously produced flower buds on the lateral and axillary shoots. Cross-pollination between early-flowering apple plants produced fruits with seeds, indicating that ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 inoculation successfully reduced the time required for completion of the apple life cycle to 1 year or less. Apple latent spherical virus was not transmitted via seeds to successive progenies in most cases, and thus, this method will serve as a new breeding technique that does not pass genetic modification to the next generation.

  7. Enhanced recovery of Salmonella from apple cider and apple juice with universal preenrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Thomas S; Johnson, Mildred L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H

    2002-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative efficiencies of Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth and lactose broth for the recovery of a variety of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice. Bulk portions of juice were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars at high and low levels of 0.4 and 0.04 CFU/mL, respectively. The juice was aged for a minimum of 5 days at 2-5 degrees C. On the day analysis was initiated, each of 20 test portions (25 mL) of the contaminated juice was preenriched in UP broth and in lactose broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter. For pasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly (p < 0.05) more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (112 and 75, respectively). For unpasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (326 and 221, respectively). For pasteurized apple juice, UP broth recovered more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (93 and 81, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that UP broth should replace lactose broth for the analysis of pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice.

  8. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  9. Progress report to the International Fruit Tree Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides an update on several projects that are fostered by the International Fruit Tree Association which covers some aspects of rootstock development, performance in the orchard and to address nursery industry needs. The report highlights results from graft union strength experiments,...

  10. Assessing gene flow in apple using a descendant of Malus sieversii var. sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana as an identifier for pollen dispersal.

    PubMed

    Reim, Stefanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Michael, Maria; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2006-01-01

    The release of genetically engineered apple trees raises the question of their potential environmental impact, and the transfer via pollen of transgenes to cross-compatible cultivars of Malus domestica and Malus species is deemed to be the greatest source for environmental exposure. The hybrid TNR 31-35, a descendant of Malus sieversii var. sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana, carrying a homozygous, dominant gene responsible for red pigmentation in all plant parts, was used to assess gene flow in an apple scion repository of genetic resources. The red pigmentation provides a morphological marker that enables large-scale evaluation of cross-fertilization under natural conditions. In two consecutive years, 60 and then 56 apple trees of 38 different Malus domestica cultivars were selected to serve as pollen-receptor trees. In these two years, 6876 and then 5513 seeds, respectively, were gathered from pollen-receptor trees located at different distances, 2-100 m from 15 pollen-dispenser trees. In total, 11 797 seedlings were examined. An average of 1.8% and 1.4%, respectively, of all seedlings obtained showed red-colored leaves. Considering both years of sampling, 69% of the seeds fertilized by TNR 31-35 were found at less than 10 m from the nearest pollen-dispenser tree. Almost 91% of all seeds fertilized by TNR 31-35 were found at less than 60 m from the nearest pollen-dispenser tree, which is equal to 30 adjacent trees along the row. In this study, pollen was dispersed at least 104 m. After phenotypical evaluation, seedlings selected as red-colored were investigated by simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis. Each seedling was tested with at least one heteromorphic SSR-marker, which allows the verification of TNR 31-35 as the male parent. All but four seedlings showed one allele specific for the appropriate fruiting tree and the second allele specific for the pollen-dispenser TNR 31-35.

  11. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  12. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  13. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  14. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  15. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  17. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  18. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  19. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding…

  20. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  1. Exercising AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Print Options with the Apple IIgs Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a step-by-step guide to using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIGS computer to print AppleWorks database files in two types of formats--labels and tables. Steps covered for printing labels include naming the report, arranging or sorting, deleting a category, inserting a category, printing the category name and entry, selecting…

  2. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the…

  3. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages…

  4. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  5. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  6. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  7. Femoral impaction grafting

    PubMed Central

    Scanelli, John A; Brown, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Femoral impaction grafting is a reconstruction option applicable to both simple and complex femoral component revisions. It is one of the preferred techniques for reconstructing large femoral defects when the isthmus is non-supportive. The available level of evidence is primarily derived from case series, which shows a mean survivorship of 90.5%, with revision or re-operation as the end-point, with an average follow-up of 11 years. The rate of femoral fracture requiring re-operation or revision of the component varies between several large case series, ranging from 2.5% to 9%, with an average of 5.4%. PMID:23362469

  8. Spasm in Arterial Grafts in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Guo-Wei; Taggart, David P

    2016-03-01

    Spasm of arterial grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is still a clinical problem, and refractory spasm can occasionally be lethal. Perioperative spasm in bypass grafts and coronary arteries has been reported in 0.43% of all coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, but this may be an underestimate. Spasm can develop not only in the internal mammary artery but more frequently in the right gastroepiploic and radial artery. The mechanism of spasm can involve many pathways, particularly those involving regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration. Endothelial dysfunction also plays a role in spasm. Depending on the clinical scenario, the possibility of spasm during and after coronary artery bypass grafting should be confirmed by angiography. If present, immediate intraluminal injection of vasodilators is often effective, although other procedures such as an intraaortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may also become necessary to salvage the patient. Prevention of spasm involves many considerations, and the principles are discussed in this review article.

  9. Free galactose concentrations in fresh and stored apples (Malus domestica) and processed apple products.

    PubMed

    Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol

    2004-02-11

    Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.

  10. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  11. Training Tree Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    trees (similar to the role played by the finite- state acceptor FSA for strings). We describe the version (equivalent to TSG ( Schabes , 1990)) where...strictly contained in tree sets of tree adjoining gram- mars (Joshi and Schabes , 1997). 4 Extended-LHS Tree Transducers (xR) Section 1 informally described...changes without modifying the training procedure, as long as we stick to tree automata. 10 Related Work Tree substitution grammars or TSG ( Schabes , 1990

  12. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of apple fruit identifies light-induced genes involved in red color pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2014-01-15

    Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation.

  14. Over-expression of an FT-homologous gene of apple induces early flowering in annual and perennial plants.

    PubMed

    Tränkner, Conny; Lehmann, Sandra; Hoenicka, Hans; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Fladung, Matthias; Lenhardt, Denise; Dunemann, Frank; Gau, Achim; Schlangen, Karin; Malnoy, Mickael; Flachowsky, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    The protein encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana seems to be the long-searched florigen, and over-expression of FT orthologues resulted in accelerated flower development in annual and perennial plants. In the present study, we isolated two allelic mRNA sequences of an FT-homologous gene from apple, which was designated as MdFT1. Using a SSR motif this gene was mapped on LG 12 of apple. Over-expression of MdFT1 in Arabidopsis and the commercially important tree species poplar and apple itself using the CaMV 35S or the Arabidopsis Suc2 promoter resulted in significant accelerated flowering compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic T(0) plants of Arabidopsis flowered 4-6 days on average earlier than wild-type Arabidopsis under LD conditions. Under short-day conditions Suc2::MdFT1 plants of the T(1)-generation flowered after 66 ± 18 days, while wild-type plants flowered about 22 days later. All transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a normal habit except for the early flowering phenotype. Early flowering was detected 6-10 months after transformation in transgenic polar clones containing MdFT1 driven by the CaMV 35S, whereas plants of the transgenic apple clone T780 set up its first flowers during in vitro cultivation. Based on our results we conclude that MdFT1 is responsible for inducing flowering and that the function of the apple FT1 gene is conserved in annual herbaceous species as well as perennial woody species. Furthermore, we discuss the role of MdFT1 in flower development with regard to the findings of genetic studies on apple.

