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Sample records for appliance efficiency standards

  1. 3 CFR - Appliance Efficiency Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliance Efficiency Standards Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of February 5, 2009 Appliance Efficiency Standards Memorandum for the Secretary of Energy Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is required to...

  2. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  3. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. ); Lebot, B. )

    1993-03-01

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  4. Minimum energy efficiency standards for appliances: Old and new economic rationales

    DOE PAGES

    Houde, Sebastien; Spurlock, C. Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we revisit Hausman and Joskow (1982)'s economic rationales for appliance minimum energy efficiency standards. In addition to the four market failures they argued could justify appliance standards--energy prices below marginal social cost, consumers underestimating energy prices, consumer discount rates above social discount rates, or principal agent problems--we discuss two additional market failures that are relevant and potentially economically important in this context: market power and innovation market failures. We highlight puzzles uncovered by recent empirical results, and suggest directions future research should take to better understand the normative implications of appliance standards.

  5. Minimum energy efficiency standards for appliances: Old and new economic rationales

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Sebastien; Spurlock, C. Anna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we revisit Hausman and Joskow (1982)'s economic rationales for appliance minimum energy efficiency standards. In addition to the four market failures they argued could justify appliance standards--energy prices below marginal social cost, consumers underestimating energy prices, consumer discount rates above social discount rates, or principal agent problems--we discuss two additional market failures that are relevant and potentially economically important in this context: market power and innovation market failures. We highlight puzzles uncovered by recent empirical results, and suggest directions future research should take to better understand the normative implications of appliance standards.

  6. Appliance Standard Testing

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  7. Appliance Standard Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  8. Appliance Standards and Advanced Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-11-01

    Energy efficiency has long been considered one of the most effective and least costly means of reducing national energy demand. The U.S. Department of Energy runs the appliances and commercial equipment standards program, which sets federal mandatory minimum efficiency levels for many residential appliances, commercial equipment, and lighting products. The Department uses an engineering-economic analysis approach to determine appropriate standard levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified (i.e., a net positive economic benefit to consumers and the nation as a whole). The program has been very successful and has significantly reduced national energy consumption. Efficiency is also a renewable resource, with many new, even more efficient technologies continuously replacing older ones. There are many promising advanced technologies on the horizon today that could dramatically reduce appliance and commercial equipment energy use even further.

  9. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  10. Projected regional impacts of appliance efficiency standards for the U.S. residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Mahler, S.A.; Webber, C.A.; McMahon, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    Minimum efficiency standards for residential appliances have been implemented in the US for a large number of residential end-uses. This analysis assesses the potential energy, dollar, and carbon impacts of those standards at the state and national levels. In this assessment, the authors use historical and projected shipments of equipment, a detailed stock accounting model, measured and estimated unit energy savings associated with the standards, estimated incremental capital costs, demographic data, and fuel price data at the finest level of geographic disaggregation available. Energy savings from the standards are substantial. Total primary energy savings will peak in 2004 at about 0.7 exajoules/year (1 exajoule = 10{sup 18} joules {approx} 1 quadrillion Btu = 10{sup 15} Btus). Cumulative primary energy savings during the 1990 to 2010 period total 10.6 exajoules. Efficiency standards in the residential sector have been a highly cost-effective policy instrument for promoting energy efficiency. Projected cumulative present-values dollar savings after subtracting out the additional cost of the more efficient equipment are about $33 billion from 1990 to 2010. Average benefit/cost ratios for these standards are about 3.5 for the US as a whole. Projected carbon reductions are approximately 9 million metric tons of carbon/year from 2000 through 2010, an amount roughly equal to 4% of carbon emissions in 1990. Because these standards save energy at a cost less than the price of that energy, the resulting carbon emission reductions are achieved at negative net cost to society. Minimum efficiency standards reduce pollution and save money at the same time.

  11. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen P.; McMahon, James; Atkinson, Barbara

    2008-05-08

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. Federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2006 period, and of energy efficiency standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts and distribution transformers. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products in order to estimate realized impacts and to update projected impacts. It also performed new analysis for the first (1990) fluorescent ballast standards, which had been introduced in the NAECA legislation without a rulemaking. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential/ commercial primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in 2030 by 4percent compared to the levels expected without any standards. The reduction for the residential sector is larger, at 8percent. The estimated cumulative energy savings from the standards amount to 39 quads by 2020, and 63 quads by 2030. The standards will also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by considerable amounts.The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to $241 billion by 2030, and grows to $269 billion by 2045. The overall ratio of consumer benefits to costs (in present value terms) in the 1987-2050 period is 2.7 to 1. Although the estimates made in this study are subject to a fair degree of uncertainty, we believe they provide a reasonable approximation of the national benefits resulting from Federal appliance efficiency standards.

  12. Status of European appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  13. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the

  14. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: Policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    DOE PAGES

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; ...

    2014-11-14

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declinedmore » faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.« less

  15. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  16. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... and property in an energy efficient way.'' FRA disagrees and does not view the special approval... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY...: FRA is amending the regulations related to safety appliance arrangements on railroad equipment....

  17. Development of an emissions/efficiency standard for wood-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Braaten, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has been carrying out a detailed research program on domestic bulk-fuel-fired equipment. One of the goals of this program has been to develop a straightforward test procedure to determine the efficiency of controlled-combustion wood-fired space heaters (1). A parallel goal has been the characterization of the combustion of these appliances. Such a procedure would allow all Canadian stoves to be measured and compared in the marketplace, on the same equitable basis. At the same time, consumers would be presented with information by which they could choose between two stoves of the same nominal efficiency, on the basis of the amount of incomplete combustion products and, hence, on the potential for chimney fires from creosote and on the pollutant emissions to the environment. It also presents regulators with the possibility of placing minimum levels of emissions in certain applications, such as high population areas, areas with poor fumigation such as the West coast, sub-arctic or river valleys, or as criteria for eligibility for assistance under government programs, such as the Canadian Oil Substitution Program (COSP). A simplified version of this procedure could be used by manufacturers with inexpensive test equipment to carry out development of efficient, clean-burning appliances in their own plant.

  18. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development

  19. Realized and prospective impacts of U.S. energy efficiency standards for residential appliances: 2004 update

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael

    2005-06-24

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2001 period or will take effect by the end of 2007. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products in order to estimate realized impacts and to update projected impacts. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in 2020 by 8% compared to the levels expected without any standards. They will save a cumulative total of 34 quads by 2020, and 54 quads by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to $93 billion by 2020, and grows to $125 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts is 2.45 to 1. While the results of this study are subject to a fair degree of uncertainty, we believe that the general conclusions--DOE's energy efficiency standards save significant quantities of energy (and associated carbon emissions) and reduce consumers' net costs--are robust.

  20. Realized and projected impacts of U.S. federal efficiency standards for residential appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael; Liu, Xiaomin

    2002-06-01

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. Federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2001 period or will take effect by the end of 2007. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in 2020 by 8-9% compared to the levels expected without any standards. They will save a cumulative total of 25-30 quads by the year 2015, and 60 quads by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly $80 billion by 2015, and grows to $130 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts in the 1987-2050 period is 2.75:1. The cumulative cost of DOE's program to establish and implement the standards is in the range of $200-250 million.

  1. Comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results.

    PubMed

    Kattner, P F; Schneider, B J

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results was made using two indices. The first, the ideal tooth relationship index (ITRI), scored dental casts for the presence of ideal tooth contacts. The second judged posttreatment dental casts on the basis of criteria established by Andrews in his "Six Keys to Normal Occlusion." The sample consisted of 120 orthodontically treated cases completed by two practitioners who have used both the Roth and standard edgewise appliances. Thirty cases of each appliance type were collected from each practitioner. The overall posttreatment ITRI percentage scores showed no significant differences between the appliances. Practitioner differences existed for the anterior intraarch, anterior interarch, and posterior buccal interarch relationships. These differences were related to both treatment time and finishing arch wire size. The results of the Six Keys Analysis showed that the angulation and inclination of the maxillary posterior teeth were better with the Roth appliance. However, success in achieving some components of the six keys did not translate into an increased percentage of ideal tooth contacts as measured by the ITRI. Despite using the Roth appliance, experienced clinicians still found it difficult to achieve all six keys to normal occlusion.

  2. 76 FR 61288 - Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee, Appliance Standards Subcommittee Negotiated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR... Distribution Transformers AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... for regulating the energy efficiency of distribution transformers, as authorized by the Energy Policy...

  3. 76 FR 55834 - Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee, Appliance Standards Subcommittee, Negotiated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...-Voltage Dry Type Transformers AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Negotiated Rulemaking Working Group for Liquid-Immersed and Medium-Voltage Dry Type Transformers (hereafter... transformers, as authorized by the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975, as amended, 42 U.S.C....

  4. 76 FR 57007 - Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee, Appliance Standards Subcommittee, Negotiated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ..., Negotiated Rulemaking Subcommittee/Working Group for Low- Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers AGENCY...-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers (hereafter ``LV Group''). The LV Group is a working group... regulating the energy efficiency of distribution transformers, as authorized by the Energy Policy...

  5. Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards: Where do we stand, how far can we go and how do we get there? An analysis across several economies

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael A.; Kalavase, Puneeth; Fan, Allison Hua; Dreyfus, Gabrielle

    2013-05-01

    This paper analyses several potential savings scenarios for minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) and comparable programs for governments participating i n the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, of the Clean Energy Ministerial, which represent over 60% of primary energy consumption in the world. We compare projected energy savings from the main end uses in the residential sector using three energy efficiency scenarios: (1) recent achievements, (2) cost-effective saving potential, and (3) energy efficiency technical potential. The recent achievement scenario (1) evaluates the future impact of MEPS enacted or under development between 2010 and 2012. The cost-effective potential scenario (2) identifies the maximum potential for energy efficiency that results in net benefits to the consumer. The best available technology scenario (3) re presents the full potential of energy efficiency considering best available technologies as candidates for MEPS and incentive programs. We use the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with the Collaborative Labelling and Appliances Standards Program (CLASP), to provide a consistent methodology to com pare the different scenarios. This paper focuses on the main end uses in the residential sector. The comparison of the three scenarios for each economy provides possible opportunities for scaling up current policies or implementing additional policies. This comparison across economies reveals country best practices as well as end uses that present the greatest additional potential savings. The paper describes areas where methodologies and additional policy instruments can increase penetration of energy efficient technologies. First , we summarize the barriers and provide remedial policy tools/best practices, such as techno-economic analysis, in response to each barriers that prevent economies from capturing the full cost

  6. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  7. Appliances: Designs and Standards for Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Buildings consume 40% of US energy and produce 39% of US carbon dioxide. These numbers can be dramatically reduced with improved appliance efficiency. For example, energy use by the average new refrigerator dropped about 70% from 1974-2002, thanks to improved materials, technologies and designs. In this chapter, I review progress in gas furnaces, air conditioning and lighting, as well as the trends in refrigerators and freezers. The goal of zero net-energy buildings appears possible. In the future, buildings might consume perhaps 70% less energy than today due to efficient building components, appliances, equipment and lighting; systems integration; better controls; and behavioral changes. The remaining 30% energy needs could be supplied by low-or no-carbon energy sources.

  8. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  9. 78 FR 49699 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Meetings for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 429 Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of... call-in information, please register at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/asrac...-Efficient Economy) Ronald Shebik (Hussmann Corporation) Judd Smith (CSA) Louis Starr (Northwest...

  10. What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

  11. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand; Rue du Can, Stephane de la; Phadke, Amol

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  12. 78 FR 22431 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Meeting for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 429 Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of...-Efficient Economy) Ronald Shebik (Hussmann Corporation) Judd Smith (CSA) Louis Starr (Northwest Energy..., WH, and Refrigeration Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  13. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  14. 78 FR 37495 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Meetings for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/asrac.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John... (Lochinvar, LLC) Harvey Sachs (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy) Ronald Shebik (Hussmann... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10...

  15. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  16. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  17. Economics of efficiency improvements in residential appliances and space conditioning equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, M. D.; Koomey, J.; Ruderman, H.; Craig, P.; McMahon, J.; Chan, P.

    1985-11-01

    The energy efficient choices for residential appliances and space conditioning equipment are analyzed. A brief illustration of historical trends in the average efficiencies of new appliances sold in the U.S. during the last decade is presented. Results of the life-cycle cost analysis of eight major residential appliances are given. These indicate that improving the efficiency to economically optimal level would reduce the annual energy expenditure by 30 percent. (AIP)

  18. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  19. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary

  20. Straight-wire appliances: standard versus individual prescription.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Giampietro; Periti, Giulia; Giannini, Lucia; Farronato, Davide; Maspero, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    In this article the individual patient (IP) appliance is described. It consists of 250 options of bracket and band variations as the straight wire appliances. Increasing the bracket capabilities means using an increasing number of brackets, each with a specific design created for a treatment situation. The objective of IP appliance is to eliminate wire bending from orthodontic treatment and improve the treatment results. To manage this technique, a computer software is needed. Internet offers significant possibilities in managing each patient by patient basis. The clinician is required to make the diagnosis and treatment plan before ordering the appliance. Two clinical cases are described with the aim to present the advantages of this technique.

  1. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  2. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... industry standard; (3) Appropriate data or analysis, or both, for FRA to consider in determining whether..., placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of...

  3. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industry standard; (3) Appropriate data or analysis, or both, for FRA to consider in determining whether..., placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of...

  4. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve

  5. 7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency of a thermal appliance with respect to maintaining a prescribed temperature inside the body, the... appliances as installed in the insulated body. 3300.13 Section 3300.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  6. 7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency of a thermal appliance with respect to maintaining a prescribed temperature inside the body, the... appliances as installed in the insulated body. 3300.13 Section 3300.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  7. Construction bite--cornerstone of an efficient functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Yezdani, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Construction bite is an intermaxillary wax record used to relate mandible to maxilla in the three dimensions of space. It is an indispensable record to correct functional malocclusions like functional retrusion and functional protrusion. This article highlights the basic required dimensions of construction bites used for the fabrication of various functional appliances.

  8. 7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the efficiency of the thermal... Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency of a thermal appliance with respect to maintaining a prescribed temperature inside the body, the...

  9. 7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the efficiency of the thermal... Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency of a thermal appliance with respect to maintaining a prescribed temperature inside the body, the...

  10. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  11. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or other... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section 231.35 Transportation Other...

  12. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or other... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section 231.35 Transportation Other...

  13. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or other... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section 231.35 Transportation Other...

  14. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or other... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section 231.35 Transportation Other...

  15. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  16. Efficiency of serial extraction and late premolar extraction cases treated with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Kevin W; Koroluk, Lorne D; Phillips, Ceib; Kennedy, David B

    2011-04-01

    Severe crowding can be treated with serial extraction (SE) in the mixed dentition or with late premolar extraction (LPE) in the permanent dentition. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of orthodontic treatment in SE patients and LPE patients. Retrospective chart review identified 51 SE patients and 49 LPE patients treated with fixed appliances. Number of appointments, length of time, and estimated total chair time were determined prior to the placement of fixed appliances and during fixed appliance treatment. Peer assessment rating (PAR) scores were obtained at T1 (start of fixed appliances) and T2 (removal of fixed appliances) for both groups, and at T0 (prior to extraction of the first premolars) for the SE group. The mean T1 PAR score for SE patients was significantly lower than LPE patients (P <0.001); mean T2 PAR scores were not significantly different (P = 0.27). Active treatment time (T1 to T2) was significantly (P <0.001) less for SE patients than LPE patients. Total time (T0 to T2) and total number of appointments were significantly greater for the SE group compared with the LPEgroup (P <0.001). SE and LPEresulted in similar final occlusal outcomes. SEs might reduce active treatment time, but significant observation time precedes active treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assembling Appliances Standards from a Basket of Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Siderious, Hans-Paul; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Rapid innovation in product design challenges the current methodology for setting standards and labels, especially for electronics, software and networking. Major problems include defining the product, measuring its energy consumption, and choosing the appropriate metric and level for the standard. Most governments have tried to solve these problems by defining ever more specific product subcategories, along with their corresponding test methods and metrics. An alternative approach would treat each energy-using product as something that delivers a basket of functions. Then separate standards would be constructed for the individual functions that can be defined, tested, and evaluated. Case studies of thermostats, displays and network equipment are presented to illustrate the problems with the classical approach for setting standards and indicate the merits and drawbacks of the alternative. The functional approach appears best suited to products whose primary purpose is processing information and that have multiple functions.

  18. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead evaluation. Volume I - report

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) provides wholesale electric power to over 100 retail distribution utilities in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville is faced with meeting growing loads from these utilities. It acquires conservation as one means of meeting this load growth. Bonneville has offered a variety of conservation programs since 1980. Efficient showerheads have been a feature in residential conservation programs ever since. Bonneville launched the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program to focus on water-heater energy conservation opportunities in 1992. The Residential Appliance Efficiency Program consists of two parts, a water-heater efficiency program, and a hot-water efficiency program. This report evaluates the savings and costs of the first two years of the showerhead portion of the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program (the showerhead program). Although it is not a formal evaluation of the program limited to implementation or a {open_quotes}process{close_quotes} evaluation, observations about program design and implementation are included as appropriate. Results of this evaluation are limited to program participants within the Bonneville service territory.

  19. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions in its

  20. Technical and legislative background relating to efficiency and emissions of gas-heating appliances. Topical report, December 1991-July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jakob, F.E.; Crisafulli, J.J.; DeWerth, D.W.; Thrasher, W.H.

    1992-08-01

    The report describes the history behind the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The origins of energy conservation legislation are discussed as are the milestones that led up to NAECA. Since NAECA was enacted in 1987, there has been some time for its influence to spread to various energy agencies. The impetus for the report was the planned 1992 reevaluation by the Department of Energy of the minimum efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. An important element of the rulemaking process is the test procedure by which the efficiency of those devices is established. A historical perspective of these efficiencies and future potential options are described in the report. Finally, although emissions are not a major element of NAECA (energy conservation is), there are state and regional efforts under way regarding the regulation of emissions from furnaces and boilers. Since emission descriptors often interact with efficiency descriptors, a brief description of current emission regulations, and their influence on emissions, is provided.

  1. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... comment from a private citizen asserting the need for energy efficient appliances as soon as possible at a... available online at DOE's Web site at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/current... of energy efficiency advocates and consumer groups (Appliance Standards Awareness Project,...

  2. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  3. Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2003-09-01

    The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status of existing programs in

  4. Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future HVAC, lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our AEO projections of buildings energy demand.

  5. Evaluation of Invisalign treatment effectiveness and efficiency compared with conventional fixed appliances using the Peer Assessment Rating index.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiafeng; Tang, Jack Shengyu; Skulski, Brennan; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Deguchi, Toru

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to compare the treatment effectiveness and efficiency of the Invisalign system with conventional fixed appliances in treating orthodontic patients with mild to moderate malocclusion in a graduate orthodontic clinic. Using the peer assessment rating (PAR) index, we evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment records of 48 Invisalign patients and 48 fixed appliances patients. The 2 groups of patients were controlled for general characteristics and initial severity of malocclusion. We analyzed treatment outcome, duration, and improvement between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups. The average pretreatment PAR scores (United Kingdom weighting) were 20.81 for Invisalign and 22.79 for fixed appliances (P = 1.0000). Posttreatment weighted PAR scores between Invisalign and fixed appliances were not statistically different (P = 0.7420). On average, the Invisalign patients finished 5.7 months faster than did those with fixed appliances (P = 0.0040). The weighted PAR score reduction with treatment was not statistically different between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups (P = 0.4573). All patients in both groups had more than a 30% reduction in the PAR scores. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the Invisalign group were 0.329 times the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the fixed appliances group after controlling for age (P = 0.0150). Our data showed that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were able to improve the malocclusion. Invisalign patients finished treatment faster than did those with fixed appliances. However, it appears that Invisalign may not be as effective as fixed appliances in achieving "great improvement" in a malocclusion. This study might help clinicians to determine appropriate patients for Invisalign treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Instrumented decomposition: A new method to estimate the net energy savings caused by efficient appliance rebate programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Adrienne Beth

    Most existing statistical methods for estimating net savings from efficient appliance rebate and incentive programs do not fully separate program-induced savings (net savings) from naturally occurring savings. Further, they handle self-selection bias poorly. This paper introduces "Instrumented Decomposition," a two-stage instrumental variables procedure method which estimates net savings consistently because it correctly decomposes energy savings into program-induced, free rider, and other components. The decomposition provides an algebra which reveals the severely limiting assumptions of current methods. Self-selection effects are treated, and choice-based samples are supported. The procedure requires a nonparticipant comparison group containing either buyers or owners of the program-targeted appliance or program-year buyers of a possibly less efficient version. Applied to an evaporative cooler rebate program in a desert climate, the model shows a two-thirds reduction of air conditioning electricity usage, and further shows that the program attracted purchases by higher income households normally uninterested in evaporative cooling. Asymptotic standard error is only about 12% of estimated net savings, and sensitivity to variable choice is low. The model is also applied to an efficient central air conditioning rebate program, where savings of participants replacing their older system outweigh the dis-savings due to 5% of participants being new adopters of central air conditioning who would not have bought central air without the program.

  7. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  8. Progress in the energy efficiency of residential appliances and space conditioning equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Howard S.

    1985-11-01

    This paper addresses a number of questions regarding the energy performance of residential appliances, water heaters and space conditioning equipment including the changes in the efficiency and energy consumption of new models during the past decade, the technologies used to achieve higher levels of energy efficiency, and the potential for further technical improvements. It is shown that there have been major improvements in the energy efficiency of all product types. For some products (eg., refrigerators), the average efficiency of new models has significantly risen during the past decade. For other products (eg., water heaters), major savings are possible through the purchase and use of the more-efficient models now available. A large assortment of technologies have been utilized to achieve greater efficiencies and further improvements are under development in many areas.

  9. Standardized system for quantifying residual dirt on medical appliances cleansed in hospital washers--disinfectors: dirt detection by different methods.

