Science.gov

Sample records for application aux composants

  1. Concepts and Applications of Composable FORCEnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    2080 WSEAS TRANS. on INFORMATION SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS Issue 12. Volume 2. December 2005 ISSN: 1790-0832 Concepts and Applications of Composable...STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited 20060926075 WSEAS TRANS. on INFORMATION SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS Issue 12. Volume 2, December...information from one system or network to an- automatic insertion of content. The project team connects these data sources, views, and agents 2082 WSEAS

  2. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  3. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  4. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  5. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    de ciment a permis d'ameliorer la resistance a l'adherence. (6) Il existe une relation lineaire entre la charge maximum et la longueur ancree des tendons. Des equations sont proposees. (7) La capacite a l'arrachement des ancrages injectes augmente avec l'augmentation du module d'elasticite du milieu encaissant. (8) Les mono-tendons et multi-tendons en materiaux composites injectes sur 1000 mm ont montre des comportements a l'arrachement acceptables conformement aux codes. (9) Les rigidites apparentes des tendons a base de fibres d'aramide sont de trois a cinq fois inferieures a celles des tendons a base de fibres de carbone. (10) L'amorce de la decohesion en haut de la zone ancree ne semble se produire qu'au-dela d'une charge de 0,35 fpu pour les tendons a base de fibres de carbone alors qu'elle prend naissance des l'application de la charge pour les tendons a base de fibres d'aramide. (11) Le taux de fluage depend du niveau de chargement ainsi que des caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques de l'ancrage (type de fibres, fini de surface, nombre de tendons, etc.). (12) Des equations regissant le comportement au fluage des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete etablies pour une periode d'essai de 60 mn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Composing only by thought: Novel application of the P300 brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Hiebel, Hannah; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2017-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential is a well-known pattern in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This kind of brain signal is used for many different brain-computer interface (BCI) applications, e.g., spellers, environmental controllers, web browsers, or for painting. In recent times, BCI systems are mature enough to leave the laboratories to be used by the end-users, namely severely disabled people. Therefore, new challenges arise and the systems should be implemented and evaluated according to user-centered design (USD) guidelines. We developed and implemented a new system that utilizes the P300 pattern to compose music. Our Brain Composing system consists of three parts: the EEG acquisition device, the P300-based BCI, and the music composing software. Seventeen musical participants and one professional composer performed a copy-spelling, a copy-composing, and a free-composing task with the system. According to the USD guidelines, we investigated the efficiency, the effectiveness and subjective criteria in terms of satisfaction, enjoyment, frustration, and attractiveness. The musical participants group achieved high average accuracies: 88.24% (copy-spelling), 88.58% (copy-composing), and 76.51% (free-composing). The professional composer achieved also high accuracies: 100% (copy-spelling), 93.62% (copy-composing), and 98.20% (free-composing). General results regarding the subjective criteria evaluation were that the participants enjoyed the usage of the Brain Composing system and were highly satisfied with the system. Showing very positive results with healthy people in this study, this was the first step towards a music composing system for severely disabled people. PMID:28877175

  7. Application of the New Decommissioning Regulation to the Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF) at Fontenay-aux-Roses's Nuclear Center (CEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Sauret, Josiane; Piketty, Laurence; Jeanjacques, Michel

    2008-01-15

    This abstract describes the application of the new decommissioning regulation on all Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF is to say INB in French) at Fontenay-aux-Roses's Center (CEA/FAR). The decommissioning process has been applied in six buildings which are out of the new nuclear perimeter proposed (buildings no 7, no 40, no 94, no 39, no 52/1 and no 32) and three buildings have been reorganized (no 54, no 91 and no 53 instead of no 40 and no 94) in order to increase the space for temporary nuclear waste disposal and to reduce the internal transports of nuclear waste on the site. The advantages are the safety and radioprotection improvements and a lower operating cost. A global safety file was written in 2002 and 2003 and was sent to the French Nuclear Authority on November 2003. The list of documents required is given in the paragraph I of this paper. The main goals were two ministerial decrees (one decree for each NLF) getting the authorization to modify the NLF perimeter and to carry out cleaning and dismantling activities leading to the whole decommissioning of all NLF. Some specific authorizations were necessary to carry out the dismantling program during the decommissioning procedure. They were delivered by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (FNSA) or with limited delegation by the General Executive Director (GED) on the CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses's Center, called internal authorization. Some partial dismantling or decontamination examples are given below: - evaporator for the radioactive liquid waste treatment station (building no 53): FNSA authorization: phase realised in 2002/2003. - disposal tanks for the radioactive liquid waste treatment station (building no 53) FNSA authorization: phase realised in 2004, - incinerator for the radioactive solid waste treatment station (building no 07): FNSA authorization: operation realised in 2004, - research equipments in the building no. 54 and building no. 91: internal authorization ; realised in 2005, - sample

  8. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  9. Chemically deposited nano grain composed MoS(2) thin films for supercapacitor application.

    PubMed

    Pujari, R B; Lokhande, A C; Shelke, A R; Kim, J H; Lokhande, C D

    2017-06-15

    Low temperature soft chemical synthesis approach is employed towards MoS2 thin film preparation on cost effective stainless steel substrate. 3-D semispherical nano-grain composed surface texture of MoS2 film is observed through FE-SEM technique. Electrochemical supercapacitor performance of MoS2 film is tested from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) techniques in 1M aqueous Na2SO4 electrolyte. Specific capacitance (Cs) of 180Fg(-1) with CV cycling stability of 82% for 1000 cycles is achieved. Equivalent series resistance (Rs) of 1.78Ωcm(-2) observed through Nyquist plot shows usefulness of MoS2 thin film for charge conduction in supercapacitor application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  11. Precise AuxPt1‑x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1‑x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1‑x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1‑x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  12. Designing a Composable Geometric Toolkit for Versatility in Applications to Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Gregory S.; Campbell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Conceived and implemented through the development of probabilistic risk assessment simulations for Project Constellation, the Geometric Toolkit allows users to create, analyze, and visualize relationships between geometric shapes in three-space using the MATLAB computing environment. The key output of the toolkit is an analysis of how emanations from one "source" geometry (e.g., a leak in a pipe) will affect another "target" geometry (e.g., another heat-sensitive component). It can import computer-aided design (CAD) depictions of a system to be analyzed, allowing the user to reliably and easily represent components within the design and determine the relationships between them, ultimately supporting more technical or physics-based simulations that use the toolkit. We opted to develop a variety of modular, interconnecting software tools to extend the scope of the toolkit, providing the capability to support a range of applications. This concept of simulation composability allows specially-developed tools to be reused by assembling them in various combinations. As a result, the concepts described here and implemented in this toolkit have a wide range of applications outside the domain of risk assessment. To that end, the Geometric Toolkit has been evaluated for use in other unrelated applications due to the advantages provided by its underlying design.

  13. Evaluation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of chitosan and poloxamer for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Kim, I Y; Yoo, M K; Seo, J H; Park, S S; Na, H S; Lee, H C; Kim, S K; Cho, C S

    2007-08-16

    We have elsewhere reported the work on the preparation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs) composed of chitosan (CS) and poloxamer to improve the mechanical strength of CS sponge. This study focuses on evaluation of the CS/poloxamer SIPNs to intend for wound dressing application and the efficacy of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-loaded CS/poloxamer SIPNs in the wound model studies. The properties required for ideal wound dressing, such as equilibrium water content (EWC), water absorption (A(w)), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and evaporative water loss, were examined. The CS/poloxamer SIPNs were found to have a water content of 90% of their weight which could prevent the wound bed from accumulation of exudates and also have excellent water adsorption. The WVTR of CS/poloxamer SIPNs was found to be 2,508.2+/-65.7gm(-2)day(-1), indicating that the SIPNs can maintain a moist environment over wound bed in moderate to heavily exuding wound which enhances epithelial cell migration during the healing process. Also, the CS/poloxamer SIPNs in vitro assessment showed proper biodegradation and low cytotoxicity for wound dressing application. The wound healing efficacy of CS/poloxamer SIPNs as a wound dressing was evaluated on experimental full thickness wounds in a mouse model. It was found that the wounds covered with CS/poloxamer SIPNs or DHEA-loaded CS/poloxamer SIPNs were completely filled with new epithelium without any significant adverse reactions after 3 weeks. The results thus indicate that CS/poloxamer SIPNs could be employed in the future as potential wound dressing materials.

  14. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa

  15. Recorder Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The best moments happen when students begin to realize how much power they have and use that power to create. Composing as they master different instrumental stages helps students make composition and performance a natural step in learning. A step-by-step process (rhythm notation, add pitches, copy to a five-line staff, check work, and play) keeps…

  16. Recorder Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The best moments happen when students begin to realize how much power they have and use that power to create. Composing as they master different instrumental stages helps students make composition and performance a natural step in learning. A step-by-step process (rhythm notation, add pitches, copy to a five-line staff, check work, and play) keeps…

  17. LAnse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-18

    LAnse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960. This image is from NASA Terra satellite.

  18. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development.

  19. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  20. Preparation and applications of novel composites composed of metal-organic frameworks and two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaozhou; Yang, Kai; Tan, Chaoliang; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging type of porous crystalline materials, have received increasing attention in recent years due to their compositional, structural and chemical versatility. Moreover, great progress has been made in the fundamental study and technological development of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, which exhibit a number of unique and attractive properties for wide applications. Recently, the smart integration of the aforementioned two types of functional materials, i.e. MOFs and 2D materials, has led to improved performance in molecular absorption, separation and storage, and shown promise in selective catalysis and biosensing. This feature article aims at providing a brief introduction to the composites composed of MOFs and 2D materials, focusing mainly on their preparation methods and applications. Finally, technical challenges and future opportunities in this field will also be discussed.

  1. Composability in quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Quade, Jörn; Renner, Renato

    2009-08-01

    If we combine two secure cryptographic systems, is the resulting system still secure? Answering this question is highly nontrivial and has recently sparked a considerable research effort, in particular, in the area of classical cryptography. A central insight was that the answer to the question is yes, but only within a well-specified composability framework and for carefully chosen security definitions. In this article, we review several aspects of composability in the context of quantum cryptography. The first part is devoted to key distribution. We discuss the security criteria that a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol must fulfill to allow its safe use within a larger security application (e.g. for secure message transmission); and we demonstrate—by an explicit example—what can go wrong if conventional (non-composable) security definitions are used. Finally, to illustrate the practical use of composability, we show how to generate a continuous key stream by sequentially composing rounds of a QKD protocol. In the second part, we take a more general point of view, which is necessary for the study of cryptographic situations involving, for example, mutually distrustful parties. We explain the universal composability (UC) framework and state the composition theorem that guarantees that secure protocols can securely be composed to larger applications. We focus on the secure composition of quantum protocols into unconditionally secure classical protocols. However, the resulting security definition is so strict that some tasks become impossible without additional security assumptions. Quantum bit commitment is impossible in the UC framework even with mere computational security. Similar problems arise in the quantum bounded storage model and we observe a trade-off between the UC and the use of the weakest possible security assumptions.

  2. Evaluation of hydrogel composing of Pluronic F127 and carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan as injectable scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Yap, Lie-Sian; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrated a novel hydrogel system composing of Pluronic F127, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan (CA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for encapsulating fibroblasts (L-929). The thermal behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated using TGA, the swelling behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and the mechanical properties were determined through dynamic mechanical analysis. Cells were encapsulated by simple mixing, and the viability of encapsulated cells was determined using alamar blue cell viability assay and the cells morphology was examined using fluorescent imaging. The results indicated that the Tgel of this system was around 30°C, where sol-gel transformation occurred within 90s. Although the addition of CA and GA reduced the shear moduli slightly, the F127/CA/GA gel was able to remain in gelling state in the medium for more than 1 month. In vitro cell culture study revealed that F-127/CA/GA hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Moreover, the viability of encapsulated L929 was 106% after incubation for 5 days. Based on these results, these F127/CA/GA hydrogels can be used to encapsulate cells for tissue engineering applications.

  3. Transport Electronique Dans Les Super Reseaux : Applications Aux Détecteurs Infrarouges à Grandes Longueur D'onde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    The low flux infrared imaging needs performant high wavelength detectors. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP), thanks to the maturity of GaAs, the possibility to adjust the detected wavelength on a large range and to realize large uniform matrix are good candidate for such applications. In order to validate this interest, we have performed an electro-optic characterization of a 15{μ}m sample. These measurements have been used to simulate the performance of a camera based on this QWIP and used in a low infrared photons flux scenario. We predict that this QWIP would succeed. Nevertheless these simulations also underline the detrimental role of the dark current. Thus we have developed a simulation tool based on a hoping approach between localized states, which provide us a better understanding of the transport in these heterostructures. The code has in particular underlines the role plays by the electron -ionized impurities interaction, which make the dark current very sensitive to the doping profile. Using this tool we have designed new structures, with optimized doping profile, in which the scattering rate has been decreased by a factor two. Moreover we have identified a quantum origin to the plateau shape of the I(V) curve. This code is more generally a useful simulation tool for the transport in hétérostructures. The influence of growth defects (non ideal interface and disorder) has been quantized and we have performed the first evaluation of The R0A in a THz QCD. Finally non local transport effects have been investigated. Saw teeth observation on the I(V) curves have been modeled and their influence on the detectivty estimated.

  4. Composing and Arranging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  5. Freestanding membrane composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio for application in lightweight cathode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanlan; Liu, Hongzhong; Jiang, Weitao; Gao, Wei; Chen, Bangdao; Li, Xin; Ding, Yucheng; An, Ningli

    2014-12-01

    A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA) is successfully fabricated through the controllable film deposition. Each micro-ring of FUN-membrane is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness, demonstrating an ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio of 20:1. In our strategy, a silica layer (200 nm in thickness), a chromium transition layer (5 nm-thick) and a gold layer (40 nm-thick), were in sequence deposited on patterned photoresist. After removal of the photoresist by lift-off process, a FUN-membrane with MRA was peeled off from the substrate, where the gold layer acted as a protecting layer to prevent the MRA from fracture. The FUN-membrane was then transferred to a flexible polycarbonate (PC) sheet coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, which was then used as a flexible and lightweight cathode. Remarkably, the field emission effect of the fabricated FUN-membrane cathode performs a high field-enhancement factor of 1.2 × 104 and a low turn-on voltage of 2 V/μm, indicating the advantages of the sharp metal edge of MRA. Due to the rational design and material versatility, the FUN-membrane thus could be transferred to either rigid or flexible substrate, even curved surface, such as the skin of bio-robot's arm or leg. Additionally, the FUN-membrane composed of MRA with extremely high aspect ratio of insulator-metal sidewall, also provides potential applications in optical devices, lightweight and flexible display devices, and electronic eye imagers.

  6. My Career: Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  7. Structure-Function Analysis of the Presumptive Arabidopsis Auxin Permease AUX1W⃞

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Kargul, Joanna; Marchant, Alan; Zadik, Daniel; Rahman, Abidur; Mills, Rebecca; Yemm, Anthony; May, Sean; Williams, Lorraine; Millner, Paul; Tsurumi, Seiji; Moore, Ian; Napier, Richard; Kerr, Ian D.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the subcellular localization, the domain topology, and the amino acid residues that are critical for the function of the presumptive Arabidopsis thaliana auxin influx carrier AUX1. Biochemical fractionation experiments and confocal studies using an N-terminal yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion observed that AUX1 colocalized with plasma membrane (PM) markers. Because of its PM localization, we were able to take advantage of the steep pH gradient that exists across the plant cell PM to investigate AUX1 topology using YFP as a pH-sensitive probe. The YFP-coding sequence was inserted in selected AUX1 hydrophilic loops to orient surface domains on either apoplastic or cytoplasmic faces of the PM based on the absence or presence of YFP fluorescence, respectively. We were able to demonstrate in conjunction with helix prediction programs that AUX1 represents a polytopic membrane protein composed of 11 transmembrane spanning domains. In parallel, a large aux1 allelic series containing null, partial-loss-of-function, and conditional mutations was characterized to identify the functionally important domains and amino acid residues within the AUX1 polypeptide. Whereas almost all partial-loss-of-function and null alleles cluster in the core permease region, the sole conditional allele aux1-7 modifies the function of the external C-terminal domain. PMID:15486104

  8. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  9. Amélioration du modèle de Preisach. Application aux matériaux magnétiques doux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J. J.; Tenant, P.; Zegadi, L.

    1997-08-01

    Magnetic material modeling creates problems particulary when fast, easy to use and accurate models are needed. In this article an investigation of the Preisach model is presented. This model is not really suitable for soft magnetic material with flat loops. A new approach which gives rise to an important improvement of the Preisach model is described. The main properties of the Preisach model are retained. La modélisation des matériaux magnétiques pose de nombreux problèmes, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'allier simplicité, rapidité d'exécution et précision. Dans cet article, nous proposons une étude sur le générateur de cycles d'hystérésis de Preisach. Ce modèle s'avère mal adapté aux matériaux magnétiques à cycles d'hystérésis couchés. Nous suggérons une nouvelle approche qui permet d'accroître considérablement la précision du modèle de Preisach tout en conservant ses principales qualités.

  10. Controllable Synthesis of Multiarm Star-Shaped Copolymers Composed of Phosphoester Chains and Their Application on Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Shi, Dongjian; Shi, Chunling; Dong, Liangliang; Li, Xiaojie; Chen, Mingqing

    2017-03-29

    Novel biodegradable polymers with specific properties, structures, and tailorable designs or modifications are in great demand. Poly(phosphoester)s with good biocompatibility and degradability, as well as other adjustable properties have been studied widely because of their potential in biomedical applications. To meet more versatile and diverse biomedical applications, a novel multiarm star-shaped phosphorester triblock copolymer poly(amido amine)-block-poly(2-butynyl phospholane)-block-poly(2-methoxy phospholane) (PAMAM-PBYP-PMP) is synthesized via organo-catalyzed sequential ring-opening polymerization. Supramolecular micelles with good architectural stability are self-assembled into uniform spherical morphology in aqueous solution. Doxorubicin (DOX) can be encapsulated into the micelles with efficient loading capacity. A slow and sustained release in the environment of simulated intracellular lysosome (pH 5.0 with phosphodiesterase I) is observed. In addition, the copolymers and DOX-loaded supramolecular micelles exhibit low cell-toxicity and excellent anticancer activity toward HeLa cells. As a consequence, this multiarm star-shaped PAMAM-PBYP-PMP has great potential in drug delivery system for tumor treatment.

  11. Spongy bilayer dressing composed of chitosan-Ag nanoparticles and chitosan-Bletilla striata polysaccharide for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lang; Shan, Xindi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zha, Hualian; Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Chao; Wang, Xiaojiang; Li, Guoyun; Hao, Jiejie; Yu, Guangli

    2017-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to develop a promising wound dressing. Though chitosan cross-linked with genipin has been widely used as biomaterials, with the addition of partially oxidized Bletilla striata polysaccharide, the newly developed material in this study (coded as CSGB) showed less gelling time, more uniform aperture distribution, higher water retention, demanded mechanical strength and more L929 cell proliferation compared to the chitosan cross-linked only with genipin. Owning to partial blocking of free amino groups of chitosan, CSGB revealed almost no antibacterial activities, thus the bilayer composite of chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CS-AgG) on CSGB was designed to inhibit microbial invasion. The in vivo studies indicated that both CSGB and bilayer wound dressing significantly accelerated the healing rate of cutaneous wounds in mice, and the bilayer exhibited better mature epidermization with less inflammatory cells on Day 7. Therefore, this novel bilayer composite has great potential in wound dressing applications.

  12. Composing in Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The central premise of this project is that researching student communication and composing actions in light of audience will illuminate particular features of student composing processes in 21st century interdisciplinary contexts. Students in this study took part in a six week inquiry unit about their local area. Data generated included student…

  13. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Kraussler, Michael; Schindler, Philipp; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    This work presents an experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of H2 and CH4, which should serve as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Therefore, a lab-scale process chain employing a water gas shift unit, scrubbing units, and a pressure swing adsorption unit was operated with tar-rich product gas extracted from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. A gas mixture with a volumetric fraction of about 80% H2 and 19% CH4 and with minor fractions of CO and CO2 was produced by employing carbon molecular sieve as adsorbent. Moreover, the produced gas mixture had a lower heating value of about 15.5MJ·m(-3) and a lower Wobbe index of about 43.4MJ·m(-3), which is similar to the typical Wobbe index of natural gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In situ injectable nano-composite hydrogel composed of curcumin, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oxidized alginate for wound healing application.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyi; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Binjun; Li, Mei; Diao, Kai; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Li, Jie; Xu, Yu; Wang, Xianhuo; Chen, Hao

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an in situ injectable nano-composite hydrogel composed of curcumin, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oxidized alginate as a novel wound dressing was successfully developed for the dermal wound repair application. Nano-curcumin with improved stability and similar antioxidant efficiency compared with that of unmodified curcumin was developed by using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (MPEG-PCL) as carrier followed by incorporating into the N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan/oxidized alginate hydrogel (CCS-OA hydrogel). In vitro release study revealed that the encapsulated nano-curcumin was slowly released from CCS-OA hydrogel with the diffusion-controllable manner at initial phase followed by the corrosion manner of hydrogel at terminal phase. In vivo wound healing study was performed by injecting hydrogels on rat dorsal wounds. Histological study revealed that application of nano-curcumin/CCS-OA hydrogel could significantly enhance the re-epithelialization of epidermis and collagen deposition in the wound tissue. DNA, protein and hydroxyproline content in wound tissue from each group were measured on 7th day of post wounding and the results also indicated that combined using nano-curcumin and CCS-OA hydrogel could significantly accelerate the process of wound healing. Therefore, all these results suggested that the developed nano-curcumin/CCS-OA hydrogel as a promising wound dressing might have potential application in the wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Composing decoherence functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boës, Paul; Navascués, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Quantum measure theory (QMT) is a generalization of quantum theory where physical predictions are computed from a matrix known as the decoherence functional (DF). Previous works have noted that, in its original formulation, QMT exhibits a problem with composability, since the composition of two decoherence functionals is, in general, not a valid decoherence functional. This does not occur when the DFs in question happen to be positive semidefinite (a condition known as strong positivity). In this paper, we study the concept of composability of DFs and its consequences for QMT. Firstly, we show that the problem of composability is much deeper than originally envisaged, since, for any n , there exists a DF that can coexist with n -1 copies of itself, but not with n . Secondly, we prove that the set of strongly positive DFs cannot be enlarged while remaining closed under composition. Furthermore, any closed set of DFs containing all quantum DFs can only contain strongly positive DFs.