  15. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  16. Graft selection in cerebral revascularization.

    PubMed

    Baaj, Ali A; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Cerebral revascularization constitutes an important treatment modality in the management of complex aneurysms, carotid occlusion, tumor, and moyamoya disease. Graft selection is a critical step in the planning of revascularization surgery, and depends on an understanding of graft and regional hemodynamics, accessibility, and patency rates. The goal of this review is to highlight some of these properties.

  17. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  18. Continuous ACL graft, results

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jorge Luis; Vega, Marcelo; Matesevach, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: describe our technique using hamstring graft that respects the proximal continuity of Semitendinosus and uses the superior biological potential of the distal periosteum., preserving and stressing the ST reinforce the retropulsión and dynamic control of external rotation of the knee. Here the technique, results, difficulties and foundations. Methods: The sample of this research was composed of 229 cases operated between 01/03/97 and 01/03/13 in Arthroscopy Private Center., 166 male and 63 female, the postop follow-up was 86 months. Evaluated with IKDC, Lysholm, Hamstring EMG. Comparative histology study in rabbits. Results: IKDC and Lysholm score showed 93% of very good results. Conclusion: Dynamic ACL reconstruction achieves a static-dynamic stabilization of the knee. Grafts have a plus in their biological potential (proximal continuity - osteo-periosteal insertion of the tendons in the femoral tunnel). The hamstring maintains its functionality (EMG). 93% satisfactory results (IKDC, Lysholm). It is a valid surgical option in ACL injuries.

  19. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  20. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  1. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  2. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  3. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  4. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  5. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  6. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  7. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  8. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  9. Saccharomyces uvarum is responsible for the traditional fermentation of apple chicha in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Maria E; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo; Lopes, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Apple chicha is a fresh low alcoholic beverage elaborated by aboriginal communities of Andean Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). In the present work, we identified the yeast microbiota associated with this fermentation, and characterized genetically those belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum were found in the analyzed fermentations. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses based on genes sequence analysis were carried out for both S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum strains obtained in this study and a set of additional strains from diverse origins. The results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae strains from apple chicha belong to the big group of wine/European strains of this species, while S. uvarum strains were included in the Holartic population of this species. Additionally, some S. uvarum strains from chichas evidenced as an admixture of both pure Holartic and pure South American populations. Our results suggest that Holartic strains could have been introduced in South America together with the domestication of apple trees by Mapuche communities. This Holartic population suffered admixis with the naturally present South American population of this species, originating strains bearing genetic features from the two populations, detectable in both chichas and natural habitats.

  10. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  11. [Stent Grafting for Aortic Dissection].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naomichi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of stent graft for aortic dissection is to terminate antegrade blood flow into the false lumen through primary entry. Early intervention for primary entry makes excellent aortic remodeling and emergent stent grafting for complicated acute type B aortic dissection is supported as a class I. On the other hand stent grafting for chronic aortic dissection is controversial. Early stent grafting is considered with in 6 months after on-set if the diameter of the descending aorta is more than 40 mm. Additional interventions for residual false lumen on the downstream aorta are still required. Stent graft for re-entry, candy-plug technique, and double stenting, other effective re-interventions were reported. Best treatment on the basis of each anatomical and physical characteristics should be selected in each institution. Frozen elephant trunk is alternative procedure for aortic dissection without the need to take account of proximal anatomical limitation and effective for acute type A aortic dissection.

  12. Coaxial electrospinning of P(LLA-CL)/heparin biodegradable polymer nanofibers: potential vascular graft for substitution of femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wei; Qiu, Li-Jun; Mo, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Yun-Fei; Peng, Bo; Liu, Min; Huang, Jun-Hua; Wang, Guang-Chun; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2013-06-07

    Electrospinning is one of the most simple and effective methods to prepare polymer fibers with the diameters ranging from nanometer to several micrometers. Poly(L-lactide)-co-poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) fibers and P(LLA-CL)/heparin coaxial composite fibers herein were successfully prepared by single electrospinning and coaxial electrospinning, respectively. The prepared endothelialized P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/heparin vascular grafts were used in the Beagle dogs experiment to evaluate the feasibility of thus made different scaffolds for substitution of dog femoral artery in early period, medium term, and long term, meanwhile the pure P(LLA-CL) vascular graft was used as the control group during all the experiments. The animal model was established by using the graft materials to anastomose both femoral arteries of dogs. The vascular grafts patency rates (i.e., the unobstructed capacity of blood vessel) were detected by color Doppler flow imaging technology and digital subtraction angiography. To observe the histological morphology at different periods, the vascular grafts were removed after 7, 14, and 30 days, and the corresponding histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The experimental results show that in the early period, the patency rates of pure P(LLA-CL) graft, endothelial P(LLA-CL) graft, and P(LLA-CL)/heparin graft were 75%, 75%, and 100%, respectively; in the medium term, the patency rates of pure P(LLA-CL) graft and endothelial P(LLA-CL) graft were 25%, whereas that of P(LLA-CL)/heparin graft was 50%; the patency rates of pure P(LLA-CL) graft and endothelial P(LLA-CL) graft were down to 0%, whereas the patency rate of P(LLA-CL)/heparin graft was 25% in the long term. This preliminary study has demonstrated that P(LLA-CL)/heparin coaxial composite fiber maybe a reliable artificial graft for the replacement of femoral artery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.

  13. Radiation grafting on natural films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  14. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with passive interception traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2000-12-01

    Male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were monitored with passive interception traps (PI-traps) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers. The proportion of mated females recaptured by PI-traps was significantly higher than the proportion released after the release of both sexes into a codling moth-infested orchard. However, no significant difference occurred between the proportion of mated females recaptured and released when only females were released into uninfested orchards. Replicated nine-tree apple plots situated either on the edge or in the center ofpheromone-treated apple orchards were monitored with PI-traps during first moth flight in 1995 and during both flights in 1996. Moths caught on PI-traps were predominately males. The first male moths were captured 7-10 d before females during the first flight in both years. Initial capture of virgin and mated females on PI-traps coincided in 1995. Mated females were captured 14 d after the first virgin females in 1996. The mean proportion of females that were mated ranged from 32 to 55% during the first flight and 85 to 92% during the second flight. Moth catch and fruit injury were significantly higher in the edge versus the center plots. The numbers of total and female moths caught with PI-traps were significantly correlated with fruit injury for each generation. The percentage of female moths caught on PI-traps that were mated was 32% lower and the mean oocyte load of all females was 42% higher in a pheromone-treated apple orchard than in the untreated crabapple grove monitored during May and June 1997.