    PubMed

    Sigler, K; Gásková, D; Chládková, K; Knebl, R; Wimmer, T; Vacata, V; Gebel, J

    2003-01-01

    An easy-to construct, easy-to-operate standardized system was developed for determining the residual biological contamination of surgical instruments, endoscopes and other medical appliances subjected to hospital cleansing and/or disinfection. It consists of standard-sized pieces of glass, metal or endoscope plastic--dirt carriers--either bare or enclosed in truncated Eppendorf caps to simulate hard-to-access conditions. The surface of the carriers is covered with model dirt simulating biological contamination and the carriers are then affixed to sturdy metal holders. Conventional model dirt were found to peel or flake off the carrier surface, lowering the precision of residual soil determination. A newly developed model dirt consisting of liver mash, lactose and sunflower oil and exhibiting low tendency to peel off surfaces was therefore used. The whole setup was subjected to chemical or enzymic cleansing programs at elevated temperature in hospital washer-disinfectors of two types, and the residual dirt after cleansing was determined by three methods. The method using toxicant-doped dirt that quenches the luminescence of an indicator bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum gave satisfactory data under laboratory conditions but with hospital-washed samples it exhibited excessive fluctuations caused by bacterium--dirt interactions and by physical influences. Both other methods gave better results but displayed some process sensitivity. The luciferin-luciferase-based ATP bioluminescence assay sometimes gave low or even negative dirt level values and showed a low effect of reduced dirt accessibility on cleansing of metal carriers. The Bradford protein assay showed about equal cleansing efficiency for both easily and poorly accessible carriers after enzymic cleansing. Our system can be used for determining low levels of residual contamination of medical appliances after cleansing/disinfection and assessing the efficiency of commercial washer-disinfectors; its efficiency

  10. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  11. Do customized orthodontic appliances and vibration devices provide more efficient treatment than conventional methods?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of technological advances in the field of clinical orthodontics to increase treatment efficiency has led to the development of customized appliances (Insignia®), archwires (Suresmile®), and the production of devices to enhance tooth movement (Acceledent®). This review presents a comprehensive study of the literature concerning these products, and analyzes the available evidence of their efficiency. To date, one pilot study has evaluated the efficiency of the Insignia® system, three retrospective studies have assessed the efficiency of the Suresmile® system, and a few Acceledent® reports have described its effect on treatment time. Critical appraisal of the reviewed papers revealed that the efficiency of the Insignia® system cannot be confirmed based on the available evidence, while the use of Suresmile® can reduce overall treatment time in simple cases. The acceleration of tooth movement by Acceledent® devices has not yet been confirmed. PMID:27226964

  12. Influence of the quantity of coloring agent in bleaching gels activated with LED/laser appliances on bleaching efficiency.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; César, Patrícia Desiderio; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Pucci, César Rogério; Borges, Alessandra Buhler

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the quantity of coloring agent on the bleaching efficiency of gels containing 35% H2O2. Sixty human third molars were sectioned mesiodistally, darkened in a coffee solution and sectioned in the occlusal-cervical direction, resulting in mesial (not bleached) and distal halves (bleached). They were distributed into three groups: Whiteness HP, Total Bleach, and Whiteform Perox Red Gel; and subdivided into four sub-groups: no coloring agent, manufacturer's standard, double the standard, and triple the standard. The gels were activated with light-ermitting diode/laser appliances. The images were analyzed with the Adobe Photoshop program (deltaEL*a*b*). The variation was submitted to the ANOVA test (two factors: type of gel and quantity of coloring agent) and Tukey test. Differences were observed for the quantity of coloring agent. The mean (+/-SD) was determined for each quantity of coloring used: no coloring agent -6.85 (+/-2.26)a, manufacturer's standard -794 (+/-2.55)ab, double the standard -8.65 (+/-2.47)b, triple the standard -9.05 (+/-2.72)b. In conclusion, the standard quantity of coloring agent did not provide significantly more intense bleaching than when it was completely absent. The use of double and triple the amount provided greater bleaching than that observed for the gel without coloring agent. No significant differences were observed between the tested gels.

  13. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) seeks information and comments related to the analytical treatment of ``smart'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used to demonstrate compliance with DOE's standards and qualification as an ENERGY STAR...

  14. Analysis of standard reference materials following digestion using a modified appliance grade microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumloffel, John C.; Siems, William F.

    1996-12-01

    Microwave digestion provides a rapid means of sample preparation in the analytical laboratory. The major disadvantage of this method is the high cost of commercial microwave digestion systems. Modifications to the magnetron timing circuits of an appliance grade oven to make it suitable for sealed vessel microwave digestion are reported. The oven was modified without alteration to the irradiation cavity, and all initial safety features remain intact. Following digestion with the modified oven, NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The analytical data are similar to the certified concentrations in the SRMs, indicating that the modified oven provides a durable, rapid, cost-effective means of sample preparation.

  15. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1995-09-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who`s Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed.

  16. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  17. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  18. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  19. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol A.; Jacobson, Arne; Park, Won Young; Lee, Ga Rick; Alstone, Peter; Khare, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  20. Variability of consumer impacts from energy efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin

    2000-06-15

    A typical prospective analysis of the expected impact of energy efficiency standards on consumers is based on average economic conditions (e.g., energy price) and operating characteristics. In fact, different consumers face different economic conditions and exhibit different behaviors when using an appliance. A method has been developed to characterize the variability among individual households and to calculate the life-cycle cost of appliances taking into account those differences. Using survey data, this method is applied to a distribution of consumers representing the U.S. Examples of clothes washer standards are shown for which 70-90% of the population benefit, compared to 10-30% who are expected to bear increased costs due to new standards. In some cases, sufficient data exist to distinguish among demographic subgroups (for example, low income or elderly households) who are impacted differently from the general population. Rank order correlations between the sampled input distributions and the sampled output distributions are calculated to determine which variability inputs are main factors. This ''importance analysis'' identifies the key drivers contributing to the range of results. Conversely, the importance analysis identifies variables that, while uncertain, make so little difference as to be irrelevant in deciding a particular policy. Examples will be given from analysis of water heaters to illustrate the dominance of the policy implications by a few key variables.

  1. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  2. Data Availability in Appliance Standards and Labeling Program Development and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Romankiewicz, John; Khanna, Nina; Vine, Edward; Zhou, Nan

    2013-05-01

    In this report, we describe the necessary data inputs for both standards development and program evaluation and perform an initial assessment of the availability and uncertainty of those data inputs in China. For standards development, we find that China and its standards and labeling program administrators currently has access to the basic market and technical data needed for conducting market and technology assessment and technological and economic analyses. Some data, such as shipments data, is readily available from the China Energy Label product registration database while the availability of other data, including average unit energy consumption, prices and design options, needs improvement. Unlike some other countries such as the United States, most of the necessary data for conducting standards development analyses are not publicly available or compiled in a consolidated data source. In addition, improved data on design and efficiency options as well as cost data (e.g., manufacturing costs, mark-ups, production and product use-phase costs) – key inputs to several technoeconomic analyses – are particularly in need given China’s unconsolidated manufacturing industry. For program evaluation, we find that while China can conduct simple savings evaluations on its incentive programs with the data it currently has available from the Ministry of Finance – the program administrator, the savings estimates produced by such an evaluation will carry high uncertainty. As such, China could benefit from an increase in surveying and metering in the next one to three years to decrease the uncertainty surrounding key data points such as unit energy savings and free ridership.

  3. Efficient Estimation of the Standardized Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2009-01-01

    We derive an estimator of the standardized value which, under the standard assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, is more efficient than the established (asymptotically efficient) estimator and discuss its gains for small samples. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  4. Efficient Estimation of the Standardized Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2009-01-01

    We derive an estimator of the standardized value which, under the standard assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, is more efficient than the established (asymptotically efficient) estimator and discuss its gains for small samples. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  5. Device interoperability and authentication for telemedical appliance based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) Standards.

    PubMed

    Caranguian, Luther Paul R; Pancho-Festin, Susan; Sison, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the interoperability and authentication of medical devices in the context of telemedical systems. A recent standard called the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (X73-PHD) Standards addresses the device interoperability problem by defining common protocols for agent (medical device) and manager (appliance) interface. The X73-PHD standard however has not addressed security and authentication of medical devices which is important in establishing integrity of a telemedical system. We have designed and implemented a security policy within the X73-PHD standards. The policy will enable device authentication using Asymmetric-Key Cryptography and the RSA algorithm as the digital signature scheme. We used two approaches for performing the digital signatures: direct software implementation and use of embedded security modules (ESM). The two approaches were evaluated and compared in terms of execution time and memory requirement. For the standard 2048-bit RSA, ESM calculates digital signatures only 12% of the total time for the direct implementation. Moreover, analysis shows that ESM offers more security advantage such as secure storage of keys compared to using direct implementation. Interoperability with other systems was verified by testing the system with LNI Healthlink, a manager software that implements the X73-PHD standard. Lastly, security analysis was done and the system's response to common attacks on authentication systems was analyzed and several measures were implemented to protect the system against them.

  6. Upper airway dimensions and sleep efficiency--three-dimensional imaging analysis and assessment of the nasopharyngeal appliance.

    PubMed

    Venkat, R; Vasanthakumar, M; Balakrishnan, D; Deenadayalan, P

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of upper airway (UA) dimensions during sleep is contemplated to cause reduced sleep efficiency (SE) but a definitive association is not affirmed. Efficacy of nasopharyngeal appliance (NPA) in management of UA resistance syndrome (UARS) has not been compared with mandibular repositioning splint (MRS). This study intended to assess relation of UA dimensions to SE and effectiveness of NPA. Research had two phases: Case-control study to determine association between UA and SE; randomized control trial (with independent concurrent trial groups and double-blind design) to analyze treatment outcome with NPA. Subjects were categorized to three groups of 20 in each: A control group of healthy subjects (Group A); two "Randomly Assigned" sample groups of subjects with reduced SE (Groups B and C). Preliminary questionnaire for sleep analysis, Final data collection sheet (first and second case sheets) were recorded, cephalometric variables analyzed, and diagnostic overnight polysomnography was done to match and confirm selection criteria. Three-dimensional computed tomography was done to analyze airway dimensions before and after appliance placement. ANOVA and post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis of results. Reduced UA dimension during sleep is associated with reduced SE; NPA gives better improvement for UARS than MRS.

  7. 78 FR 37995 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Open Teleconference/Webinar AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of.... Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW... Efficiency Determination Methods. Open deliberation on possibly establishing a working group to...

  8. International Review of Frameworks for Impact Evaluation of Appliance Standards, Labeling, and Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Vine, Edward; Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-12-15

    In recent years, the number of energy efficiency policies implemented has grown very rapidly as energy security and climate change have become top policy issues for many governments around the world. Within the sphere of energy efficiency policy, governments (federal and local), electric utilities, and other types of businesses and institutions are implementing a wide variety of programs to spread energy efficiency practices in industry, buildings, transport, and electricity. As programs proliferate, there is an administrative and business imperative to evaluate the savings and processes of these programs to ensure that program funds spent are indeed leading to a more energy-efficient economy.

  9. Creating and Implementing a Regularized Monitoring and EnforcementSystem for China's Mandatory Standards and Energy Information Label forAppliances

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    China has developed a comprehensive program of energy efficiency standards and labels for household appliances. In 1989, China first launched its minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), which are now applied to an extensive list of products. In 1998, China launched a voluntary energy endorsement label, which has grown to cover both energy-saving and water-saving products. And, in 2005, China launched a mandatory energy information label that initially covered two products. CLASP has assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes. CLASP has also assisted China in the development of the mandatory energy information label. Increasingly, attention is being placed on maximum energy savings from China's standards and labeling (S&L) efforts in order to meet the recently announced goal of reducing China's energy intensity by 20 percent by 2010 with an interim objective of 4 percent in 2006. China's mandatory standards system is heavily focused on the technical requirements for efficiency performance, but historically, it has lacked administrative and personnel capacity to undertake monitoring and enforcement of these legally binding standards. Similarly, resources for monitoring and enforcement have been quite limited. As a consequence, compliance to both the mandatory standards and the mandatory energy information label is uneven with the potential and likely result of lost energy savings. Thus, a major area for improvement, which could significantly increase overall energy savings, is the creation and implementation of a regularized monitoring system for tracking the compliance to, and enforcement of, mandatory standards and the energy information label in China. CLASP has been working with the China National

  10. 78 FR 51100 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    .../Webinar AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of...), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024. Email... regarding commercial/industrial pumps working group. Any new business as discussed by the ASRAC...

  11. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  12. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under

  13. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness..., Confidential business information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Imports, Intergovernmental... / Tuesday, July 16, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN...

  14. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness Project (ASAP), Natural... information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Small... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10...

  15. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness Project (ASAP), Natural Resources Defense Council... procedure, Confidential business information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Imports... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10...

  16. Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standard Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  17. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  18. 78 FR 27866 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Meeting for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Certification Working Group AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (WH), and Refrigeration Certification Working Group (Commercial Certification Group). The purpose of... refrigeration equipment, as authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended. DATES:...

  19. Energy Efficient Buildings and Appliances: From Berkeley Lab to the Marketplace (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenfeld, Art [Commissioner, California Energy Commission

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Art Rosenfeld, an appointee to the California Energy Commission and one of the architects of energy efficiency research at Berkeley Lab in the 1970s, discusses what it takes to shepherd innovative energy efficiency research from the lab to the real world.

  20. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Cheifetz, D. Magnus

    2014-07-15

    The SEED platform is expected to be a building energy performance data management tool that provides federal, state and local governments, building owners and operators with an easy, flexible and cost-effective method to collect information about groups of buildings, oversee compliance with energy disclosure laws and demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency. It will allow users to leverage a local application to manage data disclosure and large data sets without the IT investment of developing custom applications. The first users of SEED will be agencies that need to collect, store, and report/share large data sets generated by benchmarking, energy auditing, retro-commissioning or retrofitting of many buildings. Similarly, building owners and operators will use SEED to manage their own energy data in a common format and centralized location. SEED users will also control the disclosure of their information for compliance requirements, recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR, or data sharing with the Buildings Performance Database and/or other third parties at their discretion.

  1. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  2. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  3. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Spurlock, C. Anna; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  4. Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and satisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-10-15

    During 2006-2007, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, provided incentives for low income and senior residents in single family homes for retrofitting with high efficiency fixtures. The participating residences were retrofitted with high-efficiency toilets, showerheads, and aerators. In 2012, a telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants and the associated effects on water conservation practices. This study evaluates the attitudes and opinions of the participants relative to water use efficiency measures and the actual reduction in water consumption characteristics of the participating households. The participant characteristics were analyzed to identify correlations between the socio-demographic factors, program satisfaction and actual water savings. Approximately 65.5% of the survey respondents reported changes in their water use habits and 76.6% reported noticeable reduction in their water bills. The analyses showed that the satisfaction levels of the participants were closely correlated with the actual water savings. The results also showed that satisfaction level along with water saving potential (i.e., implementation of water efficiency devices) or change of water use habits has provided positive synergistic effect on actual water savings. The majority of the participants surveyed (81.3-89.1%) reported positive attitudes for water conservation incentive program and the benefits of the high efficiency fixtures.

  5. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed.

  6. Appliance Servicing Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

  7. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  8. 76 FR 36908 - Draft Competition Rules for a Global Appliance Efficiency Award for Televisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...'s Global Energy Efficiency Challenge ( http://www.cleanenergyministerial.org ). The Clean Energy... given size ] category. A total of 20 awards are planned: One per size category (small/medium/large) for commercially-available products in each of four locations \\1\\ (Australia, Europe, India, and the United States...

  9. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  10. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform®

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    The Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform® (SEED Platform) provides public agencies and other organizations with a standardized but flexible, cost-effective, secure, enterprise data platform to manage portfolio scale building performance data from a variety of sources. The SEED Platform streamlines the administrative effort required by public agencies implementing building performance and transparency programs.

  11. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  12. Research and development of energy-efficient appliance motor-compressors. Volume 4: Production demonstration and field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, M. G.; Sauber, R. S.

    1983-09-01

    Two models of a high efficiency compressor for low back pressure applications were manufactured. Many changes required production process changes. The compressors were used in top mount refrigerator freezers. The results reveal a 27.0% improvement in energy consumption for the 18 ft(3) high efficiency model and a 15.6% improvement in the 21 ft(3) improvement in the 21 ft(3) high efficiency model as compared to the standard production unit.

  13. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation... September 30, 2011. DOE seeks information and comments related to the analytical treatment of ``smart... information (RFI) in the Federal Register (76 FR 47518) to request information on the treatment of...

  14. Effective and Efficient Herbst Appliance Therapy for Skeletal Class II Malocclusion Patient with a Low Degree of Collaboration with the Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Bastos, Barbra Duque Costa; Araujo, Luana Fialho Ferro; Moyses-Braga, Wagner Fernando; Pantuzo, Mariele Garcia; Cheib, Paula Loureiro

    2015-01-01

    The current concept for effective and efficient treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion prescribes that interceptive approach should be delivered during the pubertal growth stage. However, psychosocial issues and a greater risk of dental trauma are also factors that should be addressed when considering early Class II therapy. This paper reports a case of a patient that sought orthodontic treatment due to aesthetic discomfort with the incisors' protrusion. Two previous treatments failed because patient's collaboration with removable appliances was inadequate. Given his history of no collaboration and because the patient was in the prepubertal stage, it was decided to try a different approach in the third attempt of treatment. Traumatic injury protective devices were used during the prepubertal stage and followed by Herbst appliance and fixed multibrackets therapy during the pubertal stage, resulting in an adequate outcome and long-term stability. PMID:25861486

  15. Gas appliance and installation quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dance, E.W.G.; Mulholland, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    British Gas plc only sells and installs domestic gas appliances which conform to the requirements of a third party certification scheme. This involves type testing of appliance prototypes, assessment of the manufacturers quality system and quality auditing of production appliances. This certification is augmented by additional quality auditing of appliances both in the factory and at British Gas warehouses. In order to achieve the quality objectives of safety and customer satisfaction comprehensive installation procedures and practices have been developed which are designed to deal with large installation and servicing workload. The quality standards achieved are independently assessed by market research into customers reactions. This competence of service engineers is maintained and enhanced by regular training and education and high standards of performance at regional and local level are rewarded through annual national competitions.

  16. Self ligating lingual appliance

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S.S.; Jayan, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  17. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-03-28

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours.

  18. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  19. 76 FR 63566 - Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee, Appliance Standards Subcommittee, Negotiated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Group for Liquid-Immersed and Medium- and Low-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers AGENCY... Distribution Transformers. The Liquid Immersed and Medium-Voltage Dry- Type Group (MV Group) and the Low... transformers, as authorized by the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975, as amended, 42 U.S.C....

  20. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  1. Gas Appliance Technology Center: Annual report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.L.

    1987-08-01

    The report reviews the activity during the fourth year of Gas Research Institute's Gas Appliance Technology Center program. Work on gas appliances involved a conceptual table-top multi-function oven, development of an indirect-fired conveyor oven, and performance comparisons of smooth cooktops. Performance-evaluation methods for commercial ovens were evaluated. Design improvements were made to a direct-fired conveyor oven and a pulse-combustion deep-fat fryer. Performance of common vents were studied, and a device was designed to allow incorporation of appliances with positive vent pressures into such systems. Standards-related work included draft-hood capacities, flexible corrugated-connector corrosion, and sediment trap efficiencies. Heating-related work comprised conceptual design of a vented baseboard heater and a centralized heat-transfer fluid system.

  2. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Sebastien; Spurlock, C. Anna

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coil and air conditioner blower are installed with a furnace or heating appliance, they shall be tested... Systems § 3280.714 Appliances, cooling. (a) Every air conditioning unit or a combination air conditioning...) Mechanical air conditioners shall be rated in accordance with the ARI Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air...

  4. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.; Stratton, Chris; Wray, Craig P.

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  5. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  6. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be... appliance manufacturer's instructions. (d) Performance efficiency. (1) All automatic electric storage water... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be... appliance manufacturer's instructions. (d) Performance efficiency. (1) All automatic electric storage water... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and...

  8. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  9. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  10. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  11. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  12. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  13. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  14. Multipollutant efficiency standards for electricity production

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, P.M.

    2005-07-01

    This study contains a simulation of a coal-fired electric plant subject to multiple pollutant standards for SO{sub 2} and NOx. It shows that firms may not choose the lowest cost technology. The firm's cost-minimizing choice is compared for three increasingly stringent standards: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the 1997 New Source Performance Standards, and the 2002 North Carolina Clean Smokestacks Act. The study finds support on cost-benefit grounds for the 2002 North Carolina standard, which is the most stringent standard, but not for the 1997 NSPS.

  15. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  16. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  17. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  18. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  19. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... model system of enforcement for DOE's energy efficiency standards. (4) Suggested sources, studies, and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 460 [Docket No. EERE-2009-BT-BC-0021] RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  20. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  1. Advances in Household Appliances- A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

  2. Major appliance management report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.; O`Donnell, K.F.

    1990-07-15

    Major appliances (also called `white goods`) have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly apparent that major appliances are not easily or best managed along with MSW. Indiscriminate disposal of major appliances can cause environmental problems and unnecessary use of scarce landfill space as well as wasting valuable recyclable materials. In recognition of these factors, the 1989 Minnesota Legislature took a number of steps to shift the management of major appliances towards separate handling and recycling.

  3. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  4. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  5. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4...

  6. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4...

  7. Bandwidth efficient CCSDS coding standard proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Perez, Lance C.; Wang, Fu-Quan

    1992-01-01

    The basic concatenated coding system for the space telemetry channel consists of a Reed-Solomon (RS) outer code, a symbol interleaver/deinterleaver, and a bandwidth efficient trellis inner code. A block diagram of this configuration is shown. The system may operate with or without the outer code and interleaver. In this recommendation, the outer code remains the (255,223) RS code over GF(2 exp 8) with an error correcting capability of t = 16 eight bit symbols. This code's excellent performance and the existence of fast, cost effective, decoders justify its continued use. The purpose of the interleaver/deinterleaver is to distribute burst errors out of the inner decoder over multiple codewords of the outer code. This utilizes the error correcting capability of the outer code more efficiently and reduces the probability of an RS decoder failure. Since the space telemetry channel is not considered bursty, the required interleaving depth is primarily a function of the inner decoding method. A diagram of an interleaver with depth 4 that is compatible with the (255,223) RS code is shown. Specific interleaver requirements are discussed after the inner code recommendations.