  16. Composing and Comprehending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Julie M., Ed.

    Intended for elementary school teachers of reading and composition, this book assembles several articles on the reading/writing relationship that have appeared in 1982 and 1983 issues of the journal "Language Arts." The three sections of the book define the relationship between composing and comprehending, explore relevant research, and…

  17. The composing process in technical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  18. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  19. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    when composing abstract protocols. To evaluate the expres- siveness of our protocol framework for ensuring safe shared memory interference, we show how...progress and preservation theorems that show the ab- sence of unsafe interference in correctly typed programs. Our design ensures memory safety and data...system by discussing how our core shared memory protocol framework is capable of expressing safe, typeful message-passing idioms. Next, we briefly

  20. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  1. Dynamique d'un laser a colorant a pompage synchrone avec cavite couplee et applications aux ondes terahertz breves et intenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribault, Robert

    Nous presentons deux methodes de generation de battements de frequences terahertz pouvant servir a illuminer des antennes photoconductrices afin d'obtenir une emission a spectre etroit et une grande plage d'accordabilite dans l'infrarouge lointain (IRL). Nous discutons des differentes applications dans l'IRL, et presentons plusieurs techniques de generation d'IRL. Parmi ces methodes, nous choisissons celle qui depend de l'illumination incidente, basee sur un deplacement de charges dans un semi-conducteur soumis a une tension a ses bornes, l'antenne photoconductrice. Nous etudions l'emission d'ondes terahertz par cette antenne photoconductrice pour quatre types d'illumination, l'impulsion ultrabreve, l'impulsion ultrabreve modelee, le pseudo-battement par decalage d'impulsions avec glissement en frequence, et le battement. Nous presentons des resultats experimentaux d'illumination d'une antenne photoconductrice en silicium sur saphir endommage par radiation (rd-SOS) avec une impulsion breve et un battement. Un accroissement de l'efficacite est demontre pour le battement. Nous simulons la dynamique d'un laser a colorant a pompage synchrone (LACPS) afin de comprendre ses conditions optimales d'utilisation. Deux LACPS, pompes par le meme laser Nd:YAG, sont synchronises temporellement et spatialement et permettent d'obtenir un battement stable par le controle des delais optiques. Les durees a mi-hauteur des impulsions des deux LACPS doivent demeurer identiques en fonction de la longueur d'onde. La section efficace d'emission du milieu de gain est critique dans la dynamique de ce laser. La duree a mi-hauteur de l'impulsion varie peu avec la section efficace d'emission. Pour controler les fluctuations dues a l'emission spontanee, on ajoute une cavite couplee qui minimise l'effet de l'emission spontanee dans la dynamique du LACPS. Nous montrons les battements obtenus avec deux LACPS, de 0.5 THz et 18 THz, dont deux, a 0.85 THz et 9.36 THz sont amplifies jusqu'a une energie

  2. Composing Disability: Diagnosis, Interrupted.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby; Fisher, Joseph; Fletcher, Wade

    2016-12-01

    Writing is central both to the medical diagnostic codification of disability and to disabled people's efforts to interrupt, complicate, or disrupt dominant medical narratives. This Symposium, like the George Washington University conference from which it takes its name, creates space for diverse modes and genres of claiming authority regarding diagnosis and its cultural and material effects. "Queer" and "crip" interrogations of diagnosis illuminate its status as a cultural phenomenon, embracing culturally disavowed embodiments and embodied experiences as tools for diagnosing inegalitarian social relations and opportunities for cultural interventions. This Symposium traces the workings of diagnostic normativity manifested in experiences such as "disruptive deafness," unstable bodily materialities, pathologized grief and other forms of affective distress, and "surgical assemblages." It presents a diverse array of compositions, articulated on each writer's own terms, addressing a range of embodied experiences through multiple genres and voices, ranging from conversation transcript to scholarly essay, poetry, graphic memoir, and personal essay. Here, laypersons interrupt monologic medical diagnosis, claiming space to compose themselves. Together, the authors trace instances of corporeal "correction" back to the noxious agents, both environmental and political, that consistently breach the boundaries of corporeality.

  3. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  4. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  5. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  6. How Composers Compose: In Search of the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bernard W.

    2004-01-01

    The Genesis Project is a multi-phase research project designed for the purpose of developing an in-depth understanding of the nature of musical creativity by investigating how composers compose. In this first phase of the project, an understanding of the four dimensions of musical creativity: (1) the "person", (2) the compositional…

  7. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  9. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  10. Guidelines for Coaching Student Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching students how to compose music. Addresses issues, such as how to get the students started and types of questions to ask students about their compositions. Discusses the musical elements involved in composition, such as melody, harmony, rhythm and meter, timbre, texture, and formal design. (CMK)

  11. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  12. Composable IO: A Novel Resource Sharing Platform in Personal Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Wei; Lin, Ben; Miao, Kai

    A fundamental goal for Cloud computing is to group resources to accomplish tasks that may require strong computing or communication capability. In this paper we design specific resource sharing technology under which IO peripherals can be shared among Cloud members. In particular, in a personal Cloud that is built up by a number of personal devices, IO peripherals at any device can be applied to support application running at another device. We call this IO sharing composable IO because it is equivalent to composing IOs from different devices for an application. We design composable USB and achieve pro-migration USB access, namely a migrated application running at the targeted host can still access the USB IO peripherals at the source host. This is supplementary to traditional VM migration under which application can only use resources from the device where the application runs. Experimental results show that through composable IO applications in personal Cloud can achieve much better user experience.

  13. Tracking Performance Requirements for Tracking Performance Requirements for Rotorcraft Instrument Approaches to Reduced Minima. Phase 1. Preliminary Study (Exigences Relatives Aux Performances De Suivi D’Approche Aux Instruments D’Un Giravion Afin De Reduire Les)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    A l’a~ronautique jug~es importantes, completes et durables en termes de contribution aux connaissances actuelles. CAHIERS D’AERONAUTIQUE (AN...83 large overshoot of pad (50 + feet); late in power application 84 past pad by 10 feet; large flare 85 stopped short - taxied to pad 86 50-75 foot

  14. Composing Music with Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  15. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders.

  16. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  17. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  18. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  19. Nurturing the Careers of Australia's Future Composers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the Australian Society for Music Education (ASME) initiated two related projects supporting and acknowledging composition in schools and offering the opportunity for secondary school-aged students to work with prominent Australian composers. These were the Young Composers' Project and the Composer-in-Residence Project. Both projects were…

  20. Preparing Students to Compose on a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadomski, Kenneth E.

    In the proliferation of articles about using computers in the composition classroom published in the last five or ten years, few mention anything about preparing students to compose on a computer while all assert that computers do indeed help the composing process. Preparing students to compose on a computer involves three major processes:…

  1. Sing the Songs of Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sue Fay; Keenan-Takagi, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated listing of choral works by women composers. Suggests sources of information about women composers and their music. Discusses some contemporary women whose compositions are particularly appropriate for student voices. Concludes that the listed works will help place women composers in perspective for student choral groups. (SG)

  2. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  3. Sheet music by mind: Towards a brain-computer interface for composing.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-08-01

    Providing brain-computer interface (BCI) users engaging applications should be one of the main targets in BCI research. A painting application, a web browser and other applications can already be controlled via BCI. Another engaging application would be a music composer for self-expression. In this work, we describe Brain Composing: A BCI controlled music composing software. We tested and evaluated the implemented brain composing system with five volunteers. Using a tap water-based electrode biosignal amplifier further improved the usability of the system. Three participants reached accuracies above 77% and were able to copy-compose a given melody. Results of questionnaires support that our brain composing system is an attractive and easy way to compose music via a BCI.

  4. A Virtual Composer in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.; Carter, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous generations applauded grant-funded programs that brought living composers into the lives of K-12 music students. The current economic climate, however, limits opportunities similar to those enjoyed in the past. We designed a virtual composer-in-residence experience that uses technology to overcome the barriers of funding limitations and…

  5. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  6. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  7. A Virtual Composer in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.; Carter, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous generations applauded grant-funded programs that brought living composers into the lives of K-12 music students. The current economic climate, however, limits opportunities similar to those enjoyed in the past. We designed a virtual composer-in-residence experience that uses technology to overcome the barriers of funding limitations and…

  8. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  9. Dave Brubeck on Music Education and Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponick, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Dave Brubeck, a composer and performer in contemporary jazz. Covers topics such as how Brubeck introduced his sons to music, whether he differentiates between "popular" and "serious" music, suggestions for helping music teachers develop relationships with composers, and the role music education should have in schools.…

  10. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  11. A Composer Succeeds with Beginning Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Katherine

    1984-01-01

    Described is a "Composer in Residence" project in which a local choral songwriter participated in a semester-long music course for fourth and fifth graders. He visited the schools and composed an instrumental work which the students performed at a spring concert. (RM)

  12. America's Women Composers: Up from the Footnotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Jeannie G.

    1979-01-01

    This article presents an overview on women composers in the United States from the eighteenth century to the present. It also lists women's musical organizations, selected references on women in music, and available recordings of works by American women composers. (SJL)

  13. Composable Flexible Real-time Packet Scheduling for Networks on-Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    should not affect the behaviors of existing applications. In this paper , we propose a composable and flexible work-conserving packet scheduling...to be composable in the sense that new incoming applications should not affect the behaviors of existing applications. In this paper , we propose a...words, real-time flows need to be composable. We set this as the design goal for our packet scheduling discipline developed in this paper . B. Motivating

  14. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingxin; He, Qiang; Gong, Jianxing

    2013-03-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling method based on BOM, designed a general structure of the coupled model based on BOM, and traversed the structure of atomic and coupled model based on BOM. At last, the paper introduced the process of BOM based composable modeling and made a conclusion on composable modeling method based on BOM. From the prototype we developed and accumulative model stocks, we found this method could increase the reuse and interoperability of models.

  15. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  16. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l

  17. Music and emotion—a composer's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives. PMID:24348344

  18. Helping Students Understand the Composer's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the string orchestra students of Natchitoches Central High School in Natchitoches (Louisiana) and their director commissioned the composer Jody Nagel to write a composition dedicated to their ensemble in order to increase the students' understanding of composition. Discusses student reaction to the project and use of discipline-based…

  19. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  20. Discourse Theory: Implications for Research in Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee; And Others

    Although current theories concerning the composing process overlap in useful and interesting ways, a paradigm is emerging. This article discusses two of the major assumptions of this emerging paradigm: that there are distinct purposes for each kind of discourse (for example, expressive, literary, persuasive, and referential) and that the relation…

  1. Take a Change with Aleatory Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can incorporate musical composition into their classrooms by teaching students about aleatory, or chance, music. Provides a definition of aleatory music and provides various composing techniques, focusing on aleatory music. Includes lesson plans using aleatory music, such as the "Mozart Model" for grades 4-12. (CMK)

  2. Enhancing Memory in Your Students: COMPOSE Yourself!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The essence of teaching is, in fact, creating new memories for your students. The teacher's role is to help students store the correct information (memories) in ways that make recall and future access and use likely. Therefore, choosing techniques to enhance memory is possibly the most critical aspect of instructional design. COMPOSE is an acronym…

  3. Composing Networks: Writing Practices on Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article is an investigation of composing practices through which people create networks with mobile phones. By looking through the lens of actor-network theory, the author portrays the networking activity of mobile phone users as translation, what Latour describes as an infralanguage to which different disciplinary perspectives can be…

  4. Composing Networks: Writing Practices on Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article is an investigation of composing practices through which people create networks with mobile phones. By looking through the lens of actor-network theory, the author portrays the networking activity of mobile phone users as translation, what Latour describes as an infralanguage to which different disciplinary perspectives can be…

  5. Factors Important in Composing Legal Written Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Judy Ferguson

    To determine which factors were considered important in composing legal written documents, personal interviews were conducted with 111 Middle Tennessee Bar Association members, and questionnaires were mailed to 211 legal secretaries/paralegals. The self-administered questionnaires were completed and returned by 133 persons. Of those, 108 indicated…

  6. Composing Zen Haiku: Training to Make Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that composing "haiku" requires a discipline in a person's thinking and emoting patterns similar to that of a general semantics system for training people to make sense. Describes how such haiku are written and gives some guidelines to help individuals create their own. (PA)

  7. The Composer's Blueprint: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzcinski, Louis C.; Nelhybel, Vaclav

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany two 15-minute color television programs dealing with the creative process involved in conceiving a composition. The programs are appropriate for junior high school string students and instrumental students in string methods courses at teacher training institutions. In the program, the composer explains…

  8. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  9. The Composing Processes of Mature Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Katharyn

    The study examined 41 students (24 male, 17 female) in a beginning writing course for adults. Data were collected by (1) taping four workshop sessions in which all students participated in small groups, (2) interviewing all the students, and (3) observing four students writing in the classroom. The adult writers composed in two models: the…

  10. Research on Composing: Points of Departure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Charles R., Ed.; Odell, Lee, Ed.

    While the chapters of this book present a variety of perspectives, they share the common goal of redirecting and revitalizing research on written composition. The authors review research on written discourse and the composing process and raise questions regarding information and skills that teachers and researchers need to consider. The chapters…

  11. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  12. Active magnetic compensation composed of shielding panels.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Yamazaki, K; Sato, T; Haga, A; Okitsu, T; Muramatsu, K; Ueda, T; Kobayashi, K; Yoshizawa, M

    2004-11-30

    Magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) with materials of high permeability and active shield systems have been used to shield magnetic noise for biomagnetic measurements up to now. However, these techniques have various disadvantages. Therefore, we have developed a new shielding system composed of shielding panels using an active compensation technique. In this study, we evaluated the shielding performance of several unit panels attached together. Numerical and experimental approaches indicated that the shielding factor of a cubic model composed of 24 panels was 17 for uniform fields, and 7 for disturbances due to car movement. Furthermore, the compensation space is larger than that of an ordinary active system using large coils rather than panels. Moreover, the new active compensation system has the important advantage that panels of any shape can be assembled for occasional use because the unit panels are small and light.

  13. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    DOE PAGES

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  14. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  15. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  16. Q&A: The AI composer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Computer scientist Luc Steels uses artificial intelligence to explore the origins and evolution of language. He is best known for his 1999-2001 Talking Heads Experiment, in which robots had to construct a language from scratch to communicate with each other. Now Steels, who works at the Free University of Brussels (VUB), has composed an opera based on the legend of Faust, with a twenty-first-century twist. He talks about Mozart as a nascent computer programmer, how music maps onto language, and the blurred boundaries of a digitized world.

  17. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  18. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning. PMID:23087694

  19. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  20. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  1. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  2. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Pierre

    La presente these, qui combine des mesures de diffusion Raman, de transmission infrarouge, de conductivite hyperfrequence et d'interferometrie ultrasonore sur les composes Nd 2-xCexCuO 4, traite des defauts d'oxygene, ainsi que des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques de ces materiaux. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus sont correles avec plusieurs donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature. D'abord, la caracterisation des modes Raman et des niveaux d'energie de champ cristallin de l'ion Nd3+ au moyen de techniques optiques, en fonction du dopage en cerium et du contenu en oxygene, permettent de conclure a la presence de defauts lies a une non-stoechiometrie en oxygene dans ces composes. En effet, des excitations de champ cristallin assignees a des ions Nd3+ en sites irreguliers sont observees, en plus des bandes d'absorption associees aux ions Nd3+ en site regulier, dans les spectres correspondant aux multiplets 4I11/2, 4I13/2 et 4I 15/2 de l'ion Nd3+. Les resultats experimentaux indiquent que, contrairement a la croyance largement repandue, les oxygenes apicaux, bien que presents dans les echantillons dopes, ne sont pas enleves lors du processus de reduction des echantillons necessaire pour faire apparaitre la supraconductivite dans cette famille de cuprates. Au contraire, des lacunes d'oxygene, dont le type varie en fonction du dopage, sont creees lors de ce processus. En particulier, il est montre dans ce travail que la reduction des echantillons dopes de maniere optimale conduit a la creation de lacunes d'oxygene dans les plans CuO2. Les consequences de telles lacunes sont largement discutees. En outre, il est suggere que de telles lacunes sont responsables de la perte de l'ordre antiferromagnetique a longue portee des ions Cu2+. Finalement, l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans le compose nondope est caracterisee au moyen de la transmission infrarouge sous champ magnetique. L'eclatement des doublets de Kramers mesure

  3. Composing across Modes: A Comparative Analysis of Adolescents' Multimodal Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Blaine E.

    2017-01-01

    Although the shift from page to screen has dramatically redefined conceptions of writing, very little is known about how youth compose with multiple modes in digital environments. Integrating multimodality and multiliteracies theoretical frameworks, this comparative case study examined how urban twelfth-grade students collaboratively composed…

  4. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  5. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  6. Tétanos associé aux soins: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo

    2016-01-01

    La prophylaxie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge des blessures, est une stratégie majeure de prévention du tétanos en milieu de soins. Toute défaillance de la prise en charge des blessures expose dangereusement les victimes à la maladie. Nous rapportons un cas de tétanos survenu à la suite d’une blessure frontale prise en charge dans une structure sanitaire sans prophylaxie antitétanique. L’objectif est de rappeler aux cliniciens sur l’importance de cette prophylaxie chez tout blessé non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. Patient de 52 ans non vacciné contre le tétanos a été admisau CHU YO pour cervicalgie, dysphagie, difficulté à la marche et à l’ouverture de la bouche. Dans ses antécédents il souligne une blessure frontale profonde ayant été suturée sans prophylaxie antitétanique il y a trois semaines environ. L’examen à son admission notaitun trismus lâche, une contracture abdominale, une dysphagie, une température à 36°5Cet une cicatrice au niveau du front mesurant environ 7 cm. Le diagnostic d’un tétanos généralisé stade II à porte d’entrée frontale a été retenu. Sous traitement l’évolution a été favorable et il est sorti de l’hôpital le 18septembre 2015. La prévention du tétanos associé aux soins requiert l’application rigoureuse des mesures d’asepsie, la systématisation de la sérothérapie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge de toute blessure profonde du patient non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. PMID:28292071

  7. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H.; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice. PMID:28061500

  8. Joint Composable Object Model and LVC Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinsmith, Richard; Wallace, Jeffrey; Bizub, Warren; Ceranowicz, Andy; Cutts, Dannie; Powell, Edward T.; Gustavson, Paul; Lutz, Robert; McCloud, Terrell

    2010-01-01

    Within the Department of Defense, multiple architectures are created to serve and fulfill one or several specific service or mission related LVC training goals. Multiple Object Models exist across and within those architectures and it is there that those disparate object models are a major source of interoperability problems when developing and constructing the training scenarios. The two most commonly used architectures are; HLA and TENA, with DIS and CTIA following close behind in terms of the number of users. Although these multiple architectures can share and exchange data the underlying meta-models for runtime data exchange are quite different, requiring gateways/translators to bridge between the different object model representations; while the Department of Defense's use of gateways are generally effective in performing these functions, as the LVC environment increases so too does the cost and complexity of these gateways. Coupled with the wide range of different object models across the various user communities we increase the propensity for run time errors, increased programmer stop gap measures during coordinated exercises, or failure of the system as a whole due to unknown or unforeseen incompatibilities. The Joint Composable Object Model (JCOM) project was established under an M&S Steering Committee (MSSC)-sponsored effort with oversight and control placed under the Joint Forces Command J7 Advanced Concepts Program Directorate. The purpose of this paper is to address the initial and the current progress that has been made in the following areas; the Conceptual Model Development Format, the Common Object Model, the Architecture Neutral Data Exchange Model (ANDEM), and the association methodology to allow the re-use of multiple architecture object models and the development of the prototype persistent reusable library.

  9. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  10. Efficient Non-interactive Universally Composable String-Commitment Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaki, Ryo; Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke

    The universal composability (UC) for commitment is a very strong security notion. It guarantees that commitment schemes remain secure even if they are composed with arbitrary protocols and polynomially many copies of the schemes are run concurrently. Several UC commitment schemes in the common reference string (CRS) model have been proposed, but, they are either interactive commitment or bit-commitment (not string-commitment) schemes. We propose new non-interactive string-commitment schemes that achieve UC security in the CRS model assuming the difficulty of the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem or the decisional composite residuosity problem, but our schemes are not reusable. The main building blocks of our constructions are all-but-one trapdoor functions (ABO-TDFs) introduced by Peikert and Waters in STOC 2008 to construct secure public-key encryption schemes. Our main idea is to use the homomorphic properties of the function indices of the all-but-one trapdoor functions and to extend the functions to probabilistic ones by using re-randomization of ciphertexts. This is a new application of ABO-TDFs.

  11. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  12. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17.

    PubMed

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-12-30

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III-IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III-IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼ 10- to ∼ 100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes.

  13. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  14. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  15. Asymmetric wetting of patterned surfaces composed of intrinsically hysteretic materials.

    PubMed

    Anantharaju, Neeharika; Panchagnula, Mahesh V; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2009-07-07

    Wetting of chemically heterogeneous surfaces is modeled using a phase field theory. We focus on a chemically heterogeneous surface composed of squares of one component material embedded in another. Unlike previous studies where the component materials were characterized only by an equilibrium contact angle, in this paper each of the component materials is constitutively allowed to exhibit hysteresis. Using this approach, we investigate the effect of heterogeneity length scale on observed macroscopic behavior. Cassie theory is found to be applicable only in the limit of vanishing length scale. For surfaces with a finite heterogeneity length scale, the advancing and receding contact angles deviate from Cassie theory. We find that this deviation and its length scale dependence are asymmetric and depend on the wetting properties of the embedded material relative to the contiguous substrate.

  16. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  17. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  18. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  19. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  20. Composing a Tumor Specific Bacterial Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Deyneko, Igor V.; Kasnitz, Nadine; Leschner, Sara; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Systemically applied Salmonella enterica spp. have been shown to invade and colonize neoplastic tissues where it retards the growth of many tumors. This offers the possibility to use the bacteria as a vehicle for the tumor specific delivery of therapeutic molecules. Specificity of such delivery is solely depending on promoter sequences that control the production of a target molecule. We have established the functional structure of bacterial promoters that are transcriptionally active exclusively in tumor tissues after systemic application. We observed that the specific transcriptional activation is accomplished by a combination of a weak basal promoter and a strong FNR binding site. This represents a minimal set of control elements required for such activation. In natural promoters, additional DNA remodeling elements are found that alter the level of transcription quantitatively. Inefficiency of the basal promoter ensures the absence of transcription outside tumors. As a proof of concept, we compiled an artificial promoter sequence from individual motifs representing FNR and basal promoter and showed specific activation in a tumor microenvironment. Our results open possibilities for the generation of promoters with an adjusted level of expression of target proteins in particular for applications in bacterial tumor therapy. PMID:27171245

  1. SPARQL assist language-neutral query composer.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Luke; Vandervalk, Ben; Wilkinson, Mark

    2012-01-25

    SPARQL query composition is difficult for the lay-person, and even the experienced bioinformatician in cases where the data model is unfamiliar. Moreover, established best-practices and internationalization concerns dictate that the identifiers for ontological terms should be opaque rather than human-readable, which further complicates the task of synthesizing queries manually. We present SPARQL Assist: a Web application that addresses these issues by providing context-sensitive type-ahead completion during SPARQL query construction. Ontological terms are suggested using their multi-lingual labels and descriptions, leveraging existing support for internationalization and language-neutrality. Moreover, the system utilizes the semantics embedded in ontologies, and within the query itself, to help prioritize the most likely suggestions. To ensure success, the Semantic Web must be easily available to all users, regardless of locale, training, or preferred language. By enhancing support for internationalization, and moreover by simplifying the manual construction of SPARQL queries through the use of controlled-natural-language interfaces, we believe we have made some early steps towards simplifying access to Semantic Web resources.