  15. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  16. QTL and candidate gene mapping for polyphenolic composition in apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The polyphenolic products of the phenylpropanoid pathway, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and flavonols, possess antioxidant properties that may provide health benefits. To investigate the genetic architecture of control of their biosynthesis in apple fruit, various polyphenolic compounds were quantified in progeny from a 'Royal Gala' × 'Braeburn' apple population segregating for antioxidant content, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography of extracts derived from fruit cortex and skin. Results Construction of genetic maps for 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' enabled detection of 79 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for content of 17 fruit polyphenolic compounds. Seven QTL clusters were stable across two years of harvest and included QTLs for content of flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. Alignment of the parental genetic maps with the apple whole genome sequence in silico enabled screening for co-segregation with the QTLs of a range of candidate genes coding for enzymes in the polyphenolic biosynthetic pathway. This co-location was confirmed by genetic mapping of markers derived from the gene sequences. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) co-located with a QTL cluster for the fruit flavanols catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin dimer and five unknown procyanidin oligomers identified near the top of linkage group (LG) 16, while hydroxy cinnamate/quinate transferase (HCT/HQT) co-located with a QTL for chlorogenic acid concentration mapping near the bottom of LG 17. Conclusion We conclude that LAR1 and HCT/HQT are likely to influence the concentration of these compounds in apple fruit and provide useful allele-specific markers for marker assisted selection of trees bearing fruit with healthy attributes. PMID:22269060

  17. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Associated with Floral Transition and Flower Development in Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoling; Zhong, Jundi; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Changchun; Li, Haili

    2016-01-01

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a semi-deciduous subtropical tree that progressively sheds its leaves in the spring. However, little information is available on the mechanism involved in flower developmental pattern. To gain a global perspective on the floral transition and flower development of sugar apple, cDNA libraries were prepared independently from inflorescent meristem and three flowering stages. Illumina sequencing generated 107,197,488 high quality reads that were assembled into 71,948 unigenes, with an average sequence length of 825.40 bp. Among the unigenes, various transcription factor families involved in floral transition and flower development were elucidated. Furthermore, a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that unigenes exhibiting differential expressions were involved in various phytohormone signal transduction events and circadian rhythms. In addition, 147 unigenes exhibiting sequence similarities to known flowering-related genes from other plants were differentially expressed during flower development. The expression patterns of 20 selected genes were validated using quantitative-PCR. The expression data presented in our study is the most comprehensive dataset available for sugar apple so far and will serve as a resource for investigating the genetics of the flowering process in sugar apple and other Annona species.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Associated with Floral Transition and Flower Development in Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaidong; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoling; Zhong, Jundi; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Changchun; Li, Haili

    2016-01-01

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a semi-deciduous subtropical tree that progressively sheds its leaves in the spring. However, little information is available on the mechanism involved in flower developmental pattern. To gain a global perspective on the floral transition and flower development of sugar apple, cDNA libraries were prepared independently from inflorescent meristem and three flowering stages. Illumina sequencing generated 107,197,488 high quality reads that were assembled into 71,948 unigenes, with an average sequence length of 825.40 bp. Among the unigenes, various transcription factor families involved in floral transition and flower development were elucidated. Furthermore, a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that unigenes exhibiting differential expressions were involved in various phytohormone signal transduction events and circadian rhythms. In addition, 147 unigenes exhibiting sequence similarities to known flowering-related genes from other plants were differentially expressed during flower development. The expression patterns of 20 selected genes were validated using quantitative-PCR. The expression data presented in our study is the most comprehensive dataset available for sugar apple so far and will serve as a resource for investigating the genetics of the flowering process in sugar apple and other Annona species. PMID:27881993

  19. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  20. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    PubMed

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  1. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR < 0.001) by RNA-Seq. During the early phase of infection, 12 h post inoculation (HPI), AAAP exhibited limited fungal development and little change in the transcript accumulation status (950 DEGs). During the intermediate phase of infection, the period between 18 and 36 HPI, increased fungal development, active infection, and increased transcript accumulation were detected (4111 and 3838 DEGs detected at each time point, respectively). The majority of DEGs were detected by 72 HPI, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of apples' AAAP infection. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs are predominately involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways; results showed that almost gene associated with photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction were down-regulated, while transcription factors (i.e., WRKY, MYB, NAC, and Hsf) and DEGs involved in cell wall modification, defense signaling, the synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related (PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP

  2. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  3. Rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens by Repeated Grafting of Shoot Tips onto Juvenile Rootstocks in Vitro 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Chun; Lius, Suwenza; Huang, Bau-Lian; Murashige, Toshio; Mahdi, El Fatih M.; Van Gundy, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Repeated grafting of 1.5-centimeter long shoot tips from an adult Sequoia sempervirens tree onto fresh, rooted juvenile stem cuttings in vitro resulted in progressive restoration of juvenile traits. After four successive grafts, stem cuttings of previously adult shoots rooted as well, branched as profusely, and grew with as much or more vigor as those of seedling shoots. Reassays disclosed retention for 3 years of rooting competence at similar levels as originally restored. Adventitious shoot formation was remanifested and callus development was depressed in stem segments from the repeatedly grafted adult. The reversion was associated with appearance and disappearance of distinctive leaf proteins. Neither gibberellic acid nor N6-beneyladenine as nutrient supplements duplicated the graft effects. ImagesFigure 2Figure 5Figure 8 PMID:16668609

  4. Cost and accuracy of advanced breeding trial designs in apple

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Julia M; Evans, Kate M; Hardner, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Trialing advanced candidates in tree fruit crops is expensive due to the long-term nature of the planting and labor-intensive evaluations required to make selection decisions. How closely the trait evaluations approximate the true trait value needs balancing with the cost of the program. Designs of field trials of advanced apple candidates in which reduced number of locations, the number of years and the number of harvests per year were modeled to investigate the effect on the cost and accuracy in an operational breeding program. The aim was to find designs that would allow evaluation of the most additional candidates while sacrificing the least accuracy. Critical percentage difference, response to selection, and correlated response were used to examine changes in accuracy of trait evaluations. For the quality traits evaluated, accuracy and response to selection were not substantially reduced for most trial designs. Risk management influences the decision to change trial design, and some designs had greater risk associated with them. Balancing cost and accuracy with risk yields valuable insight into advanced breeding trial design. The methods outlined in this analysis would be well suited to other horticultural crop breeding programs. PMID:27019717

  5. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Klocko, Amy L.; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Brunner, Amy M.; Shevchenko, Olga; Aldwinckle, Herb; Strauss, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi) directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG) to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These “double-flowers” had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes. Members of the two other clades within in the MdAG subfamily showed mild to moderate differences in gene expression, or were unchanged, with the level of suppression approximately proportional to the level of sequence identity between the gene analyzed and the RNAi fragment. The double-flowers also exhibited reduced male and female fertility, had few viable pollen grains, a decreased number of stigmas, and produced few viable seeds after cross-pollination. Despite these floral alterations, RNAi-AG trees with double-flowers set full-sized fruit. Suppression or mutation of apple AG-like genes appears to be a promising method for combining genetic containment with improved floral attractiveness. PMID:27500731