  8. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  9. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  10. HPGe Detector Efficiency Calibration Using HEU Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2000-10-12

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. Two measurement systems will be used to determine highly enriched uranium (HEU) holdup: One is a portable HPGe detector and EG and G Dart system that contains high voltage power supply and signal processing electronics. A personal computer with Gamma-Vision software was used to provide an MCA card, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel g-ray spectra. The other is a 2 inches x 2 inches NaI crystal with an MCA that uses a portable computer with a Canberra NaI plus card installed. This card converts the PC to a full function MCA and contains the ancillary electronics, high voltage power supply and amplifier, required for data acquisition. This report describes and documents the HPGe point, line, area, and constant geometry-constant transmission detector efficiency calibrations acquired and calculated for use in conducting holdup measurements as part of the overall deactivation project of building 321-M.

  11. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for

  12. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  13. An Analysis of the Economic Effects of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    effect, with a supporting income effect. [Ref. 5:pg. 94] A recent study, by Hurst and White, highlights this consumer behavior and outlines the difficulty...of correlating economic savings from energy efficiency to consumer behavior . (Ref. 6:pg. 31] Conclusions from the study revealed that, on average... consumer behavior , utilities had developed consumer rebate programs rewarding efficient appliance purchasers with discounts on their monthly bills. [Ref

  14. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  15. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANOPR); request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has...

  16. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar

  17. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  18. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other

  19. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  20. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  1. 75 FR 67059 - Public Hearings for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Pickup Trucks and Vans; and (3) Vocational Vehicles, as well as gasoline and diesel heavy-duty engines... Hearings for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCIES: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic...

  2. Splinted mandibular protraction appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of mandible rather than tooth movement is an ideal treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion resulting from mandibular retrusion. In growing patients, forward repositioning of mandible by mandibular repositioning appliances is considered as a treatment of choice. Correction of mandibular retrusion by the conventional mandibular protraction appliances (MPAs) is mainly due to dento-alveolar changes and by altering the design of original MPAs, these limitations were minimized. The modified design enhanced the mandibular growth and contributed for the better skeletal correction of Class II malocclusion as compared to the conventional MPAs. This article highlights the design and fabrication of a splinted MPA for the correction of Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion and also describes a patient managed by this appliance. PMID:25821367

  3. Recent developments in standardization of high efficiency video coding (HEVC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports on recent developments in video coding standardization, particularly focusing on the Call for Proposals (CfP) on video coding technology made jointly in January 2010 by ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG and the April 2010 responses to that Call. The new standardization initiative is referred to as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) and its development has been undertaken by a new Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) formed by the two organizations. The HEVC standard is intended to provide significantly better compression capability than the existing AVC (ITU-T H.264 | ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Part 10) standard. The results of the CfP are summarized, and the first steps towards the definition of the HEVC standard are described.

  4. 50 CFR 600.330 - National Standard 5-Efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Standard 5-Efficiency. 600.330 Section 600.330 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... conservation objective, where “conservation” constitutes wise use of all resources involved in the fishery, not...

  5. 50 CFR 600.330 - National Standard 5-Efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Standard 5-Efficiency. 600.330 Section 600.330 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... economic return to pioneers in a new fishery. In some cases, limited entry is a useful ingredient of a...

  6. Crew appliance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  7. Development and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in China: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2013-01-31

    Over the last twenty years, with growing policy emphasis on improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution and carbon emissions, China has implemented a series of new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and mandatory and voluntary energy labels to improve appliance energy efficiency. As China begins planning for the next phase of standards and labeling (S&L) program development under the 12th Five Year Plan, an evaluation of recent program developments and future directions is needed to identify gaps that still exist when compared with international best practices. The review of China’s S&L program development and implementation in comparison with major findings from international experiences reveal that there are still areas of improvement, particularly when compared to success factors observed across leading international S&L program. China currently lacks a formalized regulatory process for standard-setting and do not have any legal or regulatory guidance on elements of S&L development such as stakeholder participation or the issue of legal precedence between conflicting national, industrial and local standards. Consequently, China’s laws regarding standard-setting and management of the mandatory energy label program could be updated, as they have not been amended or revised recently and no longer reflects the current situation. While China uses similar principles for choosing target products as the U.S., Australia, EU and Japan, including high energy-consumption, mature industry and testing procedure and stakeholder support, recent MEPS revisions have generally aimed at only eliminating the bottom 20% efficiency of the market. Setting a firm principle based on maximizing energy savings that are technically feasible and economically justified may help improve the stringency of China’s MEPS program and reduce the need for frequent revisions. China also lacks robust survey data and relies primarily on market research data in

  8. Reliability comparison between standard and energy efficient motors

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, A.H.

    1995-12-31

    There are always trade-offs when maximizing a specific performance parameter such as efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to compare the various performance parameters and elements which determine the motor reliability. The impact on motor life is considered along with its robustness. Only the Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motors covered by the 1992 Energy Act are covered in this presentation as compared to standard motors.

  9. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  10. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  11. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Foley, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  12. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

  13. Residential consumer's handbook for wood-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, D.; Maxwell, T. T.; Nunnelly, R. M.

    1981-11-01

    This manual describes the various types of wood burning appliances and accessories on the market. The characteristics of the various types of units are given to assess the best unit for a given application. Tips on selecting a unit are given. The most important overall considerations are shown to be the size (heat output) and safety features of the unit. Performance parameters, particularly heat output and efficiency, are defined. Test values for these parameters for several appliances of each type are given. This summary of results allows the various types of appliances and design features to be evaluated. This table also shows that the performance of units in a given category is very similar. Hence price, quality of construction, appearance, and type of appliance, rather than efficiency, become the most important parameters in selecting a stove in a given category.

  14. Rigid-fixation palatal appliances.

    PubMed

    Staggers, J

    1996-09-01

    Palatal appliances can offer an alternative to the traditional treatment approach of cleft lip and palate. The goal of these appliances is to position the maxillary segments more ideally and then maintain their position while allowing growth to occur. Use of palatal appliances can minimize the iatrogenic growth restriction usually associated with cleft palate repair. This article presents the findings of clinical treatment at the Medical College of Georgia.

  15. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  16. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S Rama Koteswara; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation.

  17. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S.Rama Koteswara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Materials and Methods Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. Results The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. Conclusion K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation. PMID:27504403

  18. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on... a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce...

  19. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  20. Remote repair appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    A remote appliance is described for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  1. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-12-16

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

  2. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K.; Wilkinson, Jay C.; Wooding, David R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  3. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  4. Reliability comparison between standard and energy efficient motors

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Even though the stage has been set for energy conservation being the number one driver in the design of general purpose industrial motors, it was not intended to be at the expense of reliability or the overall motor performance. Some have felt that the drive for increased efficiency would diminish motor life, and the higher flux densities would create application problems associated with the starting current. This paper is based on a review of various industrial motors available. However, it is obviously not an all inclusive study, since quality issues and design peculiarities are not included. There are always tradeoffs when maximizing a specific performance parameter such as efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to compare the various performance parameters and elements which determine motor reliability. The impact on motor life is considered, along with its robustness. Only the three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors covered by the 1992 Energy Act are covered in this presentation, as compared to standard motors.

  5. [Diagnostic efficiency on digital snapshots of the standard radiology imaging].

    PubMed

    Campanella, Nando; Antico, Ettore; Dini, Leonardo; Morosini, Pierpaolo

    2004-12-01

    The authors had experienced the telediagnosis on digital snapshots of standard radiology imaging (chest, abdomen, and bones), sent by e-mailing, to support the medical doctors working in remote areas of developing countries. In order to validate the overall procedure, the authors have set up a simulating model and estimated some parameters of accuracy of the diagnosis on digital snapshots against the golden standard of the diagnosis by direct look. The study concerned the standard X-ray tests of one hundred randomly-selected patients out of a hospital archive. Four years later the diagnosis by direct look, the team of radiologists carried out the blind cross check on the digital snapshots of the radiograms and stated their second diagnosis. Sensibility, specificity, predictive value of positives, predictive value of negatives and efficiency of the whole series have been 83.0, 95.1, 96.1, 79.6 and 88.0%. By breaking up the series by apparatus, the skeleton test shows similar data of the whole series. The chest test shows a specificity and predictive value of positives of 100.0%. Although the number of cases is low, the abdomen test apparently shows a sensibility and predictive value of negatives as high as 100%, but a lower specificity and predictive value of negatives (85.7 and 87.5%). Though this data is supportive to the validation of the procedure, even better results are supposedly achieved by increasing the quality of the snapshots and by improving the skills of using the software.

  6. Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, E; Kuo, C-M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series analysis with multiplicative seasonal ARIMA model, (2) a further estimation of generated waste home appliances based upon the estimated domestic use and the corresponding distribution of lifetime span, and (3) a cost analysis of recycling home appliances based on a sampling survey with stratified systematic sampling conducted among collectors and a survey on five recycling plants of waste home appliances. The suggested recycling rates in this study finally used by the EPA show that all of the recycling rates have increased compared with the rates in previous years. This study also implies that amending the recycling rates may only solve some recycling problems temporarily; however, the recycling system of waste home appliances in Taiwan has to be reformed to increase the recycling efficiency for the long term.

  7. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  8. Portable appliance security apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the opening and thereby secure the computer within the case. An opening formed in the top wall of the case exposes the keyboard and display of the computer. The back plate is locked in the closed position by a key-operated plug type lock. The lock is attached to one end of a hold down cable, the opposite end thereof being secured to a desk top or other stationary object. Thus, the lock simultaneously secures the back plate to the case and retains the case to the stationary object.

  9. Development of a treatment outcome standard as a result of a clinical audit of the outcome of fixed appliance therapy undertaken by hospital-based consultant orthodontists in the UK.

    PubMed

    McMullan, R E; Doubleday, B; Muir, J D; Harradine, N W; Williams, J K

    2003-01-25

    Bristol's much-publicised cardiac surgery problems and subsequent enquiry(1) have drawn attention to the need for audit of treatment outcomes throughout all hospital specialties. Patient anxiety, government policy and the desire of the professions to re-establish public confidence, have further encouraged changes to the system. For medical and dental specialties, such challenges have already been taken up by the Royal Colleges with the establishment of clinical effectiveness committees. Hospitals have modified their procedures and, for consultants, yearly appraisal is already a reality. The Orthodontic Clinical Effectiveness Working Party of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (now the Clinical Effectiveness Committee of the British Orthodontic Society) set up this audit to measure the outcome of fixed appliance treatment and to establish a benchmark for the standard of treatment to be expected from a consultant orthodontist. This paper describes how the audit was carried out, presents the findings and goes on to discuss some of the wider issues involved in audit, clinical governance and appraisal. The Consultant Orthodontists Group of the British Orthodontic Society funded this audit and the results and data set of dental casts remain their property.

  10. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  11. [Clinical evaluation of preadjusted appliance based on Chinese normal occlusion].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Gao, Xue-Mei; Zeng, Xiang-Long

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the preadjusted appliance (Z1 appliance) based on Chinese normal occlusion. Thirty non-extraction patients were treated with Z1 appliance. No wire bending was made during treatment. The results of these 30 cases had been evaluated by five senior orthodontists. Models were analysed quantitatively to testify and evaluate the efficiency of the appliance. The average score for post-treatment models was 91.2 (total score was 100). The model measurements indicated that average projective distance on occlusal plane between proximal contact points of adjacent teeth was less than 0.3 mm, which demonstrated good alignment. The prominence of crowns was almost coincident with the data of Chinese normal occlusion. For the average tip of most teeth, there was no statistical difference between the study group and the normal control group. The crown torque variation tendency from anterior to posterior was similar to that in the subjects with normal occlusion. However, the cases treated with Z1 appliance achieved more negative torque in the lower posterior segment. The result of the non-extraction patients treated with Z1 appliance was quite satisfied. Wire bending could be reduced during treatment. It was necessary to adjust the crown torque values for lower posterior teeth.

  12. 50 CFR 600.330 - National Standard 5-Efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distribute fishery resources among fishermen on the basis of economic factors alone, and that have economic... have economic allocation as its sole purpose. (b) Efficiency in the utilization of resources—(1...) Efficiency. In theory, an efficient fishery would harvest the OY with the minimum use of economic inputs such...

  13. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  14. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  15. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  16. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  17. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  18. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  19. Clothes washer standards in China -- The problem of water andenergy trade-offs in establishing efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lin, Jiang

    2004-05-19

    Currently the sales of clothes washers in China consist ofseveral general varieties. Some use more energy (with or withoutincluding hot water energy use) and some use more water. Both energy andwater are in short supply in China. This poses the question - how do youtrade off water versus energy in establishing efficiency standards? Thispaper discusses how China dealt with this situation and how itestablished minimum efficiency standards for clothes washers.

  20. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  1. Modeling of filtration efficiency of nanoparticles in standard filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Chen, D. R.; Pui, D. Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to model the data from the experiments of nanoparticle filtration performed at the Particle Technology Lab, University of Minnesota and at the 3M Company. Comparison shows that the experimental data for filter efficiency are bounded by the values computed from theoretical expressions which do not consider thermal rebound. Therefore thermal rebound in the tested filter media is not detected down to 3 nm particles in the present analysis. The efficiency measured experimentally is in good agreement with the theoretical expression by Stechkina (1966, Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR 167, 1327) when the Pectlet number Pe is larger than 100; it agrees well with the theoretical expression by Kirsch and Stechkina (1978, Fundamentals of Aerosol Science. Wiley, New York) when Pe is of the order of unit. We develop an empirical power law model for the efficiency depending on the Peclet number, which leads to satisfactory agreement with experimental results.

  2. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    ScienceCinema

    Ajay Mathur

    2016-07-12

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  3. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  4. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-05-20

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  5. Electric commercial cooking appliance development needs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Shukla, K.C.

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to identify electric commercial cooking appliance development needs, to investigate technologies that can be used to increase the market penetration of electric cooking equipment, and to present conceptual designs of some advanced electric cooking appliances. Results of the study will assist the electric utility industry in formulating development programs for advanced electric cooking equipment. Data on shipments, inventory, and energy consumption for six major gas and electric appliance categories--ranges, ovens, broilers, fryers, griddles, and steam equipment--were obtained to determine trends in the appliance market. A survey of end users and equipment manufacturers was performed to identify factors that affect the energy choice for commercial cooking equipment and to determine the market needs of advanced electric equipment. Development goals for three focus appliances--rangetops, ovens, and broilers--were established based on the survey and upon examination of factors affecting the purchase decision of buyers. In general, the recommended enhancements include higher efficiency, faster response, higher cooking speed, higher production rate, improved uniformity, improved reliability and durability, and reduced equipment and operating costs. Evaluation of various electrotechnologies to meet these goals and some examples of conceptual designs are presented.

  6. Ion release from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Staffolani, N; Damiani, F; Lilli, C; Guerra, M; Staffolani, N J; Belcastro, S; Locci, P

    1999-08-01

    The microbiological and enzymatic characteristics of the oral cavity would seem to provide a suitable environment for the corrosion of metals. We assayed the release of metal ions from one orthodontic appliance which included two 304 and 316 steel molar bands, ten 316 steel brackets, one nickel-titanium archwire and a brazing alloy to connect the elements of molar bands and brackets. The orthodontic appliance was dipped in both inorganic (pH 3.5-6.5) and organic acid solutions (w/v 1% each of tartaric, citric and ascorbic acid at pH 2.2 or 1.5% each of lactic and acetic acid at pH 2.5). The release of nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Varian AA 10. The release of Ni, Cr and Cu was markedly less at pH 6.5 than at pH 3.5 at all time points in acid solution. Daily release/single appliance after the first day decreased. Contrary to expectations, appliances immersed in organic acid solutions at pH 2.2 or 2.5 after 28 days generally released an amount of ions similar to that observed in inorganic acid solution at pH 3.5, with the exception of Cu. Release of silver and palladium, two metals present in the brazing alloy, proved to be very low (approximately 0.2 microgram after 28 days). The daily release of Ni, Cu and Cr by an orthodontic appliance in acid pH, particularly favourable to corrosion, was well below that ingested with a normal daily diet. It is therefore concluded that the quantities of metal ions released in our experimental conditions should not be cause for concern in utilising the appliance.

  7. Searching with the Google Search Appliance (GSA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  8. 50 CFR 600.330 - National Standard 5-Efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... redistribute gains and burdens without an increase in efficiency. (ii) Management regimes that allow a fishery... unnecessarily raise any of those costs move the regime toward inefficiency. Unless the use of inefficient... change the economic structure of the industry or the economic conditions under which the...

  9. Energy-efficient refrigeration and the reduction of chlorofluorocarbon use

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Levine, M.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Two recent actions by the US Congress, passage of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) and ratification of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, have affected several large industries in the United States. Under NAECA, manufacturers of residential appliances must meet minimum energy-efficiency standards by specified dates. According to the Montreal Protocol, producers of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) must reduce the quantities of CFCs that they manufacture. CFCs have been identified as a cause of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Since CFCs are used to improve the energy-efficiency of several appliance products, there is a potential conflict between the goals of reducing CFC use and improving energy-efficiency. In this article, the authors discuss the issues of CFC use, ozone depletions, energy-efficiency, and global climate change as they relate to residential refrigerators and freezers.

  10. Appliance Standards Improvement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-03-16

    03/19/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-24. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Appliance Standards Improvement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-03-16

    03/19/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-24. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Appliance Standards Improvement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-03-16

    Senate - 03/19/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-24. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Stirling heat pump external heat systems - An appliance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, Andrew D.; Thomas, John F.

    A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600 C to 700 C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO(x) emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO(x) emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

  14. Stirling heat pump external heat systems: An appliance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, A. D.; Thomas, J. F.

    1992-08-01

    A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600 C to 700 C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO(x) emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS system was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO(x) emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

  15. The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the US: A detailed end-use treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. Assessment of current and future utility programs and government policies requires that regulators, resource planners, and forecasters understand the effects of these regulations. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. This breakdown is based on both previous studies and new data and analysis. It is implemented in a spreadsheet forecasting framework, which allows significant flexibility in specifying end-use demands and linkages between water heaters and hot water-using appliances. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

  16. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light...

  17. [Efficiency of standard versus instrumental studies in detecting helminth eggs].

    PubMed

    Upyrev, A V; Khromenkova, E P; Tverdokhlebova, T I

    2012-01-01

    Testing confirmed that the applied brush washing methods developed in the 1970s could provide the adequate representativeness of a sample and full information on the actual presence of helminth eggs in the objects under study. An instrumental study was found to increase the probability of helminth egg detection by up to 3.1 times due to the representativeness of a sample, to reduce the labor- and time-consumption to have analysis results, as well as to unify a procedure for sanitary parasitological studies of washouts, and to enhance the efficiency of the equipment already used in parasitology laboratories.

  18. Invisible orthodontics part 2: lingual appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Ailbhe; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this second article of the three part series is to sum up the current developments in lingual orthodontics. This article attempts to review the development, advantages and disadvantages, bonding techniques, bracket mechanics, patient factors and types of lingual appliance systems available. In addition, the article shows examples of treated cases with lingual appliances. Lingual appliances are a useful addition to the armamentarium of invisible orthodontic appliances, with significant developments over the last few years. Clinicians need to be aware of the advances and predictable results achievable with lingual appliances.

  19. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  20. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  1. Development of standards for characterization of cathodoluminescence efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Lauren E.; Walko, Robert J.

    1999-04-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization in a demountable vacuum chamber is an important benchmarking tool for flat- panel display phosphors and screens. The proper way to perform these measurement is to minimize the effects of secondary electrons, excite the phosphor/screen with a uniform beam profile, and maintain a clean vacuum environment. CL measurements are important for preliminary evaluation and lifetesting of phosphor powders and screens prior to incorporation into the FPD. A survey of many CL characterization systems currently in use revealed the myriad of spectroradiometers, colorimeters, electron guns, vacuum pumps, mass spectrometers, etc. that introduce many avenues for error that are often difficult to isolate. A preliminary round-robin experiment was coordinated by Sandia and involved five other research groups. The purpose of this experiment was to obtain an indication of equipment capabilities and instrument variations, as well as reliability and consistency of results. Each group was asked to measure the luminance and chromaticity coordinates of a Y3Al2Ga3O12:Tb pellet and calculate the luminous efficiency. Pellets were chosen in order to reduce errors associated with processing and handling of powders or screens. Some of the data reported in this experiment were in good agreement, while others differed significantly. Determining sources of error in CL measurements is an ongoing effort. By performing this experiment, we were able to identify some of the causes of error and develop a characterization protocol for display phosphors.

  2. Efficient modelling necessitates standards for model documentation and exchange.

    PubMed

    Gernaey, K V; Rosen, C; Batstone, D J; Alex, J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, problems related to simulation model documentation and model exchange between users are discussed. Complex simulation models have gained popularity in the environmental field, but require extensive documentation to allow independent implementation. The existence of different simulation platforms puts high demands on the quality of the original documentation. Recent experiences from cross-platform implementations with the ASM2d and ADM1 models reveal that error-free model documentation is difficult to obtain, and as a consequence, considerable time is spent on searching for documentation and implementation errors of various sources. As such, the list of errors and coding pitfalls provided for ASM2d and ADM1 in this paper is vital information for any future implementation of both models. The time needed to obtain an error-free model implementation can be significantly reduced if a standard language for model documentation and exchange is adopted. The extensible markup language (XML) and languages based on this format may provide a remedy to the problem of platform independent model documentation and exchange. In this paper the possibility to apply this to environmental models is discussed, whereas the practical model implementation examples corroborate the necessity for a standardised approach.

  3. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  4. Cytotoxic effect of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A; Kullmann, A

    1992-02-01

    The use of orthodontic appliances may contribute to local gingivitis, often attributed to increased plaque retention. Gingivitis of bacterial origin cannot clinically be distinguished from local tissue irritation caused by corrosion products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the cytotoxic effect of various metallic components used in orthodontics. Multicomponent devices such as facebows, molar bands, and brackets along with single-component brackets and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. None of the archwires caused any cytotoxic effect, even though some contained 54 per cent nickel. However, the multi-component devices, which were joined with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices. Copper is more cytotoxic than nickel, which could explain the greater cytotoxic effect of the samples with brazing materials. It is speculated that cytotoxic corrosion products from orthodontic appliances might contribute to localized gingivitis.

  5. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  6. Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.