  2. SPARQL Assist language-neutral query composer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SPARQL query composition is difficult for the lay-person, and even the experienced bioinformatician in cases where the data model is unfamiliar. Moreover, established best-practices and internationalization concerns dictate that the identifiers for ontological terms should be opaque rather than human-readable, which further complicates the task of synthesizing queries manually. Results We present SPARQL Assist: a Web application that addresses these issues by providing context-sensitive type-ahead completion during SPARQL query construction. Ontological terms are suggested using their multi-lingual labels and descriptions, leveraging existing support for internationalization and language-neutrality. Moreover, the system utilizes the semantics embedded in ontologies, and within the query itself, to help prioritize the most likely suggestions. Conclusions To ensure success, the Semantic Web must be easily available to all users, regardless of locale, training, or preferred language. By enhancing support for internationalization, and moreover by simplifying the manual construction of SPARQL queries through the use of controlled-natural-language interfaces, we believe we have made some early steps towards simplifying access to Semantic Web resources. PMID:22373327

  3. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  4. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  5. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  6. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  9. The Evolution of Minehunting in France (L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    AD-A132 532 THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE IL’EVOLUTION DE I/1 LA CHASSE AUX MINES EN FRANCE)(U) NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON...SEP 16 0 -wm- a/or.’- i.,it ______ D a " THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE (de Drezigue, Cdr; L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France...than the minehunter could assure this mission? Evolution of Minehunting The guiding thought of this evolution is the following: to have a good

  10. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  11. Fundamentals and Special Problems of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Les Aspects Fondamentaux et les Problemes Specifiques aux Radars a Ouverture Synthetique (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION: IMAGING OF SHIPS *(x,y)- P(U)IU~e dU d# AT SEA) ) (80) 6.1. Modelization The integral over U is identified as an inverse ...Special SAR-methods like squint-, stretch- and spotlight-techniques for example will be presented in addition to the inverse SAR-techniques using the...pr~sentis en complement des techniques SAR inverses faisant appel aux mouvement des cibles au lieu du mouvement du radar. Le cycle de conferences; se

  12. How Music Technology Can Make Sound and Music Worlds Accessible to Student Composers in Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Leah

    2012-01-01

    I am a composer, producer, pianist and part-time music lecturer at a Further Education college where I teach composing on Music Technology courses at levels 3 (equivalent to A-level) and 4 (Undergraduate/Foundation Degree). A "Music Technology" course, distinct from a "Music" course, often attracts applicants from diverse musical backgrounds; it…

  13. How Music Technology Can Make Sound and Music Worlds Accessible to Student Composers in Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Leah

    2012-01-01

    I am a composer, producer, pianist and part-time music lecturer at a Further Education college where I teach composing on Music Technology courses at levels 3 (equivalent to A-level) and 4 (Undergraduate/Foundation Degree). A "Music Technology" course, distinct from a "Music" course, often attracts applicants from diverse musical backgrounds; it…

  14. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  15. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  16. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  17. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  18. Talking about Composing in Secondary School Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Angela E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an action research study of teacher and pupil talk about composing. Data were collected through video and audio recordings of composition lessons in a secondary school. Qualitative analysis of the data led to the development of a "typology of pupil talk about composing" which distinguishes between six main types:…

  19. A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, James E.; And Others

    Since teams perform a majority of mission-critical Navy tasks, a significant applied research problem is how to compose maximally effective task teams. Two problems have traditionally hindered the attainment of this goal: how to compose teams on bases other than ability or technical skill and how to classify team tasks, so that predictions can be…

  20. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  1. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  2. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  3. Syllabus for a Women Studies Course on Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah

    An upper division college-level course dealing with women composers for both music majors and nonmusic majors is outlined. The course provides an historical and analytical survey of western music through works composed by women, with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Students listen to music, participate in class discussions, and listen to…

  4. Avoiding Common Security Flaws in Composed Service-Oriented Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    remain exposed to security attacks. Service Oriented Architecture ( SOA ) based systems are inherently composition-based. New functionality is ex...survivability of the composed system. Keywords: Service Oriented Architecture , Trustworthy system design, Information Assurance, Survivability I...Avoiding Common Security Flaws in Composed Service - Oriented Systems Michael Atighetchi, Partha Pal, Joseph Loyall Raytheon BBN Technologies

  5. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  6. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  7. Alexia Without Agraphia in a Composer. Technical Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Tedd; And Others

    The case study of a 78-year-old music composer who had had a stroke revealed that he had a severe reading disturbance, a well-preserved writing ability, and no appreciable aphasia. He continued to read music and to compose. His text and music reading performance under different conditions suggested that this unusual dissociation (alexia without…

  8. The composing process of technical writers: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, D.; Roundy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that technical writers compose as do other writers is tested. The literature on the composing process, not limited to the pure or applied sciences, was reviewed, yielding three areas of general agreement. The composing process (1) consists of several stages, (2) is reflexive, and (3) may be mastered by means of strategies. Data on the ways technical writers compose were collected, and findings were related to the three areas of agreement. Questionnaires and interviews surveying 70 writers were used. The disciplines represented by these writers included civil, chemical, agricultural, geological, mechanical, electrical, and petroleum engineering, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and biology. Those providing consulting services, or performing research. No technical editors or professional writers were surveyed, only technicians, engineers, and researchers whose jobs involved composing reports. Three pedagogical implications are included.

  9. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  10. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  11. Caracterisation de la propagation sans-fil dans les avions commerciaux pour une transmission dediee aux services aux passagers et aux systemes avioniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghir, Hassane

    Aircraft systems are interconnected by cable bundles that may represent a hundred kilometres. Those wirings penalize the aircraft weight. Cable bundles favour electromagnetic interference on board aircraft and routing a new cable for integrating new equipment boxes in a sustained aircraft requires a lot of retrofit work. Consequently, the aviation industry and aerospace community are working in the scope of different projects on new alternatives that will better fit to the future generation of aircrafts and help to reduce interconnecting wires on board. Wireless technologies represent a coveted solution that could make significant improvements and benefits to new generations of aircrafts. This research work focuses on the study of the wireless propagation over some frequency bands inside commercial aircrafts. The main objective is to provide conclusions and recommendations on criteria that may help optimizing the wireless communication without impacting the existent systems. Targeted applications are the inflight entertainment (IFE) service and wireless sensing systems. This work was conducted in collaboration with Bombardier-Aerospace based in Montreal (QC) in the frame of AVIO-402 project under the grant of CRIAQ (http://www.criaq.aero/). In this study, an experimental characterization of the propagation channel in the ISM band around 2.4 GHz frequency 5.8 GHz has been performed in a CRJ700 aircraft from Bombardier Aerospace. This characterization allowed to extract the parameters needed to analyze the channel behavior. The measurements results have shown that the propagation characteristics are close to those of both typical indoor medium in terms of the delay spread and a tunnel in terms of path loss. Then, a 3D channel modeling and simulation have been achieved with an RF prediction software (Wireless Insite Remcom). The simulations also consider the millimeter band around 60 GHz. The simulations yielded to analytical models of radio coverage which were

  12. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  13. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed.

  14. AUX/LAX Genes Encode a Family of Auxin Influx Transporters That Perform Distinct Functions during Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Kamal; Ferguson, Alison; Seth, Malvika; Yang, Yaodong; Dhondt, Stijn; James, Nicholas; Casimiro, Ilda; Perry, Paula; Syed, Adnan; Yang, Haibing; Reemmer, Jesica; Venison, Edward; Howells, Caroline; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Alonso, Jose; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Laplaze, Laurent; Murphy, Angus; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Nielsen, Erik; Swarup, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE AUX1 [LAX] genes LAX1, LAX2, and LAX3). We report that all four members of this AUX/LAX family display auxin uptake functions. Despite the conservation of their biochemical function, AUX1, LAX1, and LAX3 have been described to regulate distinct auxin-dependent developmental processes. Here, we report that LAX2 regulates vascular patterning in cotyledons. We also describe how regulatory and coding sequences of AUX/LAX genes have undergone subfunctionalization based on their distinct patterns of spatial expression and the inability of LAX sequences to rescue aux1 mutant phenotypes, respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity at the protein level, transgenic studies reveal that LAX proteins are not correctly targeted in the AUX1 expression domain. Domain swapping studies suggest that the N-terminal half of AUX1 is essential for correct LAX localization. We conclude that Arabidopsis AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct developmental functions and have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22773749

  15. Langmuir monolayers composed of single and double tail sulfobetaine lipids.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Gavin; Gee, Anthony P; Arnold, Thomas; Edler, Karen J; Lewis, Simon E

    2016-07-15

    Owing to structural similarities between sulfobetaine lipids and phospholipids it should be possible to form stable Langmuir monolayers from long tail sulfobetaines. By modification of the density of lipid tail group (number of carbon chains) it should also be possible to modulate the two-dimensional phase behaviour of these lipids and thereby compare with that of equivalent phospholipids. Potentially this could enable the use of such lipids for the wide array of applications that currently use phospholipids. The benefit of using sulfobetaine lipids is that they can be synthesised by a one-step reaction from cheap and readily available starting materials and will degrade via different pathways than natural lipids. The molecular architecture of the lipid can be easily modified allowing the design of lipids for specific purposes. In addition the reversal of the charge within the sulfobetaine head group relative to the charge orientation in phospholipids may modify behaviour and thereby allow for novel uses of these surfactants. Stable Langmuir monolayers were formed composed of single and double tailed sulfobetaine lipids. Surface pressure-area isotherm, Brewster Angle Microscopy and X-ray and neutron reflectometry measurements were conducted to measure the two-dimensional phase behaviour and out-of-plane structure of the monolayers as a function of molecular area. Sulfobetaine lipids are able to form stable Langmuir monolayers with two dimensional phase behaviour analogous to that seen for the well-studied phospholipids. Changing the number of carbon tail groups on the lipid from one to two promotes the existence of a liquid condensed phase due to increased Van der Waals interactions between the tail groups. Thus the structure of the monolayers appears to be defined by the relative sizes of the head and tail groups in a predictable way. However, the presence of sub-phase ions has little effect on the monolayer structure, behaviour that is surprisingly different to

  16. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  17. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu6-xAux

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu6-xAux are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition xc=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at xc. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phasemore » transition suggesting that the LaCu6-xAux series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  18. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  19. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  20. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  1. Disruptions in AUX1-dependent auxin influx alter hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bethany B; Stowe-Evans, Emily L; Harper, Reneé M; Celaya, R Brandon; Ljung, Karin; Sandberg, Göran; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling, leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if co-irradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations--map1 (modifier of arf7 phenotypes 1)--was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1--a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmacological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  2. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  3. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  4. Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ke; Hu, Jiang; Cheng, Mosong

    2004-05-01

    In sub-wavelength lithography, light field Alt-PSM (Alternating Phase Shifting Mask) is an essential technology for poly layer printability. In a standard cell based design, the problem of obtaining Alt-PSM compliance for an individual cell layout has been solved well [3]. However, placing Alt-PSM compliant cells together can not guarantee Alt-PSM compliance of the entire chip/block layout due to phase interactions among adjacent cells. A simple solution to this Alt-PSM composability problem is to wrap blank area around each cell, which is very inefficient on chip area usage. In this paper, we formulate the composability problem as a graph model and propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm to achieve Alt-PSM composability with the least impact on cell layout.

  5. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  6. "Convince Me!" Valuing Multimodal Literacies and Composing Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Richard J.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    For some teachers, the increasing attention to digital and multimodal composing in English and Language Arts classrooms has brought into sharp relief the profession's investment in print as the primary means of expression. Although new forms of communication that combine words, still and moving images, and animation have begun to dominate digital…

  7. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  8. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and…

  9. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  10. A Composer Teams with Student Lyricists to Make History Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtmann, Curtis; Lewis, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    The ballad is a primary medium for the reliving of historic events. Described is a joint music and social studies project in which junior high school students research historic events and write song lyrics. A composer gives a lesson on lyric writing, verse forms, and rhyme schemes. (RM)

  11. Composing the Career Portfolio and the Classed Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I consider how subjectivities are composed and assessed within the boundaries of a career-focused portfolio program. First, by examining how portfolio composition is taught in senior English courses, I identify the qualities of the subject position students are called to occupy. Next, I present discourse analyses of portfolio…

  12. Page composer to translate binary electrical data to optical form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. A.; Cosentino, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Composer converts binary data to optical form for storage as hologram. Device consists of an array of deformable metal membranes controlled by MOSFET's. Device is fast, produces high contrast ratios, does not degrade with extended use, and can be addressed from diverse angles.

  13. Composing Styles as Predicted by Personality Style Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanski, Virginia G.

    To determine students' different but equally valid ways of dealing with the composing process, a college instructor developed a questionnaire assessing personality styles. The questionnaire distinguishes between (1) approaches to the writing process, (2) preferences for types of instruction, (3) preferences for types of writing and organizational…

  14. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and…

  15. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  16. Non-Logical Discourse: Key to the Composing Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Richard C.

    One niche in which scholars have not looked for keys to the composing process is the sometimes illusory but vital area of nonlogical discourse, which includes fantasy, hallucination, dream, reverie, vision, trance, and meditation. Abundant evidence exists about the genesis, importance, and use of nonlogical discourse, but this evidence comes…

  17. Composing Cinquain Poems with Basic Parts of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    The writing program described in this lesson plan guides students in grades 3 through 8 in composing cinquain poems, a five-line form that uses the syllable count of two-four-six-eight-two. During the two 50-minute lessons, students will: describe the basic conventions of cinquain; interpret examples of cinquain; characterize the relationship…

  18. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  19. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  20. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  1. "Composing Visual History: Using Powerpoint Slideshows to Explore Historical Narrative"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehn, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This article explores PowerPoint slideshow's capacities for introducing history teachers and students to the pictorial and digital turns for representing and narrating the past. Based upon this research, the author argues that image-dominated PowerPoint slideshow provides teachers and students with a unique and powerful tool for composing and…

  2. An Analysis of the Composing Processes of Three Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Robert J.

    The study described in this paper was designed to compare the composing processes of three black adolescent females--a low, a moderate, and a high user of nonstandard dialect. After explaining the procedures used in selecting the subjects on the basis of their degree of usage of nonstandard dialect features, the paper describes the research…

  3. Preparing Performers and Composers for Effective Educational Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Music education programs stand to gain important benefits from the collaborative work of performing musicians with specialist music teachers and classroom teachers. To be effective, performers and composers must have their knowledge and skills for education cultivated within the context of their essential identities as musicians. Given…

  4. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  5. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  6. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  7. The rainbow effect on composing chaotic algorithmic music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.

    The effect of rainbow color sequence on composing chaotic algorithmic music is examined. The mathematical range of the chaotic algorithm is mapped onto musical notes whose sequence follows the sequence of the seven main rainbow colors and their in-between five auxiliary colors. Each musical note is identified with the frequency of a color by a frequency shift. As a result, for a single rainbow, the scale of the chaotic music comprises an ascending chromatic F major scale without the thirteenth note, followed by its corresponding descending chromatic scale, for a total of twenty four notes. For aesthetic purposes, a note can be placed in any octave at the composer's will. The effect of a double rainbow on composing chaotic music is also studied. It is known from nature that the outer bow has its color sequence reversed. Thus, in this case, the double rainbow musical scale comprises forty eight notes on a repeated reversed full chromatic F major scale without the thirteenth note in the ascent or the first note in the descent, resembling in shape the letter w. Colorless regions in the rainbow or dark (Alexander's bands) regions in a supernumerary rainbow are included in the musical range as rests. With the musical scale based on the described rainbow mapping, chaotic music is composed from an algorithm defined by a semi-elliptical first order iterative map. The minor axis of the ellipse is defined by the range of the mathematical pitch from 0 to 1 while the semi-major axis by that of the succeeding pitch from 0 to r/2; r is a free parameter that varies from 1 to 2 to be chosen by the composer. The lower limiting value of the free parameter r corresponds to a circle of radius 1/2 yielding steady state music whereas all the other values of r correspond to ellipses. Chaotic compositions result from r values between 1.95 and 2, the latter value yielding full chaos from an ellipse with its major axis double its minor axis. Fixed notes are obtained for all r's, i.e., notes

  8. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  9. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  10. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  11. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  12. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  13. A Design for Composing and Extending Vehicle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Neuhaus, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Development Branch (SDB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) creates simulation software products for research. Each product consists of an aircraft model with experiment extensions. SDB treats its aircraft models as reusable components, upon which experiments can be built. SDB has evolved aircraft model design with the following goals: 1. Avoid polluting the aircraft model with experiment code. 2. Discourage the copy and tailor method of reuse. The current evolution of that architecture accomplishes these goals by reducing experiment creation to extend and compose. The architecture mechanizes the operational concerns of the model's subsystems and encapsulates them in an interface inherited by all subsystems. Generic operational code exercises the subsystems through the shared interface. An experiment is thus defined by the collection of subsystems that it creates ("compose"). Teams can modify the aircraft subsystems for the experiment using inheritance and polymorphism to create variants ("extend").

  14. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  15. The role of AUX1 gene and auxin content to the branching phenotype of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arumingtyas, Estri L; Mastuti, R; Indriyani, S

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify auxin gene, AUX1, and to determine the plant auxin content and their role in conferring branching on Kenaf. PCR analysis using AUX1 primer capable to amplify the DNA of non branching (KR11) and branching kenaf mutant, resulting in 800 bp PCR product. The sequence of the PCR product showed high degree of homology with the sequence of AUX1 gene of other plants in the NCBI GenBank database, confirming kenaf possession of the gene AUX1. However, some variation on the DNA sequence was found between branching and non branching phenotype indicated allele differences of the same gene which were responsible for the variation in the type of branching. Identification of auxin content in the roots, apical shoot, and axillary branches using spectrophotometry method showed that the branching plant has higher auxin content in the apical shoot compared to the content in the branches. This indicate that AUX1 controls the formation of branches by controlling either the content of auxin in the apical shoot and branches, or the ratio of auxin content in the shoot and branches.

  16. PLZT block data composers operated in differential phase mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. D.; Klingler, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The use of a PLTZ block data composer as a matrix type phase modulator to record and process digital data by the differential phase mode in a holographic recording/processing system was investigated. The system has readout contrast ratios of between 10 and 15 to 1. The differential phase mode has the advantage that strain bias is not required and thickness and strain variations in the PLZT are cancelled out.

  17. 1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the greenhouse, a storeroom (shed), a classroom (over a former ice pit), and a kitchen (over a cellar)-stands on the right. The barn roof is visible at center and the gift shop (former stable) stands on the left (Note the carved stone posts framing the gateway). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. A design study of a photorefractive page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration and preliminary system analysis of a page composer designed to have the dual advantages of low optical loss and small size, were reported. The current page composer is optically addressed and functions by virtue of optically induced refractive index changes in the active material. Laboratory demonstrations of the device were successfully performed using 10 x 10 bit and 128 x 128 bit data arrays. It was established that the only significant obstacle to the construction of a brass-board model working at megabit data rates is the lack of sensitivity of the photorefractive materials which were considered during the course of this study. Possible materials for future consideration are the photoplastics. While they have more than the required sensitivity, their stability and suitability for double exposure holography was not investigated. If a sufficiently sensitive material is found, then the photorefractive page composer could be built to perform in a highly efficient fashion which would result in a overall reduction of the size of the memory system and an easing of the requirements upon the sensitivity of the holographic recording material.

  19. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  20. Transparency windows of the plasmonic nanostructure composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Min; Tang, Bin; Wang, Zhibing; He, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We in this study investigated numerically the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect on the plasmonic nanostructures composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The PIT effect in the nanosystem stemmed from the near field coupling between the bright and dark modes. The nanostructure composed of three resonators exhibited double PIT effect. And the PIT spectral response of the proposed nanostructures was demonstrated having a dependence on the parameters of the compound plasmonic system such as the widths of C-shaped resonator and U-shaped resonator, the resonators spatial arrangement and the edge-to-edge distance between the adjacent resonators. The electric and magnetic field distributions of certain resonance wavelengths were also given to discuss the underlying physics. The resonator design strategy opens up a rich pathway to develop the building block of systems for all optical switching, plasmonic sensing applications.

  1. Towards Composing Data Aware Systems Biology Workflows on Cloud Platforms: A MeDICi-based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Wynne, Adam S.

    2011-09-08

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted for deploying systems biology scientific workflows. Scientists developing these workflows use a wide variety of fragmented and competing data sets and computational tools of all scales to support their research. To this end, the synergy of client side workflow tools with cloud platforms is a promising approach to share and reuse data and workflows. In such systems, the location of data and computation is essential consideration in terms of quality of service for composing a scientific workflow across remote cloud platforms. In this paper, we describe a cloud-based workflow for genome annotation processing that is underpinned by MeDICi - a middleware designed for data intensive scientific applications. The workflow implementation incorporates an execution layer for exploiting data locality that routes the workflow requests to the processing steps that are colocated with the data. We demonstrate our approach by composing two workflowswith the MeDICi pipelines.

  2. 18-Electron rule inspired Zintl-like ions composed of all transition metals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Giri, Santanab; Jena, Purusottam

    2014-10-07

    Zintl phase compounds constitute a unique class of compounds composed of metal cations and covalently bonded multiply charged cluster anions. Potential applications of these materials in solution chemistry and thermoelectric materials have given rise to renewed interest in the search for new Zintl ions. Up to now these ions have been mostly composed of group 13, 14, and 15 post-transition metal elements and no Zintl ions composed of all transition metal elements are known. Using gradient corrected density functional theory we show that the 18-electron rule can be applied to design a new class of Zintl-like ions composed of all transition metal atoms. We demonstrate this possibility by using Ti@Au12(2-) and Ni@Au6(2-) di-anions as examples of Zintl-like ions. Predictive capability of our approach is demonstrated by showing that FeH6(4-) in an already synthesized complex metal hydride, Mg2FeH6, is a Zintl-like ion, satisfying the 18-electron rule. We also show that novel Zintl phase compounds can be formed by using all transition metal Zintl-like ions as building blocks. For example, a two-dimensional periodic structure of Na2[Ti@Au12] is semiconducting and nonmagnetic while a one-dimensional periodic structure of Mg[Ti@Au12] is metallic and ferromagnetic. Our results open the door to the design and synthesis of a new class of Zintl-like ions and compounds with potential for applications.

  3. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  4. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  5. Superconducting parameters of BaPt4-xAuxGe12 filled skutterudite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisuradze, A.; Gumeniuk, R.; Schnelle, W.; Nicklas, M.; Baines, C.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Leithe-Jasper, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on a study of the superconducting properties for a series of polycrystalline BaPt4-xAuxGe12 filled skutterudite compounds for x=0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1. Muon spin rotation (μSR) spectroscopy as well as magnetization, specific-heat, and electrical resistivity measurements were performed. The magnetic penetration depth λ, the coherence length ξ, and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ are evaluated. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density is well described by an s-wave superconducting gap and this classical scenario is supported by the field-independent λ. The gap-to-Tc ratio Δ0/kBTc increases with the Au content from 1.70 for x=0 to 2.1(1) for x=1. By combining μSR, magnetization, and specific-heat data, we find that BaPt4-xAuxGe12 compounds are in between the dirty and clean limits with mean free paths of the carriers l˜ξ. Interestingly, resistivity data for BaPt4Ge12 indicate a much higher upper critical field, which is probably due to defects or impurities close to the surface of the crystallites.

  6. Comportement dynamique d'alliages a memoire de forme et application aux composites-AMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santis, Silvio

    Meeting current industrial, governmental and international standards regarding vibration and noise levels is a challenging task facing many engineers. These specifications are present in just about all fields of engineering, from aerospace to marine transportation, from automotive to railway transportation, from computer equipment to industrial working environments. An appropriate use of the remarkable properties of high damping metals (HIDAMETS) and shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforced composites emerges as a possible solution to these problems. Among many obstacles to overcome in developing such a technology, the implementation of reliable and adequate characterization techniques to determine dynamic properties of these materials appears to be of prime importance. The research efforts presented in this thesis are aimed at developing advanced techniques to characterize the dynamic behavior of HIDAMETS and SMA reinforced composites. These characterization results lead to the enhancement of numerical (finite element) and/or analytical methods for the simulation of dynamic responses of structures made of these materials. In particular, the research work has focused on three themes: the numerical and experimental validation of applying a characterization procedure developed for traditional composites to SMA reinforced composites; the development of a test bench for uniaxial hysteresis characterization of HIDAMETS in the medium frequency range; the hysteresis characterization and modeling of manganese copper (MnCu) and nickel titanium samples. The results obtained in the course of these efforts show that the characterization technique developed for traditional composites at the University of Brussels is sufficiently precise to successfully predict natural frequencies of complex SMA reinforced composite structures. Using the characterization to predict structural damping ratios, we observe a bias error in the prediction with respect to experimental results although the relative values between modes are consistent. Regarding the development of the test bench for uniaxial hysteresis characterization of HIDAMETS, results suggest that with the introduction of a few minor enhancements and with particular experimental precautions, the test bench can play an important role in characterizing HIDAMETS dynamic properties at various frequencies and strain amplitudes and in understanding micro mechanical mechanisms responsible for energy dissipation. Finally, uniaxial hysteresis loops and related parameters have been obtained with MnCu and NiTi samples. A material model based on dual kriging interpolation that expresses the tangent stiffness along these hysteresis loops as a function of strain and strain amplitude has also been developed.