  6. Genetic determinism of anatomical and hydraulic traits within an apple progeny.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Gorza, Olivier; Cochard, Hervé; Martinez, Sébastien; Celton, Jean-Marc; Ripetti, Véronique; Lartaud, Marc; Bry, Xavier; Trottier, Catherine; Costes, Evelyne

    2011-08-01

    The apple tree is known to have an isohydric behaviour, maintaining rather constant leaf water potential in soil with low water status and/or under high evaporative demand. However, little is known on the xylem water transport from roots to leaves from the two perspectives of efficiency and safety, and on its genetic variability. We analysed 16 traits related to hydraulic efficiency and safety, and anatomical traits in apple stems, and the relationships between them. Most variables were found heritable, and we investigated the determinism underlying their genetic control through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis on 90 genotypes from the same progeny. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that all traits related to efficiency, whether hydraulic conductivity, vessel number and area or wood area, were included in the first PC, whereas the second PC included the safety variables, thus confirming the absence of trade-off between these two sets of traits. Our results demonstrated that clustered variables were characterized by common genomic regions. Together with previous results on the same progeny, our study substantiated that hydraulic efficiency traits co-localized with traits identified for tree growth and fruit production.

  7. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  8. Additional amphivasal bundles in pedicel pith exacerbate central fruit dominance and induce self-thinning of lateral fruitlets in apple.

    PubMed

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Dheilly, Emmanuelle; Guillou, Marie-Charlotte; Simonneau, Fabienne; Juchaux, Marjorie; Costes, Evelyne; Laurens, François; Renou, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) trees naturally produce an excess of fruitlets that negatively affect the commercial value of fruits brought to maturity and impact their capacity to develop flower buds the following season. Therefore, chemical thinning has become an important cultural practice, allowing the selective removal of unwanted fruitlets. As the public pressure to limit the use of chemical agents increases, the control of thinning becomes a major issue. Here, we characterized the self-thinning capacity of an apple hybrid genotype from the tree scale to the molecular level. Additional amphivasal vascular bundles were identified in the pith of pedicels supporting the fruitlets with the lowest abscission potential (central fruitlet), indicating that these bundles might have a role in the acquisition of dominance over lateral fruitlets. Sugar content analysis revealed that central fruitlets were better supplied in sorbitol than lateral fruitlets. Transcriptomic profiles allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in the overproduction of vascular tissues in central pedicels. In addition, histological and transcriptomic data permitted a detailed characterization of abscission zone development and the identification of key genes involved in this process. Our data confirm the major role of ethylene, auxin, and cell wall-remodeling enzymes in abscission zone formation. The shedding process in this hybrid appears to be triggered by a naturally exacerbated dominance of central fruitlets over lateral ones, brought about by an increased supply of sugars, possibly through additional amphivasal vascular bundles. The characterization of this genotype opens new perspectives for the selection of elite apple cultivars.

  9. Are Aortic Stent Grafts Safe in Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Khandanpour, Nader; Mehta, Tapan A.; Adiseshiah, M.; Meyer, Felicity J.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic stent grafts are increasingly used to treat aortic aneurysms and also other aortic pathologies. The safety of aortic stent grafts in pregnancy has never been studied or reported. We report on two cases of aortic stent grafts in pregnant women and discuss the effect of pregnancy on these aortic stent grafts. PMID:26229702

  10. Early detection of graft incompatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) using in vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Errea, Pilar; Garay, Lilibeth; Marín, Juan Antonio

    2001-05-01

    Graft compatibility has been studied in vitro using callus tissues of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and different Prunus rootstocks to form scion/rootstock combinations with different degrees of graft compatibility. In these species, incompatibility is manifested by a breakdown of the trees at the union area that can occur some years after grafting. Here, the possibility of obtaining an early detection method to determine graft incompatibility is explored by callus fusion in vitro. The adhesion of the two callus partners, the development of the cells at the contact surface (cell arrangement, intensity of cell-wall staining), and the presence of lipid and phenolic compounds have been studied during the first 3 weeks after grafting in both compatible and incompatible combinations. Differences were observed at the second and the third week of callus co-culture in most of the characters determined, although these differences were present as early as the first week in the case of phenolic compounds. The behaviour of the grafts grown in vitro was correlated to that of the same combinations in the field, suggesting that callus fusion in vitro could be a possible and reliable method for an early detection of graft incompatibility in different Prunus combinations.

  11. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  12. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  13. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  14. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  15. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider.

  16. Histoplasma infection of aortofemoral bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nishit; Bronze, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    Histoplasma infection of vascular grafts is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there are only 4 cases reported with Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the aortic graft. All had previous disseminated histoplasmosis and atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease. They were treated surgically with explantation of the infected graft and reimplantation of new graft in extra-anatomic uninfected site. The authors present a new case of H capsulatum infection of aortofemoral bypass graft, but unlike the other cases, this case was managed without surgical intervention.

  17. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice.

  18. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last.

  19. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  20. Bone Grafting: Sourcing, Timing, Strategies, and Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Egol, Kenneth A; Nauth, Aaron; Lee, Mark; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Watson, J Tracy; Borrelli, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Acute fractures, nonunions, and nonunions with bone defects or osteomyelitis often need bone graft to facilitate union. There are several factors to consider when it is determined that a bone graft is needed. These factors include the source of the bone graft (autograft vs. allograft), proper timing for placement of the bone graft, strategies to avoid further complications (particularly in the setting of osteomyelitis), and with the development of a variety of bone graft substitutes, whether alternatives to autograft are available and appropriate for the task at hand. Autograft bone has commonly been referred to as the "gold standard" of bone grafts, against which the efficacy of other grafts has been measured. The best timing for when to place a bone graft or substitute is also somewhat controversial, particularly after an open fracture or a potentially contaminated bed. The treatment of infected nonunions, particularly those that require a graft to facilitate healing, can be quite challenging. Typically, the infection is completely eradicated before placement of a bone graft, but achieving a sterile bed and the timing of a bone graft require strategic thinking and planning. This review outlines the benefits of autografts, the most suitable sites for harvesting bone grafts, the timing of bone graft procedures, the potential risks and benefits of grafting in the face of infection, and the currently available bone graft extenders.