    PubMed

    Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

    2011-08-26

    Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items

  7. Handling difficult materials: Household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-05-01

    At last count in 1990, the US EPA reported that 2.8 million tons of household appliances (often called ''white goods'') were discarded -- about 2% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. These figures may not seem particularly epic, but, considering the potentially harmful coolants, lubricants, and insulating materials left behind in these machines, the amount may be cause for concern. Management of these items is, of course, not impossible, just difficult. As more and more landfills turn white goods away, recycling is becoming the hot'' option. According to a study by the Steel Recycling Institute, about 4 million of the 8 million units discarded in the US were recycled in 1992. Recycling figures like these are impressive for any secondary material, demonstrating the strides appliance recycling has made in recent years. Implemented in May 1993, EPA's final rule on household appliance handling mandates that 80%--90% of all CFC or HCFC coolants must be recovered with certified equipment by a certified technician, who must record how the refrigerant is removed and where it is sent for recovery.

  8. Analyzing US transportation efficiency standards, beyond the National Energy Strategy (NES)

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1991-08-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on increasing fuel efficiency standards through new corporate average fuel efficiency (CAFE) standards. This has been justified by its proponents on the basis of saving energy to enhance energy security and increasing environmental quality through reduced emissions of air pollutants, including CO{sub 2}. Opponents of this approach argue that the energy security and environmental benefits obtained by increasing CAFE standards are not high enough, or in the case of CO{sub 2} too uncertain, to justify the costs of this action and that the best approach is to allow energy efficiency to be determined uncertain, to justify the costs of this action and that the best approach is to allow energy efficiency to be determined by long-run market forces. A part of the current debate about CAFE standards is centered on the relationship between the impacts of CAFE standards on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions and the corresponding effects of the President's National Energy Strategy (NES). While analyses have been conducted of CAFE standards in conjunction with existing policies, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of imposing CAFE standards in conjunction with the actions contained in the NES. Methodology and assumptions used to model increased fuel efficiency are presented. Effects of these standards on greenhouse gas warming potential (GWP) are discussed. The impacts of these standards on the US energy economy and the cost of imposing these standards on the economy are examined. Analysis reveals additional effects of mandated fuel efficiency standards on emissions and energy use are relatively small. This is because substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and transportation-related emissions are achieved in the NES Actions Case by the introduction and rapid growth of passenger vehicles using electricity, methanol and natural gas. 4 refs., 16 tabs.

  9. How to Prepare an Efficient Producer Petition for the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA document provides step-by-step instructions for preparing a complete Efficient Producer (EP) petition for a new fuel pathway under the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program. (EPA publication # EPA-420-B-16-084)

  10. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  11. The Energy Electronics are Coming to an Expansion Phase which Applied to Home Appliances and Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Hideki; Iwai, Toshiaki; Nakajima, Noboru

    Recently the energy electronics comes to attention that energy saving effects to meet global environment problems. The evolution of home appliances and mobile devices have been realized by efficient frequency converter which are low cost and small size. This paper presents recent trend of energy electronics applied to home appliances and mobile devices.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707... Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof jacks and...) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be...

  13. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  14. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

  15. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  16. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their compliance dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  17. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their compliance dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  18. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  19. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  20. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards... data collection process to consider establishing new energy conservation standards or energy use....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part A of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA...

  1. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... must identify the subject matter (``Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Energy Conservation... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power...

  2. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2008 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2008 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  3. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2007 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2007 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  4. Crew appliance computer program manual, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Trade studies of numerous appliance concepts for advanced spacecraft galley, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and other areas were made to determine which best satisfy the space shuttle orbiter and modular space station mission requirements. Analytical models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the G-189A Generalized Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support Systems (ETCLSS) Computer Program subroutine library were developed. The new appliance subroutines are given along with complete analytical model descriptions, solution methods, user's input instructions, and validation run results. The appliance components modeled were integrated with G-189A ETCLSS models for shuttle orbiter and modular space station, and results from computer runs of these systems are presented.

  5. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2013 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2013 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  6. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2014 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2014 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  7. Overview on PIV Application to Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

    The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

  8. Habit breaking appliance for multiple corrections.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha; Sodhi, Jasmeet Singh; Sodhi, Sonia; Rita, Chandki; Sai Kalyan, S

    2013-01-01

    Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  9. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha; Sodhi, Jasmeet Singh; Sodhi, Sonia; Rita, Chandki; Sai Kalyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites. PMID:24198976

  10. In vitro cytotoxic effects of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Locci, P; Lilli, C; Marinucci, L; Calvitti, M; Belcastro, S; Bellocchio, S; Staffolani, N; Guerra, M; Becchetti, E

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an orthodontic appliance and of its components (brackets, bands, and arch wires) on some cell functions. Fibroblasts were cultured either in the presence of one unwashed orthodontic appliance, or one orthodontic appliance immersed in MEM for 28 days before use (washed appliance), or in the presence of MEM in which the appliances had been immersed. At the end of in vitro maintenance, morphological studies were carried out with SEM and TEM. Cell proliferation and GAG synthesis and secretion by radio-labeled precursors were assessed. The data indicated that unwashed appliances were more cytotoxic than washed ones. Moreover, the arch wire was the most biocompatible component of the orthodontic appliance, and the bracket was the least biocompatible. A comparative study into the effects on cell proliferation of the most common metal ions released by the appliances was also carried out. At the concentration released by one orthodontic appliance immersed for 28 days, the highest reduction in DNA synthesis was observed in the presence of Cu(++).

  11. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2010 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2010 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  12. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2012 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2011 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  13. Comparison of standards for determining efficiency of three phase induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Renier, B.; Hameyer, K.; Belmans, R.

    1999-09-01

    The paper describes a set of experiments and discusses their results for determining the efficiency of low voltage, three phase squirrel cage induction motors. The measured efficiency of an induction motor directly connected to the grid, strongly depends on the method used to evaluate the results and the standard according to which the measurements are performed. Different standards as IEEE 112 and IEC 32 are mentioned and their similarities sand differences are discussed. The main discrepancies between the various standards is the way in which the values for the stray load losses are obtained at different load levels. A short description of the measurement setup is given and measurement results for motors of several manufacturers accounting for different standards are proposed. The results clearly demonstrate the necessity to handle the efficiency data given by the manufacturer with a lot of care.

  14. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  15. Reduced Emissions and Lower Costs: Combining Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency into a Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn A

    2007-01-01

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-along energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets.

  16. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  17. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Tan, Yap-Peng

    2006-12-01

    A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  20. Szilard Award Recipients: Equipment Efficiency Standards: Mitigating Global Climate Change at a Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, David B.; Geller, Howard

    1998-04-01

    Efficiency standards for equipment have overcome market failures, encouraged technological innovation, and provided enormous economic and environmental benefits. They have been one of the most successful public policy initiatives in the energy arena in the past 25 years, benefiting the U.S. as well as other countries. New standards could be a cornerstone of a strategy for meeting climate goals at a profit. But delaying their enactment greatly reduces their effectiveness.

  1. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

  2. Solar collector test procedures: Development of a method to refer measured efficiencies to standardized test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. C.

    1984-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for referring collector efficiency measurements, obtained under different test conditions, to a common, or standard set of conditions. The procedure applies to flatplate liquid-type collectors of conventional tube-in-sheet design. The basic Hottel-Whillier-Bliss theory is used with appropriate extensions to account for serpentine flow configurations and glazing materials with high infrared transmittance. The procedure includes a systematic method for deriving two invariant collector parameters directly from ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test results. The two parameters selected are the plate absorptance and back loss coefficient. A set of standard conditions is recommended which corresponds to favorable test conditions.

  3. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  5. Standardized Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of the Matrix Effect, Recovery, Process Efficiency, and Internal Standard Association.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Jean-François; Provencher, Gilles; Bélanger, Patrick; Bérubé, René; Dumas, Pierre; Gagné, Sébastien; Gaudreau, Éric; Fleury, Normand

    2017-07-18

    The matrix effects (MEs) on the quantification of an analyte can be significant and should not be neglected during development and validation of an analytical method. According to this premise, we developed a standardized procedure based on a set of six tests performed on six different sample matrices to detect and characterize the effects of the matrix for single and multiple analytes methods. The link between the matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy, precision, and calibration curve was underscored by calculations performed with peak areas, ratios of standard/internal standard peak area, and concentrations. The terms instrumental ME and global ME were introduced, and the term recovery was subdivided for clarity. The test accounts for the presence of ubiquitous and endogenous analytes through background subtraction. The results showed the necessity for using samples with an original concentration in the same range and that the concentration selected for the addition had a definite impact on the results. The use of six-sample matrices provided a standard deviation on the results, and this information could be inserted in a method performance result to show precision. The tool also allows for testing of different analytes/internal standard combinations, which helps with the selection of the association with minimum MEs. A UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of several phthalate metabolites in urine was developed and validated with this test. This methodology responds to a scientific need for homogeneity, clarity, and understanding of the results and facilitates the decision-making process while lowering the required costs and time.

  6. Dental appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Andrew S L; Lee, Richard W W; Cistulli, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    Oral appliances for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are worn during sleep to maintain the patency of the upper airway by increasing its dimensions and reducing its collapsibility. Oral appliances are a simpler alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Over the last decade, there has been a significant expansion of the evidence base to support the use of oral appliances, with robust studies demonstrating their efficacy. This work has been underpinned by the recognition of the importance of upper airway anatomy in the pathophysiology of OSA. The updated practice parameters of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine now recommend their use for mild-to-moderate OSA, or for patients with severe OSA who are unable to tolerate CPAP or refuse treatment with CPAP. Oral appliances have been shown to have a beneficial impact on a number of important clinical end points, including the polysomnographic indexes of OSA, subjective and objective measures of sleepiness, BP, aspects of neuropsychological functioning, and quality of life. Elucidation of the mechanism of action of oral appliances has provided insight into the factors that predict treatment response and may improve the selection of patients for this treatment modality. Longitudinal studies to characterize the long-term adverse effects of oral appliance use are now beginning to emerge. Although less efficacious than CPAP for improving the polysomnographic indexes of OSA, oral appliances are generally preferred by patients. This has the potential to translate to better patient adherence and may provide an equivalent health outcome.

  7. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  8. 76 FR 50148 - Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Council Robin Roy AK Steel Corporation Jerry Schoen California Energy Commission (as resource party) Acme... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC62 Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for...

  9. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... building energy prices of $0.1028/kWh of electricity and $11.99 per 1000 cubic feet ($1.163/therm) of...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22060] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EERE-2006-BC-0132] RIN 1904-AC18 Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

  10. 76 FR 43298 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... efficiency descriptor (IEER) for all commercial unitary products above 65,000 Btu/h of cooling capacity. 20 t... control in hotel/motel guest rooms and adds a requirement to eliminate wasted light in guest room... capacities below 135,000 Btu/h at standard rating conditions listed in International Organization...

  11. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  12. Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, A. W.; Kaune, W.; Grainger, P.; Preece, S.; Golding, J.

    1997-01-01

    In a survey of 50 UK homes the 50 Hz fundamental and harmonic magnetic fields generated by 806 domestic appliances found in the homes, and used regularly by mothers, were measured. Measurements were made in the direction of most likely access, and from the surface of the appliances. Mothers completed a questionnaire on the use of appliances and were monitored for 24 h so that acquired exposure could be compared with the measured ambient fields in the home. Appliances were measured at standard distances and an algorithm was used to calculate fields at 100 and 50 cm to remove room background contributions. A few appliances generated fields in excess of at 1 m: microwave cookers ; washing machines ; dishwashers ; some electric showers and can openers . Of continuously operating devices, only central heating pumps (), central heating boilers () and fish-tank air pumps () produced significant fields at 0.5 m. There were no obvious ways to group different types of appliances as high- or low-strength sources. Mothers spent on average about 4.5 h per day in the kitchen, where the strongest sources of magnetic field were located.

  13. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  14. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance...

  15. Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Menghini, D.; Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.

    2008-07-15

    The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

  16. Management of sleep apnea: a critical look at intra-oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Conley, R S

    2015-04-01

    With so many disciplines of both medicine and dentistry involved in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), several forms of therapy are available. The orthodontist is rarely considered when the diagnosis of chronic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is delivered. However, the scope of orthodontic care today is much broader than the mere alignment of teeth. While the current gold standard for OSA care remains continuous positive air pressure (CPAP), the patient may be given a prescription for an intra-oral sleep appliance. When orthodontists work in concert with their medical colleagues to provide a sleep appliance, several considerations must be made including the evidence regarding oral appliance efficacy. For some patients, oral appliances are highly successful; however, even for responsive patients, there are risks associated with oral appliance therapy. The aim of the paper was to present a critical review of the current level of evidence for the use of oral appliances in the treatment of OSA. A substantial number of publications ranging from case reports, uncontrolled and controlled case series, prospective randomized studies, and even a small number of systematic reviews were available. The existing systematic reviews were based on either a limited number of prospective studies with limited numbers of patients or in some cases were based on subjective data only. As a result, a narrative review of the literature was performed that discusses objective clinically testable criteria and recent developments that may aid future research investigations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System

    PubMed Central

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG’s), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL’s), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL’s. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL’s and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL’s. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG’s registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach. PMID:28824226

  18. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System.

    PubMed

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG's), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL's), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL's. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL's and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL's. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG's registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach.

  19. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments.

  20. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  1. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  2. Early treatment with the ALF functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James M; Bronson, James Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report five cases of children treated with an interceptive technique utilizing ALF (Advanced Light Force) functional orthodontic appliances in anterior and/or posterior cross bites in primary and early mixed dentition.

  3. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.; Schweppe, Fred C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  4. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  5. Comparison of the Energy Efficiency Prescribed by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 and ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2006-12-01

    This document presents the qualitative comparison of DOE’s formal determination of energy savings of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The term “qualitative” is used in the sense of identifying whether or not changes have a positive, negative, or neutral impact on energy efficiency of the standard, with no attempt made to quantify that impact. A companion document will present the quantitative comparison of DOE’s determination. The quantitative comparison will be based on whole building simulation of selected building prototypes in selected climates. This document presents a comparison of the energy efficiency requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-1999 (herein referred to as Standard 90.1-1999) and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 (herein referred to as Standard 90.1-2004). The comparison was done through a thorough review of all addenda to Standard 90.1-1999 that were included in the published ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2001 (herein referred to as Standard 90.1-2001) and also all addenda to Standard 90.1-2001 that were included in the published Standard 90.1-2004. A summary table showing the impact of each addendum is provided. Each addendum to both Standards 90.1-1999 and 90.1-2001 was evaluated as to its impact on the energy efficiency requirements of the standard (greater efficiency, lesser efficiency) and as to significance. The final section of this document summarizes the impacts of the various addenda and proposes which addenda should be included in the companion quantitative portion of DOE’s determination. Addenda are referred to with the nomenclature addendum 90.1-xxz, where “xx” is either “99” for 1999 or “01” for 2001, and z is the ASHRAE letter designation for the addendum. Addenda names are shown in bold face in text. DOE has chosen not to prepare a separate evaluation of Standard 90.1-2001 as that standard does not appear to improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. What this means for the determination of energy

  6. [Standard operating procedures and operating room management: Improvement of patient safety and the efficiency of processes].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, Jörg U; Heller, Axel R

    2008-01-01

    Financial pressures have led the way more efficiency in health care management. To decrease hospital costs a more proficient use of personal resources is required. The drive to increase efficiency with the concomitant increase in workload can cause a reduction in quality of patient care and of patient security. A professional operating room (OR) management and the introduction of standard operating procedures (SOP) have helped to optimise workflow in and around the OR. OR management can control an efficient workflow and generate data concerning performance, costs and quality. SOPs lead to a standardisation of workflow in the OR and in patient treatment modalities. This guaranties a high quality in patient care and more safety despite an increase in work-load.

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  8. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

  9. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

  10. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  11. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-03-23

    Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

  12. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  13. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  14. Objective evaluation of tongue base snoring after the use of an oral appliance: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Abo-Khatwa, M M; Osman, E Z; Hill, P D; Lee, B W V; Osborne, J E

    2008-12-01

    Oral appliances have become increasingly popular for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea especially for patients who are not able to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure devices. For simple snoring, oral appliances have become one of the treatments of choice despite a relative lack of scientific evidence of their efficiency. This study was designed to objectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of oral appliance in the treatment of simple snoring. Prospective case series. Fifteen patients with confirmed simple tongue base snoring had pre- and post-oral appliance objective assessment of their snoring loudness and duration at home. The Snore Index was calculated as the number of snores per hour slept. Patients bed partners were asked to rate the snoring severity on a Spouse Dissatisfaction Scale. Overall there was no significant difference in the Snore Index in the pre- and post-oral appliance recordings. Subjectively, there was a statistically significant decrease in the Spouse Dissatisfaction Scale following the use of oral appliance. Tongue base snorers had no significant reduction in their snoring with the oral appliances. There is a subjective benefit which may be due to the placebo effect.

  15. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  16. Impact of metal and ceramic fixed orthodontic appliances on judgments of beauty and other face-related attributes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Lílian Martins; Araújo, Telma Martins de; Santos, Aline Rôde; Faber, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Physical attributes, behavior, and personal ornaments exert a direct influence on how a person's beauty and personality are judged. The aim of this study was to investigate how people who wear a fixed orthodontic appliance see themselves and are seen by others in social settings. A total of 60 adults evaluated their own smiling faces in 3 different scenarios: without a fixed orthodontic appliance, wearing a metal fixed orthodontic appliance, and wearing an esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance. Furthermore, 15 adult raters randomly assessed the same faces in standardized front-view facial photographs. Both the subjects and the raters answered a questionnaire in which they evaluated criteria on a numbered scale ranging from 0 to 10. The models judged their own beauty, and the raters assigned scores to beauty, age, intelligence, ridiculousness, extroversion, and success. The self-evaluations showed decreased beauty scores (P <0.0001) when a fixed orthodontic appliance, especially a metal one, was being worn. There was no statistically significant difference between the 3 situations in the 6 criteria analyzed. A fixed orthodontic appliance did not affect how personal attributes are assessed. However, fixed orthodontic appliances apparently changed the subjects' self-perceptions when they looked in the mirror. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic and environmental analysis of standard, high efficiency, rainwater flushed, and composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Anand, C; Apul, D S

    2011-03-01

    The current sanitation technology in developed countries is based on diluting human excreta with large volumes of centrally provided potable water. This approach is a poor use of water resources and is also inefficient, expensive, and energy intensive. The goal of this study was to compare the standard sanitation technology (Scenario 1) with alternative technologies that require less or no potable water use in toilets. The alternative technologies considered were high efficiency toilets flushed with potable water (Scenario 2), standard toilets flushed with rainwater (Scenario 3), high efficiency toilets flushed with rainwater (Scenario 4), and composting toilets (Scenario 5). Cost, energy, and carbon implications of these five design scenarios were studied using two existing University of Toledo buildings. The results showed that alternative systems modeled in Scenarios 2, 4, and 5 were viable options both from an investment and an environmental performance perspective. High efficiency fixtures that use potable water (Scenario 2) is often the most preferred method in high efficiency buildings due to reduced water use and associated reductions in annual water and wastewater costs. However, the cost, energy, and CO(2)EE analyses all showed that Scenarios 4 and 5 were preferable over Scenario 2. Cost payback periods of scenarios 2, 4 and 5 were less than 10 years; in the future, increase in water and wastewater services would further decrease the payback periods. The centralized water and wastewater services have high carbon footprints; therefore if carbon footprint reduction is a primary goal of a building complex, alternative technologies that require less potable water and generate less wastewater can largely reduce the carbon footprint. High efficiency fixtures flushed with rainwater (Scenario 4) and composting toilets (Scenario 5) required considerably less energy than direct energy demands of buildings. However, the annual carbon footprint of these technologies

  18. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    PubMed

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  19. Comparison of the effects produced by headgear and pendulum appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.3], treated with CHG and fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 3.28 years, and the pendulum group 22 patients (15 females, 7 males), with initial age of 13.75 years (SD = 1.86), treated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 4.12 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start (T1) and on completion (T2) of orthodontic treatment. The pendulum and CHG groups were similar as to initial age, severity of the Class II malocclusion, gender distribution, initial cephalometric characteristics, and initial and final treatment priority index (TPI). Only treatment time was not similar between the groups, with a need for annualization for data for the pendulum group. The data were compared with independent t-tests. There was significantly greater restriction of maxillary forward growth and improvement of the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship in the CHG group (P < 0.05). The maxillary molars were more mesially tipped and extruded and the mandibular molars more uprighted in the CHG group compared with the pendulum group (P < 0.05). There was more labial tipping of the mandibular incisors and greater overbite reduction in the pendulum group. The pendulum appliance produced only dentoalveolar effects, different from the CHG appliance, which restricted maxillary forward displacement, thus improving the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship.

  20. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  1. Influence of orthodontic appliances on myofunctional therapy.

    PubMed

    Klocke, A; Korbmacher, H; Kahl-Nieke, B

    2000-01-01

    Various removable and fixed orthodontic appliances were rated by interview and questionnaire by 42 myofunctional therapists in the Hamburg area with respect to their influence during myofunctional therapy. The Nance holding arch was given the most negative rating of all appliances covering the palate area. For the active plate, marking the rest position of the tongue by roughening the acrylic surface or by reproducing the palatal relief was considered beneficial. The quadhelix expansion device and Hyrax palatal expander were rated as unfavorable because of their positioning in the palatal area. Among the functional appliances, Fränkel's function regulator was given the best rating. Regular fixed appliances (brackets, bands) were not considered a disturbance. Habit reminders (plates and spurs) were given a very negative rating by ca. 80% of the therapists because they disturbed the myofunctional exercises and led to adaptive dysfunctions. Since many patients with dysfunction of the orofacial musculature undergo simultaneous myofunctional and orthodontic therapy, treatment planning and choice of orthodontic appliances should be carefully coordinated.

  2. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  3. A method for correcting standard-based real-time PCR DNA quantitation when the standard's polymerase reaction efficiency is significantly different from that of the unknown's

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Standard-based real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantitation of an unknown sample’s DNA concentration (i.e., [DNA]-unk) assumes that the concentration dependence of the standard and unknown reactions (related to reaction efficiency, E) are equivalent. In our work with ba...

  4. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life

  5. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  6. [Invisible and almost invisible orthodontic appliances].

    PubMed

    Baron, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    Patient demand for invisible esthetic orthodontic appliances is steadily increasing. Two types of orthodontic appliances have a high rate of patient acceptance. The lingual technique has continually evolved by offering both prefabricated brackets or custom-made brackets. The various techniques have been improved over time, and the results are better than ever. Thermoplastic aligners are an alternative to lingual devices and their use is rapidly growing. Their specific properties make it easier to assess their indications and limitations. A review of the literature, the development of these systems and a presentation of some clinical examples of treated cases will help us to provide some of the basics for understanding each of these two types of appliances and to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each system.