  7. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  8. Photonic quantum well composed of photonic crystal and quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaohui; Zhu, Yiping; Wang, Lianwei; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-02-01

    A photonic quantum well structure composed of photonic crystal and Fibonacci quasicrystal is investigated by analyzing the transmission spectra and electric field distributions. The defect band in the photonic well can form confined quantized photonic states that can change in the band-gap of the photonic barriers by varying the thickness ratio of the two stacking layers. The number of confined states can be tuned by adjusting the period of the photonic well. The photons traverse the photonic quantum well by resonance tunneling and the coupling effect leads to the high transmission intensity of the confined photonic states.

  9. The clinician's guide to composing effective business plans.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Alan B; Blondell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, clinicians need to understand the fundamentals of financial analysis, which are the underpinnings of their clinical programs, especially when seeking administrative support for new initiatives. The business plan for new clinical program initiatives is composed of diverse elements such as the mission statement, market and competitive analyses, operations plan, and financial analysis. Armed with a basic knowledge of financial analysis of clinical programs, as well as forward-looking analysis of an initiative's added value, the healthcare provider can work much more effectively with administration in developing or creating new healthcare program initiatives.

  10. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  11. Medical lighting composed of LED arrays for surgical operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shigeo

    2001-05-01

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles, which controls the lighting beams to the gazing point. With this system, it is just needed for surgeons to wear light plastic goggles with high quality LEDs made by Nichia. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. The electrical power for the system was supplied from lithium-ion battery for 2 hours. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN- blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. Therefore, in the next approach, it is very important to develop the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs.

  12. Amyloid fibrils composed of hexameric peptides attenuate neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kurnellas, Michael P; Adams, Chris M; Sobel, Raymond A; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B

    2013-04-03

    The amyloid-forming proteins tau, αB crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein αB crystallin (HspB5) and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, we showed a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P, and insulin B chain, to be anti-inflammatory and capable of reducing serological levels of interleukin-6 and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of tau 623-628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

  13. Surgical operation using lighting goggle composed of white LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shigeo

    2001-12-01

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles, which controls the lighting beams to the gazing point. With this system, it is just needed for surgeons to wear light plastic goggles with high quality LEDs made by Nichia. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. The electrical power for the system was supplied from lithium-ion battery for 2 hours. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN-blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. Therefore, in the next approach, it is very important to develop the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs. To improve the color rendering in red colors, some adjustments should be given in the fluorescents layers. Design of goggle is also very important for cutting into the real practical market of white LEDs.

  14. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  15. A ribozyme composed of only two different nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Reader, John S; Joyce, Gerald F

    RNA molecules are thought to have been prominent in the early history of life on Earth because of their ability both to encode genetic information and to exhibit catalytic function. The modern genetic alphabet relies on two sets of complementary base pairs to store genetic information. However, owing to the chemical instability of cytosine, which readily deaminates to uracil, a primitive genetic system composed of the bases A, U, G and C may have been difficult to establish. It has been suggested that the first genetic material instead contained only a single base-pairing unit. Here we show that binary informational macromolecules, containing only two different nucleotide subunits, can act as catalysts. In vitro evolution was used to obtain ligase ribozymes composed of only 2,6-diaminopurine and uracil nucleotides, which catalyse the template-directed joining of two RNA molecules, one bearing a 5'-triphosphate and the other a 3'-hydroxyl. The active conformation of the fastest isolated ribozyme had a catalytic rate that was about 36,000-fold faster than the uncatalysed rate of reaction. This ribozyme is specific for the formation of biologically relevant 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Medicago truncatula during the Early Phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Luqin; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. Principal Findings Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. PMID:25226164

  17. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  18. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  19. The AUX1 LAX family of auxin influx carriers is required for the establishment of embryonic root cell organization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ugartechea-Chirino, Yamel; Swarup, Ranjan; Swarup, Kamal; Péret, Benjamin; Whitworth, Morag; Bennett, Malcolm; Bougourd, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The root meristem of the Arabidopsis thaliana mature embryo is a highly organized structure in which individual cell shape and size must be regulated in co-ordination with the surrounding cells. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the AUX1 LAX family of auxin import carriers during the establishment of the embryonic root cell pattern. Methods The radicle apex of single and multiple aux1 lax mutant mature embryos was used to evaluate the effect of this gene family upon embryonic root organization and root cap size, cell number and cell size. Key Results It was demonstrated here that mutations within the AUX1 LAX family are associated with changes in cell pattern establishment in the embryonic quiescent centre and columella. aux1 lax mutants have a larger radicle root cap than the wild type and this is associated with a significant increase in the root-cap cell number, average cell size, or both. Extreme disorganization of the radicle apex was observed among quadruple aux1 lax1 lax2 lax3 mutant embryos, but not in single aux1 null or in lax1, lax2 and lax3 single mutants, indicating redundancy within the AUX1 LAX family. Conclusions It was determined that the AUX1 LAX family of auxin influx facilitators participates in the establishment of cell pattern within the apex of the embryonic root in a gene-redundant fashion. It was demonstrated that aux1 lax mutants are affected in cell proliferation and cell growth within the radicle tip. Thus AUX1 LAX auxin importers emerge as new players in morphogenetic processes involved in patterning during embryonic root formation. PMID:19952011

  20. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  1. Structural relaxation in dense liquids composed of anisotropic particles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tianqi; Schreck, Carl; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Freed, Denise E; O'Hern, Corey S

    2012-10-01

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of dense liquids composed of bidisperse dimer- and ellipse-shaped particles in two dimensions that interact via purely repulsive contact forces. We measure the structural relaxation times obtained from the long-time α decay of the self part of the intermediate scattering function for the translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOF) as a function of packing fraction φ, temperature T, and aspect ratio α. We are able to collapse the packing-fraction and temperature-dependent structural relaxation times for disks, and dimers and ellipses over a wide range of α, onto a universal scaling function F(±)(|φ-φ(0)|,T,α), which is similar to that employed in previous studies of dense liquids composed of purely repulsive spherical particles in three dimensions. F(±) for both the translational and rotational DOF are characterized by the α-dependent scaling exponents μ and δ and packing fraction φ(0)(α) that signals the crossover in the scaling form F(±) from hard-particle dynamics to super-Arrhenius behavior for each aspect ratio. We find that the fragility of structural relaxation at φ(0), m(φ(0)), decreases monotonically with increasing aspect ratio for both ellipses and dimers. For α>α(p), where α(p) is the location of the peak in the packing fraction φ(J) at jamming onset, the rotational DOF are strongly coupled to the translational DOF, and the dynamic scaling exponents and φ(0) are similar for the rotational and translational DOF. For 1<α<α(p), the translational DOF become frozen at higher temperatures than the rotational DOF, and φ(0) for the rotational degrees of freedom increases above φ(J). Moreover, the results for the slow dynamics of dense liquids composed of dimer- and ellipse-shaped particles are qualitatively the same, despite the fact that zero-temperature static packings of dimers are isostatic, while static packings of ellipses are hypostatic. Thus, zero-temperature contact

  2. Holographic material composed by dichromated gelatin with vanilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Ibarra, Juan C.; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel

    2003-05-01

    Dichromate gelatins are well known as good holographic materials. Now by doping this material with synthetic vanilla, a change in the spectral amplitude response is obtained. Due that the maximum absorption spectra from the dichromate ammonium is localized in UV region at λ = 390. With vanilla, the maximum spectral response is similar, exception for its optical density, reducing the exposure factor the order of 2 times. An important property with this mixture is the high resistance to humidity of the ambient. We have recorded some diffraciotn gratings, using the argon laser λ = 488 nm, which show good diffraction (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is its simply, only using solution composed of water and isopropyl alcohol, this process takes approximately one hour.

  3. Lyapunov instability of fluids composed of rigid diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzsák, István; Posch, H. A.; Baranyai, András

    1996-04-01

    We study the Lyapunov instability of a two-dimensional fluid composed of rigid diatomic molecules, with two interaction sites each, and interacting with a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson site-site potential. We compute full spectra of Lyapunov exponents for such a molecular system. These exponents characterize the rate at which neighboring trajectories diverge or converge exponentially in phase space. Qualitative different degrees of freedom, such as rotation and translation, affect the Lyapunov spectrum differently. We study this phenomenon by systematically varying the molecular shape and the density. We define and evaluate ``rotation numbers'' measuring the time averaged modulus of the angular velocities for vectors connecting perturbed satellite trajectories with an unperturbed reference trajectory in phase space. For reasons of comparison, various time correlation functions for translation and rotation are computed. The relative dynamics of perturbed trajectories is also studied in certain subspaces of the phase space associated with center-of-mass and orientational molecular motion.

  4. Second-order planar gradiometer composed of concentric superconductive loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriki, S.; Isobe, Y.; Mizutani, Y.

    1987-01-15

    A planar gradiometer composed of three concentric superconductive loops is analyzed. The gradiometer performs the second derivative with a rotational symmetry in a form of partial/sup 2/B/sub z//partialr/sup 2/, where r/sup 2/ = x/sup 2/+y/sup 2/. In response to the biomagnetic field generated by a current dipole, an isoflux line distribution which resembles well the magnetic field distribution is obtained. The location and the strength of the current-dipole source can readily be estimated from the isoflux pattern. Reduction of the magnetic field noise from distant sources with respect to the signal of a near source is calculated to be comparable with that of conventional axial gradiometers.

  5. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  6. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  7. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  8. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  9. Adult cutaneous hemangiomas are composed of nonreplicating endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tuder, R M; Young, R; Karasek, M; Bensch, K

    1987-12-01

    Thirty-four human "cherry" dermal hemangiomas were studied by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell culture to assess the neoplastic nature of these lesions. Electron microscopy of nine hemangiomas revealed a pronounced thickening of the basement membrane (0.6 to 14 micron) in 93% of the total 158 vascular structures examined within the lesions. This increase was caused mainly by multiple layers of basal lamina, which were irregular in outline and frequently associated with pericytes. Basement membrane changes were present both in the periphery of the hemangiomas, as well as in the center of the lesions. Immature vessels could not be identified and mitoses were absent in all endothelial cells. Using an immunohistochemical marker (Ki67) specific for proliferating cells in G2 and S phases, positive staining was not found in the endothelial cells lining the hemangiomatous vessels, whereas basal epidermal keratinocytes in the same preparations and cultured microvascular endothelial cells expressed the antigen. Endothelial cells of nine hemangiomas did not stain with an activation-related antibody (E12) specific for endothelial cells. When endothelial cells from 14 hemangiomas were isolated and cultured under conditions that support the growth of normal human skin microvascular endothelial cells, the cells of hemangiomatous origin failed to grow. We conclude that the adult hemangiomas may not be true neoplasms, but a tissue overgrowth composed of mature vessels resembling dermal venules, lined by endothelial cells with virtually no turnover.

  10. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  11. Compressive holography algorithm for the objects composed of point sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Guoxian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-20

    A compressive holography algorithm is proposed for the objects composed of point sources in this work. The proposed algorithm is based on Gabor holography, an amazingly simple and effective encoder for compressed sensing. In the proposed algorithm, the three-dimensional sampling space is uniformly divided into a number of grids since the virtual object may appear anywhere in the sampling space. All the grids are mapped into an indication vector, which is sparse in nature considering that the number of grids occupied by the virtual object is far less than that of the whole sampling space. Consequently, the point source model can be represented in a compressed sensing framework. With the increase of the number of grids in the sampling space, the coherence of the sensing matrix gets higher, which does not guarantee a perfect reconstruction of the sparse vector with large probability. In this paper, a new algorithm named fast compact sensing matrix pursuit algorithm is proposed to cope with the high coherence problem, as well as the unknown sparsity. A similar compact sensing matrix with low coherence is constructed based on the original sensing matrix using similarity analysis. In order to tackle unknown sparsity, an orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is utilized to calculate a rough estimate of the true support set, based on the similar compact sensing matrix and the measurement vector. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently reconstruct a sequence of 3D objects including a Stanford Bunny with complex shape.

  12. Composing Cardinal Direction Relations Basing on Interval Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Jia, Haiyang; Liu, Dayou; Zhang, Changhai

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Skiadopoulos proposed a formal model for representing direction relations between compound regions (the finite union of simple regions), known as SK-model. It perhaps is currently one of most cognitive plausible models for qualitative direction information, and has attracted interests from artificial intelligence and geographic information system. Originating from Allen first using composition table to process time interval constraints; composing has become the key technique in qualitative spatial reasoning to check the consistency. Due to the massive number of basic directions in SK-model, its composition becomes extraordinary complex. This paper proposed a novel algorithm for the composition. Basing the concepts of smallest rectangular directions and its original directions, it transforms the composition of basic cardinal direction relations into the composition of interval relations corresponding to Allen's interval algebra. Comparing with existing methods, this algorithm has quite good dimensional extendibility, that is, it can be easily transferred to the tridimensional space with a few modifications.

  13. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities.

  14. [The naphtha composing characteristics of geoherbs of Atractylodes lancea].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Liu, Jun-ying; Ji, Li; Huang, Lu-qi

    2002-11-01

    To find the chemical diversity and characteristics of A. lancea on two levels--individuals and populations, and to discover the chemical essentials for forming geoherbs. 47 rhizomes of A. lancea were collected in 7 populations, and 6 naphtha components (1. elemol, 2. hinesol, 3. beta-eudesmol, 4. atractylone, 5. atractylodin, 6. atractylenolid I) in the rhizomes were determined by GC-MS combination. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were carried out by SPSS. Cluster Analysis of the 6 main components indicated that the chemical components of geoherbs were different from those of the non-geonerbs of A. lancea. Other analysis showed as follows: 1. The general oil of geoberbs were lower than that of non-geoherbs(P < 0.01), but components yielding more than 1% (% of the total oil) were more than non-geoherbs(P < 0.01); 2. Hinesol mixing beta-eudesmol was more in non-geoherbs, which atractylodin mixing atractylone was more in geoherbs(P < 0.001); 3. Principal Component Analysis implied that atractylone was the most important component to discriminate geoherbs and non-geoherbs of A. Lancea. The naphtha composing characteristics of geoherbs was the special proportionment sale, viz. atractylone: hinesol: beta-eudesmol: atractylodin being(0.70~2.00):(0.04~0.35):(0.09~0.40):1.

  15. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  16. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  17. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment

    PubMed Central

    Simi, Manuele

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  18. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  19. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  20. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  1. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  2. Nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on CuO microfibers composed of CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei; Gong, Jian

    2012-04-20

    Fluorine tin oxide (FTO) electrode modified by copper oxide microfibers (CuO-MFs) composed of numerous interconnected CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) for nonenzymatic glucose sensor was prepared by electrospinning precursor containing high percentage content of copper nitrate with subsequent calcination. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the size of CuO particles composing CuO-MFs depended on the percentage content of copper nitrate in precursor solution. With increasing the percentage content of copper nitrate, the interconnected CuO-NPs would gradually replace the large-size CuO particles to accumulate the CuO-MFs, which have the potential to provide larger surface area and more reaction sites for electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. As a glucose sensor, the CuO-MFs modified FTO electrode prepared by 40 wt.% of copper nitrate exhibited a high sensitivity of 2321 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a low detection limit of 2.2 nM (signal/noise ratio (S/N)=3). Additionally, the application of the CuO-MFs modified FTO electrode as a glucose sensor for biological samples was demonstrated with satisfactory results.

  3. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  4. NERIES: Seismic Data Gateways and User Composed Datasets Metadata Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Trani, Luca; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    One of the NERIES EC project main objectives is to establish and improve the networking of seismic waveform data exchange and access among four main data centers in Europe: INGV, GFZ, ORFEUS and IPGP. Besides the implementation of the data backbone, several investigations and developments have been conducted in order to offer to the users the data available from this network, either programmatically or interactively. One of the challenges is to understand how to enable users` activities such as discovering, aggregating, describing and sharing datasets to obtain a decrease in the replication of similar data queries towards the network, exempting the data centers to guess and create useful pre-packed products. We`ve started to transfer this task more and more towards the users community, where the users` composed data products could be extensively re-used. The main link to the data is represented by a centralized webservice (SeismoLink) acting like a single access point to the whole data network. Users can download either waveform data or seismic station inventories directly from their own software routines by connecting to this webservice, which routes the request to the data centers. The provenance of the data is maintained and transferred to the users in the form of URIs, that identify the dataset and implicitly refer to the data provider. SeismoLink, combined with other webservices (eg EMSC-QuakeML earthquakes catalog service), is used from a community gateway such as the NERIES web portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu). Here the user interacts with a map based portlet which allows the dynamic composition of a data product, binding seismic event`s parameters with a set of seismic stations. The requested data is collected by the back-end processes of the portal, preserved and offered to the user in a personal data cart, where metadata can be generated interactively on-demand. The metadata, expressed in RDF, can also be remotely ingested. They offer rating

  5. Cyclacenes: hoop-shaped systems composed of conjugated rings.

    PubMed

    Gleiter, Rolf; Esser, Birgit; Kornmayer, Stefan C

    2009-08-18

    A carbon nanotube, if it could be cut sideways at the end like a pipe, would yield beltlike structures. These subunits of carbon nanotubes, in their simplest manifestation as the [6](n)cyclacenes, are composed of conjugated six-membered rings that are annelated, that is, made of a series of consecutively fused ring structures. These seemingly simple "one-benzene-thick" slices are of considerable interest as models-for electronic structure and spectroscopic properties, for example-for carbon nanotubes. In the late 1980s Stoddart and co-workers, soon to be followed by other groups, embarked on the synthesis of [6](n)cyclacenes. The necessary curved shape of the belt was achieved with boat-shaped precursors for Diels-Alder reactions, namely, 7-oxanorbornene derivatives. The preferred endo-addition in Diels-Alder reactions assured an efficient synthesis of beltlike systems containing 12 to 18 six-membered rings. However, the removal of the auxiliary oxygen centers to achieve [6](n)cyclacenes as fully conjugated systems has failed so far: they remain an inaccessible target despite some 25 years of synthetic effort. Concurrently, theoretical studies revealed that [6](n)cyclacenes as linearly annelated systems show small energy gaps between triplet and singlet states; they can thus be expected to be unstable species. Angularly annelated systems, on the other hand, were predicted to have large singlet-triplet splittings. Nakamura and co-workers and our laboratory have found ways around the obstacles to create cyclacenes. Nakamura and co-workers prepared the first angular annelated cyclacene by selective reduction of the north and south poles of C(60). We used a cyclic system that is fully conjugated and also adopts a boat conformation: cyclooctatetraene. By following this principle, we synthesized two types of linearly annelated cyclacenes: metal-stabilized four-membered rings alternating with eight-membered rings ([4.8](n)cyclacenes), and six-membered rings alternating

  6. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  7. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  8. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  9. Achieving Reusability and Composability with a Simulation Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    powerful computer capabilities (Robinson, 2004, 2006, 2007; DMSO, 2006; Robinson et al, 2006, 2010; Arthur and Nance, 2007; Balci and Ormsby, 2007). The...and executing under the Solaris Unix operating system on a Sun Sparc workstation cannot be easily reused in an M&S application being developed in Cþ þ... power plant, depot) destruction, chemical, fires, and nuclear disasters, created accidentally or intentionally (terrorist activities). Natural

  10. Principles of moment distribution applied to stability of structures composed of bars or plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schuette, Evan H

    1943-01-01

    Principles of the cross method of moment distribution, which have previously been applied to the stability of structures composed of bars under axial load, are applied to the stability of structures composed of long plates under longitudinal load.

  11. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  12. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  13. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming; Mi, Guohua; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-06-01

    Deposition of ammonium (NH₄+) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH₄+ is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  15. Broadband acoustic energy confinement in hierarchical sonic crystals composed of rotated square inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakouri, Amir; Xu, Feifei; Fan, Zheng

    2017-07-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves in hierarchical sonic crystals is studied computationally and experimentally. These sonic crystals are composed of a hierarchical order of square inclusions rotated 45° with respect to the square lattice structure. It is shown that these hierarchical sonic crystals are capable of confining acoustic energy over a broad frequency range and at multiple lattice points inside the sonic crystal based on Bragg's scattering effect. Fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing is applied to prepare a finite-sized sample of the hierarchical sonic crystal. Acoustic measurements are conducted on the hierarchical sonic crystal sample in a direct and closely plane-wave field inside an anechoic room. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the band structure calculated using the finite element method. Potential applications of the hierarchical sonic crystals for acoustic energy harvesting and noise measurements are discussed.

  16. Magnetic motion capture system using LC resonant magnetic marker composed of Ni-Zn ferrite core

    SciTech Connect

    Hashi, S.; Toyoda, M.; Ohya, M.; Okazaki, Y.; Yabukami, S.; Ishiyama, K.; Arai, K. I.

    2006-04-15

    We have proposed a magnetic motion capture system using an LC resonant magnetic marker. The proposed system is composed of an exciting coil, an LC marker, and a 5x5-matrix search coil array (25 search coils). The LC marker is small and has a minimal circuit with no battery and can be driven wirelessly by the action of electromagnetic induction. It consists of a Ni-Zn ferrite core (3 mm{phi}x10 mm) with a wound coil and a chip capacitor, forming an LC series circuit with a resonant frequency of 186 kHz. The relative position accuracy of the system is less than 1 mm within the area of 100 mm{sup 3} up to 150 mm from the search coil array. Compared with dc magnetic systems, the proposed system is applicable for precision motion capture in optically isolated spaces without magnetic shielding because the system is not greatly influenced by earth field noise.

  17. Interference of guided modes in a two-port ring waveguide composed of dielectric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, I Ya; Gozman, M I; Blaustein, Gail S; Burin, A L

    2010-02-01

    The interference is considered of guided polariton modes in a two-port ring waveguide composed of dielectric nanospheres. The dependence of the guided polariton intensity on the relative orientation of the input and output channels is investigated. It is shown that, if the frequency of the external light source corresponds to one of the resonant modes of the waveguide ring segment, the guided polariton may be treated as two optical beams running along the ring segment in the opposite directions and interfering with each other. The multisphere Mie scattering formalism is used. The dipole approximation is shown to grasp the essence of physics. Our simple interpretation of the results is obtained in terms of scalar waves. The applications of the interference revealed in the manuscript are discussed as well.