  1. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  2. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  3. Costal Grafting in Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bourlet, Jerôme; Château, Joseph; Jacquemart, Mathieu; Dufour, Clémence; Mojallal, Ali; Gleizal, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of mandibular bone defect is a common indication in craniomaxillofacial surgery, and free fibular flap is the gold standard for this indication. However, there are alternatives; nonvascular bone grafting is one of them, and we present the costal grafting for mandibular reconstruction, a classic technique that is reliable, efficient, and produced less morbidity than the technique of using composite free flaps. Method: A 9-year retrospective review of 54 patients treated surgically for mandibular reconstruction was performed. The criterion mainly analyzed was graft survival. The surgical technique was described in detail. Results: A total of 54 patients with mandibular bone defect were identified. Five symphysis, 46 corpus, and 20 ramus defects were considered. These patients underwent reconstruction by costal grafting, and the engrafting was successful in 92.6% of cases. Dental rehabilitation with dental implants was realized in 70% of cases. Conclusions: The approach described in this article allowed the authors to obtain good results with costal grafting for mandibular reconstruction and dental rehabilitation. Costal grafting is a good alternative for fibula free flap in specific indications. Reconstruction of mandibular bone defect is a common indication in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Since the 1980s, the gold standard for these defects is the use of free fibular flap.1 In some cases, this technique is contradicted; the surgeon then has several possibilities for the use of free osteomyocutaneous flaps (iliac crest, scapula, and serrato-costal flaps).2–8 PMID:26893990

  4. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, S. Order, B.-M.; Jahnke, T.

    2006-02-15

    The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft.

  5. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  6. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  7. Molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus historically associated with Meyer lemon trees: complete genome sequence and development of biologically active in vitro transcripts.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Afunian, Mohammad R; Hilf, Mark E; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O; Garnsey, Stephen M

    2009-04-01

    Citrus tatter leaf virus isolated from Meyer lemon trees (CTLV-ML) from California and Florida induces bud union incompatibility of citrus trees grafted on the widely used trifoliate and trifoliate hybrid rootstocks. The complete genome sequence of CTLV-ML was determined to be 6,495 nucleotides (nts), with two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a poly (A) tail at the 3' end. The genome organization is similar to other capilloviruses, with ORF1 (nts 37 to 6,354) encoding a putative 242-kDa polyprotein which contains replication-associated domains plus a coat protein (CP), and ORF2 (nts 4,788 to 5,750), which is located within ORF1 in a different reading frame and encodes a putative movement protein. Although the proteins encoded by CTLV-ML possesses 84 to 96% amino acid sequence identity with strains of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), we observed two strikingly different regions in ORF1: variable region I (amino acids 532 to 570) and variable region II (amino acids 1,583 to 1,868), with only 15 to 18 and 56 to 62% identities, respectively, with the corresponding regions of ASGV strains. Conditions for a herbaceous systemic assay host were optimized in which the wild-type virus induced systemic infection in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Light Red Kidney (LRK) bean plants at 19 or 22 degrees C but not at higher temperatures. In vitro transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones induced systemic symptoms on LRK bean plants similar to that of the wild-type virus. Replication of the recombinant virus was confirmed by hybridization of a 5' positive-stranded RNA-specific probe to a genome-sized RNA and by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  8. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend <24 h on the surface of apple fruit before entry, and this behavior was observed on several apple cultivars. Neonate larvae exhibited a preference for entering fruit at either the stem or calyx ends, regardless of their initial site of placement. Our findings underscore the importance of adequate spray coverage and accurate timing of insecticide applications targeting oriental fruit moth.

  9. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  10. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  11. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  12. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  13. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  14. Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk…

  15. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 injury are not well elucidated. In this study, the global transcriptional regulations were investigated under different storage conditions and during development of CO2 injury symptoms on ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit. Fruit peel tissues under three different storage regimens, regular cold atmosphere, CA and CA storage and 1-MCP application were sampled at four storage durations over a 12-week period. Fruit physiological changes were affected differently under these storage regimens, and CO2 injury symptoms were detectable 2 weeks after CA storage. Identification of the differentially expressed genes and a gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed the specific transcriptome changes associated with each storage regimen. Overall, a profound transcriptome change was associated with CA storage regimen as indicated by the large number of differentially expressed genes. The lighter symptom was accompanied by reduced transcriptome changes under the CA storage and 1-MCP application regimen. Furthermore, the higher enrichment levels in the functional categories of oxidative stress response, glycolysis and protein post-translational modification were only associated with CA storage regime; therefore, these processes potentially contribute to the development of external CO2 injury or its symptom in apple. PMID:27087982

  16. [Graft or CVC? A prosthetic graft is the better choice].

    PubMed

    Cifarelli, M

    2009-01-01

    For more than 30 years, research and industry have attempted to introduce into clinical practice solutions and products that could remedy the impossibility to use native veins. Vascular grafts of various types have been created that would approach the ideal characteristics as closely as possible with low antigenic power, high resistance to infections, low risk of thrombosis, and easy pierceability but high resistance to puncturing. For this purpose various materials, either totally synthetic such as PTFE, biological homologous or heterologous, or biosynthetic with mixed components have been created. In addition, different configurations to improve the hemodynamic outline of synthetic grafts have been studied: grafts of varying caliber, conical or equipped with cuffs, and various systems of wall reinforcement to increase the resistance to punctures. But each of these types favors one aspect over another: biological grafts show better compliance with the native vein but offer less resistance to punctures and ectatic processes; synthetic grafts, instead, tend to be more vulnerable to intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis, which is the Achilles' heel of grafts. In recent years, the use of tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) has grown exponentially. This has offered a new, important solution to the vascular access problem, but the extensive use of CVCs is not always justified. In comparison with grafts, CVCs have various disadvantages including insertion-related complications, possible malfunctioning, risk of infections and thrombosis, but above all a high risk of steno-occlusion of central veins. Also in this field, research and industry are offering more and more reliable and secure products. More resistant, flexible, tolerable and less thrombogenic materials are being used and various configurations which would offer the best performance with the least insertion-related risks have been introduced: double-lumen CVCs with input and output staggered in oval

  17. Patency of femoropopliteal and femorotibial grafts after outflow revascularization (jump grafts) to bypass distal disease.

    PubMed

    Andros, G; Harris, R W; Dulawa, L B; Oblath, R W; Salles-Cunha, S X

    1984-11-01

    Repair of failing femorodistal bypass grafts with secondary distal "jump" grafts was performed 34 times in 33 patients. Indication for operation was limb salvage for all distal jump grafts and for 85% of the initial femorodistal bypass grafts. Autogenous vein bypass grafts were used in 28 of 33 initial femorodistal grafts (85%) and in 29 of 34 secondary jump grafts (85%). Sixteen of the 33 initial grafts in jeopardy extended to the infrapopliteal level (48%) and 19 of the jump grafts terminated in foot or ankle arteries (56%). The 12 jump grafts performed in the first 2 months of the initial graft were associated with high rates (9%) of graft thrombosis and amputation. Early loss of viability of initial grafts probably resulted from technical and judgment errors or underestimation of distal disease. Progression of distal disease produced late failure after 1 year of implantation of the initial grafts. The 1-year patency rate of the initial femorodistal grafts was 63% but only 32% of these grafted limbs were viable and were not at risk of amputation. Distal jump grafts produced a 49% improvement in limb viability (to an 81% limb salvage rate) and an 11% increase in the initial graft patency rate (to 74%) at 1 year.