  7. Dental rehabilitation of a child with early childhood caries using Groper's appliance

    PubMed Central

    Joybell, C. Chrishantha; Ramesh, K.; Simon, Paul; Mohan, Jayashree; Ramesh, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The mainstay of pediatric dental practice is the successful esthetic rehabilitation of a preschooler with advanced carious lesions. Loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthesis, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits are compromises arising due to the loss of primary anterior teeth at an early age either due to trauma or due to caries. Parental desire is the most decisive factor for the placement of an anterior esthetic appliance. This unique case report highlights the fabrication of simple, Groper's appliance in a 5-year-old child with early childhood caries. PMID:26538948

  8. Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

  9. Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

  10. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    PubMed

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment.

  11. Appliance Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2307.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The graduate of the Appliance Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) by skill…

  12. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  13. China Cools with Tighter RAC Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Rosenquist, Gregory

    2006-06-01

    After boiling summer brought brown-out to most part of the country in 2004, China announced a new set of minimum energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in September 2004, with the first tier going into effect on March 1, 2005 and the reach standard taking effect on January 1, 2009. This represents a milestone in China's standard setting process since the reach standard levels are significantly more stringent than previous standards for other appliances. This paper first analyzes cost-effectiveness of China's new standards for room air conditioners, and then attempts to evaluate the impact of the new standards on energy savings, electric generation capacity, and CO2 emissions reductions.

  14. On the necessity of improving the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances in net-zero energy buildings.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, Endrit; Jusselme, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    There is now clear evidence regarding the extensive use of furniture and appliances in daily human life, but there is less evidence of their impact on the environment. Responding to this gap in knowledge, this study focuses on an assessment of the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances as used in highly energy efficient buildings. Their primary energy, non-renewable energy and global warming potential indicators have been assessed by extending the boundaries of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study beyond the building itself. In conclusion, we found that furniture and appliances were responsible for around 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption and 15% of primary energy consumption comparing to the overall impacts of the building. Since embodied impacts represent the largest values, the process for labelling the appliances' energy efficiency should encompass a life-cycle point of view, not just a usage point of view as the case currently. Among office appliances, computer equipment was ranked as the highest impacting element, especially laptops and monitors. As for domestic appliances, refrigerators and electric ovens had the biggest impacts. Concerning furniture, the greatest impacts were from office and kitchen cabinets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... such material can be placed or swing closer to the front of the appliance than the clearances specified... or guarded with noncombustible material such that the distance from the appliance to the framing or guarding material is not greater than three inches unless the appliance is installed in compliance with...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... such material can be placed or swing closer to the front of the appliance than the clearances specified... or guarded with noncombustible material such that the distance from the appliance to the framing or guarding material is not greater than three inches unless the appliance is installed in compliance with...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors and...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors and...

  20. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section... Hospital Services § 409.14 Supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare pays for supplies, appliances, and equipment as inpatient hospital or inpatient...

  1. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

  2. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section 188.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances...

  3. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section 188.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707... Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73988, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof jacks and chimneys necessary for their installation in...

  7. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special...

  8. Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

  9. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 3, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for housekeeping, off-duty activities, and medical appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented. Equipment cleaning, refuse management, garment/linen maintenance, entertainment, physical conditioning, sterilization, and physical monitoring were analyzed.

  10. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and

  11. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  12. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  13. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  14. The MARS appliance. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Clements, R M; Jacobson, A

    1982-12-01

    Inconsistent wearing of functional appliances, intermaxillary Class II elastics, and headgear during the treatment of Class II malocclusions is a common concern of many orthodontists. The MARS (Mandibular Advancing Repositioning Splint) is a functional device designed to overcome many such cooperation deficiencies. The MARS appliance is a fixed functional device which is attached to the arch wires of a multibanded orthodontic appliance. It is composed of a piston and cylinder which attach to the lower canine and the upper molar region of the dental arch wires on each side of the jaw. It forces the patient to maintain the mandible in a protruded position 24 hours a day and yet allows full and complete opening and closing as well as lateral excursive movement. The design, method of attaching, and adjustment of the appliance during treatment are discussed, and the results achieved in a single case are described. The results being achieved in the pilot study so far are encouraging and are being pursued further.

  15. Management of overbite with the Invisalign appliance.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Cohanim, Bobby; Hujoel, Philippe; Daher, Sam; Neal, Michelle; Liu, Weitao; Huang, Greg

    2017-04-01

    Most of the published literature on the management of overbite with the Invisalign appliance (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) consists of case reports and case series. In this retrospective study of 120 patients, we sought to assess the nature of overbite changes with the Invisalign appliance. Records were collected from 3 practitioners, all experienced with the Invisalign technique. The patients were consecutively treated adults (>18 years old) who underwent orthodontic treatment only with the Invisalign appliance. Patients with major transverse or anteroposterior changes or extraction treatment plans were excluded. The study sample included 68 patients with normal overbites, 40 with deepbites, and 12 with open bites. Their median age was 33 years, and 70% of the patients were women. Cephalometric analyses indicated that the deepbite patients had a median overbite opening of 1.5 mm, whereas the open bite patients had a median deepening of 1.5 mm. The median change for the normal overbite patients was 0.3 mm. Changes in incisor position were responsible for most of the improvements in the deepbite and open bite groups. Minimal changes in molar vertical position and mandibular plane angle were noted. The Invisalign appliance appears to manage the vertical dimension relatively well, and the primary mechanism is via incisor movements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  17. 75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 APPLIANCE LABELING RULE AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... Notice contains a technical correction to Sample Label 13 in Appendix L in 16 CFR Part 305 published...

  18. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  19. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  20. Benefits of creating a cross-country data framework for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, Alex; McNeil, Michael; Pantano, Stephen

    2013-10-15

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product’s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  1. The Benefits of Creating a Cross-Country Data Framework for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, Alex; McNeil, Michael; Pantano, Stephen

    2013-09-11

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product?s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  2. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

    2013-07-01

    An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment.

  3. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance

    PubMed Central

    Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

    2013-01-01

    An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment. PMID:23956605

  4. Application of New Materials in the Household Appliances Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ren, Y.

    The widespread use of new materials in household appliances industry, not only help those products to get rid of the appearance shackles caused by original materials, but also gave the designers the freedom to open up the world of product design. This paper aims to analyze the impact of new materials for home appliances design through relevant research, to explore the application of new material in household appliances functional design, shape design, color design and emotional design, etc., so as to reveal the impact and promoting effects of new material in household appliances world, as well as the prospects of new material in future household appliances design.

  5. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  6. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  7. Standardized workflows for increasing efficiency and productivity in discovery stage bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Kevin P; Cohen, Lucinda; Emary, Bart; Pucci, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    Merck consolidated discovery stage bioanalytical functions into the Department of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics & Drug Metabolism in 2007. Since then procedures and equipment used to provide important quantitative data to project teams have been harmonized and in many cases standardized. This approach has enabled movement of work across the network of laboratories and has resulted in a lean, flexible and efficient organization. The overall goal was to reduce time and resources spent on routine activities while creating time to perform research in new areas and technologies to support future scientific needs. The current state of discovery bioanalysis at Merck is discussed, including hardware and software platforms, workflow procedures and performance metrics. Examples of improved processes will be discussed for compound tuning, LC method development, analytical acceptance criteria, automated sample preparation, sample analysis platforms, data processing and data reporting.

  8. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  9. The FTB (Flores Twin Block): a new fixed functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Flores, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    Functional Orthopaedics, Functionalism and their appliances have as their objective to correct the skeletal dysplasia that underlies many malocclusions, taking advantage of the potential of the stomatognathic system's strength. The range of functional appliances is very extensive and there is a great variety thereof. Basically, functional appliances can be: removable functional appliances and fixed functional appliances. In this article, we are going to present a new design for fixed functional appliances for the treatment of Class II, basing ourselves on the biomechanical principles of the Twin Block. We believe this new design, compared with other fixed functional appliances currently in use, improves patient comfort, providing a more effective response and helps us to treat our Class II cases with total success.

  10. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 9: functional appliances to midcentury.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2006-06-01

    The history of the functional appliance can be traced back to 1879, when Norman Kingsley introduced the "bite-jumping" appliance. In the early 1900s, parallel development began in the United States and Europe in fixed and functional techniques, respectively, but the Atlantic Ocean was a geographic barrier that restricted the sharing of knowledge and experience in these philosophies. The only exception to this was the fixed functional appliance designed by Herbst. The monobloc, developed by Robin in 1902, is generally considered the forerunner of removable functional appliances, but the activator developed in Norway by Andresen in the 1920s was the first functional appliance to be widely accepted, becoming the basis of the "Norwegian system" of treatment. Both the appliance system and its theoretical underpinnings were improved and extended elsewhere in Europe, particularly by the German school led by Häupl, Bimler, and Balters. It would be after midcentury before functional appliances were reintroduced into American orthodontics.

  11. An efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation for optimized standard cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samboju, Nagaraj C.; Choi, Soo-Han; Arikati, Srini; Cilingir, Erdem

    2015-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 14nm, triple patterning lithography (TPT) is a worthwhile lithography methodology for printing dense layers such as Metal1. However, this increases the complexity of standard cell design, as it is very difficult to develop a TPT compliant layout without compromising on the area. Hence, this emphasizes the importance to have an accurate stitch generation methodology to meet the standard cell area requirement as defined by the technology shrink factor. In this paper, we present an efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation technique for optimized standard cell design. The basic idea here is to first identify the conflicting polygons based on the Fix Guidance [1] solution developed by Synopsys. Fix Guidance is a reduced sub-graph containing minimum set of edges along with the connecting polygons; by eliminating these edges in a design 3-color conflicts can be resolved. Once the conflicting polygons are identified using this method, they are categorized into four types [2] - (Type 1 to 4). The categorization is based on number of interactions a polygon has with the coloring links and the triangle loops of fix guidance. For each type a certain criteria for keep-out region is defined, based on which the final stitch guidance locations are generated. This technique provides various possible stitch locations to the user and helps the user to select the best stitch location considering both design flexibility (max. pin access/small area) and process-preferences. Based on this technique, a standard cell library for place and route (P and R) can be developed with colorless data and a stitch marker defined by designer using our proposed method. After P and R, the full chip (block) would contain the colorless data and standard cell stitch markers only. These stitch markers are considered as "must be stitch" candidates. Hence during full chip decomposition it is not required to generate and select the stitch markers again for the

  12. Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

    2012-01-01

    Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 μm-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

  13. Natural Gas Burners for Domestic and Industrial Appliances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneo, Lucio; Coghe, Aldo; Cozzi, Fabio; Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio

    This contribution presents some examples of the application of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to domestic appliances and small-scale burners, with the aim of discussing relevant results together with problems encountered. Combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions of gas burners are strongly influenced by the fluid dynamics of the mixture in both premixed and nonpremixed flames. For these reasons the Combustion Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano started using laser diagnostic techniques (LDV and PIV) many years ago. The first PIV application was on a premixed V-flame attached over a burner plate with rectangular twin slots, developed for domestic appliances. The autocorrelation of a double-exposed photograph was used to define the 2-D velocity flow field and high spatial resolution was obtained with a 1 : 1 magnification and a zoom Nikkor objective. More recently, a crosscorrelation CCD camera with a double-pulse Nd:YAG laser was used to characterize high-swirl flows under both nonreacting and reacting conditions. In the following, special emphasis will be given to the discussion of the most relevant results and the main problems encountered with PIV applications to the investigated cases.

  14. Multimedia architectures: from desktop systems to portable appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Natarajan, Balas R.

    1997-01-01

    Future desktop and portable computing systems will have as their core an integrated multimedia system. Such a system will seamlessly combine digital video, digital audio, computer animation, text, and graphics. Furthermore, such a system will allow for mixed-media creation, dissemination, and interactive access in real time. Multimedia architectures that need to support these functions have traditionally required special display and processing units for the different media types. This approach tends to be expensive and is inefficient in its use of silicon. Furthermore, such media-specific processing units are unable to cope with the fluid nature of the multimedia market wherein the needs and standards are changing and system manufacturers may demand a single component media engine across a range of products. This constraint has led to a shift towards providing a single-component multimedia specific computing engine that can be integrated easily within desktop systems, tethered consumer appliances, or portable appliances. In this paper, we review some of the recent architectural efforts in developing integrated media systems. We primarily focus on two efforts, namely the evolution of multimedia-capable general purpose processors and a more recent effort in developing single component mixed media co-processors. Design considerations that could facilitate the migration of these technologies to a portable integrated media system also are presented.

  15. Work-related electrocutions involving portable power tools and appliances.

    PubMed

    Suruda, A; Smith, L

    1992-09-01

    Portable power tools and appliances can be identified as the source of injury in approximately 9% of occupational electrocutions. A search of fatality records for 1984 through 1986 in National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) data bases identified 102 electrocutions involving portable appliances and tools that used 110-volt AC and 33 deaths involving welding equipment, which usually operates on 220-volt AC or higher. Of these 102 deaths, 51 occurred in the construction industry, 13 in services, 13 in manufacturing, and 25 in other industries. Plumbing contractors (Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] 1711) had the largest number of deaths (15) in construction. Powered hand-tools were involved in 58 deaths, with electric drills (23) and saws (13) the two largest classes. Proper provision of ground-fault circuit interrupter protection, particularly at temporary work sites, could have prevented most of the deaths from 110-volt AC. Engineering controls for preventing electrocution from portable arc-welding equipment should be evaluated.

  16. Standards for efficient employment of wide-area motion imagery (WAMI) sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, L. Scott; Maenner, Paul F.

    2013-05-01

    Airborne Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors provide the opportunity for continuous high-resolution surveillance of geographic areas covering tens of square kilometers. This is both a blessing and a curse. Data volumes from "gigapixel-class" WAMI sensors are orders of magnitude greater than for traditional "megapixel-class" video sensors. The amount of data greatly exceeds the capacities of downlinks to ground stations, and even if this were not true, the geographic coverage is too large for effective human monitoring. Although collected motion imagery is recorded on the platform, typically only small "windows" of the full field of view are transmitted to the ground; the full set of collected data can be retrieved from the recording device only after the mission has concluded. Thus, the WAMI environment presents several difficulties: (1) data is too massive for downlink; (2) human operator selection and control of the video windows may not be effective; (3) post-mission storage and dissemination may be limited by inefficient file formats; and (4) unique system implementation characteristics may thwart exploitation by available analysis tools. To address these issues, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) is developing relevant standard data exchange formats: (1) moving target indicator (MTI) and tracking metadata to support tipping and cueing of WAMI windows using "watch boxes" and "trip wires"; (2) control channel commands for positioning the windows within the full WAMI field of view; and (3) a full-field-of-view spatiotemporal tiled file format for efficient storage, retrieval, and dissemination. The authors previously provided an overview of this suite of standards. This paper describes the latest progress, with specific concentration on a detailed description of the spatiotemporal tiled file format.

  17. Assessment of detective quantum efficiency: intercomparison of a recently introduced international standard with prior methods.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Nicole T; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T; Ravin, Carl E

    2007-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the recently introduced international standard method for measurement of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital radiography systems, in comparison with representative prior methods. A recently introduced international standard method (International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] 62220-1, 2003) for DQE measurement and two previously described DQE evaluation methods were considered. In addition to an overall comparison, evaluations of the following method factors were performed: beam quality, beam-limiting devices (apertures or collimators), noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis algorithms and parameters (area, region of interest size, background detrending), and modulation transfer function (MTF) test devices and methods. Overall, at low to middle frequencies, the IEC method yielded DQE estimates that were 3.3% and 6.5% lower than the values yielded by the two previous methods. Averaged over the frequency range of 1.5-2.5 mm(-1), the DQE estimate derived by using the IEC method was 7.1% lower and 12.4% higher than the estimates derived by using the other two methods. Results obtained with the two previous DQE evaluation methods agreed well (within 2.0%) in the low- to middle-frequency range but diverged by up to 10% at higher frequencies. When the DQE method factors were evaluated separately, the largest percentage deviations in DQE were associated with (in order of decreasing influence) the MTF analysis method ( approximately 11%), the beam limitation (about 7%-10%), the beam quality ( approximately 9%), and the NPS analysis method ( approximately 3%). Comparison of DQE estimates obtained by using the recently introduced international standard technique with those obtained by using prior methods revealed that the overall measurement method can affect the DQE estimate by as much as 12%. Findings further suggest that both beam limitation achieved by means of internal collimation (rather than external apertures) and use of a radio

  18. Assessment of Detective Quantum Efficiency: Intercomparison of a Recently Introduced International Standard with Prior Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Nicole T.; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T.; Ravin, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the recently introduced international standard method for measurement of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital radiography systems, in comparison with representative prior methods. Materials and Methods A recently introduced international standard method (International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] 62220-1, 2003) for DQE measurement and two previously described DQE evaluation methods were considered. In addition to an overall comparison, evaluations of the following method factors were performed: beam quality, beam-limiting devices (apertures or collimators), noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis algorithms and parameters (area, region of interest size, background detrending), and modulation transfer function (MTF) test devices and methods. Results Overall, at low to middle frequencies, the IEC method yielded DQE estimates that were 3.3% and 6.5% lower than the values yielded by the two previous methods. Averaged over the frequency range of 1.5–2.5 mm−1, the DQE estimate derived by using the IEC method was 7.1% lower and 12.4% higher than the estimates derived by using the other two methods. Results obtained with the two previous DQE evaluation methods agreed well (within 2.0%) in the low- to middle-frequency range but diverged by up to 10% at higher frequencies. When the DQE method factors were evaluated separately, the largest percentage deviations in DQE were associated with (in order of decreasing influence) the MTF analysis method (~11%), the beam limitation (about 7%–10%), the beam quality (~9%), and the NPS analysis method (~3%). Conclusion Comparison of DQE estimates obtained by using the recently introduced international standard technique with those obtained by using prior methods revealed that the overall measurement method can affect the DQE estimate by as much as 12%. Findings further suggest that both beam limitation achieved by means of internal collimation (rather than external apertures) and use

  19. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  20. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...EPA and NHTSA, on behalf of the Department of Transportation, are each finalizing rules to establish a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the President's directive on May 21, 2010, to take coordinated steps to produce a new generation of clean vehicles. NHTSA's final fuel consumption standards and EPA's final carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions standards are tailored to each of three regulatory categories of heavy-duty vehicles: Combination Tractors; Heavy-duty Pickup Trucks and Vans; and Vocational Vehicles. The rules include separate standards for the engines that power combination tractors and vocational vehicles. Certain rules are exclusive to the EPA program. These include EPA's final hydrofluorocarbon standards to control leakage from air conditioning systems in combination tractors, and pickup trucks and vans. These also include EPA's final nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions standards that apply to all heavy- duty engines, pickup trucks and vans. EPA's final greenhouse gas emission standards under the Clean Air Act will begin with model year 2014. NHTSA's final fuel consumption standards under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 will be voluntary in model years 2014 and 2015, becoming mandatory with model year 2016 for most regulatory categories. Commercial trailers are not regulated in this phase of the Heavy-Duty National Program. The agencies estimate that the combined standards will reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 270 million metric tons and save 530 million barrels of oil over the life of vehicles sold during the 2014 through 2018 model years, providing over $7 billion in net societal benefits, and $49 billion in net societal benefits when private fuel savings are considered. EPA is also finalizing provisions allowing light-duty vehicle manufacturers to use CO2 credits to meet the light-duty vehicle N2O and

  1. Theoretical Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Energy Efficiency Standard Value of Ground Water Heat Pump Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhonghe; Cao, Wei; Li, Peng

    The energy efficiency standard value of the ground water heat pump air-conditioning system is the benchmar parameter for energy saving operation and control of the system. According to each loop's process energy consumption of the system, the control equation of energy efficiency standard value of the water source side loop, heat pump unit and user side loop is established respectively. The dynamic characteristics of the standard value variation with the air-conditioning hourly heating and cooling load is revealed, and the energy efficiency standard value of each loop can be also obtained, and the qualitative sensitivity analysis of the dynamic characteristics in each subsystem is carried out. For system energy saving operation and control, the basic data and theoretical guidance can be provided.

  2. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...EPA and NHTSA, on behalf of the Department of Transportation, are each proposing rules to establish a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel efficiency for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the President's directive on May 21, 2010, to take coordinated steps to produce a new generation of clean vehicles. NHTSA's proposed......

  3. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535 RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty...

  4. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  5. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F R; Lentini-Oliveira, D; Machado, M A C; Prado, G F; Prado, L B F; Saconato, H

    2007-04-18

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they change the mandible posture forwards and potentially enlarge the upper airway and increase the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effectiveness of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for OSAS in children. A sensitive search was developed for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 3); PubMed (January 1966 to September 2005); EMBASE (1980 to September 2005); Lilacs (1982 to September 2005); BBO-Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (1986 to September 2005); and SciELO (1997 to September 2005). There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiologic function, behavioural problems, drop outs and withdrawals, quality of life, side effects (tolerability), economic evaluation. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. The initial search identified 384 trials

  6. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  7. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...Section 321 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires the Commission to consider the effectiveness of current labeling requirements for lamps (commonly referred to as light bulbs) and alternative labeling approaches. After holding a public meeting, conducting consumer research, issuing proposed changes to existing labeling requirements, and reviewing public comments, the Commission announces final amendments to the lamp labeling requirements in the Appliance Labeling Rule. The Commission also seeks further comment on several issues for consideration in any subsequent rulemaking.

  8. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number

  9. Sensors Applications, Volume 5, Sensors in Household Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschulena, Guido; Lahrmann, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    A competent and comprehensive survey of current and future sensors applied in electronic household devices. Engineers and scientists will find here reports of an increase in product safety, efficiency and consumer comfort, coupled with a decrease in power consumption and water/wastewater. The book also looks at the customer appeal of advanced "intelligent" appliances, showing the heightened need for comprehensive information on their potentials and limitations. Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry.