  18. Photonic Spin Hall Effect in Waveguides Composed of Two Types of Single-Negative Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiwei; Jiang, Haitao; Long, Yang; Yu, Kun; Ren, Jie; Xue, Chunhua; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-10

    The polarization controlled optical signal routing has many important applications in photonics such as polarization beam splitter. By using two-dimensional transmission lines with lumped elements, we experimentally demonstrate the selective excitation of guided modes in waveguides composed of two kinds of single-negative metamaterials. A localized, circularly polarized emitter placed near the interface of the two kinds of single-negative metamaterials only couples with one guided mode with a specific propagating direction determined by the polarization handedness of the source. Moreover, this optical spin-orbit locking phenomenon, also called the photonic spin Hall effect, is robust against interface fluctuations, which may be very useful in the manipulation of electromagnetic signals.

  19. Theoretical prediction of some novel nanotubes composed of macrocyclic structures: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoodi, Hamid Reza; Bagheri, Sotoodeh; Ranjbar-Karimi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Our interests in this paper are the elucidation of structural and electronic properties of some π-conjugated macrocycles composed of borazine and alumazene rings as well as the investigation of their potential utility for the creation of new nanotubes. Here, the calculations are performed at B3LYP/6-31+G(d) and M06-2X/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) levels of theory. The results suggest that the self-assembly of the macrocyclic compounds can be considered to form new nanotubes through π-π stacking. Also, meaningful correlations are found between the stability and photoconductivity applications of the nanotubes and the number of stacked π-conjugated macrocycles.

  20. Filters based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons composed of planar Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Kong, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Filter characteristics of a planar Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure composed of periodically thin corrugated metal films were studied here. From theoretical simulation, spoof surface plasmon polaritons can propagate along the periodically thin corrugated metal films in microwave frequency, which can be excited by a coplanar waveguide. When the two arms of the MZI have the same length with the angle between them being 60°, the MZI structure has a very wide bandwidth with 8.6 GHz. By changing the length of one of the interference arms, a novel low-pass filter based on the planar MZI structure with two notched frequencies was proposed. The proposed planar structure can find potential applications in developing surface wave devices in integrated microwave circuits and systems.

  1. Single-Pass Composable 3D Lens Rendering and Spatiotemporal 3D Lenses.

    PubMed

    Borst, Christoph W; Tiesel, Jan-Phillip; Habib, Emad; Das, Kaushik

    2011-09-01

    We present a new 3D lens rendering technique and a new spatiotemporal lens. Interactive 3D lenses, often called volumetric lenses, provide users with alternative views of data sets within 3D lens boundaries while maintaining the surrounding overview (context). In contrast to previous multipass rendering work, we discuss the strengths, limitations, and performance costs of a single-pass technique especially suited to fragment-level lens effects, such as color mapping, lighting, and clipping. Some object-level effects, such as a data set selection lens, are also incorporated, with each object's geometry being processed once by the graphics pipeline. For a substantial range of effects, our approach supports several composable lenses at interactive frame rates without performance loss during increasing lens intersections or manipulation by a user. Other cases, for which this performance cannot be achieved, are also discussed. We illustrate possible applications of our lens system, including Time Warp lenses for exploring time-varying data sets.

  2. A portable thermoelectric-power-generating module composed of oxide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funahashi, R.; Mikami, M.; Mihara, T.; Urata, S.; Ando, N.

    2006-03-01

    High power density is a strong point of thermoelectric generation. Exploitation of this salient characteristic would make thermoelectric modules promising candidates for mobile power applications. Here we show how power can be generated using a small thermoelectric module composed of 140 pairs of oxide thermoelectric unicouples. The module weighs 19.8 g and its dimensions are 53 mm long, 32 mm wide, and 5.0 mm thick. The hot-pressed thermoelectric oxide bulk materials used were connected with a Ag paste, incorporating oxide powder, and Ag electrodes. The module's open circuit voltage increases with increasing hot-side temperature (TH) and reaches 4.5 V at a TH of 1072 K in air. No deterioration in output power was seen when power generation was carried out ten times at a TH of 723 K with intermediate cooling to room temperature. The module was successfully used to charge a lithium-ion battery in a mobile phone.

  3. A robust nanoscale biomemory device composed of recombinant azurin on hexagonally packed Au-nano array.

    PubMed

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Lee, Taek; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2013-02-15

    We developed a nanoscale memory device consisting of signal-responsive biomaterial, which is capable of switching physical properties (such as electrical/electrochemical, optical, and magnetic) upon application of appropriate electrical signals to perform memory switching. Here, we propose a highly robust surface-confined switch composed of an electroactive cysteine-modified azurin immobilized on an Au hexagonal pattern formed on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates that can be controlled electrochemically and reversibly converted between its redox states. The memory effect is based on conductance switching, which leads to the occurrence of bistable states and behaves as an extremely robust redox switch in which an electrochemical input is transduced into optical and magnetic outputs under ambient conditions. The fact that this molecular surface switch, operating at very low voltages, can be patterned and addressed locally, and also has good stability and excellent reversibility, makes it a promising platform for nonvolatile memory devices.

  4. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  5. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  6. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  7. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  8. Group Music Composing Strategies: A Case Study within a Rock Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the compositional processes of an Italian rock band whilst composing a new piece over seven group composing sessions. The band members were videotaped during the group composing sessions in their rehearsal room. A qualitative analysis of the video recordings was performed using the Constant Comparative Method. In the…

  9. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  10. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  11. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  12. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  13. Holographic materials composed by rosin with ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Perez-Cortes, Mario; Iturbe Castillo, Marcelo D.

    2000-03-01

    We present a new material with potential application in holography. We have used a film of mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborate in the laboratory. A phase grating in this material was recording using Argon-Ion laser at (lambda) equals 457 nm, showing good diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing 2,000 l/mm (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is their simplicity, takes approximately 25 seconds.

  14. Morphologies of block copolymers composed of charged and neutral blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Goswami, Monojoy; Mays, Jimmy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wang, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current experimental observations and theoretical calculations devoted towards understanding micro-phase separation in charged block copolymer systems. We discuss bulk morphologies in melt and in solution, as well as some of the new emerging research directions. Overall, a comprehensive picture is beginning to emerge on the fundamental role of electrostatics in the microphase separation of charged block copolymers. This understanding provides exciting new insight that may be used to direct targeted structures that endow the materials with desired properties that can have tremendous potential in technological applications.

  15. Tunable multichannel absorber composed of graphene and doped periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-kun; Shi, Xiang-zhu; Mo, Jin-jun; Fang, Yun-tuan; Chen, Xin-lei; Liu, Shao-bin

    2017-01-01

    A new design for a tunable multichannel compact absorber, which is achieved by using an asymmetric photonic crystal with graphene monolayers, is theoretically proposed. The graphene monolayers are periodically embedded into the first and last dielectric layers. The absorption, reflection, and transmission spectra of the absorber are studied numerically. A perfect absorption channel is achieved because of impedance matching, and channel number can be modulated by changing periodic number. The characteristic properties of the absorption channel depend on graphene conductivity, which can be controlled via the gate voltage. The proposed structure works as a perfect absorber that is independent from polarization. It has potential applications in the design of multichannel filters, thermal detectors, and electromagnetic wave energy collectors.

  16. Bioceramics composed of octacalcium phosphate demonstrate enhanced biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Komlev, Vladimir S; Barinov, Sergei M; Bozo, Ilya I; Deev, Roman V; Eremin, Ilya I; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Gurin, Alex N; Khromova, Natalia V; Kopnin, Pavel B; Kuvshinova, Ekaterina A; Mamonov, Vasily E; Rybko, Vera A; Sergeeva, Natalia S; Teterina, Anastasia Yu; Zorin, Vadim L

    2014-10-08

    Bioceramics are used to treat bone defects but in general do not induce formation of new bone, which is essential for regeneration process. Many aspects related to bioceramics synthesis, properties and biological response that are still unknown and, there is a great need for further development. In the most recent research efforts were aimed on creation of materials from biological precursors of apatite formation in humans. One possible precursor is octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is believed to not only exhibit osteoconductivity but possess osteoinductive quality, the ability to induce bone formation. Here we propose a relatively simple route for OCP ceramics preparation with a specifically designed microstructure. Comprehensive study for OCP ceramics including biodegradation, osteogenic properties in ortopic and heterotopic models and limited clinical trials were performed that demonstrated enhanced biological behavior. Our results provide a possible new concept for the clinical applications of OCP ceramics.

  17. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures.

  18. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  19. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  20. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  1. Optimal length of decomposition sequences composed of imperfect gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. S.; Blümel, R.

    2017-05-01

    Quantum error correcting circuitry is both a resource for correcting errors and a source for generating errors. A balance has to be struck between these two aspects. Perfect quantum gates do not exist in nature. Therefore, it is important to investigate how flaws in the quantum hardware affect quantum computing performance. We do this in two steps. First, in the presence of realistic, faulty quantum hardware, we establish how quantum error correction circuitry achieves reduction in the extent of quantum information corruption. Then, we investigate fault-tolerant gate sequence techniques that result in an approximate phase rotation gate, and establish the existence of an optimal length L_{ {opt}} of the length L of the decomposition sequence. The existence of L_{ {opt}} is due to the competition between the increase in gate accuracy with increasing L, but the decrease in gate performance due to the diffusive proliferation of gate errors due to faulty basis gates. We present an analytical formula for the gate fidelity as a function of L that is in satisfactory agreement with the results of our simulations and allows the determination of L_{ {opt}} via the solution of a transcendental equation. Our result is universally applicable since gate sequence approximations also play an important role, e.g., in atomic and molecular physics and in nuclear magnetic resonance.

  2. Composing Data Parallel Code for a SPARQL Graph Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Castellana, Vito G.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John

    2013-09-08

    Big data analytics process large amount of data to extract knowledge from them. Semantic databases are big data applications that adopt the Resource Description Framework (RDF) to structure metadata through a graph-based representation. The graph based representation provides several benefits, such as the possibility to perform in memory processing with large amounts of parallelism. SPARQL is a language used to perform queries on RDF-structured data through graph matching. In this paper we present a tool that automatically translates SPARQL queries to parallel graph crawling and graph matching operations. The tool also supports complex SPARQL constructs, which requires more than basic graph matching for their implementation. The tool generates parallel code annotated with OpenMP pragmas for x86 Shared-memory Multiprocessors (SMPs). With respect to commercial database systems such as Virtuoso, our approach reduces memory occupation due to join operations and provides higher performance. We show the scaling of the automatically generated graph-matching code on a 48-core SMP.

  3. Conception et realisation d'un recepteur compose de reseau d'antennes Yagi multicouches verticales et de composants en ondes millimetriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Olivier

    Millimeter wave applications such as high-speed wireless connections require modular, compact-size, low-cost and high-performance systems. In order to realize a complete receiver satisfying those requirements, compact stacked multilayered designs are presented in this thesis. First, high-gain compact stacked multilayered Yagi designs are proposed and demonstrated at 5.8 GHz. The structure makes use for the first time of vertically stacked Yagi-like parasitic director elements that allow easily obtaining a simulated gain of 12 dBi. Two different antenna configurations are presented, one based on dipole geometry for single polarization, and the other on a circular patch to achieve dual polarization. Measured results of the fabricated antenna prototypes are in good agreement with simulated results. Second, based on the above-demonstrated principle, the antenna is redesigned and adapted for 60 GHz applications, and a novel design showing for the first time an array of Yagi elements in millimeter wave stacked structure is presented. An analysis is performed to define the structure limits. The measured element attains 11 dBi of gain. The proposed 4x4 array has a size of 50x50x60 mm3, and reaches a measured gain of 18 dBi over 7% of bandwidth. An alternative configuration of the array using angled Yagi antenna elements allows for a significant improvement of the side lobe level without a visible impact on the gain. The proposed antennas present excellent candidates for integrated low-cost millimeter-wave systems that require small footprint. Third, a novel dual layered six-port front-end circuit using the Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology is presented and demonstrated. The six-port architecture makes use of multilayer couplers, providing a wide coupling area through two slots; a new broadband SIW phase shifter composed of two H-plane stub lines and one reference line; and two SIW power dividers. Simulation and measurement results show that the proposed six

  4. Size-tunable drug-delivery capsules composed of a magnetic nanoshell

    PubMed Central

    Fuchigami, Teruaki; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka; Namiki, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Nano-sized FePt capsules with two types of ultrathin shell were fabricated using a template method for use in a nano-scale drug delivery system. One capsule was composed of an inorganic-organic hybrid shell of a water-soluble polymer and FePt nanoparticles, and the other capsule was composed of a network of fused FePt nanoparticles. We demonstrated that FePt nanoparticles selectively accumulated on the polymer molecules adsorbed on the template silica particles, and investigated the morphologies of the particle accumulation by changing the concentration of the polymer solution with which the template particles were treated. Capsular size was reduced from 340 to less than 90 nm by changing the size of the silica template particles, and the shell thickness was controlled by changing the amount of FePt nanoparticles adsorbed on the template particles. The hybrid shell was maintained by the connection of FePt nanoparticles and polymer molecules, and the shell thickness was 10 nm at the maximum. The FePt network shell was fabricated by hydrothermal treatment of the FePt/polymer-modified silica composite particles. The FePt network shell was produced from only the FePt alloy, and the shell thickness was 3 nm. Water-soluble anti-cancer drugs could be loaded into the hollow space of FePt network capsules, and lipid-coated FePt network capsules loaded with anti-cancer drugs showed cellular toxicity. The nano-sized capsular structure and the ultrathin shell suggest applicability as a drug carrier in magnetically guided drug delivery systems. PMID:23507895

  5. Size-tunable drug-delivery capsules composed of a magnetic nanoshell.

    PubMed

    Fuchigami, Teruaki; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka; Namiki, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Nano-sized FePt capsules with two types of ultrathin shell were fabricated using a template method for use in a nano-scale drug delivery system. One capsule was composed of an inorganic-organic hybrid shell of a water-soluble polymer and FePt nanoparticles, and the other capsule was composed of a network of fused FePt nanoparticles. We demonstrated that FePt nanoparticles selectively accumulated on the polymer molecules adsorbed on the template silica particles, and investigated the morphologies of the particle accumulation by changing the concentration of the polymer solution with which the template particles were treated. Capsular size was reduced from 340 to less than 90 nm by changing the size of the silica template particles, and the shell thickness was controlled by changing the amount of FePt nanoparticles adsorbed on the template particles. The hybrid shell was maintained by the connection of FePt nanoparticles and polymer molecules, and the shell thickness was 10 nm at the maximum. The FePt network shell was fabricated by hydrothermal treatment of the FePt/polymer-modified silica composite particles. The FePt network shell was produced from only the FePt alloy, and the shell thickness was 3 nm. Water-soluble anti-cancer drugs could be loaded into the hollow space of FePt network capsules, and lipid-coated FePt network capsules loaded with anti-cancer drugs showed cellular toxicity. The nano-sized capsular structure and the ultrathin shell suggest applicability as a drug carrier in magnetically guided drug delivery systems.

  6. Acquisition de donnees a haute resolution et faible latence dediee aux capteurs avioniques de position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaa, Zied

    The communication network and the detection mechanisms are two critical systems in a plane. Their performance has a direct impact on aircrafts. This is of particular interest for avionics designers, who have increasingly invested more and more in the development of these elements. As a part of a project in this domain, we introduce the design and the development of a smart interface for position sensors dedicated to flights (Smart Sensor Interface - SSI). This interface will serve to connect sensors of different technologies (electromagnetic, optical and MEMS) to the new communication network, AFDX. The role of this interface is to generate an appropriate excitation signal for certain types of sensors (R/LVDT), and to treat, demodulate, and digitize their output signals. The proposed interface is thus composed of a Signal Acquisition Path (SAP) and an Excitation Signal Generation (ESG). By adopting the Integrated Modular Avionics architecture (IMA), we can minimize the size of the classic interface, reduce its energy consumption and improve its reliability and its performance. The focus of our design is particularly on the Data Acquisition Path (DAP). An Architecture characterized by a high resolution (14 bits) and a low latency (1.2 ms) of this module is introduced and developed in this prestigious work. This architecture was developed after a wellconducted study of existing solutions found in literature work and a detailed analysis of the problems arise in the design and implementation of this system (DAP). The conversion of the sensor signal into a digital signal is the most important step in acquiring data, as it sets the resolution of the acquired information and generates the majority of its latency. This module can also affect the reliability and stability of the system. Among different models and architectures, the Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is preferred for this application (for better resolution). This converter is formed by an analog

  7. Nanostructured CuS networks composed of interconnected nanoparticles for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenbin; Han, Weihua; Zha, Heming; Mei, Junfeng; Li, Yunxia; Zhang, Zemin; Xie, Erqing

    2016-09-21

    Nanostructured metal sulfides with excellent electrochemical activity and electrical conductivity are particularly promising for applications in high-performance energy storage devices. Here, we report on the facile synthesis of nanostructured CuS networks composed of interconnected nanoparticles as novel battery-type materials for asymmetric supercapacitors. We find that the CuS networks exhibit a high specific capacity of 49.8 mA g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), good rate capability and cycle stability. The superior performance could be attributed to the interconnected nanoparticles of CuS networks, which can facilitate electrolyte diffusion and provide fast electron pathways. Furthermore, an aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor has been assembled by using the CuS networks as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode. The assembled device can work at a high operating voltage of 1.6 V and show a maximum energy density of 17.7 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 504 W kg(-1). This study indicates that the CuS networks have great potential for supercapacitor applications.

  8. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  9. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  11. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular adsorption properties of CO and H2O on Au-, Cu-, and AuxCuy-doped MoS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Yelda; Gökoğlu, Gökhan; Üzengi Aktürk, Olcay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the adsorption properties of Au, Cu, and AuxCuy nanoclusters on MoS2 sheet and the interactions of the adsorbed systems with CO and H2O molecules by using first principles calculations. Results indicate that Au, Cu, or AuxCuy strongly binds to MoS2 monolayer resulting in enhanced chemical activity and sensitivity toward CO and H2O molecules compared to bare MoS2 monolayer. Although both CO and H2O molecules bind weakly to pristine MoS2 monolayer, CO strongly binds to MoS2 sheet in the presence of Au, Cu atoms or AuxCuy clusters. Semiconductor MoS2 monolayer turns into metal upon Au or Cu adsorption. AuxCuy nanocluster adsorption decreases the band gap of MoS2 monolayer acting as a n-type dopant. AuxCuy-doped MoS2 systems have improved adsorption properties for CO and H2O molecules, so the conclusions provided in this study can be useful as a guide for next generation device modeling.

  13. Applications of the conformal transformation method in studies of composed superconducting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Gonczarek, Ryszard; Gonczarek, Adam; Jacak, Lucjan

    2016-12-01

    A framework for analytical studies of superconducting systems is presented and illustrated. The formalism, based on the conformal transformation of momentum space, allows one to study the effects of both the dispersion relation and the structure of the pairing interaction in two-dimensional anisotropic high- T c superconductors. In this method, the number of employed degrees of freedom coincides with the dimension of the momentum space, which is different compared to that in the standard Van Hove scenario with a single degree of freedom. A new function, the kernel of the density of states, is defined and its relation to the standard density of states is explained. The versatility of the method is illustrated by analyzing coexistence and competition between spin-singlet and spin-triplet order parameters in superconducting systems with a tight-binding-type dispersion relation and an anisotropic pairing potential. Phase diagrams of stable superconducting states in the coordinates η (the ratio of hopping parameters) and n (the carrier concentration) are presented and discussed. Moreover, the role of attractive and repulsive on-site interactions for the stability of the s-wave order parameter is explained.

  14. Comparing alternative methods for composing community peer groups: a data warehouse application.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, J; Hevner, A R; Berndt, D J; Luther, S L

    2001-11-01

    A method for assessing the health status of communities has been under development for a decade at the University of South Florida. Known as CATCH (Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health), the method utilizes health status indicators from multiple data sources. With federal grant support, a unique data warehouse has been created to automate CATCH assessments and to enhance online analytical processing for efficient data browsing, knowledge discovery, and model testing. A comparison of two peer grouping methods (population size versus predicted age-adjusted mortality) is reviewed to demonstrate the warehouse capabilities.

  15. Composing life

    PubMed Central

    Segré, Daniel; Lancet, Doron

    2000-01-01

    Textbooks often assert that life began with specialized complex molecules, such as RNA, that are capable of making their own copies. This scenario has serious difficulties, but an alternative has remained elusive. Recent research and computer simulations have suggested that the first steps toward life may not have involved biopolymers. Rather, non-covalent protocellular assemblies, generated by catalyzed recruitment of diverse amphiphilic and hydrophobic compounds, could have constituted the first systems capable of information storage, inheritance and selection. A complex chain of evolutionary events, yet to be deciphered, could then have led to the common ancestors of today’s free-living cells, and to the appearance of DNA, RNA and protein enzymes. PMID:11256602

  16. Composing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  17. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  18. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  19. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  20. Multi-Draft Composing: An Iterative Model for Academic Argument Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Grant; Chariton, Jessica; McCollum, Robb Mark

    2011-01-01

    Post-secondary writing teachers in composition and English as a second language (ESL) writing programs are likely familiar with multi-draft composing. Both composition and ESL writing programs share nearly identical multi-draft models despite the very unique and different cultures of each group. We argue that multi-draft composing as it is…

  1. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  2. Rethinking Composing in a Digital Age: Authoring Literate Identities through Multimodal Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasudevan, Lalitha; Schultz, Katherine; Bateman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors engage the theoretical lens of multimodality in rethinking the practices and processes of composing in classrooms. Specifically, they focus on how learning new composing practices led some fifth-grade students to author new literate identities--what they call authorial stances--in their classroom community. Their…

  3. Multi-Draft Composing: An Iterative Model for Academic Argument Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Grant; Chariton, Jessica; McCollum, Robb Mark

    2011-01-01

    Post-secondary writing teachers in composition and English as a second language (ESL) writing programs are likely familiar with multi-draft composing. Both composition and ESL writing programs share nearly identical multi-draft models despite the very unique and different cultures of each group. We argue that multi-draft composing as it is…

  4. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 300.26 Section 300.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  5. Rethinking Composing in a Digital Age: Authoring Literate Identities through Multimodal Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasudevan, Lalitha; Schultz, Katherine; Bateman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors engage the theoretical lens of multimodality in rethinking the practices and processes of composing in classrooms. Specifically, they focus on how learning new composing practices led some fifth-grade students to author new literate identities--what they call authorial stances--in their classroom community. Their…

  6. The Composer's World from Sketch to Score. LinkUp! 1998-99 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Randy L., Ed.

    This guide helps teachers and students examine the questions "Who are composers?" and "How do they compose?" In addition to the musical component of the inquiry, the guide also explores the world of writers and how they write and visual artists and how they create. Materials in the guide encourage students to express their…

  7. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For...

  8. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  9. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  10. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible. PMID:28485392

  11. Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Composed of Carbon-Coated Nano-Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ren-Jei; Wang, An-Ni; Liao, Qing-Liang; Chuang, Kai-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays glucose detection is of great importance in the fields of biological, environmental, and clinical analyzes. In this research, we report a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod powder surface-coated with carbon material for non-enzymatic glucose sensor applications through a hydrothermal process and chemical vapor deposition method. A series of tests, including crystallinity analysis, microstructure observation, and electrochemical property investigations were carried out. For the cyclic voltammetric (CV) glucose detection, the low detection limit of 1 mM with a linear range from 0.1 mM to 10 mM was attained. The sensitivity was 2.97 μA/cm2mM, which is the most optimized ever reported. With such good analytical performance from a simple process, it is believed that the nanocomposites composed of ZnO nanorod powder surface-coated with carbon material are promising for the development of cost-effective non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensors with high sensitivity. PMID:28336869

  12. Beyond the Shannon–Khinchin formulation: The composability axiom and the universal-group entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-02-15

    The notion of entropy is ubiquitous both in natural and social sciences. In the last two decades, a considerable effort has been devoted to the study of new entropic forms, which generalize the standard Boltzmann–Gibbs (BG) entropy and could be applicable in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and information theory. In Khinchin (1957), by extending previous ideas of Shannon (1948) and Shannon and Weaver (1949), Khinchin proposed a characterization of the BG entropy, based on four requirements, nowadays known as the Shannon–Khinchin (SK) axioms. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we show that there exists an intrinsic group-theoretical structure behind the notion of entropy. It comes from the requirement of composability of an entropy with respect to the union of two statistically independent systems, that we propose in an axiomatic formulation. Second, we show that there exists a simple universal family of trace-form entropies. This class contains many well known examples of entropies and infinitely many new ones, a priori multi-parametric. Due to its specific relation with Lazard’s universal formal group of algebraic topology, the new general entropy introduced in this work will be called the universal-group entropy. A new example of multi-parametric entropy is explicitly constructed.