  18. Dehydration and osmotic adjustment in apple stem tissue during winter as it relates to the frost resistance of buds.

    PubMed

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-08-01

    In deciduous trees, measurement of stem water potential can be difficult during the leafless period in winter. By using thermocouple psychrometry, osmotic water potentials (Ψo; actual Ψo: Ψo(act); Ψo at full saturation: Ψo(sat)) of expressed sap of bark and bud tissue were measured in order to test if the severity of winter desiccation in apple stems could be sufficiently assessed with Ψo. Water potentials were related to frost resistance and freezing behaviour of buds. The determination of Ψo reliably allowed winter desiccation and osmotic adjustments in apple stem tissue to be assessed. In winter in bark tissue, a pronounced decrease in Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat) was found. Decreased Ψo(sat) indicates active osmotic adjustment in the bark as observed earlier in the leaves of evergreen woody plants. In terminal bud meristems, no significant osmotic adjustments occurred and dehydration during winter was much less. Osmotic water potentials, Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat), of bud tissue were always less negative than in the bark. To prevent water movement and dehydration of the bud tissue via this osmotic gradient, it must be compensated for either by a sufficiently high turgor pressure (Ψp) in bark tissue or by the isolation of the bud tissue from the bark during midwinter. During freezing of apple buds, freeze dehydration and extra-organ freezing could be demonstrated by significantly reduced Ψo(act) values of bud meristems that had been excised in the frozen state. Infrared video thermography was used to monitor freezing patterns in apple twigs. During extracellular freezing of intact and longitudinally dissected stems, infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) images showed that the bud meristem remains ice free. Even if cooled to temperatures below the frost-killing temperature, no freezing event could be detected in bud meristems during winter. In contrast, after bud break, terminal buds showed a second freezing at the frost-killing temperature that indicates

  19. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  20. Bioavailability of Iron to Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain A506 on Flowers of Pear and Apple.

    PubMed

    Temple, Todd N; Stockwell, Virginia O; Loper, Joyce E; Johnson, Kenneth B

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT The addition of 0.1 mM FeCl(3) to a defined culture medium induces the bacterial epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506 (A506) to produce an antibiotic toxic to the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. Consequently, because A506 is registered and applied as a commercial product to suppress E. amylovora before floral infection of pear and apple, the relative availability of iron to A506 on surfaces of pear and apple flowers is of potential significance. An 'iron biosensor' construct of A506 was developed by transformation with an iron-regulated promoter (pvd) fused to a promoterless ice nucleation reporter gene (inaZ). This construct, A506 (pvd-inaZ), established high populations on pear and apple flowers, ranging from 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/flower. In seven trials on pear and apple trees, A506 (pvd-inaZ) expressed high ice nucleation activity (INA) on flowers, indicating limited iron bioavailability or a low-iron environment unlikely to induce antibiotic production by A506. A506 (pvd-inaZ) also colonized flowers when mixed with chemicals containing iron: FeSO(4) or the iron chelates ferric ethylenediaminedi-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetic) acid (FeEDDHA) and ferric diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (FeDTPA). These compounds represent an array of commercial iron formulations applied to foliage to avert iron chlorosis. Treatment of flowers with a mixture of A506 (pvd-inaZ) and 3 mM FeEDDHA or FeDTPA significantly decreased INA compared with flowers treated with A506 (pvd-inaZ) in water. Lower concentrations (0.3 mM) of FeEDDHA, however, did not consistently suppress INA. These results indicate that apple and pear flowers represent an iron-limited environment to A506 and that treatment with 3 mM FeEDDHA is needed to increase significantly the level of iron available to this bacterium.

  1. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots.

  2. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  3. Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

  4. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Choices

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Alec A.; Perfetti, Dean C.; Levine, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common surgical procedure; however, there is no consensus to what the best graft option is to replace the injured ACL. The main options available consist of allografts and autografts, which include patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and quadriceps tendon autografts. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in August 2010 for English-language articles pertaining to ACL grafts. Results: Postoperative outcome variables were analyzed to determine similarities and differences among the different graft options. These variables include stability, strength, function, return to sports, patient satisfaction, complications, and cost. Conclusions: Both allografts and the 3 main options for autografts can provide excellent results in ACL reconstruction and lead to a high percentage of satisfied patients. However, differences exist among the graft choices. Both the similarities and the differences are important to discuss with a patient who will be undergoing ACL reconstruction so that he or she has the best information available when making a choice of graft. PMID:23016071

  6. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  7. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  8. Diary of a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srulowitz, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

  9. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  10. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  11. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  12. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  13. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  14. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  15. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  16. Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several β-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

  17. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  18. Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

  19. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  20. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  1. Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Soriano, José M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. Extensive research exists on apples and the health benefits of their beverages and phytochemicals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature in this area focusing on phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior.

  2. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  3. Classworks: AppleWorks for the Classroom. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick

    This book provides a brief and succinct introduction to AppleWorks and is designed for use by teachers who are already familiar with the three AppleWorks tools: the word processor, the database, and the spreadsheet. "Classworks" (developed for grades 8 and 9) emphasizes computer work in which the teacher serves as troubleshooter,…

  4. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  5. Fruit load and elevation affect ethylene biosynthesis and action in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during development, maturation and ripening.

    PubMed

    Dal Cin, Valeriano; Danesin, Marcello; Botton, Alessandro; Boschetti, Andrea; Dorigoni, Alberto; Ramina, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    The influence of internal and external factors such as tree fruit load and elevation on ethylene biosynthesis and action was assessed during apple fruit development and ripening. Ethylene biosynthesis, as well as transcript accumulation of the hormone biosynthetic enzymes (MdACS1 and MdACO1), receptors (MdETR1 and MdERS1) and an element of the transduction pathway (MdCTR1), were evaluated in apples borne by trees with high (HL) and low (LL) fruit load. Orchards were located in two localities differing in elevation and season day degree sum. These parameters significantly affected the date of bloom and commercial harvest, and the length of the fruit developmental cycle. Trees from the low elevation (LE) bloomed and the fruit ripened earlier than those from the high elevation (HE), displaying also a shortened fruit developmental cycle. Dynamics of ethylene evolution was apparently not affected by elevation. The onset of ethylene evolution started 130 days after bloom (DAB) at both elevations. During early ripening, fruits from LL trees produced significantly more ethylene than those from HL trees. Expression analysis of MdACS1, MdACO1 and MdERS1 indicated that the transcript accumulation well correlated with ethylene evolution. MdCTR1 was expressed at constant level throughout fruit growth and development up to 130 DAB, thereafter, the transcript accumulation decreased up to commercial harvest, concurrently with the onset of ethylene evolution.

  6. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  7. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  8. Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S M; Villamil, K; Suriano, R A; Egolf, B P

    1996-01-01

    During 1989, a major environmental and health risk issue, the spraying of Alar on apples, created a furor among the American people. After hearing charges from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that eating Alar-laden apples significantly increased a child's risk of developing cancer, numbers of school districts dropped apples from their menus and parents poured apple juice down the drains. Apple sales plummeted. The NRDC's charges, which were disseminated by a well-planned and effective public relations campaign, brought counter-charges from the US environmental Protection Agency, which accused the NRDC of basing its study on poor data, among other things. The core of the dispute was in the risk figures and risk interpretations being used by each organization.