  10. Effectiveness and efficiency of a CAD/CAM orthodontic bracket system.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew W; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Mengqi; Nguyen, Tung

    2015-12-01

    The first straight-wire appliance was introduced over 40 years ago to increase the consistency and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. More recently, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been used to create individualized orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and efficiency of CAD/CAM customized orthodontic appliances compared with direct and indirect bonded stock orthodontic brackets. This retrospective study included 3 treatment groups: group 1 patients were direct bonded with self-ligating appliances, group 2 patients were indirect bonded with self-ligating appliances, and group 3 patients were indirect bonded with CAD/CAM self-ligating appliances. Complete pretreatment and posttreatment records were obtained for all patients. The American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) Discrepancy Index was used to evaluate the pretreatment records, and the posttreatment outcomes were analyzed using the ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation. All data collection and analysis were completed by 1 evaluator. There were no statistically significant differences in the ABO Discrepancy Index or the ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation among the groups. Treatment times for the 3 groups were significantly different; the CAD/CAM group was the shortest at 13.8 ± 3.4 months, compared with 21.9 ± 5.0 and 16.9 ± 4.1 months for the direct bonded and indirect bonded groups, respectively. The number of treatment appointments for the CAD/CAM group was significantly fewer than for the direct bonded group. The CAD/CAM orthodontic bracket system evaluated in this study was as effective in treatment outcome measures as were standard brackets bonded both directly and indirectly. The CAD/CAM appliance was more efficient in regard to treatment duration, although the decrease in total archwire appointments was minimal. Further investigation is needed to better quantify the clinical benefits of CAD/CAM orthodontic

  11. A method for correcting standard-based real-time PCR DNA quantitation when the standard's polymerase reaction efficiency is significantly different from that of the unknown's.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Peter L; Nguyen, Ly-Huong T; Chen, Chin-Yi; Uhlich, Gaylen A; Paoli, George C

    2012-03-01

    Standard-based real-time or quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantitation of an unknown sample's DNA concentration (i.e., [DNA](unk)) assumes that the concentration dependence of the standard and unknown reactions (related to reaction efficiency, E) are equivalent. In our work with background food-borne organisms which can interfere with pathogen detection, we have found that it is generally possible to achieve an acceptable E (1 ± 0.05) for standard solutions by optimizing the PCR conditions, template purity, primer sequence, and amplicon lengths. However, this is frequently not true for the solutions containing unknown amounts of target DNA inasmuch as cell extracts are more chemically complex than the standards which have been amplified (2(30)-fold) as well as undergone a purification process. When significant differences in E occur, it is not possible to accurately estimate unknown target DNA concentration from the standard solution's slope and intercept (from threshold cycle number, or C(T), versus Log[DNA] data). What is needed is a standard-mediated intercept which can be specifically coupled with an unknown solution's PCR concentration dependence. In this work, we develop a simple mathematical procedure to generate a new standard curve with a slope (∂C(T)/∂Log[Dilution](unk)) derived from at least three dilutions of the unknown target DNA solution ([DNA](unk)) and an intercept calculated from the unknown's C(T)s, DNA concentrations interpolated from the standard curve (i.e., the traditional estimate of [DNA](unk)), and ∂C(T)/∂Log[Dilution](unk). We were able to achieve this due to our discovery of the predictable way in which the observed and ideal C(T) versus Log[DNA] slopes and intercepts deviate from one another. This "correction" in the standard-based [DNA](unk) determination is typically 20-60% when the difference in the standard and unknown E is >0.1.

  12. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  13. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  14. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  15. Study of Damages on Home Electric Appliances due to Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Sigeru; Yokota, Tsutomu

    Lightning damages of home electric appliances occurred in 154houses of 6,024monitors, were gathered in summer and winter seasons of 1987-1991 and 1996-1997. Types of damaged home appliances are summarized and extent of the damages are investigated. Furthermore the magnitude of invading lightning currents and the path of the invasion were estimated by means of inspections of the inner circuits of damaged home appliances and the experimental verifications. These investigations can lead to the development of lightning protection methods for home electric appliances of this highly computerized society.

  16. Fabrication of lingual orthodontic appliances: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ian; Lee, Jang Yeol

    2013-09-01

    Lingual orthodontics is increasing in popularity, with more adults receiving orthodontic treatment and opting for truly invisible appliances that do not have any limitations on the type of tooth movement they can achieve. In addition, there are a growing number of children receiving lingual appliances as they have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of decalcification. Combining this growth in popularity with advances in computer technology, it is possible to treatment plan, design the appliance and have it custom made all with the click of a button. This article highlights the different methods that have been utilized in the fabrication of lingual appliances.

  17. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  18. Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program: 2009 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2009 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  19. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic band...

  20. 1997 RECS data on consumer usage of appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) conducted by the Energy Information Administration contained questions on how households use various appliances. This includes the following appliance usage (1) personnel computers, (2) cooking appliances, (3) conventional ovens, (4) microwave ovens, (5) clothes washers, and (6) clothes dryer. Many of these items were first collected in the 1997 RECS. In this paper, appliance usage by household demographic characteristics (household income, age of householder, and number of household members) are examined with an emphasis on results for data items that were first collected in the 1997 RECS.

  1. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

  2. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients.

  3. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  4. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... for Considering Environmental Impacts'' (FRA's Procedures), 64 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999), as required by... FRA action (requiring the preparation of an environmental impact ] statement or environmental...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety...

  5. [Fixed appliances current state of the art].

    PubMed

    Droschl, H; Eskici, A; Bantleon, H P; Muchitsch, A P

    1989-11-01

    Recent advances in fixed appliances are reviewed and discussed. These include cosmetically more appealing brackets (ceramic, lingual); new wires (nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloys); new biomechanical approaches (accurate computation of forces and torques according to Burstone resulting in the use of new mechanical concepts); experiences in the treatment of transplanted teeth made in the past 15 years; new approaches to the orthodontic finish (implementation of Andrews' "six keys to normal occlusion" with straight wires, accurate positioning of brackets, and gnathological positioners). Cases will be demonstrated.

  6. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando R; Lentini-Oliveira, Débora A; Prado, Lucila Bf; Prado, Gilmar F; Carvalho, Luciane Bc

    2016-10-05

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adeno-tonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbidities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they hold the lower jaw (mandible) forwards which potentially enlarges the upper airway and increases the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effects of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 7 April 2016); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 7 April 2016); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 7 April 2016); Embase Ovid (1980 to 7 April 2016); LILACS BIREME (from 1982 to 7 April 2016); BBO BIREME (from 1986 to 7 April 2016) and SciELO Web of Science (from 1997 to 7 April 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials on 7 April 2016. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiological function, behavioural problems, quality of life, side effects

  8. Petitions for Reconsideration of Phase 2 GHG Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has received petitions for reconsideration or reconsideration of the October 25, 2016 final rulemaking entitled Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles—Phase 2 Final Rule (81 FR 73,478)

  9. Oral Appliance Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A.; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA. Citation: Sutherland K; Vanderveken OM; Tsuda H; Marklund M; Gagnadoux F; Kushida CA; Cistulli PA; on behalf of the ORANGE-Registry. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):215-227. PMID:24533007

  10. Accidental debondings: Buccal vs fully individualized lingual multibracket appliances.

    PubMed

    Ziebura, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Flieger, Stefanie; Stamm, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the frequency and localizations of bond failures (BFs) in patients treated with either lingual (TOP-Service für Lingualtechnik GmbH, a 3M Company, Bad Essen, Germany) or buccal (Mini Diamond brackets/Accent molar tubes; Ormco, Orange, Calif) full multibracket appliances in both dental arches. Data were acquired by an independent investigator from the patient records of 3 practitioners. To establish a standardized observation period, the first year of treatment was analyzed for each patient. Statistical analysis comprised the Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. The significance level was set at P <0.05. The mean number of BFs per patient in the first year of treatment did not differ significantly between the lingual group (n = 59; mean age, 31.1 years; mean BFs per patient, 2.63; SD, 2.77; minimum, 0; maximum, 13) and the buccal group (n = 44; mean age, 15.14 years; mean BFs per patient, 2.61; SD, 3.41; minimum, 0; maximum, 14) (P = 0.428) or with respect to sex (lingual group, P = 0.251; buccal group, P = 0.414) or practitioner (lingual group, P = 0.755; buccal group, P = 0.060), but molar attachments were more prone to BFs than were premolar brackets (lingual group, P = 0.015; buccal group, P = 0.049), and premolar brackets were more prone to BF than anterior brackets (lingual group, P = 0.005; buccal group, P = 0.004). With both appliances, a mean of 2.62 BFs per patient in the first year of treatment can be expected; this benchmark provides a reference for patient briefing, which is very important considering the large interindividual variances and budgeting considerations. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of a prosthetic appliance for treatment of sleep apnea syndrome on masticatory and tongue muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K

    1998-05-01

    The efficiency of an appliance for treatment of sleep apnea shows inordinate interindividual difference. The mechanism of its therapeutic effects remains unresolved. This study examined the effect of the device on sleep apnea, and masticatory and tongue muscles. Fifteen patients with sleep apnea syndrome were evaluated polysomnographically, with and without the appliance. Electromyograms (EMG) of genioglossal, masseter, and lateral pterygoid muscles were recorded and EMG amplitudes measured before, during, and after the apneas. Apneas were classified into three types: obstructive, central, and mixed. During obstructive apneas, muscles showed significantly lower EMG amplitudes; whereas during central apneas, no decrease in the mean EMG amplitude was observed. EMG amplitudes increased after insertion of the device. EMG amplitudes during obstructive apneas were significantly increased in the genioglossal (p < 0.03, t test) and lateral pterygoid muscles (p < 0.03) by the device. Obstructive and mixed apneas per hour were significantly reduced by the appliance; however, in contrast, central apneas showed slightly increased. The apnea index decreased significantly (p < 0.002) by the device owing to the paucity of central apneas. The apnea appliance activated masticatory and tongue muscles during sleep and prevented the upper airway from collapsing. The prosthetic appliance was useful in the treatment of sleep apnea syndrome.

  12. Home Safe Home: Appliances, Tools, and Small Equipment. Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety in the Home, III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    Many accidents in the home are caused by faulty, defective or improperly designed tools, appliances, and equipment. Government, non-governmental organizations, and industries cooperate to develop and implement standards for the safe design and manufacture of consumer products. This booklet provides information to help consumers select products,…

  13. Home Safe Home: Appliances, Tools, and Small Equipment. Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety in the Home, III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    Many accidents in the home are caused by faulty, defective or improperly designed tools, appliances, and equipment. Government, non-governmental organizations, and industries cooperate to develop and implement standards for the safe design and manufacture of consumer products. This booklet provides information to help consumers select products,…

  14. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Clearance spaces surrounding heat producing appliances are not required to be framed-in or guarded when: (i) A space is designed specifically for a clothes washer or dryer; (ii) Dimensions surrounding the.... Combustion air inlets and flue gas outlets shall be listed or certified as components of the appliance. The...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.709 Installation of appliances. (a) The installation of each appliance...″ adhesive backed plastic laminated label or the equivalent which reads as follows: “Warning” This... the complete separation of the combustion system from the interior atmosphere of the manufactured home...

  16. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation...

  19. Terminologie des appareils electromenagers (Vocabulary for Electric Appliances).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Henriette, Comp.; Lalut, Jeanne, Comp.

    This glossary of common French words and expressions used in reference to major electric appliances is designed for consumers, producers, and advertisers. Emphasis is placed on current rather than technical French-Canadian vocabulary. The terms are classified into five sections according to type of appliance: (1) electric range, (2) refrigerator,…

  20. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight integrity. Each watertight door, scuttle, and hatch required for watertight integrity, which may be opened during...

  1. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting...

  2. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting...

  3. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting...

  4. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting...

  5. 46 CFR 133.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 133.70 Section 133.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.70 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each OSV must carry lifebuoys approved under approval...

  6. The Herbst appliance--its biologic effects and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Pancherz, H

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to survey the Herbst bite-jumping method. An outline of appliance design and appliance construction is given. The effects of the treatment method on the dentofacial complex and on the masticatory system have been analyzed with the aid of dental casts, cephalometric roentgenograms, and electromyographic registrations from the masticatory muscles. The use and effectiveness of the Herbst appliance in the treatment of Class II malocclusions are exemplified by clinical cases, some of which were followed for 5 years after treatment. The Herbst appliance is most effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, provided it is used as indicated. Thus, the appliance must be limited to growing persons only. The treatment method should not be looked upon as a last resort to be used only when other treatment approaches have failed. Treatment prognosis is best in subjects with a brachyfacial growth pattern. Unfavorable growth, unstable occlusal conditions, and persisting oral habits after treatment are potential risk factors for occlusal relapses. As treatment with the Herbst appliance is performed during a relatively short period, the hard and soft tissues (teeth, bone, and musculature) would need some time for adaptation to the new mandibular position after the appliance is removed. Posttreatment retention as a routine with a removable functional appliance is therefore recommended.

  7. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit...

  8. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit...

  9. Child Development Functionality Assessment Guide: Standards and Requirements for Developing Most Efficient Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    As part of its cost containment efforts, the U.S. Navy continues to evaluate its child development program to expand availability without compromising the high quality standards required by the 1989 Military Child Care Act. This manual provides guidelines for conducting Functionality Assessments (FA) and delineates the standards and requirements…

  10. Analysis of midpalatal miniscrew-assisted maxillary molar distalization patterns with simultaneous use of fixed appliances: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Eun Jin; Nam, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal anchorage-assisted upper molar distalization has become one of the standard treatment modalities for the correction of Class II malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to analyze maxillary molar movement patterns according to appliance design, with the simultaneous use of buccal fixed orthodontic appliances. The authors devised two distinct types of midpalatal miniscrew-assisted maxillary molar distalizers, a lingual arch type and a pendulum type. Fourteen patients treated with one of the two types of distalizers were enrolled in the study, and the patterns of tooth movement associated with each type were compared. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed. The lingual arch type was associated with relatively bodily upper molar distalization, while the pendulum type was associated with distal tipping with intrusion of the upper molar. Clinicians should be aware of the expected tooth movement associated with each appliance design. Further well designed studies with larger sample sizes are required. PMID:26877983

  11. Interceptive therapy with elastodontic appliance: case report

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient in mixed dentition with dento-skeletal class II malocclusion, deep bite, increased overjet and gummy smile. In this kind of clinical case the objectives of treatment were: to correct the dento-skeletal malocclusion, to obtain a correct overbite and overjet, to control the permanent teeth in a good eruption, to improve aesthetical conditions and to maintain clinical results. Treatment plan included just Occlus-o-guide®, the type that is indicated for mixed dentition (G type). The active phase of therapy was conducted in twelve months and the retention time was two years. Then the patient was controlled every three months and she used the appliance nighttime in alternance for one year more. Occlus-o-guide® was the indicated appliance to obtain all the objectives requested to solve the malocclusion. The early therapy with Occlus-o-guide® is easy, short and most of treated cases don’t need a second phase of orthodontic therapy. PMID:22238711

  12. The occlusal appliance effect on myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Villalón, Pablo; Arzola, Juan Francisco; Valdivia, José; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    There are limited studies about the effects of occlusal appliance (OA) after three months of use. This study aimed to compare myofascial pain (MP) according to RDC/TMD, craniocervical relationships (CR) and masseter and temporalis bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity, before and after three months of occlusal appliance use. Nineteen patients participated in this study. Cephalometric and RDC/TMD diagnostics were performed previously (baseline) and at the end of the study period (three months). EMG recordings at clinical mandibular rest position (MRP), during swallowing of saliva (SW) and during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) were performed as follows: after one hour of use of an OA; after three months of using the OA for a minimum of 16 hours each day; and immediately after removal from the mouth. MP was relieved in all patients at the end of the study period. CR did not change significantly between baseline and after removal of the OA at the end of the study period. EMG activity during MRP, SW, and MVC decreased in both muscles after one hour using the OA and maintained the same level for the three-month period. When comparing baseline versus final EMG activity without OA, a significant decrease was only observed in the masseter muscle. The results observed in the present study are relevant to clinicians because they imply that the therapeutic effect of OA does not significantly affect the homeostasis of the craniocervical system.

  13. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  14. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Appliance therapy for perioral electrical burns: a conservative approach.

    PubMed

    Sadove, A M; Jones, J E; Lynch, T R; Sheets, P W

    1988-01-01

    Perioral burns are the most common electrical injury of childhood and may produce significant deformity. A study conducted between 1980 and 1983 of 15 patients with perioral electrical burns outlines the conservative, nonsurgical management of these injuries using burn appliance therapy. Final results--including lip length, scar appearance, vermilion quality, and lip roll--were assessed and compared to early and conservative excisional techniques. Burn appliance therapy results were equivalent to results of excisional techniques. Burn appliance therapy additionally preserved the potential for secondary cosmetic repair. Appliance therapy may therefore reduce the number of surgical revisions required to achieve an acceptable results with a concurrent decrease of in-patient hospital days and total patient cost. We believe that nonsurgical management of perioral burns with use of a burn appliance is the treatment of choice for these injuries.

  16. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, Jr., Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

  17. Influence of thermoplastic appliance thickness on the magnitude of force delivered to a maxillary central incisor during tipping.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Wolfram; Dathe, Henning; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Zapf, Antonia; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances made of 2 materials with 2 thicknesses to a maxillary central incisor during tipping. Two materials were tested, each in 2 thicknesses: Erkodur (Erkodent Erich Kopp GmbH, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Germany) 1.0 and 0.8 mm, and Biolon (Dreve Dentamid GmbH, Unna, Germany), 1.0 and 0.75 mm. For each material, 5 appliances were produced. To measure the forces applied, an isolated measuring tooth, part of a standardized resin model, was deflected in 0.05 degrees steps from 0 degrees to 0.42 degrees in the vestibular and palatine directions, after placing the respective appliance on the model. For statistical analysis, the force components Fx/tipping and Fz/intrusion at a displacement of +/- 0.151 mm from the incisor edge were selected. Means and standard deviations were calculated. The Wilcoxon 2-sample test for group pairings was used. The norms for the mean Fx forces ranged from 1.62 (SD, 0.41) to 5.35 N (SD, 0.63). The mean Fz forces were between 0.07 (SD, 0.13) and -2.47 N (SD, 0.34). The highest intrusive forces were measured during vestibular displacement of the measuring tooth. The forces delivered by the thick appliances were overall significantly higher (P <0.0001) than those of the thin materials. The forces delivered by the Biolon appliances were generally significantly higher (P <0.0001) than those for the Erkodur materials. The forces applied were mostly too high when compared with those stated in the literature as ideal. In addition to thickness, the thermoforming process influences the magnitude of the force delivered by a thermoformed appliance.

  18. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  19. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  20. Antenna Efficiency and the Genius of the IEEE Standard for Antenna Terms [Education Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    At a 2007 Square Kilometre Array Design Studies (SKADS) workshop in Dwingeloo, Wim van Cappellen of the Nether lands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) gave a presentation on figures of merit, in which he memorably compared antenna terms to apples. What seems like a simple, homogeneous fruit comes in all colors and varieties. Similarly, a survey of antenna literature and textbooks shows that authors use a wide variety of antenna figures of merit, often not in compliance with the relevant IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas [1]. Since this standard is now in the process of revision by the Antennas and Propagation Society Antenna Standards Committee, it seems worth while to consider the standard, and clarify some common misunderstandings and inconsistent usages.

  1. EPA and DOT Propose Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (06/19/15) ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are jointly proposing standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that would improve

  2. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  3. A comparison between written, verbal, and videotape oral hygiene instruction for patients with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Lees, A; Rock, W P

    2000-12-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of written, videotape, and one-to-one instruction upon the knowledge, oral hygiene standard, and gingival health of subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with a lower fixed appliance. Subjects for whom fixed appliances had been fitted recently were divided randomly into three groups of 21, 22, and 22, respectively. Group 1 received written oral hygiene instruction, group 2 a specially made videotape, and group 3 saw a hygienist for one-to-one instruction. Results were assessed in terms of improvement in knowledge concerning oral hygiene procedures, and of plaque and gingival index scores. Analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects or interactions at P = 0.05, although the difference in the plaque index scores before and after instruction was close to significance.

  4. Cephalometric appraisal of patients treated with fixed lingual orthodontic appliances: historic review and analysis of cases.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, D T; Kuftinec, M M

    1989-06-01

    In the first part of this article, a retrospective look was taken of evolvement and progression in design of the lingual fixed orthodontic appliance. The second part is a retrospective study of treated lingual cases. By the use of standardized cephalometric radiographs, selected treatment parameters were analyzed:--namely, bite opening, changes in mandibular position, inclination, torque and intrusion of incisors, and soft-tissue effects. For the clinician who uses this treatment modality, the most significant effects are the bite opening, intrusion of the mandibular incisors (particularly in extraction cases), and limited reduction of lower lip protrusion. The mandibular plane angle and torque and inclination of incisors did not follow a consistent and predictable pattern. On the basis of the study's findings, it is suggested that lingual fixed appliance therapy is a useful supplement to our treatment modalities; good results are both realistic and possible.

  5. Relative efficiency of North Carolina designs I and II and standard design III in three wheat crosses.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of three analyses, namely, Designs I and II of Comstock and Robinson (1952) and standard Design III analysis of Kearsey and Jinks (1968), was compared in the F2s of three wheat crosses (Norteno 67 x HD 1982, HD 1982 x Moti and Sonalika x Moti) for plant height, spikelets per spike and yield per plant. The three analyses showed a remarkable agreement in estimating the additive (D) component for all three characters in all three crosses. But, as regards the estimation of dominance ] (H) component, standard Design III analysis proved to be more efficient than the other two analyses in crosses 2 (HD 1982 x Moti) and 3 (Sonalika x Moti) for all three characters except spikelets per spike in cross 3.

  6. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the Republic of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Park, Won Young; Zhou, Mo; Ke, Jing; Choi, Jun Young

    2012-06-08

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today.

  7. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  8. Bacteriological efficiency of a standardized cleansing and disinfection technique for duodenoscopes.

    PubMed

    Schenk, J; Riemann, J F; Gräf, W

    1978-05-01

    Adequate cleansing and disinfection of the endoscopes is desirable to prevent bacteriaemia and septicemia following gastrointestinal endoscopy, especially endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and duodenoscopic sphincterotomy. A practical method, proved in our department over a period of 12 months, is described. As the result of this standardized cleansing and disinfection technique using the aldehyde derivative Gigasept (succine dialdehyde and 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran) in a 10% concentration as chemical disinfectant, sterile cultures from the biopsy channel were obtained in 75% of tested instruments. The remaining fiberscopes exhibited only a few bacteria left, resulting in a sufficient success of disinfection according to hygienic standards.