  13. Beyond the Shannon-Khinchin formulation: The composability axiom and the universal-group entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-02-01

    The notion of entropy is ubiquitous both in natural and social sciences. In the last two decades, a considerable effort has been devoted to the study of new entropic forms, which generalize the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) entropy and could be applicable in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and information theory. In Khinchin (1957), by extending previous ideas of Shannon (1948) and Shannon and Weaver (1949), Khinchin proposed a characterization of the BG entropy, based on four requirements, nowadays known as the Shannon-Khinchin (SK) axioms. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we show that there exists an intrinsic group-theoretical structure behind the notion of entropy. It comes from the requirement of composability of an entropy with respect to the union of two statistically independent systems, that we propose in an axiomatic formulation. Second, we show that there exists a simple universal family of trace-form entropies. This class contains many well known examples of entropies and infinitely many new ones, a priori multi-parametric. Due to its specific relation with Lazard's universal formal group of algebraic topology, the new general entropy introduced in this work will be called the universal-group entropy. A new example of multi-parametric entropy is explicitly constructed.

  14. Treatment of ingrown nail with a special device composed of shape-memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Won; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hee; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Joo-Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2014-04-01

    Ingrown nail is a common nail problem resulting in pain and disability in daily life. Recently, a new treatment modality for an ingrown nail was reported that used a device composed of shape-memory alloy, K-D. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy, recurrence rate and complications of K-D. Between June 2010 and September 2012, 24 patients (31 nails) underwent treatment of symptomatic incurved nails with a K-D. Patients were evaluated at pretreatment and during every visit. The mean age of the patients involved was 43.4 years. The mean period of follow up was 161 days. The mean maintenance period was 41 days. The right first toenail was the most common site. Almost ingrown nails healed and the nail deformity was corrected after the procedure. Among the 31 nails, seven of the ingrown nails recurred during follow up (22.6% recurrence rate). The recurrence rate of the patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 ingrown nails was 22.2%, 33.3% and 14.2%, respectively. The majority of patients were very satisfied. There were no side-effects in most patients except loss of nail in one patient. K-D has some advantages such as simple application steps, no deformity after the procedure, high patient satisfaction and obvious effect compared to other non-invasive and invasive methods. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Composed of Carbon-Coated Nano-Zinc Oxide.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Jei; Wang, An-Ni; Liao, Qing-Liang; Chuang, Kai-Yu

    2017-02-10

    Nowadays glucose detection is of great importance in the fields of biological, environmental, and clinical analyzes. In this research, we report a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod powder surface-coated with carbon material for non-enzymatic glucose sensor applications through a hydrothermal process and chemical vapor deposition method. A series of tests, including crystallinity analysis, microstructure observation, and electrochemical property investigations were carried out. For the cyclic voltammetric (CV) glucose detection, the low detection limit of 1 mM with a linear range from 0.1 mM to 10 mM was attained. The sensitivity was 2.97 μA/cm²mM, which is the most optimized ever reported. With such good analytical performance from a simple process, it is believed that the nanocomposites composed of ZnO nanorod powder surface-coated with carbon material are promising for the development of cost-effective non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensors with high sensitivity.

  16. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-05-09

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  17. Blending materials composed of boron, nitrogen and carbon to transform approaches to liquid hydrogen stores

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, Sean M.; Bowden, Mark; Karkamkar, Abhijeet; Parab, Kshitij; Neiner, Doinita; Autrey, Tom; Ishibashi, Jacob S. A.; Chen, Gang; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Dixon, David A.

    2015-12-02

    Energy storage remains a key challenge for the advancement of fuel cell applications. Because of this, hydrogen has garnered much research attention for its potential as an energy carrier. This can be attributed to its abundance from non-petroleum sources, and its energy conversion efficiency. Our group, among others, has been studying the use of ammonia borane as a chemical hydrogen storage material for the past several years. Ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3), a solid state complex composed of the light weight main group elements of nitrogen and boron, is isoelectronic with ethane and as such is an attractive hydrogen storage material with a high gravimetric capacity of H2 (19.6 wt%). However, the widespread use of AB as a chemical hydrogen storage material has been stalled by some undesirable properties and reactivity. Most notably, AB is a solid and this presents compatibility issues with the existing liquid fuel infrastructure. The thermal release of H2 from AB also results in the formation of volatile impurities (borazine and ammonia) that are detrimental to operation of the fuel cell. Additionally, the major products in the spent fuel are polyborazylene and amine borane oligomers that present challenges in regenerating AB. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  18. Moderately large vibrations of doubly curved shallow open shells composed of thick layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Christoph

    2007-02-01

    This paper addresses nonlinear flexural vibrations of shallow shells composed of three thick layers with different shear flexibility, which are symmetrically arranged with respect to the middle surface. The considered shell structures of polygonal planform are hard hinged simply supported (i.e. all in-plane rotations and the bending moment vanish) with the edges fully restraint against displacements in any direction. The kinematic field equations are formulated by layerwise application of a first-order shear deformation theory. A modification of Berger's theory is employed to model the nonlinear characteristics of the structural response. The continuity of the transverse shear stress across the interfaces is specified according to Hooke's law, and subsequently the equations of motion of this higher order problem can be derived in analogy to a homogeneous single-layer shear deformable shallow shell. Numerical results of rectangular shallow shells in nonlinear steady-state vibration are presented for various ratios of shell rise to thickness, and non-dimensional load amplitude.

  19. Combining phase images from array coils using a short echo time reference scan (COMPOSER)

    PubMed Central

    Dymerska, Barbara; Bogner, Wolfgang; Barth, Markus; Zaric, Olgica; Goluch, Sigrun; Grabner, Günther; Deligianni, Xeni; Bieri, Oliver; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple method for combining phase images from multichannel coils that does not require a reference coil and does not entail phase unwrapping, fitting or iterative procedures. Theory and Methods At very short echo time, the phase measured with each coil of an array approximates to the phase offset to which the image from that coil is subject. Subtracting this information from the phase of the scan of interest matches the phases from the coils, allowing them to be combined. The effectiveness of this approach is quantified in the brain, calf and breast with coils of diverse designs. Results The quality of phase matching between coil elements was close to 100% with all coils assessed even in regions of low signal. This method of phase combination was similar in effectiveness to the Roemer method (which needs a reference coil) and was superior to the rival reference‐coil‐free approaches tested. Conclusion The proposed approach—COMbining Phase data using a Short Echo‐time Reference scan (COMPOSER)—is a simple and effective approach to reconstructing phase images from multichannel coils. It requires little additional scan time, is compatible with parallel imaging and is applicable to all coils, independent of configuration. Magn Reson Med 77:318–327, 2017. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine PMID:26712454

  20. A genetic method for generating Drosophila eyes composed exclusively of mitotic clones of a single genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, R S; Schwarz, T L

    1999-01-01

    The genetic analysis of a gene at a late developmental stage can be impeded if the gene is required at an earlier developmental stage. The construction of mosaic animals, particularly in Drosophila, has been a means to overcome this obstacle. However, the phenotypic analysis of mitotic clones is often complicated because standard methods for generating mitotic clones render mosaic tissues that are a composite of both mutant and phenotypically normal cells. We describe here a genetic method (called EGUF/hid) that uses both the GAL4/UAS and FLP/FRT systems to overcome this limitation for the Drosophila eye by producing genetically mosaic flies that are otherwise heterozygous but in which the eye is composed exclusively of cells homozygous for one of the five major chromosome arms. These eyes are nearly wild type in size, morphology, and physiology. Applications of this genetic method include phenotypic analysis of existing mutations and F(1) genetic screens to identify as yet unknown genes involved in the biology of the fly eye. We illustrate the utility of the method by applying it to lethal mutations in the synaptic transmission genes synaptotagmin and syntaxin. PMID:10430588

  1. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  2. Light-dependent gravitropism and negative phototropism of inflorescence stems in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2014-09-01

    Gravitropism and phototropism of the primary inflorescence stems were examined in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis, axr2/iaa7, which did not display either tropism in hypocotyls. axr2-1 stems completely lacked gravitropism in the dark but slowly regained it in light condition. Though wild-type stems showed positive phototropism, axr2 stems displayed negative phototropism with essentially the same light fluence-response curve as the wild type (WT). Application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-containing lanolin to the stem tips enhanced the positive phototropism of WT, and reduced the negative phototropism of axr2. Decapitation of stems caused a small negative phototropism in WT, but did not affect the negative phototropism of axr2. p-glycoprotein 1 (pgp1) pgp19 double mutants showed no phototropism, while decapitated double mutants exhibited negative phototropism. Expression of auxin-responsive IAA14/SLR, IAA19/MSG2 and SAUR50 genes was reduced in axr2 and pgp1 pgp19 stems relative to that of WT. These suggest that the phototropic response of stem is proportional to the auxin supply from the shoot apex, and that negative phototropism may be a basal response to unilateral blue-light irradiation when the levels of auxin or auxin signaling are reduced to the minimal level in the primary stems. In contrast, all of these treatments reduced or did not affect gravitropism in wild-type or axr2 stems. Tropic responses of the transgenic lines that expressed axr2-1 protein by the endodermis-specific promoter suggest that AXR2-dependent auxin response in the endodermis plays a more crucial role in gravitropism than in phototropism in stems but no significant roles in either tropism in hypocotyls.

  3. Fabrication de cristaux photoniques par croissance cristalline anisotrope par la méthode aux hydrures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudi, R.; Gil-Lafon, E.; Trassoudaine, A.; Castelluci, D.; Ramdani, R. M.; Darraud, C.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons utilisé la croissance cristalline à morphologie contrôlée pour l'élaboration de cristaux photoniques bidimensionnelles de matériaux III-V sur substrat III V masqué. Appliquée sur GaAs cette méthode a démontré qu'il est possible de faire croître différentes formes de cristaux en jouant sur l'anisotropie de la vitesse de croissance des faces exposées du substrat. Les potentialités de cette technique sont très prometteuses car elle permet d'envisager une fabrication de masse des composants à base de cristaux photoniques.

  4. Naldemedine versus placebo for opioid-induced constipation (COMPOSE-1 and COMPOSE-2): two multicentre, phase 3, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group trials.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin; Wild, James; Reddy, Jyotsna; Yamada, Tadaaki; Arjona Ferreira, Juan Camilo

    2017-08-01

    Opioid-induced constipation is a frequent side-effect of opioid treatment, and standard interventions have limited or inconsistent efficacy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of naldemedine, a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. We report two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials in adults with chronic non-cancer pain and opioid-induced constipation. The first (COMPOSE-1) was done in 68 outpatient sites in seven countries and the second (COMPOSE-2) at 69 outpatient sites in six countries; both studies were done in Europe and the USA. Eligible patients were aged 18-80 years, did not use laxatives, and had a stable opioid regimen for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain with a total daily dose averaging at least 30 mg (morphine equivalent) for at least 1 month before screening. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral naldemedine 0·2 mg or matching placebo once a day for 12 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by average total daily opioid dose (30-100 mg and >100 mg equivalents of oral morphine sulphate). The primary endpoint was proportion of responders. A responder had at least three spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) per week with an increase from baseline of at least one SBM per week for at least 9 weeks of the 12-week treatment period including at least three of the last 4 weeks. Efficacy endpoints were analysed by intention to treat and the safety population included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. These trials have both been completed and are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01965158 and NCT01993940. In COMPOSE-1, 547 patients were recruited between Aug 29, 2013, and Jan 22, 2015, and were randomly assigned to receive naldemedine (n=274) or placebo (n=273). Patients for COMPOSE-2 were recruited between Nov 4, 2013, and June 9, 2015; 553 patients were randomly assigned to

  5. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches destaphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Maouloud, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Staphylocoque aureus reste un pathogène majeur de l'homme causant des infections très diverses, cutanées, urinaires, pulmonaires ainsi que des septicémies. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer la sensibilité des souches communautaires de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans différents produits pathologiques vis-à-vis des principaux antibiotiques utilisés, dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 281 souches de Staphylococus aureus isolées entre Janvier 2014 et Août 2015 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalier National et aux deux laboratoires privés de la ville de Nouakchott, dans différents produits pathologiques des patients non hospitalisés. La sensibilité aux antibiotiques a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion de disques en milieu gélosé de Mueller Hinton selon les recommandations du CA-SFM. Résultats Le taux de résistance à la pénicilline G était élevé (96 à 100%). Le taux de SARM communautaires se situe entre 25 et 26% dans les suppurations, de 34,3% dans les ECBU et de 28% dans les spermocultures. La résistance aux Macrolides-Lincosamyne-Streptogramines (MLS), donnant le phénotype MLSb inductible, était retrouvée dans 6% des souches urinaires et 27% des souches isolées à partir des suppurations. L'activité des aminosides est variable, l'amikacine était active sur toutes les souches. L'activité du cotrimoxazol est faible (77% de résistance) et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'a été notée. Conclusion L'activité de la Pénicilline G sur les souches de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans la région de Nouakchott est quasi nulle et le taux de SARM communautaire est important atteignant jusqu'à 34%. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par l'usage anarchique de ces molécules dans notre pays. PMID:28154631

  6. Evaluation of the Legibility for Characters Composed of Multiple Point Sources in Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Toyofuku, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiro

    The luminance conditions were investigated, at that the characters composed of multiple point sources were as legible as a character having a uniformly luminous surface in fog, in order to make the use of variable-message signs practical at airports. As the results, it was found that the thicker the fog or the higher the illuminance, the better the legibility of the point source characters become compared with the uniformly luminous surface characters. It is supposed that the ease of extracting each individual point source makes the characters composed of multiple point sources more legible even if their luminance is low. So the results show that if the conventional luminance standard is applied to the average luminance of a character composed of multiple point sources, a character composed of multiple point sources could be recognized without any degradation in legibility.

  7. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    PubMed

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  8. Syphilis in composers and musicians--Mozart, Beethoven, Paganini, Schubert, Schumann, Smetana.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C

    2008-12-01

    In the pre-antibiotics era, syphilis was an extremely common disease. The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494, when it appeared among French troops besieging Naples. Thereafter, the disease spread all over Europe and, in the 18th and 19th centuries, many artists became victims of syphilis, among them poets, painters, philosophers, and musicians and composers. This review presents biographies of several musicians and composers that probably suffered from syphilis.

  9. Composability of partial-entanglement-breaking channels via entanglement-assisted local operations and classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Ryo

    2013-12-01

    We consider the composability of quantum channels from a limited amount of entanglement via local oper-ations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that any k-partial-entanglement-breaking channel can be composed from an entangled state with a Schmidt number of k via one-way LOCC. From the entanglement-assisted construction we can reach an alternative definition of partial-entanglement-breaking channels.

  10. [The use of honey in the simple and composed drugs at Rhazés].

    PubMed

    Katouzian-Safadi, Mehrnaz; Bonmatin, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    Rāzī or Rhazès for Latin people is one of the great scientists of ninth century. He left major works in medicine, pharmacy and in alchemy. We examine here, the use of honey by this scientist as a simple drug and as one of the essential substances included in composed medicines. That leads us to examine the notion of simple and of composed in this physician and alchemist.

  11. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-05

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.

  12. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  13. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  14. Histological and genetic evidence for a variant of superficial spreading melanoma composed predominantly of large nests.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Heinz; Metzler, Gisela; Argenyi, Zsolt; Requena, Luis; Palmedo, Gabriele; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Hantschke, Markus; Paredes, Bruno E; Schärer, Leo; Hesse, Benedikt; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Shabrawi-Caelen, Leila El; Fried, Isabella; Kerl, Helmut; Lorenzo, Cerroni; Murali, Rajmohan; Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are characterized by a range of histological appearances, and several morphological variants have been described. In this study, we report a variant of superficial spreading melanoma that is characterized by large, irregular junctional melanocytic nests. The junctional nests varied in shape and size, showed focal tendency to confluence, and were often surrounded by a cuff of epidermal keratinocytes. The melanocytes comprising the nests showed variable cytological atypia. In most of the cases, scant intraepidermal or junctional single melanocytes were seen, and other well-documented diagnostic criteria for melanoma were lacking, and as a result, histological recognition of these tumors as melanoma was difficult. Some cases were associated with an invasive dermal component or showed evidence of sun damage. To provide supporting evidence for malignancy, we analyzed these tumors for genomic aberrations. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified multiple genomic aberrations in all analyzed cases. A similar pattern of genomic aberrations was seen in a control group of bona fide superficial spreading melanomas, suggesting that these 'melanomas composed exclusively or predominantly of large nests' are indeed variants of superficial spreading melanoma. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was positive in 40% of the cases. However, using aCGH, the FISH-negative cases showed multiple genomic aberrations in regions that are not covered by FISH. The low sensitivity of the FISH test can be explained by the fact that FISH only evaluates four genomic loci for aberrations, whereas aCGH surveys the entire genome. In summary, we present histological and molecular genetic evidence for a morphological variant of superficial spreading melanoma. Awareness of the histological features will aid in their correct diagnosis as melanoma, and in difficult cases, judicious application of ancillary tests such as aCGH (rather than FISH) will

  15. Dispersion of Vesicles Composed of Industrially Produced Alkyl (Oligo) Glucoside Using Diol-Boron Complexation.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tatsuo; Asano, Yuuka; Kondo, Takeshi; Yuasa, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Alkyl (oligo)glucosides (AOG) are known to be environmentally compatible amphiphiles whose commercial applicability should be broadened. The present paper describes the preparation of molecular assemblies of industrially produced AOG, which is a mixture composed of different length of alkyl chains (C9-C12) with oligoglucoside moiety with a few (1-3) of glucose units. It was also described that regulation of the dispersibility of the molecular assemblies prepared by diol-boron complexation between the sugar moiety on AOG and boric acid in a dispersion medium. The molecular assembly of AOG was successfully formed by mixing AOG and cholesterols (CH). When using a suitable amount of CH (20-40 mol% with respect to AOG), the molecular assembly formed a vesicle structure. The dispersion ability of the resulting vesicle was dependent on both the boric acid concentration and pH of the dispersion medium. The light-scattering and ζ-potential measurements revealed that high concentrations (≥10 mM) of boric acid improved dispersibility the vesicles. In contrast, the vesicle agglomerated at low concentrations of boric acid (1-7.5 mM). In the absence of boric acid in dispersion medium, the vesicles were completely agglomerated. The optimum pH range for vesicle dispersion was found to be from neutral to basic (7.4-10.1). The (11)B NMR study revealed that borate ester formation occurred between boric acid and the diol of the sugar moiety on AOG vesicle. The present data suggest that borate ester formation that occurred on the surface of the vesicle provided negative charge to the vesicles, contributing to their dispersion via repulsive forces.

  16. Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 μm and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt.

  17. Active control of sound transmission through partitions composed of discretely controlled modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leishman, Timothy W.

    This thesis provides a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of active segmented partitions (ASPs) for the control of sound transmission. ASPs are physically segmented arrays of interconnected acoustically and structurally small modules that are discretely controlled using electronic controllers. Theoretical analyses of the thesis first address physical principles fundamental to ASP modeling and experimental measurement techniques. Next, they explore specific module configurations, primarily using equivalent circuits. Measured normal-incidence transmission losses and related properties of experimental ASPs are determined using plane wave tubes and the two-microphone transfer function technique. A scanning laser vibrometer is also used to evaluate distributed transmitting surface vibrations. ASPs have the inherent potential to provide excellent active sound transmission control (ASTC) through lightweight structures, using very practical control strategies. The thesis analyzes several unique ASP configurations and evaluates their abilities to produce high transmission losses via global minimization of normal transmitting surface vibrations. A novel dual diaphragm configuration is shown to employ this strategy particularly well. It uses an important combination of acoustical actuation and mechano-acoustical segmentation to produce exceptionally high transmission loss (e.g., 50 to 80 dB) over a broad frequency range-including lower audible frequencies. Such performance is shown to be comparable to that produced by much more massive partitions composed of thick layers of steel or concrete and sand. The configuration uses only simple localized error sensors and actuators, permitting effective use of independent single-channel controllers in a decentralized format. This work counteracts the commonly accepted notion that active vibration control of partitions is an ineffective means of controlling sound transmission. With appropriate construction, actuation

  18. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    PubMed

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimisation de dispositifs en guide d'onde avec coupleur a réseau : application aux commutateurs optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, F.; Paraire, N.; Dansas, P.; Moresmau, N.

    1994-07-01

    Numerous devices used in the field of photonics and optronics are made of semiconductor multilayered structures including a nonlinear waveguide and a grating coupler. Optimization of such devices depends on the optical thicknesses of the various layers and on the grating characteristics. For a given sample, the layer parameters are usually known as a first approximation, but a good accuracy is necessary to define the operating wavelength and the coupler characteristics. In a particular case — a InP/InGaAsP/InP sample which operates for optical switching in the transmission mode — we have first defined an optimized structure. Then, we have built an experimental set-up able to measure reflection and transmission coefficients versus polarization, wavelength and incidence angle. From transmission measurements performed with this apparatus, we have deduced both real and imaginary parts of the layers refractive indices. These calculated values allowed us to reoptimize the structure and to determine the operating wavelength. De nombreux dispositifs utilisés en photonique et optoélectronique sont constitués de structures multicouches en semi-conducteurs comportant un guide d'onde non linéaire et d'un coupleur à réseau. Leurs performances dépendent, en particulier, des épaisseurs optiques des différentes couches constituantes et des caractéristiques du réseau de diffraction. Pour un échantillon, les paramètres nominaux des différentes couches sont connus en première approximation, mais il est nécessaire de les préciser pour définir les conditions de fonctionnement et les caractéristiques optimales du coupleur. Dans un cas particulier — échantillon de InP/InGaAsP/InP qui doit fonctionner en commutateur optique par transmission — nous avons défini une structure optimale, puis nous avons mis au point un montage expérimental permettant de mesurer les coefficients de réflexion et de transmission en fonction de la polarisation, de la longueur d'onde et de l'angle d'incidence. Nous avons déduit de ces mesures les parties réelle et imaginaire des indices. Ces résultats nous ont permis de réoptimiser la structure (définie a priori) et de déterminer sa longueur d'onde de fonctionnement.

  20. Le silicium nanoporeux: microstructuration diélectrique et application aux structures photoniques avancées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, P.