  9. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by management system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards.

  10. Distributed Contour Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  11. The impact of mancozeb on entomofauna communities in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Miles, Mark; Kemmitt, Greg; Bakker, Frank; Aldershof, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Two Large scale field studies have been conducted to the same design in commercial apple orchards in north and south France. Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) was applied at its post-annex I use rate of 1.6 kg a.i./ha on four occasions with a spray interval of 7 days. Reference treatments of a water treated control and toxic reference of dimethoate were also included. Studies were of randomized block design with 4 replicates (4 plots of 6 adjacent rows of 8 trees, on a surface of approximately 16 x 21 m) per treatment. Leaf and canopy dwelling arthropods were sampled before and at regular intervals after application until the end of the season. A diverse range of arthropod taxa was sampled, counted and identified which enabled for an evaluation of key taxa such as predatory mites and other beneficials but also of the whole foliar dwelling arthropod community. This two level analysis allows for a thorough investigation of both direct and indirect effects of the test item on beneficial, pest and non-target arthropods and for a state of the art evaluation at the ecological community Level using ordination techniques. The findings from the two locations were highly consistent in that mancozeb applied four times at 1.6 g a.i./ha with a 7 day spray interval caused significant but short lived reductions in predatory Phytoseiid mites of >50% with rapid recovery approximately one month after application. These transient effects did not impact secondary pests such as rust mites (Eriophyoidea) and broad mites (Tarsonemidae). A wide range of arthropod taxa were investigated (229 taxa in the north and 215 taxa in the south) and consistent adverse treatment related effects were not noted for any taxa other than Phytoseiidae. At a lower rate of mancozeb representing potential off-field deposits at 3 m due to drift effects were virtually absent on predatory mites in and to all other taxa present.

  12. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  13. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  14. Costal Cartilage Grafts in Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fedok, Fred G

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage grafts are regularly used in rhinoplasty. Septal and auricular donor sites are commonly used. Many situations compel the surgeon to use other alternative donor sites, including revision rhinoplasty and trauma. Many patients have a small amount of native septal cartilage and are unable to provide adequate septal cartilage to be used for frequently performed rhinoplasty maneuvers. The rib cage provides an enormous reserve of costal cartilage that can be carved into a variety of necessary grafts. A description of the technique of harvesting costal cartilage, a review of complications and management, and illustrative cases examples are included.

  15. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  16. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  17. Characteristics and performance of four new apple rootstock from the Cornell-USDA apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the apple rootstock breeding program at Geneva, NY released 4 new apple rootstocks (Geneva® 210, Geneva® 214, Geneva® 890 and Geneva® 969). G.210 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock with vigor similar to M.7, with high productivity similar to M.9 and resistance to fire blight, phytophthora root ro...

  18. Dw2 a new dwarfing locus in apple rootstocks and relationship to induction of early bearing in apple scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of certain apple rootstocks to dwarf their scions has been known for centuries and spurred a revolution in apple production. In this investigation, several breeding populations, in multiple replicated field and pot experiments were used to ascertain the degree of dwarfing of segregating...

  19. Obtaining Help with AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for obtaining help with AppleWorks version 2.0 word processing files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading; selecting the help list; and using the help list to copy text, delete text, find parts of a document,…

  20. Merging Spreadsheet and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging spreadsheet and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet and word processor files, transferring spreadsheet files to the clipboard, merging…

  1. Using AppleWorks V2.0 To Construct Spreadsheet Files for the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for constructing spreadsheet files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading, selecting the spreadsheet option, setting column widths, naming columns and fields, entering category…

  2. Merging Data Base and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging database and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading database files, transferring database files to the clipboard, merging database files into word processor…

  3. Converting Spreadsheet Files into Data Base Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for converting spreadsheet files into database files using AppleWorks version 2.0 on the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files, transferring spreadsheet files to the monitor, printing spreadsheet files, and…

  4. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  5. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  6. Light interception and partitioning between shoots in apple cultivars influenced by training.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Jean; Sinoquet, Hervé; Donès, Nicolas; Haddad, Nicolas; Talhouk, Salma; Lauri, Pierre-Eric

    2008-03-01

    The effect of two training systems (Central Leader with branch pruning versus Centrifugal Training with minimal pruning, i.e., removal of fruiting laterals only) on canopy structure and light interception was analyzed in three architecturally contrasting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars: 'Scarletspur Delicious' (Type II); 'Golden Delicious' (Type III); and 'Granny Smith' (Type IV). Trees were 3D-digitized at the shoot scale at the 2004 and 2005 harvests. Shoots were separated according to length (short versus long) and type (fruiting versus vegetative). Leaf area density (LAD) and its relative variance (xi), total leaf area (TLA) and crown volume (V) varied consistently with cultivar. 'Scarletspur Delicious' had higher LAD and xi and lower TLA and V compared with the other cultivars with more open canopies. At the whole-tree scale, training had no effect on structure and light interception parameters (silhouette to total area ratio, STAR; projected leaf area, PLA). At the shoot scale, Centrifugal Training increased STAR values compared with Central Leader. In both training systems, vegetative shoots had higher STAR values than fruiting shoots. However, vegetative and fruiting shoots had similar TLA and PLA in Centrifugal Trained trees, whereas vegetative shoots had higher TLA and PLA than fruiting shoots in Central Leader trees. This unbalanced distribution of leaf area and light interception between shoot types in Central Leader trees partly resulted from the high proportion of long vegetative shoots that developed from latent buds. These shoots developed in the interior shaded zone of the canopy and therefore had low STAR and PLA. In conclusion, training may greatly affect the development and spatial positioning of shoots, which in turn significantly affects light interception by fruiting shoots.

  7. The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, [Blume] Merrill & L.M. Perry var. jambu madu) fruits.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza

    2012-04-01

    The present study represents the first report of the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the growth, development and quality of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 mM H(2)O(2) under field conditions. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll and dry matter content of the leaves and total soluble solids and total sugar content of the fruits of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, var. jambu madu) were significantly increased after treatment with 5 mM H(2)O(2). The application of 20 mM H(2)O(2) significantly reduced bud drop and enhanced fruit growth, resulting in larger fruit size, increased fruit set, fruit number, fruit biomass and yield compared to the control. In addition, the endogenous level of H(2)O(2) in wax apple leaves increased significantly with H(2)O(2) treatments. With regard to fruit quality, 20 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased the K(+), anthocyanin and carotene contents of the fruits by 65%, 67%, and 41%, respectively. In addition, higher flavonoid, phenol and soluble protein content, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between peel colour (hue) and TSS, between net photosynthesis and SPS activity and between phenol and flavonoid content with antioxidant activity in H(2)O(2)-treated fruits. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 20 mM H(2)O(2) once a week produced better fruit growth, maximising the yield and quality of wax apple fruits under field conditions.