  9. Standardized Patient Training Programs: an Efficient Solution to the Call for Quality Improvement in Oncologist Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Vapiwala, Neha

    2015-09-01

    Several key medical and oncologic professional societies have endorsed the importance of physician communication as a quality improvement metric. Despite this clear message, there remain substantial barriers to communication skills training (CST) in oncologic specialties. Herein, we describe the major barriers to communications training and propose standardized patient (SP) programs as efficient and strategic starting points and as expansion opportunities for new and existing CSTs.

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-20

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

  11. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss.

  12. Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E; Coughlan, James M

    2014-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone's camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfactory image is acquired, based on automatic estimates of image blur and glare. Formative studies were conducted with several blind and visually impaired participants, whose feedback is guiding the development of the user interface. The prototype software has been released as a Free and Open Source (FOSS) project.

  13. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  14. Mapping of user interfaces on electronic appliances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Franw; Tsai, Wang-Chin

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate mapping of user interfaces on consumer electronic appliances. A digital clock with five different interface modes was chosen for the experiment. Forty elderly subjects (above 65 years) and 40 middle-aged subjects (45-64 years) participated in the study. Every subject had to complete three different tasks, namely time setting, alarm time setting and date setting. The researchers investigated what problems were encountered when performing these tasks and collected data such as operational time, the number of total inputs, subjective estimation and interview information. The findings of this study indicated that the interface modes had significant effects on operational time, the number of total inputs and subjective estimation. Finally, the study confirms that when the spatial relationship between buttons and display contents are clearly indicated, the operation is easier to complete.

  15. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-11

    Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health.The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance.There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific

  16. Cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1993-08-01

    The cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of orthodontic appliances were assessed. Metallic devices used in orthodontics, such as molar bands, brackets, and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. The same devices were tested for antibacterial effect with Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis. The multicomponent devices, which are bonded with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys, were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices, probably because copper is more cytotoxic than nickel. The devices had a definite, but low, antibacterial effect, as compared with the 0.05% chlorhexidine positive control. A cytotoxic effect of the devices per se might contribute to a localized gingivitis. It is uncertain whether orthodontic devices have any significant inhibitory effect on dental plaque viability.

  17. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliance Therapy: An Update for 2015.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Dort, Leslie C; Katz, Sheri G; Lettieri, Christopher J; Harrod, Christopher G; Thomas, Sherene M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2015-07-15

    Since the previous parameter and review paper publication on oral appliances (OAs) in 2006, the relevant scientific literature has grown considerably, particularly in relation to clinical outcomes. The purpose of this new guideline is to replace the previous and update recommendations for the use of OAs in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (AADSM) commissioned a seven-member task force. A systematic review of the literature was performed and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the quality of evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of the evidence counterbalanced by an assessment of the relative benefit of the treatment versus the potential harms. The AASM and AADSM Board of Directors approved the final guideline recommendations. 1. We recommend that sleep physicians prescribe oral appliances, rather than no therapy, for adult patients who request treatment of primary snoring (without obstructive sleep apnea). (STANDARD) 2. When oral appliance therapy is prescribed by a sleep physician for an adult patient with obstructive sleep apnea, we suggest that a qualified dentist use a custom, titratable appliance over non-custom oral devices. (GUIDELINE) 3. We recommend that sleep physicians consider prescription of oral appliances, rather than no treatment, for adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are intolerant of CPAP therapy or prefer alternate therapy. (STANDARD) 4. We suggest that qualified dentists provide oversight—rather than no follow-up—of oral appliance therapy in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, to survey for dental-related side effects or occlusal changes and reduce their incidence. (GUIDELINE) 5. We suggest that sleep physicians conduct follow-up sleep testing to improve or confirm

  18. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed... siting, design, and construction of new Federal buildings. This notice extends the comment period to... meeting will be held at the U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 8E-089, 1000 Independence...

  19. Overcoming Codes and Standards Barriers to Innovations in Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-02-15

    In this journal article, the authors discuss approaches to overcoming building code barriers to energy-efficiency innovations in home construction. Building codes have been a highly motivational force for increasing the energy efficiency of new homes in the United States in recent years. But as quickly as the codes seem to be changing, new products are coming to the market at an even more rapid pace, sometimes offering approaches and construction techniques unthought of when the current code was first proposed, which might have been several years before its adoption by various jurisdictions. Due to this delay, the codes themselves can become barriers to innovations that might otherwise be helping to further increase the efficiency, comfort, health or durability of new homes. . The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America, a program dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of America’s housing stock through research and education, is working with the U.S. housing industry through its research teams to help builders identify and remove code barriers to innovation in the home construction industry. The article addresses several approaches that builders use to achieve approval for innovative building techniques when code barriers appear to exist.

  20. Thermal testing of the proposed HUD energy efficiency standard for new manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Barker, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Thermal testing of two manufactured homes was performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Testing (CMFERT) environmental enclosure in the winter and spring of 1991. The primary objective of the study was to directly measure the thermal performance of the two homes, each built according to a proposed new US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standard. Secondary objectives were to test the accuracy of an accompanying compliance calculation method and to help manufacturers find cost-effective ways to meet the new standard. Both homes performed within the standard without major design or production line modifications. Their performance fell within 8% of predictions based on the new draft HUD calculation manual; however, models with minimum window area were selected by the manufacturer. Models with more typical window area would have required substantive design changes to meet the standard. Several other tests were also performed on the homes by both NREL and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to uncover potential thermal anomalies and to explore the degradation in thermal performance that might occur because of (a) penetrations in the rodent barrier from field hookups and repairs, (b) closing of interior doors with and without operation of the furnace blower, and (c) exposure to winds.

  1. Thermal testing of the proposed HUD energy efficiency standard for new manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Barker, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Thermal testing of two manufactured homes was performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Testing (CMFERT) environmental enclosure in the winter and spring of 1991. The primary objective of the study was to directly measure the thermal performance of the two homes, each built according to a proposed new US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standard. Secondary objectives were to test the accuracy of an accompanying compliance calculation method and to help manufacturers find cost-effective ways to meet the new standard. Both homes performed within the standard without major design or production line modifications. Their performance fell within 8% of predictions based on the new draft HUD calculation manual; however, models with minimum window area were selected by the manufacturer. Models with more typical window area would have required substantive design changes to meet the standard. Several other tests were also performed on the homes by both NREL and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to uncover potential thermal anomalies and to explore the degradation in thermal performance that might occur because of (a) penetrations in the rodent barrier from field hookups and repairs, (b) closing of interior doors with and without operation of the furnace blower, and (c) exposure to winds.

  2. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..._standards/residential/furnaces_boilers.html . DATES: Meeting: DOE will hold a public meeting on Wednesday, March 13, 2013, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. directly after the Residential Furnace and Boilers Test...'s Web site at:...

  3. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  4. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance...

  5. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance...

  6. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance...

  7. Appliance electricity consumption in the residential sector: An economic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, B.S.

    1995-03-01

    In this article a theoretical framework within which the demand for electricity in the residential sector is studied. The cross-sectional household survey data is analyzed to estimate the consumption of electricity for different end uses by relating the household electricity consumption with the stock of electrical appliances. Using these estimates, appliances elasticities are obtained. It is shown how these elasticities can be used to relate future electricity usage to changes in the stock of appliances for Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka state in southern India.

  8. Device for handling appliances on a sea bed

    SciTech Connect

    Tuson, S.

    1980-11-04

    A method of handling appliances on a sea bottom for the operation and maintenance of well heads in off-shore oil field or other working plants uses an articulated column resting on the sea bed substantially about the site of said appliances or well heads, wherein the improvement consists in the use of at least one tubular elongated structure extending along said column in parallel relation to the axis thereof, the inside of said structure serving the purpose of guiding said appliances and related means cooperating therewith and also of forming a passage -way for the remote control cables and other transmission or connecting means in particular for operating the well heads.

  9. Enhancing efficiency and quality of statistical estimation of immunogenicity assay cut points through standardization and automation.

    PubMed

    Su, Cheng; Zhou, Lei; Hu, Zheng; Weng, Winnie; Subramani, Jayanthi; Tadkod, Vineet; Hamilton, Kortney; Bautista, Ami; Wu, Yu; Chirmule, Narendra; Zhong, Zhandong Don

    2015-10-01

    Biotherapeutics can elicit immune responses, which can alter the exposure, safety, and efficacy of the therapeutics. A well-designed and robust bioanalytical method is critical for the detection and characterization of relevant anti-drug antibody (ADA) and the success of an immunogenicity study. As a fundamental criterion in immunogenicity testing, assay cut points need to be statistically established with a risk-based approach to reduce subjectivity. This manuscript describes the development of a validated, web-based, multi-tier customized assay statistical tool (CAST) for assessing cut points of ADA assays. The tool provides an intuitive web interface that allows users to import experimental data generated from a standardized experimental design, select the assay factors, run the standardized analysis algorithms, and generate tables, figures, and listings (TFL). It allows bioanalytical scientists to perform complex statistical analysis at a click of the button to produce reliable assay parameters in support of immunogenicity studies.

  10. FIXED OR REMOVABLE APPLIANCE FOR EARLY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL ANTERIOR CROSSBITE.

    PubMed

    Wiedel, Anna-Paulina

    2015-01-01

    angle > 0 degrees, and no previous orthodontic treatment. Sixty-two patients agreed to participate and were randomly allocated for treatment either with FA with brackets and wires, or RA, comprising acrylic plates with protruding springs. Paper I compared and evaluated the efficiency of the two different treatment strategies to correct the anterior crossbite with anterior shift in mixed dentition. Paper II compared and evaluated the stability of the results of the two treatment methods two years after the appliances were removed. In Paper III, the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment methods was compared and evaluated by cost-minimization analysis. Paper IV evaluated and compared the patient's perceptions of the two treatment methods, in terms of perceived pain, discomfort and impairment of jaw function. The following conclusions were drawn from the results: Paper I. Anterior crossbite with functional shift in the mixed dentition can be successfully corrected by either fixed or removable appliance therapy in a short-term perspective. Treatment time for correction of anterior crossbite with functional shift was significantly shorter for FA compared to RA but the difference had minor clinical relevance. Paper II. In the mixed dentition, anterior crossbite affecting one or more incisors can be successfully corrected by either fixed or removable appliances, with similarly stable outcomes and equally favourable prognoses. Either type of appliance can be recommended. Paper III. Correction of anterior crossbite with functional shift using fixed appliance offers significant economic benefits over removable appliances, including lower direct costs for materials and lower indirect costs. Even when only successful outcomes are considered, treatment with removable appliance is more expensive. Paper IV. The general levels of pain intensity and discomfort were low to moderate in both groups. The level of pain and discomfort intensity was higher for the first three days in the

  11. Will cheap gas and efficient cars imperil air-quality goals under relaxed emission standards

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Saricks, C.L.; Moses, D.O.

    1983-04-01

    Long-term trends, to the year 2000, of urban household travel were forecast for prototype metropolitan areas under several sets of energy prices, auto fuel economy, and emission standards. Dramatic improvements in air quality were forecast due to redistribution of travel and lowered emissions. The exception to this trend to rapidly growing cities, such as those in the west and southwest experiencing sprawl development that characterized many urbanized areas in the industrial northeast and midwest during the 1950's and 1960's. In one test city, where the rate of urbanization has slowed significantly, analysis indicated that relaxation of the light-duty-vehicle NO/sub x/ standard from 1.0 gm/mi to 2.0 gm/mi would not severely threaten attainment of the ambient NO/sub x/ standards by 1987 owing to redistribution of population and activities. The difference in total energy impacts was determined to be negligible, assuming moderate increase in petroleum prices through 1995 (3.1%/year). In another policy test, without changing emission standards, an increase in fuel price of 3.75%/year from 1980 to 2000 reduced travel and provided a 4% decrease in energy use and a corresponding decrease in CO, HC and NO/sub x/. Virtually all of the reduction in travel and emissions was due to non-work travel, which fell 9%. The price increase damped the increase in auto travel per person that would occur as autos become cheaper to operate and as household wealth increases, making the answer to the title a cautious yes, given steady or slowly rising fuel prices.

  12. New Path for Building Compliance in ASHRAE Model Energy Efficiency Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-02-09

    This article describes a new path for performance based compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Using Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method, this path allows the same simulated baseline model to be used for both code compliance and beyond code programs. The baseline is fixed at approximately 90.1-2004 and independent of the designer's chosen design solutions to the greatest extent possible

  13. Quantification of lifetime accumulated ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances in the context of a retrospective epidemiological case-control study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Terschüren, Claudia; Kaune, William T; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    In Europe household appliances are a major source of indoor 50 Hz magnetic field exposure. A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations between leukemia risk and personal use of household appliances. In the "Norddeutsche Leukämie und Lymphomstudie" (NLL), which was conducted in Northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) between 1997 and 2001, lifetime use of a preselected array of electric appliances (microwave ovens, hair-dryers, motorized electrical alarm clocks (i.e. that use a motor to move their hands or digits), electric blankets and pillows, heated waterbeds, computers with conventional screens, TVs, and electric sewing machines) was recorded in a standardized, personal, computerized interview. Exposure was assessed on three different levels of precision: ever use, cumulative appliance-years, and average time of daily use. Additional questions referred to exposure modifying factors, including distance from screen while watching TV, position of an alarm clock at the bed etc.). Exposure to ELF-EMF from household appliances was quantified as ever vs. never use, gross and net appliance-years of lifetime use and cumulative microT-hours. Flux densities were based on measurements of appliances from the published literature. These were used as weighting factors to account for the different device-specific contributions to overall ELF-EMF exposure. Resulting distributions (as quartiles) for exposure scores revealed systematic differences for different levels of precision. Our analysis indicates that valid assessment of ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances should be based on the highest possible degree of precision and hence provides a considerable challenge in analytic epidemiology.

  14. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  15. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  16. A Cephalometric Comparison of Twin Block and Bionator Appliances in Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Araghbidi-Kashani, S. Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Class II malocclusion is one of the most common orthodontic problems. In cases of class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency, functional appliances often are used with the intent of stimulating mandibular growth. Bionator and twin block are two of the more popular functional appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of these two appliances using cephalometric radiographs. Material and Methods Cephalometric radiographs of 33 patients who had class II division I malocclusion, before and after treatment were digitalized. The mean changes in twin block and bionator groups were compared using independent t test. Results Twin block and bionator showed no statistically significant differences in cephalometric parameters except for ANB, NA-Pog, Basal and Ar-Go-Me angles. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar and mandibular position between twin block and bionator (p>0.1). Twin block was more efficient in inhibition of forward movement of maxilla (p<0.1). Key words:Functional, Class II malocclusion, Cephalometrics, Twin block, Bionator, Treatment. PMID:28149473

  17. [Efficacy of treatment with hard and soft occlusal appliance in TMD].

    PubMed

    Littner, D; Perlman-Emodi, A; Vinocuor, E

    2004-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) include clinical disorders involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and the adjacent structures. TMD was recognized as a main source for pains in the orofacial area, which are not caused from dental origin, and is defined by the American Academy of Orofascial Pain (AAOP) as a sub-group within the frame of musculoskeletal disorders. The main etiology for TMD has not been found yet. The customary treatments for this disorder include treatment with occlusal splints, physiotherapy, medicaments, behavioral-cognitive treatment, hypnosis, acupuncture and surgery that should be considered only if all conservative treatments were unsuccessful. Occlusal splint is the most common and efficient treatment for TMD patients proved by many studies with a successful rate of 70-90%. The following article reviews the different opinions in the treatment of TMD with special attention to hard and soft occlusal appliances. Based upon much research, and despite the many disagreements regarding its efficacy, the hard splint is a customary application which has the most successful outcome in patients who suffer from functional disorders of the masticatory system. The stabilization splint has an important benefit for being a non-penetrating and reversible appliance. However, despite this, the dentist should evaluate the joint or muscular problem, and seriously consider the various available treatments before deciding to use the appliance as a means of treatment.

  18. Satisfaction audit of patients undergoing mandibular distraction osteogenesis with extra-oral distraction appliances.

    PubMed

    Datta, Renu; Utreja, Ashok; Singh, S P; Rattan, Vidya

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of satisfaction of patients who were undergoing distraction osteogenesis of mandible with extraoral distraction appliance. The prospective study was performed on 13 patients with facio-mandibular deformity reporting to the Oral Health Sciences Center, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, who required surgical and orthodontic intervention for correction. A standardized multiple choice questionnaire was provided to all patients at 3 stages of treatment i.e. during predistraction, distraction and post distraction period. Predistraction evaluation showed that the main reason for patients to seek treatment was lack of facial esthetics and all of them were sure that there would be a change in their lives after they underwent this treatment procedure. During distraction phase the most common complaint was pain. None of the patients felt that they were suffering during active distraction phase and all felt that they made the right decision. In post distraction phase, all patients were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was worth it. Twelve out of 13 patients would recommend treatment to others without any hesitation. Our study concludes that distraction osteogenesis of the mandible with extra-oral appliances is acceptable to patients, and improved facial appearance is a positive influence. The appliance and results of the procedure are socially accepted and appreciated.

  19. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p < 0.05), and the overall (p < 0.01) and supine (p < 0.05) apnea/hypopnea indexes were observed for both the titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p < 0.05) and supine (p < 0.01). Patients found their custom appliance was more comfortable than the titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of maximum protrusion, the titration appliance may

  20. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Levendowski, Daniel J.; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. Objective The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Methods Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Results Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p < 0.05), and the overall (p < 0.01) and supine (p < 0.05) apnea/hypopnea indexes were observed for both the titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p < 0.05) and supine (p < 0.01). Patients found their custom appliance was more comfortable than the titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. Conclusion The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of

  1. How to ... take a wax bite for a Twin Block appliance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    The Twin Block appliance is the most commonly used functional appliance in the UK. It is very important to take a satisfactory wax bite, as it not only helps the technician to make an accurate appliance but it is essential for the successful use of this appliance. In this article, we suggest the appropriate clinical technique for taking an effective wax bite for the Twin Block appliance.

  2. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicable.); (4) First aid or repair kits conforming to the applicable material and quantity limitations of... hazardous materials. (c) Hazardous materials in life saving appliances must be packaged as follows:...

  3. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  4. A Colorimetric Interdental Probe as a Standard Method to Evaluate Interdental Efficiency of Interdental Brush

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, D.; Carrouel, F.; Llodra, J.C.; Bravo, M.; Viennot, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the concordance between the empirical choice of interdental brushes of different diameters compared to the gold standard, the IAP CURAPROX© calibrating colorimetric probe. It is carried out with the aim of facilitating the consensus development of best practices. All the subjects’ interproximal spaces were evaluated using the reference technique (colorimetric probe), then after a time lapse of 1.2 ± 0.2 hours, using the empirical clinical technique (brushes) by the same examiner. Each examiner explored 3 subjects. The order the patients were examined with the colorimetric interdental probe (CIP) was random. 446 sites were selected in the study out of 468 potential sites. The correspondence of scores between interdental bushes vs. colorimetric probe is 43.0% [95%-CI: 38.5-47.6]. In 33.41% of the 446 sites, the brush is inferior to the probe; in 23.54% of cases, the brush is superior to the probe. Among the discrepancies there is thus a tendency for the subjects to use brushes with smaller diameter than that recommended by the colorimetric probe. This review has found very high-quality evidence that colorimetric probes plus interdental brushing is more beneficial than interdental brushing alone for increase the concordance between the empirical choice of interdental brushes of different diameters compared to the gold standard. Uncertainties remain and further research is required to provide detailed data on user satisfaction. PMID:26966470

  5. Differences in Basic Non-Standard Situational Efficiency Indicators between Winning and Defeated European Senior Basketball Teams.

    PubMed

    Trninić, Marko; Perica, Ante; Jeličić, Mario

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the conducted research was to identify and explain the differences in basic non-standard situational efficiency indicators between winning and defeated European senior basketball teams. Discriminant analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test were used with the purpose of investigating the differences between winning and defeated teams in the domain of basic non-standard situational variables. The grouping variable distinguished 24 defeated teams from 24 winning teams participating in 2009/2010 season of Euroleague Top 16. The research clearly reveals the differences between the winning and defeated European senior basketball teams in the domain of non-standard situational variables of position and transition offense and defense. Eight situational efficiency indicators were used which include the overall number of successful and unsuccessful position and transition defenses and offenses. Based on the results obtained by parametric and non-parametric methods, it has been noticed that successful position defense is crucial for winning, and unsuccessful position offense is an indicator of defeat prediction. Therefore, practical aims in situational training must involve balanced development of relevant abilities and skills which determine successful simultaneous performance of multiple tasks in all the phases of game flow. Such process of sport preparation improves the overall actual quality of players and whole team performance. In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that the process of improving position and transition defense stimulates the development of position and transition offense, and vice versa.

  6. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; de Lima, Tatiana Araújo; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher

  7. An extraorally activated expansion appliance for cleft palate infants.

    PubMed

    Latham, R A; Kusy, R P; Georgiade, N G

    1976-07-01

    A new lever-action expansion appliance is described which is designed specifically for use in infants with cleft lip and palate. An extraoral control knob allows for easy activation, while the important anterior cleft areas are left clear for premaxillary repositioning and clinical assessment. Activation is registered by a positive clicking sound. Rapid expansion is made possible by the design of the appliance which is retained by stainless steel pins.

  8. The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians' interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5) designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described. PMID:22548159

  9. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A; Cistulli, Peter A

    2014-02-15

    Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA.

  10. Steps Towards the Standardization of a More Efficient Uplink Protocol and Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, Greg J.; Greenberg, Edward

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, NASA announced a new vision for the further exploration of the Moon and Mars. The vision includes a long-term human and robotic program to explore the solar system, starting with a return to the Moon that will ultimately enable future exploration of Mars and other destinations. Inherent in this endeavor is the need to transfer the communication technology developed for lunar missions to deep space whenever possible. Furthermore, greater data throughput on the uplink will be required for future nominal operations for the Exploration missions given their highly interactive nature and the need to send files in both directions. Therefore, it is prudent for standards bodies i.e., CCSDS to develop the underlying communication recommendations necessary to deliver greater data throughput to meet future agencies' needs.