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this work is to elaborate and study photonic bandgap microstructures using nanoporous silicon. Planar microstructures like microcavities are first considered, and their influence on both angular and spectral distributions of photoluminescence are investigated. The primary conclusion derived from these studies is that it is essential to control the propagation of light in the plane, too. Thus, the lateral propagation of light, enhanced by a vertical structuring of the optical index (step-index waveguide as well as Bragg reflection waveguide) is studied. Furthermore, a numerical model based on the standard transfer-matrix method is suggested to calculate guiding losses. Finally, a holographic process is utilized to obtain a lateral structuring of the optical index, thereby allowing the investigation of its effects on the guided light. The transmittance, measured on a multimode waveguide using white light, shows several stopbands, which are attributed to diagonal and off-diagonal couplings. The comparison of these measurements to the coupled-mode theory allows a map of the optical index to be plotted. A strong birefringence in regions that were illuminated during the holographic process was illustrated. This suggests a stronger decrease of the extraordinary index (Δ n = -0.4) than the ordinary index (Δ n = -0.22). With a period of 450 nm, these values of index contrast are promising, even if the effective depth on which the index is modulated is only 0.5 μm. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation et à l'étude de microstructures photoniques à base de silicium nanoporeux. Nous commençons notre étude par des structures planaires de type microcavité, dont nous caractérisons l'influence sur la photoluminescence du matériau, en termes de redistribution spectrale et angulaire. Il apparaît très vite la nécessité de contrôler la propagation de la lumière dans le plan de la structure. Aussi, nous cherchons d'abord à favoriser la propagation latérale au moyen d'une structuration verticale de l'indice, et nous étudions le guidage au moyen de deux types de structures, exploitant soit à un guidage conventionnel par réflexion totale interne, soit à un guidage par réflexion de Bragg. À cette occasion nous proposons une méthode numérique, basée sur le formalisme des matrices de transfert, permettant de calculer l'atténuation de la puissance transportée dans le plan. Par la suite, nous mettons à profit le procédé holographique de structuration d'indice démontré par des travaux antérieurs et étudions son influence sur la lumière guidée. La transmission, mesurée en lumière blanche sur un guide multimode révèle de multiples bandes interdites que nous interprétons en termes de couplages diagonaux et non diagonaux. La confrontation des mesures avec une modélisation par la méthode des modes couplés nous permet d'établir une carte d'indice de notre structure. Il apparaît une biréfringence marquée dans les régions insolées par le procédé holographique, caractérisées par une diminution deux fois plus importante de l'indice extraordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}4) que de l'indice ordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}22). Avec une période de 450 nm, ces valeurs de contraste sont encourageantes, bien que la modulation d'indice ne soit présente que sur une profondeur effective de l'ordre de 0,5 μm.

  1. Genome-wide analysis and characterization of Aux/IAA family genes related to fruit ripening in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Feng, Shaoxian; Zhong, Shuting; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Shen, Chenjia; Liu, Jinxiang

    2017-05-05

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-related genes and are involved in several plant developmental and growth processes. However, how Aux/IAA genes function in the fruit development and ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification and a distinctive expression analysis of 18 C. papaya Aux/IAA (CpIAA) genes were performed using newly updated papaya reference genome data. The Aux/IAA gene family in papaya is slightly smaller than that in Arabidopsis, but all of the phylogenetic subfamilies are represented. Most of the CpIAA genes are responsive to various phytohormones and expressed in a tissues-specific manner. To understand the putative biological functions of the CpIAA genes involved in fruit development and ripening, quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression profiling of CpIAA genes at different stages. Furthermore, an IAA treatment significantly delayed the ripening process in papaya fruit at the early stages. The expression changes of CpIAA genes in ACC and 1-MCP treatments suggested a crosstalk between auxin and ethylene during the fruit ripening process of papaya. Our study provided comprehensive information on the Aux/IAA family in papaya, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The involvement of CpIAA gene expression changes in fruit development and ripening gives us an opportunity to understand the roles of auxin signaling in the maturation of papaya reproductive organs.

  2. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  3. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  4. Fabrication of colloidal crystals composed of pore-expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles prepared by a controlled growth method.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eisuke; Mori, Seiya; Shimojima, Atsushi; Wada, Hiroaki; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-16

    Colloidal crystals composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are expected to have various applications because of their unique hierarchical structures and tunable functions. The expansion of the mesopore size is important for introducing guest species which cannot be accommodated by using conventional colloidal crystals of MSNs; however, the preparation of MSNs with a controllable pore size, suitable for the fabrication of colloidal crystals, still remains a challenge. In this study, we fabricated colloidal crystals composed of pore-expanded MSNs using a sophisticated particle growth method to control the pore size of colloidal MSNs while retaining their monodispersity high enough to form colloidal crystals. By adding triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) only during the growth process with the stepwise addition of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS), the particle size can be tuned from 60 nm to 100 nm, while the pore size can be tuned from 3 nm to ten plus several nm which is the largest size among the previous MSNs capable of forming colloidal crystals. These novel colloidal crystals should contribute to the expansion of nanomaterials science.

  5. Molecular spintronics based on single-molecule magnets composed of multiple-decker phthalocyaninato terbium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Keiichi; Isshiki, Hironari; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-06-01

    Unlike electronics, which is based on the freedom of the charge of an electron whose memory is volatile, spintronics is based on the freedom of the charge, spin, and orbital of an electron whose memory is non-volatile. Although in most GMR, TMR, and CMR systems, bulk or classical magnets that are composed of transition metals are used, this Focus Review considers the growing use of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that are composed of multinuclear metal complexes and nanosized magnets, which exhibit slow magnetic-relaxation processes and quantum tunneling. Molecular spintronics, which combines spintronics and molecular electronics, is an emerging field of research. Using molecules is advantageous because their electronic and magnetic properties can be manipulated under specific conditions. Herein, recent developments in [LnPc]-based multiple-decker SMMs on surfaces for molecular spintronic devices are presented. First, we discuss the strategies for preparing single-molecular-memory devices by using SMMs. Next, we focus on the switching of the Kondo signal of [LnPc]-based multiple-decker SMMs that are adsorbed onto surfaces, their characterization by using STM and STS, and the relationship between the molecular structure, the electronic structure, and the Kondo resonance of [TbPc(2)]. Finally, the field-effect-transistor (FET) properties of surface-adsorbed [LnPc(2)] and [Ln(2)Pc(3)] cast films are reported, which is the first step towards controlling SMMs through their spins for applications in single-molecular memory and spintronics devices.

  6. The Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Graft Copolymers Composed of γ-PGA Backbone and Oligoesters Pendant Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecień, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Jelonek, Katarzyna; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Adamus, Grażyna

    2017-07-01

    The novel copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and oligoesters have been developed. The structures of the obtained copolymers including variety of end groups were determined at the molecular level with the aid of electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The fragmentation experiment performed for the selected sodium adducts of the copolymers confirmed that the developed methods lead to the formation of graft copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) backbone and oligoesters pendant chains. Moreover, it was established that fragmentation of selected sodium adducts of graft copolymers proceeded via random breakage of amide bonds along the backbone and ester bonds of the oligoesters pendant chains. Considering potential applications of the synthesized copolymers in the area of biomaterials, the hydrolytic degradation under laboratory conditions and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed. The ESI-MSn technique applied in this study has been proven to be a useful tool in structural studies of novel graft copolymers as well as their degradation products.

  7. The Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Graft Copolymers Composed of γ-PGA Backbone and Oligoesters Pendant Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecień, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Jelonek, Katarzyna; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Adamus, Grażyna

    2017-10-01

    The novel copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and oligoesters have been developed. The structures of the obtained copolymers including variety of end groups were determined at the molecular level with the aid of electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The fragmentation experiment performed for the selected sodium adducts of the copolymers confirmed that the developed methods lead to the formation of graft copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) backbone and oligoesters pendant chains. Moreover, it was established that fragmentation of selected sodium adducts of graft copolymers proceeded via random breakage of amide bonds along the backbone and ester bonds of the oligoesters pendant chains. Considering potential applications of the synthesized copolymers in the area of biomaterials, the hydrolytic degradation under laboratory conditions and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed. The ESI-MSn technique applied in this study has been proven to be a useful tool in structural studies of novel graft copolymers as well as their degradation products. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. MO-A-BRD-05: Evaluation of Composed Lung Ventilation with 4DCT and Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, K; Bayouth, J; Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G; Zhao, B; Ding, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regional pulmonary function can be derived using fourdimensional computed tomography (4DCT) combined with deformable image registration. However, only peak inhale and exhale phases have been used thus far while the lung ventilation during intermediate phases is not considered. In our previous work, we have investigated the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lung ventilation and its dependence on respiration effort. In this study, composed ventilation is introduced using all inspiration phases and compared to direct ventilation. Both methods are evaluated against Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: Using an in-house tissue volume preserving deformable image registration, unlike the direct ventilation method, which computes from end expiration to end inspiration, Jacobian ventilation maps were computed from one inhale phase to the next and then composed from all inspiration steps. The two methods were compared in both patients prior to RT and mechanically ventilated sheep subjects. In addition, they wereassessed for the correlation with Xe-CT derived ventilation in sheep subjects. Annotated lung landmarks were used to evaluate the accuracy of original and composed deformation field. Results: After registration, the landmark distance for composed deformation field was always higher than that for direct deformation field (0IN to 100IN average in human: 1.03 vs 1.53, p=0.001, and in sheep: 0.80 vs0.94, p=0.009), and both increased with longer phase interval. Direct and composed ventilation maps were similar in both sheep (gamma pass rate 87.6) and human subjects (gamma pass rate 71.9),and showed consistent pattern from ventral to dorsal when compared to Xe-CT derived ventilation. Correlation coefficient between Xe-CT and composed ventilation was slightly better than the direct method but not significant (average 0.89 vs 0.85, p=0.135). Conclusion: More strict breathing control in sheep subjects may explain higher similarity between direct and composed ventilation

  9. On architecting and composing engineering information services to enable smart manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm Serm; Ivezic, Nenad; Srinivasan, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Engineering information systems play an important role in the current era of digitization of manufacturing, which is a key component to enable smart manufacturing. Traditionally, these engineering information systems spanned the lifecycle of a product by providing interoperability of software subsystems through a combination of open and proprietary exchange of data. But research and development efforts are underway to replace this paradigm with engineering information services that can be composed dynamically to meet changing needs in the operation of smart manufacturing systems. This paper describes the opportunities and challenges in architecting such engineering information services and composing them to enable smarter manufacturing.

  10. Quantum teleportation through an entangled state composed of displaced vacuum and single-photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2008-03-15

    We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.

  11. On architecting and composing engineering information services to enable smart manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Ivezic, Nenad; Srinivasan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Engineering information systems play an important role in the current era of digitization of manufacturing, which is a key component to enable smart manufacturing. Traditionally, these engineering information systems spanned the lifecycle of a product by providing interoperability of software subsystems through a combination of open and proprietary exchange of data. But research and development efforts are underway to replace this paradigm with engineering information services that can be composed dynamically to meet changing needs in the operation of smart manufacturing systems. This paper describes the opportunities and challenges in architecting such engineering information services and composing them to enable smarter manufacturing. PMID:27840595

  12. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology.

  13. Thermo-electrical properties of composite semiconductor thin films composed of nanocrystalline graphene-vanadium oxides.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye-Mi; Um, Sukkee

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental comparative study involving the characterization of the thermo-electrical and structural properties of graphene-based vanadium oxide (graphene-VOx) composite thin films on insulating and conducting surfaces (i.e., fused quartz and acrylic resin-impregnated graphite) produced by a sol-gel process via dipping-pyrolysis. A combination of FE-SEM and XPS analyses revealed that the graphene-VOx composite thin films (coated onto fused quartz) exhibiting the microstructure of 2-graded nanowire arrays with a diameter of 40-80 nm were composed of graphene, a few residual oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., C-O and C=O), and the VO2 Magnéli phase. The temperature-dependent electrical resistance measured on the as-deposited thin films clearly demonstrated that the graphene-VOx composite nanowire arrays thermally grown on fused quartz act as a semiconductor switch, with a transition temperature of 64.7 degrees C in the temperature range of -20 degrees C to 140 degrees C, resulting from the contributions of graphene and graphene oxides. In contrast, the graphene-VOx composite thin films deposited onto acrylic resin-impregnated graphite exhibit a superlinear semiconducting property of extremely low electrical resistance with negative temperature coefficients (i.e., approximately four orders of magnitude lower than that of the fused quartz), despite the similar microstructural and morphological characteristics. This difference is attributed to the synergistic effects of the paramagnetic metal feature of the tightly stacked nanowire arrays consisting of hexagonal V2O3 on the intrinsic electrical properties of the acrylic resin-impregnated graphite substrate, as revealed by FE-SEM, EDX, AFM, and XRD measurements. Although the thermo-sensitive electrical properties of the graphene-VOx composite thin films are very substrate specific, the applicability of graphene sheets can be considerably effective in the formation of highly planar arrays

  14. Test equipment for a flywheel energy storage system using a magnetic bearing composed of superconducting coils and superconducting bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, M.; Matsue, H.; Yamashita, T.; Hasegawa, H.; Nagashima, K.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Mukoyama, S.; Shimizu, H.; Horiuchi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems are necessary for renewable energy sources such as solar power in order to stabilize their output power, which fluctuates widely depending on the weather. Since ‘flywheel energy storage systems’ (FWSSs) do not use chemical reactions, they do not deteriorate due to charge or discharge. This is an advantage of FWSSs in applications for renewable energy plants. A conventional FWSS has capacity limitation because of the mechanical bearings used to support the flywheel. Therefore, we have designed a superconducting magnetic bearing composed of a superconducting coil stator and a superconducting bulk rotor in order to solve this problem, and have experimentally manufactured a large scale FWSS with a capacity of 100 kWh and an output power of 300 kW. The superconducting magnetic bearing can levitate 4 tons and enables the flywheel to rotate smoothly. A performance confirmation test will be started soon. An overview of the superconducting FWSS is presented in this paper.

  15. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g.

  16. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  17. Investigation de l'anisotropie du gap supraconducteur dans les composes Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2, Ba(1-x)K(x)Fe2As2, LiFeAs et Fe1-deltaTe(1-x)Se(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jean-Philippe

    ommaire La structure du gap supraconducteur et sa modulation sont intimement liees au potentiel d'interaction responsable de l'appariement des electrons d'un supraconducteur. Ainsi, l'etude de la structure du gap-SC et de sa modulation permettent de faire la lumiere sur la nature du mecanisme d'appariement des electrons. A cet egard, les resultats experimentaux des supraconducteurs a base de fer ne cadrent pas dans un seul ensemble, ce qui est en opposition au gap-SC universel des cuprates. Dans ce qui suit, nous presenterons une etude systematique du gap-SC pour plusieurs pnictides. En effet, en utilisant la conductivite thermique, une sonde directionnelle du gap-SC, nous avons ete en mesure de reveler la structure du gap-SC pour les composes suivants : Ba1-xKxFe 2As2, Ba(Fe1-xCo x)2As2, LiFeAs et Fe1-deltaTe 1-xSex. L'etude de ces quatre composes, de trois differentes familles structurales, a pu etablir un tableau partiel mais tres exhaustif de la structure du gap-SC de pnictides. En effet, tel qu'illustre dans cette these, ces quatre composes ne possedent aucun noeud dans leur structure du gap-SC a dopage optimal. Toutefois, a une concentration differente de celle optimale pour les composes K-Ba122 et Co-Ba122, des noeuds apparaissent sur la surface de Fermi, aux extremites 'du dome supraconducteur. Ceci suggere fortement que, pour ces composes, la presence de noeuds sur la surface de Fermi est nuisible a la phase supraconductrice. Mots-cles: Supraconducteurs a base de fer, Pnictides, Structure du gap supraconducteur, Conductivite thermique

  18. How to Compose, Write and Publish a Scientific or Professional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Boranic, Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    There is an ample number of recommendations, guides and monographs addressing the art of composing and publishing written, oral or visual communications in science and various professions. In order to write an article, autors have to follow certain rules. Presentation of the article (oral or poster presentation) also requires skill, meaning that you have to fulfill certain guidelines and regulations. PMID:28077907

  19. Reframing Multimodal Composing for Student Learning: Lessons on Purpose from the Buffalo DV Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    In a study of urban secondary teachers moving out of professional development and into their classrooms, the research team documented the learning processes of teachers and student groups during their digital video composing to make sense of the curriculum. Taken together, these ethnographic case studies provide evidence that digital video…

  20. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  1. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  2. Audience Awareness in L1 and L2 Composing of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how four bilingual writers from one culture attend to audience in persuasive writing in Malay and English, and the relationship between audience awareness, culture, and quality of their written products. Findings suggests individual differences between bilingual writer's use of audience strategies when composing were intertwined with…

  3. Computer-Based Multimodal Composing Activities, Self-Revision, and L2 Acquisition through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzekoe, Richmond

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how 22 advanced-low proficiency ESL students used computer-based multimodal composing activities (CBMCAs) to facilitate self-revision and learn English through academic writing in the USA. The CBMCAs involved a combination of writing, listening, visual analysis, and speaking activities. The research was framed within an…

  4. Bending Elasticity Modulus of Giant Vesicles Composed of Aeropyrum Pernix K1 Archaeal Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Julia; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10−19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10−19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) × 10−19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems. PMID:25821933

  5. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  6. Local Knowledge and Digital Movie Composing in an After-School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Jory J.

    2008-01-01

    A Latino teenager participated in an after school digital movie composing program called the Technology and Literacy Project. As a student of color previously identified as at risk for school failure, Horatio's case speaks to a common discrepancy highlighted in sociocultural literacy scholarship. He was competent and engaged with numerous…

  7. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  8. Influence of thickness in the holographic emulsion composed by rosin and BPB dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Juan C.; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Perez-Cortes, Mario

    2004-10-01

    We analyze diffraction gratings behavior recorded on a phase holographic emulsion. This emulsion is composed with resin and bromophenol blue dye (BPB) they have a diffraction efficiency (η) from 0.22 to 0.615% order, and their thickness are different in the holographic emulsion.

  9. The Composing Process: What We Know/What We Tell Our Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa S.

    Empirical and theoretical research and a teacher's own writing experience provide equally valuable resources in the composition classroom. Current research on the composing process suggests a conceptual change from that of a rigid sequence of clearly demarcated stages to a more recursive, hierarchically structured model. Until recently, the role…

  10. Author in the Arts: Composing and Collaborating in Text, Music, and the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerben, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many disciplines share similar terminology for making: creating, composing, writing, and authoring. The last term authoring, however, is problematic in how it privileges an end goal of individual authority and reward. To interrogate this term, and argue for its importance in future collaborative, interdisciplinary work, this article examines a…

  11. What You See Is (Not) What You Get: Collaborative Composing in Visual Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Margaret; Warner, Anne Bradford

    2005-01-01

    The problems of collaboration take on new shapes and meanings when writing/composing moves into the visual realm. This claim is based on our experiences working with the Bush-Hewlett Grant Project at Spelman College, which was designed to foster collaboration through the building of course-based Web sites. Our study analyzes three sites, and the…

  12. Intellectual maturity and longevity: late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies.

    PubMed

    Hafkamp, Maurits P J; Slaets, Joris P J; van Bodegom, David

    2017-05-30

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the life histories of composers and creative writers, whose intellectual development can be gauged through their compositions and writings. In these groups we model the relationship between the age at first creative work, and age at death using multilevel regression, adjusting for sex, date of birth, and nationality. Historical biographical records on 1110 musical composers and 1182 creative writers, born in the period 1400 AD through 1915 AD, were obtained from the Oxford Companion to Music and the Oxford Companion to English Literature. Composers and creative writers lived, respectively 0.16 (p = 0.02) and 0.18 (p < 0.01) years longer for each later year of age at first work. When completion of the first creative work is interpreted as a proxy for the onset of intellectual maturity in composers and creative writers, our findings indicate that a later onset of intellectual maturity is associated with higher longevity.

  13. The Heart of the Matter: Composing Music with an Adolescent with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2008-01-01

    As a support worker for adolescents with special needs, I have found that they have few opportunities to play music. While previous research emphasizes that students with special needs can enjoy music in multiple capacities, little has been written about their ability to play, improvise, or compose. I employed a qualitative approach for this case…

  14. Facility Composer Design Wizards: A Method for Extensible Codified Design Logic Based on Explicit Facility Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    36 22 Submittal worksheet for criterion 1.C7_1-1...Criteria Wizard Criteria Wizards are wizards that assist a user primarily in Planning Composer by providing one or more worksheets consisting of...for these criteria based on user input. Other Cri - teria Wizards currently under development include the Plumbing Fixture Calcu- lation Wizard and

  15. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  16. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For wool products which consist of, or are made from, miscellaneous cloth scraps comprising manufacturing by...

  17. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For wool products which consist of, or are made from, miscellaneous cloth scraps comprising manufacturing by...

  18. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For wool products which consist of, or are made from, miscellaneous cloth scraps comprising manufacturing by...

  19. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  20. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For wool products which consist of, or are made from, miscellaneous cloth scraps comprising manufacturing by...

  1. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  2. Let Cinderella and Luke Skywalker Help You Teach the Passe Compose and Imperfect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    Instructional materials for the passe compose and imperfect tenses in French use the technique of presenting familiar stories in the foreign language, written in the present tense, which students must place in the past by changing verb forms. The objective is to avoid the disadvantages of simply translating verb tenses and to allow the student to…

  3. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  4. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  5. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  6. "Whistle for Willie," Lost Puppies, and Cartoon Dogs: The Sociocultural Dimensions of Young Children's Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    1992-01-01

    Argues that, even for young children, composing of both oral and written texts is sociocultural process. Highlights variation in kind of oral and written genres child uses, in kinds of discourse traditions child draws upon, and kind of relationships child author enacts with others. Discusses implications of sociocultural perspective on young…

  7. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  8. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  9. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  10. Research as a Recursive Process: Reconsidering "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers" 35 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Sondra Perl's retrospective review of the composing processes of unskilled college writers and whether her assumptions and values in the designing of research projects have changed over her long teaching career. She uses her college dissertation "Five Writers Writing" as the basis to reflect on the authors and…

  11. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  12. Experimental and computational study of crystalline formic acid composed of the higher-energy conformer.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Mikko; Marushkevich, Kseniya; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Räsänen, Markku

    2011-02-07

    Crystalline formic acid (FA) is studied experimentally and by first-principles simulations in order to identify a bulk solid structure composed of the higher-energy (cis) conformer. In the experiments, deuterated FA (HCOOD) was deposited in a Ne matrix and transformed to the cis conformer by vibrational excitation of the ground state (trans) form. Evaporation of the Ne host above 13 K prepared FA in a bulk solid state mainly composed of cis-FA. Infrared absorption spectroscopy at 4.3 K shows that the obtained solid differs from that composed of trans-FA molecules and that the state persists up to the annealing temperature of at least 110 K. The first-principles simulations reveal various energetically stable periodic chain structures containing cis-FA conformers. These chain structures contain either purely cis or both cis and trans forms. The vibrational frequencies of the calculated structures were compared to the experiment and a tentative assignment is given for a novel solid composed of cis-FA.

  13. Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.

    PubMed

    Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-03-26

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.