  8. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-01-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  9. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p < 0.05) when applied UV irradiance and sample thickness were consistent. The reaction rate constant of patulin degradation in apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p < 0.05). Although further investigations are still needed, the results of this study demonstrated that UV radiation may be an effective method for

  10. Grafting efficiency of synthetic polymers onto biomaterials: a comparative study of grafting-from versus grafting-to.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Susanne; Trouillet, Vanessa; Tischer, Thomas; Goldmann, Anja S; Carlmark, Anna; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Malmström, Eva

    2013-01-14

    In the present study, the two grafting techniques grafting-from - by activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) - and grafting-to - by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) - were systematically compared, employing cellulose as a substrate. In order to obtain a meaningful comparison, it is crucial that the graft lengths of the polymers that are grafted from and to the substrates are essentially identical. Herein, this was achieved by utilizing the free polymer formed in parallel to the grafting-from reaction as the polymer for the grafting-to reaction. Four graft lengths were investigated, and the molar masses of the four free polymers (21 ≤ M(n) ≤ 100 kDa; 1.07 ≤ Đ(M) ≤ 1.26), i.e. the polymers subsequently employed in the grafting-to reaction, were shown to be in the same range as the molar masses of the polymers grafted from the surface (23 ≤ M(n) ≤ 87 kDa; 1.08 ≤ Đ(M) ≤ 1.31). The molecular weights of the chains grafted from the surface were established after cleavage from the cellulose substrates via size exclusion chromatography (SEC). High-resolution Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IRM) was employed as an efficient tool to study the spatial distribution of the polymer content on the grafted substrates. In addition, the functionalized substrates were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle (CA) measurements, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). For cellulose substrates modified via the grafting-from approach, the content of polymer on the surfaces increased with increasing graft length, confirming the possibility to tailor not only the length of the polymer grafts but also the polymeric content on the surface. In comparison, for the grafting-to reaction, the grafted content could not be controlled by varying the length of the preformed polymer: the polymer content was essentially the same for the four graft lengths

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (P<0.05) in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider.

  12. Impact of organic and conventional management on the phyllosphere microbial ecology of an apple crop.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Andrea R; White, James Robert; Skaltsas, Demetra N; Newell, Michael J; Walsh, Christopher S

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial communities associated with the phyllosphere of apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Enterprise) grown under organic and conventional management were assessed to determine if increased biological food safety risks might be linked with the bacterial communities associated with either treatment. Libraries of 16S rRNA genes were generated from phyllosphere DNA extracted from a wash made from the surfaces of leaves and apples from replicated organic and conventional treatments. 16S rRNA gene libraries were analyzed with software designed to identify statistically significant differences between bacterial communities as well as shared and unique phylotypes. The identified diversity spanned eight bacterial phyla and 14 classes in the pooled organic and conventional libraries. Significant differences between organic and conventional communities were observed at four of six time points (P < 0.05). Despite the identification of significantly diverse microfloras associated with organic and conventional treatments, no detectable differences in the presence of potential enteric pathogens could be associated with either organic or conventional management. Neither of the bacterial genera most commonly associated with produce-related illness outbreaks (Salmonella and Escherichia) was observed in any of the libraries. The impressive bacterial diversity that was documented in this study provides a valuable contribution to our developing understanding of the total microbial ecology associated with the preharvest phyllospheres of food crops. The fact that organic and conventional phyllosphere bacterial communities were significantly different at numerous time points suggests that crop management methods may influence the bacterial consortia associated with the surfaces of fruits and vegetables.

  13. High temperature reduces apple fruit colour via modulation of the anthocyanin regulatory complex.

    PubMed

    Lin-Wang, Kui; Micheletti, Diego; Palmer, John; Volz, Richard; Lozano, Lidia; Espley, Richard; Hellens, Roger P; Chagnè, David; Rowan, Daryl D; Troggio, Michela; Iglesias, Ignasi; Allan, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The biosynthesis of anthocyanin in many plants is affected by environmental conditions. In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), concentrations of fruit anthocyanins are lower under hot climatic conditions. We examined the anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of maturing 'Mondial Gala' and 'Royal Gala' apples, grown in both temperate and hot climates, and using artificial heating of on-tree fruit. Heat caused a dramatic reduction of both peel anthocyanin concentration and transcripts of the genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Heating fruit rapidly reduced expression of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor (MYB10) responsible for coordinative regulation for red skin colour, as well as expression of other genes in the transcriptional activation complex. A single night of low temperatures is sufficient to elicit a large increase in transcription of MYB10 and consequently the biosynthetic pathway. Candidate genes that can repress anthocyanin biosynthesis did not appear to be responsible for reductions in anthocyanin content. We propose that temperature-induced regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is primarily caused by altered transcript levels of the activating anthocyanin regulatory complex.

  14. Silencing leaf sorbitol synthesis alters long-distance partitioning and apple fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Teo, Gianni; Suzuki, Yasuo; Uratsu, Sandie L; Lampinen, Bruce; Ormonde, Nichole; Hu, William K; DeJong, Ted M; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2006-12-05

    Sorbitol and sucrose are major products of photosynthesis distributed in apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. "Greensleeves") that affect quality in fruit. Transgenic apple plants were silenced or up-regulated for sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by using the CaMV35S promoter to define the role of sorbitol distribution in fruit development. Transgenic plants with suppressed sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compensated by accumulating sucrose and starch in leaves, and morning and midday net carbon assimilation rates were significantly lower. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio in leaves was reduced by approximately 90% and in phloem exudates by approximately 75%. The fruit accumulated more glucose and less fructose, starch, and malic acid, with no overall differences in weight and firmness. Sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was reduced in silenced fruit, but activities of neutral invertase, vacuolar invertase, cell wall-bound invertase, fructose kinase, and hexokinase were unaffected. Analyses of transcript levels and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism throughout fruit development revealed significant differences in pathways related to sorbitol transport and breakdown. Together, these results suggest that sorbitol distribution plays a key role in fruit carbon metabolism and affects quality attributes such as sugar-acid balance and starch accumulation.

  15. Phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization: results of field trials.

    PubMed

    Malusà, E; Tosi, L

    2005-06-01

    The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. Phosphorous acid residues were found in apples after application of foliar P fertilizers. Concentrations of the residues ranged between 0.02 and 14 mg kg(-1) depending on the phosphorous acid content in the fertilizer used and the plant size and yield. The treatments induced an accumulation of the residue in the course of the experiments, which in some cases reached a level exceeding the maximum limit set by EU legislation. Residues were also detected in other plant organs, i.e., roots and buds. Plants treated with Fosetyl-Al contained phosphorous acid residues in their fruits and buds two years after the suspension of the treatment, suggesting a long-term persistence of the substance in plant storage organs. A second experiment, involving treatment of trees with seven foliar fertilizers of different composition, also induced accumulation of phosphorous acid residues in fruits. It is concluded that a wide array of foliar products containing phosphorous acid, even as a minor component, could mimic the residue effect of phosphonate fungicide treatments.

  16. Polyether-polyester graft copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...