  11. Steps Towards the Standardization of a More Efficient Uplink Protocol and Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, Greg J.; Greenberg, Edward

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, NASA announced a new vision for the further exploration of the Moon and Mars. The vision includes a long-term human and robotic program to explore the solar system, starting with a return to the Moon that will ultimately enable future exploration of Mars and other destinations. Inherent in this endeavor is the need to transfer the communication technology developed for lunar missions to deep space whenever possible. Furthermore, greater data throughput on the uplink will be required for future nominal operations for the Exploration missions given their highly interactive nature and the need to send files in both directions. Therefore, it is prudent for standards bodies i.e., CCSDS to develop the underlying communication recommendations necessary to deliver greater data throughput to meet future agencies' needs.

  12. [Interceptive treatment with the DAC appliance: structural analysis].

    PubMed

    Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Archer, Jean-Antoine; Lautrou, Alain; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective short and middle term study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects during early class II treatment. Thirty subjects were treated with DAC appliance, 32 children were not treated. Data were collected at the start of the study (t(1)), after the active treatment (t(1')) and 28 months after t(1) (t(2)). L.D.V. and Tweed cephalometric analyses were applied on the lateral roentgenograms of the three groups. Differences for all the variables from t(1) to t(1') and t(2) were calculated and compared by t-test. Results suggested that DAC appliance was able to achieve twice more mandibular growth in the treated group than in the non treated group. Anterior total skeletal and matricial rotations were similar to control group. Early DAC appliance achieved overjet correction thanks to major skeletal participation (89%) and little dental participation (11%). During following-up stage, overjet relapsed partially as shown in other articles with other appliances. As a conclusion, DAC appliance may be an orthopedic appliance indicated to achieve correction in class II skeletal pattern without maxillary prognathism and with mandibular retrognathism.

  13. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Pannone, Greg; Thomas, John F; Reale, Michael; Betz, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  14. Treatment with Twin-block appliance followed by fixed appliance therapy in a growing Class II patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Kiyoshi; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2016-11-01

    A girl, aged 11 years 4 months, with a skeletal Class II pattern and a severe overjet (10 mm) was treated with a Twin-block appliance. After 9 months of appliance therapy, the skeletal Class II was overcorrected. After 26 months of retention, when the occlusion was stable and the growth rate was diminishing, fixed orthodontic appliances using temporary skeletal anchorage devices were initiated. The total active treatment time with fixed orthodontic appliances was 30 months. Posttreatment records after 18 months demonstrated excellent stability: a functional occlusion and a pleasing facial balance. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to visualize temporomandibular joint adaptations after the functional and fixed orthodontic therapies. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Active High Power Conversion Efficiency Rectifier With Built-In Dual-Mode Back Telemetry in Standard CMOS Technology.

    PubMed

    Bawa, G; Ghovanloo, M

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we present an active rectifier with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) implemented in a 0.5- mum 5 V standard CMOS technology with two modes of built-in back telemetry; short- and open-circuit. As a rectifier, it ensures a PCE > 80%, taking advantage of active synchronous rectification technique in the frequency range of 0.125-1 MHz. The built-in complementary back telemetry feature can be utilized in implantable microelectronic devices (IMD), wireless sensors, and radio frequency identification (RFID) applications to reduce the silicon area, increase the data rate, and improve the reading range and robustness in load shift keying (LSK).

  16. Efficiency of manual versus robotical (Zeus) assisted laparoscopic surgery in the performance of standardized tasks.

    PubMed

    Nio, D; Bemelman, W A; Boer, K T; Dunker, M S; Gouma, D J; Gulik, T M

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of manual and robotically assisted laparoscopic surgery. To evaluate the surgical efficiency in a set of basic endoscopic movements, 20 medical students without any surgical experience were selected to perform at random a set of laparoscopic tasks either manually or robotic assisted (Zeus). This task consisted of dropping beads into receptacles, running a 25-cm rope, capping a hypodermic needle, suturing, and performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a cadaver liver of a pig. A quantitative time-action analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and skill performance in terms of time and the number of actions. The dropping beads exercise and the laparoscopic cholecystectomy required more time when performed with robotic assistance, as compared with manual performance (respectively, median, 78.5 s; range, 63 - 122 s vs median, 144.5 s; range, 100 - 169 s; p <0.01 and median, 34.0 min; range 11-44 min vs median, 46.5 s; range, 21 - 79 min; p = 0.05). A tendency toward fewer total actions in all the robotically assisted exercises was observed. However, significance was shown only in the rope-passing task (median, 71; range, 59 - 87 vs median, 62; range, 57-80; p = 0.05). Grasping the beads, the rope, and either the needle or the cap were tasks that required fewer actions to complete when performed with robotically assistance (respectively, median, 11; range, 10 - 14 vs median, 12.5; range, 11 - 15; p <0.01; median, 56; range, 55 - 60 vs median, 60.5 min; range, 55 - 65; p = 0.03, and median, 6; range, 4 - 21 vs median, 10.5; range, 6 - 38; p = 0.02). As compared with the robotically assisted rope-passing exercise, more failures were made in the manually performed procedure (p = 0.03), mainly caused by unintentional dropping of the rope (p = 0.02). Robotically assisted laparoscopic surgery by participants without any surgical experience might require more time, but actions can be performed equally or more

  17. A new device for efficient preparation of standard antibiotic bead chains and customized antibiotic delivery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baochang; Ju, Weina; Yu, Tiecheng; Wang, Tiejun; Zhao, Yi; Sun, Dahui

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads are widely used in orthopedic practice for the prevention of infections after open fractures and in the management of osteomyelitis. The use of commercial beads is limited by insufficient flexibility, lack of provision for selection of specific antibiotic, and short drug-release time. Further, the manual procedure for the preparation of PMMA beads is slow, and the products are not uniform in size. Uniformity of the bead size is crucial because the placement of oversized beads place at sites with limited space (e.g., narrow medullary canal) is difficult, and their retrieval from such sites is painful to the patient. To overcome the limitations of commercial beads and manually prepared beads, we developed a simple device for the efficient preparation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA beads of uniform sizes. We describe the device, bead preparation, and the characteristics of the beads prepared using our device, and the preliminary clinical results. The beads obtained using this device were relatively small, had excellent flexibility, and were suitable for implantation in small spaces. The device permits the selection of the antibiotic to be loaded on to the beads. The results of preliminary studies of the beads prepared using our device have been positive, highlighting the need for more large-scale and longitudinal investigations.

  18. Detective quantum efficiency: a standard test to ensure optimal detector performance and low patient exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartin, Terenz R.; Nano, Tomi F.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2016-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE), expressed as a function of spatial frequency, describes the ability of an x-ray detector to produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images. While regulatory and scientific communities have used the DQE as a primary metric for optimizing detector design, the DQE is rarely used by end users to ensure high system performance is maintained. Of concern is that image quality varies across different systems for the same exposures with no current measures available to describe system performance. Therefore, here we conducted an initial DQE measurement survey of clinical x-ray systems using a DQE-testing instrument to identify their range of performance. Following laboratory validation, experiments revealed that the DQE of five different systems under the same exposure level (8.0 μGy) ranged from 0.36 to 0.75 at low spatial frequencies, and 0.02 to 0.4 at high spatial frequencies (3.5 cycles/mm). Furthermore, the DQE dropped substantially with decreasing detector exposure by a factor of up to 1.5x in the lowest spatial frequency, and a factor of 10x at 3.5 cycles/mm due to the effect of detector readout noise. It is concluded that DQE specifications in purchasing decisions, combined with periodic DQE testing, are important factors to ensure patients receive the health benefits of high-quality images for low x-ray exposures.

  19. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A; Coughlan, James M

    2015-10-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future.

  20. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  1. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Coughlan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future. PMID:26824081

  2. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  3. Emergencies in orthodontics. Part 1: Management of general orthodontic problems as well as common problems with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliance treatment is a popular treatment modality with a burgeoning increase in the numbers of children and adults realizing the benefits that can be gained. Appliance breakage is an unavoidable nuisance which is at best inconvenient, and at worst may result in significant pain or discomfort for the patient. General dental practitioners (GDPs) should have the practical knowledge of how to provide timely and appropriate orthodontic 'emergency treatment'. This will significantly reduce the sometimes considerable inconvenience and discomfort for both the patient and his/her parents, and the inevitable frustration for the clinician providing ongoing care. This first paper will deal with general orthodontic problems that commonly present, as well as some issues specific to fixed appliances. The second paper will deal with the other orthodontic appliances that may be encountered by GDPs in their daily practice. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the general practitioner will, on many occasions, provide immediate relief of pain and distress for the patient. This will in turn allow treatment to continue moving in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  4. Standardized large-scale H-1PV production process with efficient quality and quantity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leuchs, Barbara; Roscher, Mandy; Müller, Marcus; Kürschner, Kathrin; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The promising anticancer properties of rodent protoparvoviruses, notably H-1PV, have led to their clinical testing. This makes it necessary to produce highly pure, well-characterized virus batches in sufficient quantity. The present work focused on developing standardized production, purification, and characterization procedures as a basis for exploiting H-1PV both preclinically and in clinical trials for anticancer virotherapy. Two infection and two virus purification strategies were tested and the resulting virus preparations compared for their purity and full-, infectious-, and empty-particle contents. The adopted production process, which involves culturing and infecting NB-324K cells in 10-layer CellSTACK(®) chambers (1×10(3) infectious units per infected cell), is simple, scalable, and reproducible. Downstream processing to eliminate contaminating DNA and protein includes DNAse treatment, filtration, and two Iodixanol density-gradient centrifugations, the first gradient being a step gradient and the second, either a step (1×10(10) PFU/ml) or a continuous gradient (3×10(11) PFU/ml). A procedure was also developed for obtaining infectious particle-free preparations of empty virions for research purposes: cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation followed by UV irradiation (1×10(14) physical particles/ml). For quick, sensitive determination of physical particles (and hence, particle-to-infectivity ratios), a "Capsid-ELISA" was developed, based on a novel monoclonal antibody that specifically targets assembled capsids. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical evaluations of sustained calculus control by Colgate Simply White dentifrice using an in-situ appliance.

    PubMed

    Richter, Rose; Van Voorhis, Celia; Terpak, Cheryl; Barnes, Virginia M; Xu, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Two clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the dental calculus control efficacy of Colgate Simply White dentifrice versus a positive and a negative control dentifrice, using a published intra-oral appliance and monitoring the prevention of calcium deposition, an indicator of early dental calculus formation. Healthy human volunteers entered into the two double-blind, cross-over studies. An intra-oral appliance was custom-made for each subject. After brushing with an assigned dentifrice, each subject wore his or her appliance for four daytime hours (study 1) or 12 overnight hours (study 2). When the appliance was removed, it was washed, suspended in 0.1 M HCl to release Ca++ from deposits, and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for deposited calcium. The three dentifrices studied were Colgate Simply White (CSW), Colgate Regular dentifrice (CR), and Colgate Tartar Control Whitening (CTW). There was a one-week wash-out period between each product use. There were no side effects observed or reported in either study. In both the four- and 12-hour studies, CSW and CTW had significantly lower calcium uptake compared to CR (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between CSW and CTW in efficacy. The results of this research demonstrate that Colgate Simply White dentifrice provides four- and 12-hour calculus control efficacy, superior to a standard dentifrice and comparable to a commercial anti-tartar dentifrice.

  6. Supplement to the ``determination analysis`` (ORNL-6847) and analysis of the NEMA efficiency standard for distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Das, S.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains additional information for use by the US Department of Energy in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. An earlier determination study by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory determined that cost-effective, technically feasible energy savings could be achieved by distribution transformer standards and that these savings are significant relative to other product conservation standards. This study was documented in a final report, ``Determination Analysis of Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers`` (ORNL-6847, July 1996). The energy conservation options analyzed in this study were estimated to save 5.2 to 13.7 quads from 2000--2030. The energy savings for the determination study cases have been revised downward for a number of reasons. The transformer market, both present and future, was overestimated in the previous study, particularly for dry-type transformers, which have the greatest energy-saving potential. Moreover, a revision downwards of the effective annual loads for utility owned transformers also results in lower energy savings. The present study assesses four of the five conservation cases from the earlier determination study as well as the National Electrical Manufacturers Association energy efficiency standard NEMA TP 1-1996 using the updated data and a more accurate disaggregated analysis model. According to these new estimates, the savings ranged from 2.5 to 10.7 quads of primary energy for the 30-year period 2004 to 2034. For the TP-1 case, data were available to calculate the payback period required to recover the extra cost from the value of the energy saved. The average payback period based on the average national cost of electricity is 2.76 years. 15 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Standardization of radionuclide by beta(LS)-gamma coincidence counting using the geometry-efficiency variation method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Yull; Sung, Ki Suk; Lee, K B; Lee, Jong Man; Park, Tae Soon

    2006-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counting method consisting of three photomultiplier tubes for beta counters and a NaI(Tl) gamma counter has been developed for the standardization of radionuclides with the beta-gamma coincidence technique. The beta detection efficiency functions are obtained by means of a geometry-variation method developed in the present work; an array of beta detectors is moved uniformly at the same time from a centrally located counting vial to 50 mm. The method has been applied in the standardization of 60Co and 134Cs. Unquenched liquid scintillation samples with nominal count rates from 1000 to 6000 s-1 were prepared. The observed beta detection efficiencies with this method are from 90 to 45% in the case of 60Co, and from 84 to 50% for 134Cs. The output of each beta channel is summed together and compared with gamma data by the coincidence analyzer. The dead time of each counting channel is adjusted to be 20 micros, sufficiently long to suppress the afterpulses in the beta counting channel. The activity of each sample is determined by using the Cox and Isham formula. The obtained results are in good agreement with KRISS certified values.

  8. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes

  9. [Effect of functional appliance on upper airway in adolescent patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Lou, Xin-Tian; Hu, Zheng; Shen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of functional appliance on upper airway in adolescent patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion based on cone-beam CT (CBCT). Thirty adolescent patients (male:female=1:1) with skeletal Class II malocclusion and their 30 counterparts with skeletal Class I malocclusion were selected. Skeletal Class II malocclusion patients were treated with Activator for 12 months on average, meanwhile skeletal Class I malocclusion patients were treated with fixed appliance without extraction. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) films were taken before and 12 months after treatment. Films of skeletal Class II malocclusion patients were measured (items about skeletal and upper airway, and the outline of upper airway depicted with 3D reconstruction) and compared with the reference standards and the measurements of their counterpart patients with skeletal Class I malocclusion. Independent t test was performed in inter-group comparison and paired t test was performed in inner-group comparison using SAS 8.0 software package. Before treatment, patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion showed decreased SNB and APDI value, increased ANB, Wits, and OJ compared with standard value and value of skeletal Class I malocclusion patients. In addition, decreased MPW and PAS value, and downsized volume of upper airway and transverse diameter minimum were found in skeletal Class II malocclusion patients. After treatment with Activator, patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion showed increased MPW and PAS value, and enlarged volume of upper airway and transverse diameter minimum. All values of skeletal items of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion showed trends to get close to the reference standards and the values of skeletal Class I malocclusion patients. There was no significant difference between different genders of the two groups. Patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion have constructed upper airways. Treatment with Activator can increase the MPW and PAS values and

  10. Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.

    PubMed

    Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

    1996-09-01

    House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard

  11. Randomised cross-over study of oral appliances for snoring.

    PubMed

    Maguire, J; Steele, J G; Gibson, G J; Wilson, J A; Steen, N; McCracken, G I

    2010-06-01

    To compare a mandibular advancement splint to a control bite raising appliance in the treatment of snoring with or without mild obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. A prospective two-treatment randomised cross-over clinical trial. Single centre secondary care Dental Hospital. Fifty-two subjects (36 men, 16 women) diagnosed with non-apnoeic snoring or mild obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (apnoea/hypopnoea index < or =15 events/h), were recruited from Departments of Respiratory Medicine and ENT surgery, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. The Snoring Symptoms Inventory questionnaire (SSI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) were used to evaluate changes in symptoms. Patient reported outcomes (compliance, adverse events, splint preference) were recorded by questionnaire. Subjects attended for five study visits and used a mandibular advancement splint and a bite raising appliance at home each for 4 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between devices. Thirty-eight subjects completed the study. Both the mandibular advancement splint and bite raising appliance significantly reduced the SSI compared to the baseline scores: mandibular advancement splint 5.5, P = 0.013; bite raising appliance 3.1, P = 0.005. No statistically significant difference between the two treatment periods was detected (P > 0.05). The reduction in the Epworth Sleepiness Score was: mandibular advancement splint 1.0, P = 0.02; bite raising appliance 0.3, P = 0.4. The change in the Epworth Sleepiness Score was not statistically significantly different between the mandibular advancement splint and bite raising appliance treatment periods (P > 0.05). In this cohort of patients diagnosed with snoring +/- mild OSA: 1 both the mandibular advancement splint and bite raising appliance designs of splint appeared to reduce the symptoms of snoring; 2 no difference in the magnitude of this effect was detected in favour of one design of splint.

  12. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  13. [Soft and hard tissue changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with Tip-Edge plus appliance].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu-lu; Chen, Li-li; Xu, Juan; E, Ling-ling; Bei, Dan-dan; Liu, Hong-chen

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the soft and hard tissue changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with Tip-Edge plus technique. Sixteen Class II division 1 patients (7 boys and 9 girls) with mandibular retrusion in permanent dentition were selected and treated with Tip-Edge plus appliance. Lateral cephalometric films were analyzed before and after treatment. The effects were evaluated with Holdaway soft tissues analysis and routine cephalometric analysis methods. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated for each variable. Paired t-test was performed. The average treatment time was 16 months. Normal overjet and overbite were established with retroclination of upper incisors and proclination of lower incisors. U1-NA(°) and U1-NA (mm) decreaed by (15.40 ± 5.31)° and (4.16 ± 1.82) mm (P < 0.01). NLA showed an average increase of (-16.60 ± 5.29)° (P < 0.01). Remarkable soft tissue change was noted after the treatment. The profile in Class II division 1 patients could be quickly and efficiently improved after treatment with Tip-Edge plus technique.

  14. On the energy optimized control of standard and high-efficiency induction motors in CT and HVAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K.; Grabowski, P.Z.; Thoegersen, P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper contains an analysis of how the choice of energy optimal control of induction motors is influenced by motor construction, constant torque (CT) and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) (interpreted as vector and scalar motor drives). The analysis is made with a 2.2-kW voltage-source-inverter-fed squirrel-cage motor drive as an example throughout the paper, but through statistics on the use of motors and their efficiencies, the conclusions are widened to a broader range (0--50 kW). Energy optimal control strategies are reviewed and cos({phi}) control, a model-based control, and a search control are implemented in the laboratory in a vector and a scalar motor drive. The convergence speed for the strategies and their ability to reject disturbances are investigated by experiments. It is also shown experimentally that, for both standard and high-efficiency motors, motor energy-efficiency improvement is achievable by energy optimal control below 60% load torque. The energy savings using energy optimal control strategies are measured on a pump system with a certain load cycle. Model-based control is recommended for CT applications and cos({phi}) control for HVAC applications.

  15. Implementing energy standards for motors and buildings in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, S.; Busch, J.; Sanchez, C.; Deringer, J.; Fernandez, E.; Companano, M.

    1998-07-01

    The Philippines' master plan for energy makes cornerstones of energy standards for appliances, buildings, and motors in their energy efficiency effort. Significant progress has been made in implementing appliance standards for some products, but has lagged for others. This has been partly because the resources allocated have dictated a cautious deliberate approach. Products where there has been a lack of information about the respective markets have received lowest priority. Motors fall in this latter category. In their development of building codes, the Philippine government has also taken a cautious deliberate approach and is just now attending to the compliance of a commercial building energy performance standard that was enacted into law in 1994. This paper describes the results of recent new buildings and motor market assessments carried out in the Philippines, a survey of building energy code implementation in other countries, and how these products are being used to further implementation of energy standards in the Philippines. Lessons for other countries are drawn from this experience.

  16. A note on calculation of efficiency and emissions from wood and wood pellet stoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, national laws and international regulations have introduced strict limits on efficiency and emissions from woody biomass appliances to promote the diffusion of models characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. The evaluation of efficiency and emissions is made during the certification process which consists in standardized tests. Standards prescribe the procedures to be followed during tests and the relations to be used to determine the mean value of efficiency and emissions. As a matter of fact these values are calculated using flue gas temperature and composition averaged over the whole test period, lasting from 1 to 6 hours. Typically, in wood appliances the fuel burning rate is not constant and this leads to a considerable variation in time of composition and flow rate of the flue gas. In this paper we show that this fact may cause significant differences between emission values calculated according to standards and those obtained integrating over the test period the instantaneous mass and energy balances. In addition, we propose some approximated relations and a method for wood stoves which supply more accurate results than those calculated according to standards. These relations can be easily implemented in a computer controlled data acquisition systems.

  17. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  18. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  19. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rina; Graves, Jeffrey A; Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  20. Virtual quantification of metabolites by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: predicting ionization efficiency without chemical standards.

    PubMed

    Chalcraft, Kenneth R; Lee, Richard; Mills, Casandra; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2009-04-01

    A major obstacle in metabolomics remains the identification and quantification of a large fraction of unknown metabolites in complex biological samples when purified standards are unavailable. Herein we introduce a multivariate strategy for de novo quantification of cationic/zwitterionic metabolites using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) based on fundamental molecular, thermodynamic, and electrokinetic properties of an ion. Multivariate calibration was used to derive a quantitative relationship between the measured relative response factor (RRF) of polar metabolites with respect to four physicochemical properties associated with ion evaporation in ESI-MS, namely, molecular volume (MV), octanol-water distribution coefficient (log D), absolute mobility (mu(o)), and effective charge (z(eff)). Our studies revealed that a limited set of intrinsic solute properties can be used to predict the RRF of various classes of metabolites (e.g., amino acids, amines, peptides, acylcarnitines, nucleosides, etc.) with reasonable accuracy and robustness provided that an appropriate training set is validated and ion responses are normalized to an internal standard(s). The applicability of the multivariate model to quantify micromolar levels of metabolites spiked in red blood cell (RBC) lysates was also examined by CE-ESI-MS without significant matrix effects caused by involatile salts and/or major co-ion interferences. This work demonstrates the feasibility for virtual quantification of low-abundance metabolites and their isomers in real-world samples using physicochemical properties estimated by computer modeling, while providing deeper insight into the wide disparity of solute responses in ESI-MS. New strategies for predicting ionization efficiency in silico allow for rapid and semiquantitative analysis of newly discovered biomarkers and/or drug metabolites in metabolomics research when chemical standards do not exist.