  14. Audience Awareness in L1 and L2 Composing of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how four bilingual writers from one culture attend to audience in persuasive writing in Malay and English, and the relationship between audience awareness, culture, and quality of their written products. Findings suggests individual differences between bilingual writer's use of audience strategies when composing were intertwined with…

  15. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  16. "Whistle for Willie," Lost Puppies, and Cartoon Dogs: The Sociocultural Dimensions of Young Children's Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    1992-01-01

    Argues that, even for young children, composing of both oral and written texts is sociocultural process. Highlights variation in kind of oral and written genres child uses, in kinds of discourse traditions child draws upon, and kind of relationships child author enacts with others. Discusses implications of sociocultural perspective on young…

  17. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  18. Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose: A Strategy to Help Students Learn to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesendanger, Katherine Davis; Perry, Jeannine Rajewski; Braun, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a strategy to support students' development of creative writing and construction of text in a sequential manner. The goal of the Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose (SCPC) strategy is to improve students' ability to create a story by helping them clarify their thoughts as they generate and organize ideas and basic story elements.…

  19. Children Composing and Their Visual-Spatial Approach to the Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the already existing findings of children's compositional strategies and products. Despite the abundance of research provided regarding the manner in which children approach composing, little has been found about how children deal, specifically, with the structure of the keyboard. Therefore, from a context in which…

  20. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  1. The Nature of Children's Interactions while Composing Together on Computers. CIERA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomangino, Adrienne Gelpi; Nicholson, Julie; Sulzby, Elizabeth

    Patterns of interaction, including power relations and social goals, were investigated by observing first-grade children over a 5-month period as they worked in small groups to compose stories on the computer. Three groups selected for in-depth analysis represent the wide range of observed interaction patterns. Differences in interaction patterns…

  2. The Organisation and Assessment of Composing at Key Stage 4 in English Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan; Fautley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores secondary school music teachers' current practice with regard to the organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4. It draws on research undertaken on a nation-wide basis in England, via the use of two online surveys and face-to-face interviews. In terms of the organisation of classroom composition, the study found…

  3. What Must Be Taught about Writing: Five Kinds of Knowledge and Five Kinds of Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Students need to develop five kinds of knowledge to be successful in any kind of specific reading or writing task. These kinds of knowledge can be developed through five different kinds of composing that lead to deep understanding of how texts are constructed with specific content to create particular effects and meaning. Following this process…

  4. Envisioning Collaborative Composing in Music Education: Learning and Negotiation of Meaning in "operabyyou.com"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partti, Heidi; Westerlund, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental case study examines collaborative composing in the "operabyyou.com" online music community from the perspective of learning by utilising the concept of a "community of practice" as a heuristic frame. The article suggests that although informal music practices offer important opportunities for…

  5. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  6. The Role of Composing Process and Coherence/Cohesion in FFL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetis, Veda Aslim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of composing process and knowledge about coherence/cohesion in French foreign language writing skill. Research sample consists of 35 Turkish students studying French language teaching at a Turkish university. The participants were first given a test containing of three parts in order to determine their…

  7. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  8. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  9. Residential Interior Design as Complex Composition: A Case Study of a High School Senior's Composing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Zoss, Michelle; Reed, Patty M.

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of one high school student as she designed the interiors of homes for a course in interior design. Data included field notes, an interview with the teacher, artifacts from the class, and the focal student's concurrent and retrospective protocols in relation to her design of home interiors. The…

  10. Beyond Clara Schumann: Integrating Women Composers and Performers into General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artesani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive and balanced curriculum, the accomplishments of women composers and performers must be included in general music classes. This article addresses obstacles that have challenged women musicians and provides an outline for a unit that highlights seven American women who have achieved significant "firsts" in the world of…

  11. The Charlotte Civic Orchestra's Composer-in-the-Schools Project: Teaching Artistry in the Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Elda

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Composer-in-the-Schools Project, which successfully launched the Charlotte Civic Orchestra's Education and Outreach Program in a meaningful way by providing a unique opportunity for many young middle school orchestra students. Students who participated in the project, their parents, school administrators, and Charlotte…

  12. It Looks Like a Goose: Composing for the Informational Needs of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliway, David R.

    This study addressed whether "reading-as-the-reader" can improve fifth- and ninth-grade students' abilities to compose descriptive writing consistent with their readers' informational needs. There were 206 participants: 154 writers (78 fifth graders and 76 ninth graders) and 52 ninth-grade readers. The study adapted the referential…

  13. Composing for the Left Hand: Writing Activities for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert W.

    This paper cites descriptions, by professional writers, of two stages in the composing process that appear to correspond with the two modes of mental activity separately controlled by the hemispheres of the brain. The stage of writing a first draft involves unconscious, personal, irrational, intuitive writing which may be called "writing for the…

  14. Transdisciplinary Dimensions in the Composing Activities of Children: Transfer of Strategies and Transformation of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies show the value of using visual expression as a means of teaching children to understand and create music. This study aspires to point out an additional valuable aspect, namely, the influence composing via visual expression--whereby children transform their own drawings--may have on children's subsequent compositional processes.…

  15. Children Composing and Their Visual-Spatial Approach to the Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the already existing findings of children's compositional strategies and products. Despite the abundance of research provided regarding the manner in which children approach composing, little has been found about how children deal, specifically, with the structure of the keyboard. Therefore, from a context in which…

  16. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  17. How to Compose, Write and Publish a Scientific or Professional Communication.

    PubMed

    Boranic, Milivoj

    2016-12-01

    There is an ample number of recommendations, guides and monographs addressing the art of composing and publishing written, oral or visual communications in science and various professions. In order to write an article, autors have to follow certain rules. Presentation of the article (oral or poster presentation) also requires skill, meaning that you have to fulfill certain guidelines and regulations.

  18. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  19. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  20. Intellectual maturity and longevity: late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies

    PubMed Central

    Hafkamp, Maurits P.J.; Slaets, Joris P.J.; van Bodegom, David

    2017-01-01

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the life histories of composers and creative writers, whose intellectual development can be gauged through their compositions and writings. In these groups we model the relationship between the age at first creative work, and age at death using multilevel regression, adjusting for sex, date of birth, and nationality. Historical biographical records on 1110 musical composers and 1182 creative writers, born in the period 1400 AD through 1915 AD, were obtained from the Oxford Companion to Music and the Oxford Companion to English Literature. Composers and creative writers lived, respectively 0.16 (p = 0.02) and 0.18 (p < 0.01) years longer for each later year of age at first work. When completion of the first creative work is interpreted as a proxy for the onset of intellectual maturity in composers and creative writers, our findings indicate that a later onset of intellectual maturity is associated with higher longevity. PMID:28562321

  1. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  2. Social Media at Academia's Periphery: Studying Multilingual Developmental Writers' Facebook Composing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePew, Kevin Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the writing strategies second-language students use to compose on social media sites. These alternative and unconventional sites for learning provide language learners opportunities to acquire language by using multiple modalities to respond to various rhetorical situations. In comparison to these sites, academic writing…

  3. Popular Periodicals and Rhetoric & Composition Textbooks in the Nineteenth Century: A Cultural Conversation on Composing Oneself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, Kathleen A.

    In 19th century America, talk of manners and morals as integral components of American character filled a significant space in public discourse. Lessons on how to compose oneself properly and models of appropriate behavior abounded in the form of essays, stories, poetry, editorials, and travel literature. This conversation on character influenced…

  4. Real-time rendering method and performance evaluation of composable 3D lenses for interactive VR.

    PubMed

    Borst, Christoph W; Tiesel, Jan-Phillip; Best, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    We present and evaluate a new approach for real-time rendering of composable 3D lenses for polygonal scenes. Such lenses, usually called "volumetric lenses," are an extension of 2D Magic Lenses to 3D volumes in which effects are applied to scene elements. Although the composition of 2D lenses is well known, 3D composition was long considered infeasible due to both geometric and semantic complexity. Nonetheless, for a scene with multiple interactive 3D lenses, the problem of intersecting lenses must be considered. Intersecting 3D lenses in meaningful ways supports new interfaces such as hierarchical 3D windows, 3D lenses for managing and composing visualization options, or interactive shader development by direct manipulation of lenses providing component effects. Our 3D volumetric lens approach differs from other approaches and is one of the first to address efficient composition of multiple lenses. It is well-suited to head-tracked VR environments because it requires no view-dependent generation of major data structures, allowing caching and reuse of full or partial results. A Composite Shader Factory module composes shader programs for rendering composite visual styles and geometry of intersection regions. Geometry is handled by Boolean combinations of region tests in fragment shaders, which allows both convex and nonconvex CSG volumes for lens shape. Efficiency is further addressed by a Region Analyzer module and by broad-phase culling. Finally, we consider the handling of order effects for composed 3D lenses.

  5. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  6. Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    using the Defence Planning Questionnaires (DPQ) to incorporate the impact of these alternatives in the NATO Force Requirement Analysis Process and the...report yearly, via their replies to the Defence Planning Questionnaire (DPQ)1, the degree of achievement of the goals applicable for that year and...concernant l’achat de ces ouvrages , adressez-vous par lettre ou par télécopie à l’adresse indiquée ci-dessus. Veuillez ne pas téléphoner. Des

  7. Auxin Influx Carrier AUX1 Confers Acid Resistance for Arabidopsis Root Elongation Through the Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Okumura-Noda, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase regulates pH homeostasis and cell elongation in roots through the formation of an electrochemical H(+) gradient across the PM and a decrease in apoplastic pH; however, the detailed signaling for the regulation of PM H(+)-ATPases remains unclear. Here, we show that an auxin influx carrier, AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), is required for the maintenance of PM H(+)-ATPase activity and proper root elongation. We isolated a low pH-hypersensitive 1 (loph1) mutant by a genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana on low pH agar plates. The loph1 mutant is a loss-of-function mutant of the AUX1 gene and exhibits a root growth retardation restricted to the low pH condition. The ATP hydrolysis and H(+) extrusion activities of the PM H(+)-ATPase were reduced in loph1 roots. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the PM H(+)-ATPase was reduced in loph1 roots under both normal and low pH conditions without reduction of the amount of PM H(+)-ATPase. Expression of the DR5:GUS reporter gene and auxin-responsive genes suggested that endogenous auxin levels were lower in loph1 roots than in the wild type. The aux1-7 mutant roots also exhibited root growth retardation in the low pH condition like the loph1 roots. These results indicate that AUX1 positively regulates the PM H(+)-ATPase activity through maintenance of the auxin accumulation in root tips, and this process may serve to maintain root elongation especially under low pH conditions.

  8. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    PubMed

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  9. Identification de lois constitutives et de lois de frottement adaptées aux grandes vitesses de sollicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalverny, O.; Capéraa, S.; Pantalé, O.; Sattouf, C.

    2002-12-01

    Cet article présente une méthodologie d'identification de lois constitutives et de lois de contact adaptées aux matériaux métalliques sous chargement dynamique à grande vitesse de déformation. Les essais sont effectués à partir de montages expérimentaux adaptés à un lanceur à gaz permettant d'obtenir une vitesse de projectile de l'ordre de 350m/s pour une masse totale de 30gr. Le premier essai consiste en un impact de Taylor correspondant à un chargement mécanique de type compression. Le second essai de type “extrusion conique" permet la détermination des lois de frottement à grande vitesse. La procédure générale d'identification des lois de comportement à partir d'essais dynamiques se fait au moyen d'une analyse post-mortem des échantillons et de la corrélation entre ces résultats expérimentaux et un modèle numérique des essais. Pour les deux cas précédemment cités, nous présentons la configuration optimale d'essai ainsi que les résultats obtenus à partir d'un algorithme d'optimisation de type Levenberg-Marquard.

  10. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  11. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  12. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  13. The PB1 Domain in Auxin Response Factor and Aux/IAA Proteins: A Versatile Protein Interaction Module in the Auxin Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An integral part of auxin-regulated gene expression involves the interplay of two types of transcription factors, the DNA binding auxin response factor (ARF) activators and the interacting auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressors. Insight into the mechanism of how these transcription factors interact with one another has recently been revealed from crystallographic information on ARF5 and ARF7 C-terminal domains (i.e., a protein-protein interaction domain referred to as domain III/IV that is related to domain III/IV in Aux/IAA proteins). Three-dimensional structures showed that this domain in ARF5 and ARF7 conforms to a well-known PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain that confers protein-protein interactions with other PB1 domain proteins through electrostatic contacts. Experiments verifying the importance of charged amino acids in conferring ARF and Aux/IAA interactions have confirmed the PB1 domain structure. Some in planta experiments designed to test the validity of PB1 interactions in the auxin response have led to updated models for auxin-regulated gene expression and raised many questions that will require further investigation. In addition to the PB1 domain, a second protein interaction module that functions in ARF-ARF dimerization and facilitates DNA binding has recently been revealed from crystallography studies on the ARF1 and ARF5 DNA binding domains. PMID:25604444

  14. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MPK) Interacts With Auxin Influx Carrier (OsAux/LAX1) Involved in Auxin Signaling in Plant.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MPKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain characteristic T-x-Y motif in the activation loop region. MPKs are important signaling molecules involved in diverse signaling cascades that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses by conducting phosphorylation events in their target proteins. MPKs phosphorylate their target proteins at either S-P/T-P (Serine/Proline/Threonine) amino acid. To understand, if MPKs are involved in the auxin signaling cascade, we identified probable target proteins of MPKs involved in auxin signaling or transport processes. A genome-wide search of the rice genome database led us to identification of the OsAux/LAX1 gene as a potential downstream target protein of MPKs. In-silico analysis predicted that MPKs interact with OsAux/LAX1 proteins which were validated by a yeast two-hybrid assay that showed OsMPK3, OsMPK4 and OsMPK6 are physically interact with OsAux/LAX1 protein. The yeast two-hybrid interaction showed that MPKs are directly involved in auxin signaling events in plants. This is the first study to report direct involvement of MPKs in the auxin signaling pathway.

  15. Sl-IAA3, a tomato Aux/IAA at the crossroads of auxin and ethylene signalling involved in differential growth

    PubMed Central

    Chaabouni, Salma; Jones, Brian; Delalande, Corinne; Wang, Hua; Li, Zhengguo; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the interplay of multiple hormones is essential for most plant developmental processes, the key integrating molecular players remain largely undiscovered or uncharacterized. It is shown here that a member of the tomato auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, Sl-IAA3, intersects the auxin and ethylene signal transduction pathways. Aux/IAA genes encode short-lived transcriptional regulators central to the control of auxin responses. Their functions have been defined primarily by dominant, gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis. The Sl-IAA3 gene encodes a nuclear-targeted protein that can repress transcription from auxin-responsive promoters. Sl-IAA3 expression is auxin and ethylene dependent, is regulated on a tight tissue-specific basis, and is associated with tissues undergoing differential growth such as in epinastic petioles and apical hook. Antisense down-regulation of Sl-IAA3 results in auxin and ethylene-related phenotypes, including altered apical dominance, lower auxin sensitivity, exaggerated apical hook curvature in the dark and reduced petiole epinasty in the light. The results provide novel insights into the roles of Aux/IAAs and position the Sl-IAA3 protein at the crossroads of auxin and ethylene signalling in tomato. PMID:19213814

  16. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  17. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  18. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.

  19. Optical memory development. Volume 3: The membrane light value page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a page composer for optical memory systems using thin, deformable, membrane-mirror elements as light valves was investigated. The electromechanical and optical performances of such elements were determined both analytically and experimentally. It was found that fast switching (approximately 10 microseconds), high-contrast (10 or greater), fatigue-free operation over missions of cycles, and efficient utilization of input light could be obtained with membrane light valves. Several arrays of 64 elements were made on substrates with feedthroughs, allowing access to individual elements from the backside of the substrate. Single light valves on such arrays were successfully operated with the transistors designed and produced for selection and storage at each bit location. This simulated the operation of a prototype page composer with semiconductor chips beam-lead bonded to the back of the substrate.

  20. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  1. Temperature distribution in internally heated walls of heat exchangers composed of nonnuclear flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Low, George M

    1951-01-01

    In the walls of heat exchangers composed of noncircular passages, the temperature varies in the circumferential direction because of local variations of the heat-transfer coefficients. A prediction of the magnitude of this variation is necessary in order to determine the region of highest temperature and in order to determine the admissible operating temperatures. A method for the determination of these temperature distributions and of the heat-transfer characteristics of a special type of heat exchanger is developed. The heat exchanger is composed of polygonal flow passages and the passage walls are uniformly heated by internal heat sources. The coolant flow within the passages is assumed to be turbulent. The circumferential variation of the local heat-transfer coefficients is estimated from flow measurements made by Nikuradse, postulating similarity between velocity and temperature fields. Calculations of temperature distributions based on these heat-transfer coefficients are carried out and results for heat exchangers with triangular and rectangular passages are presented.

  2. Polarization-resolved near-backscattering of airborne aggregates composed of different primary particles.

    PubMed

    Redding, Brandon; Pan, Yong-Le; Wang, Chuji; Cao, Hui

    2014-07-15

    We measured the polarization-resolved angular elastic scattering intensity distribution of aggregates composed of primary particles with different shapes and packing densities in the near-backward directions (155°-180°). Specifically, we compare aggregates composed of spherical polystyrene latex spheres, cylinder-like Bacillus subtilis particles, and Arizona road dust, as well as tryptophan particles. We observe clearly differentiable polarization aspect ratios and find that the negative polarization dip is more pronounced in more densely packed aggregates or particles. This work indicates that the polarization aspect ratio in the near-backward direction may be used as a fingerprint to discriminate between aggregates with the same size and overall shape by differences in their constituent particles.

  3. Identifying and predicting classes of response to explicit phonological spelling instruction during independent composing.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2008-01-01

    After explicit spelling instruction, low achieving second grade spellers increased the number of correctly spelled words during composing but differed in response trajectories. Class 1 (low initial and slow growth) had the lowest initial performance and improved at a relatively slow rate. Class 2 (high initial and fast growth) started higher than Class 1 but below Class 3 and improved at the fastest rate. Class 3 (highest initial but slow growth) had the highest initial performance but improved at a rate similar to Class 1. Class 3 differed from Classes 1 and 2 on orthographic coding. Classes 1, 2, and 3 differed on rapid automatic naming (RAN letters). Spelling instruction plus supplementary activities to improve orthographic coding in working memory and rapid, automatic coordination of phonological and orthographic codes may facilitate transfer of spelling learned during instruction to applying that spelling knowledge during independent composing.

  4. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system.

  5. Impedance-matching acoustic bend composed of perforated plates and side pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Jia, Han; Lu, Wenjia; Sun, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we propose a design for an impedance-matching acoustic bend. The bending structure is composed of sub-wavelength unit cells containing perforated plates and side pipes that allow the mass density and the bulk modulus of each unit cell to be tuned simultaneously. The refractive index and the impedance of the acoustic bend can therefore be modulated simultaneously to guarantee both the bending effect and high acoustic transmission. The results of simulation of the sound pressure field distribution show that the bending effect of the proposed impedance-matching acoustic bend is very good. Transmission spectra are calculated for both the impedance-matching acoustic bend and an acoustic bend composed of the perforated plates alone for comparison. The results indicate that the impedance-matching acoustic bend successfully improves the impedance ratio while also obviously increasing the transmission.

  6. Imaging of caspase-3 activation by a novel FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juquiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Caspases-3 is a kind of cysteine proteases and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. It has been reported that caspase-3 activation can be real-time detected in living cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. However, the large spectral overlap between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) emission and the highly sensitivity to pH of YFP restricted their detecting sensitivity and reliability. CFP and red fluorescent protein (DsRed) possess superb wavelength separation of donor and acceptor emission spectra and DsRed was insensitive to pH, so the FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed would be more suitable for imaging caspase-3 activation than the FRET probe composed of CFP and YFP. We constructed a vector that encoded CRS (caspase-3 recognition site) fused with CFP and DsRed (CFP-CRS-DsRed). In CFP-CRS-DsRed expressing tumor cells, FRET from CFP to DsRed could be detected. In the Clinical applications of cancer chemotherapy, cisplatin is one of the most broadly used drugs. It was already confirmed that caspase-3 was activated in HeLa cell treated by cisplatin. When the cells were stimulated with cisplatin, we found that the FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared. It indicated that actived caspase-3 cleaved the CFP-CRS-DsRed fusion protein at CRS site. Thus, the FRET probe of CFP-CRS-DsRed could sensitively and reliably monitor caspase-3 activation in living cell. This probe will be highly useful for rapid-screening potential drugs that may target the apoptotic process and for imaging tumors in vivo.

  7. Studies of novel hyaluronic acid-collagen sponge materials composed of two different species of type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Kai; Liu, Deng-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed novel hyaluronic acid (HA)-collagen sponge materials (HACSMs) composed of various ratios of bird feet (BF) and pig skin (PS) collagen that are fabricated employing a combination of freezing, lyophilizing, and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) crosslinking methods. Morphology, swelling ratio, resistance to collagenase, thermal stability, tensile strength, and free amine index are determined to evaluate the physical-chemical properties of various HACSMs. Different BF: PS ratios directly vary with the physical-chemical properties of HACSMs and control their biodegradability for multiple uses. Resistance to collagenase, thermal stability, and tensile strength of HACSMs increases as the ratio of BF collagen increases. On the contrary, the higher swelling ratio, free amine index, and pore size occur in materials composed of higher ratios of PS collagen. A linear relationship between the decreased ratio of PS collagen and the increase in tensile strength and biostability are observed. The materials of B4P1HA (BF: PS: HA=4: 1: 0.2) exhibit the highest value of tensile strength, but no significant difference exists between B4P1HA and B5P0HA (BF: PS: HA=5: 0: 0.2). These phenomena should be closely related to the BF collagen which contains a higher amount of carboxyl groups of glutamic or aspartic acid residues and forms more amine bonds under EDC cross-linking when compared to PS collagen. However, these results suggest that the B4P1HA and B5P0HA materials should be produced according to highest bio-stability and mechanical strength and, furthermore they may be suitable for artificial skin or drug delivery applications.

  8. Gene composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-04-21

    To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis-match specific endonuclease

  9. Gene Composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis

  10. The music of war: Seven World War 1 composers and their experience of combat.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jonathan Rt

    2016-09-28

    The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives.

  11. Photonic band structure of one-dimensional aperiodic superlattices composed of negative refraction metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Michał H.; Salejda, Włodzimierz; Klauzer-Kruszyna, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Karol

    2007-05-01

    The dispersion relation for polarized light transmitting through a one-dimensional superlattice composed of aperiodically arranged layers made of ordinary dielectric and negative refraction metamaterials is calculated with finite element method. Generalized Fibonacci, generalized Thue-Morse, double-periodic and Rudin-Shapiro superlattices are investigated, using their periodic approximants. Strong dispersion of metamaterials is taken into account. Group velocities and effective refraction indices in the structures are calculated. The self-similar structure of the transmission spectra is observed.

  12. Constructing three-dimensional detachable and composable computer models of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Dai, Peishan; Zheng, Buhong; Li, Xinchun

    2015-06-01

    The head and neck region has a complex spatial and topological structure, three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the region can be used in anatomical education, radiotherapy planning and surgical training. However, most of the current models only consist of a few parts of the head and neck, and the 3D models are not detachable and composable. In this study, a high-resolution 3D detachable and composable model of the head and neck was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) serial images. First, fine CT serial images of the head and neck were obtained. Then, a color lookup table was created for 58 structures, which was used to create anatomical atlases of the head and neck. Then, surface and volume rendering methods were used to reconstruct 3D models of the head and neck. Smoothing and polygon reduction steps were added to improve 3D rendering effects. 3D computer models of the head and neck, including the sinus, pharynx, vasculature, nervous system, endocrine system and glands, muscles, bones and skin, were reconstructed. The models consisted of 58 anatomical detachable and composable structures and each structure can be displayed individually or together with other structures.

  13. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-05

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  14. Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr.: A Memorial Tribute to a Chemist-Composer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamser, Christian A.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1996-07-01

    Lejaren Hiller (1924-1994) was trained in chemistry but maintained a lifelong love of music. Like Alexander Borodin, the Russian chemist-composer, but eventually dedicated his career solely to music. His early work on the chemistry of polymers with Fred Wall at the University of Illinois introduced him to the Illiac computer, with which he did Monte Carlo calculations of polymer conformations. He promptly collaborated with Leonard Isaacson, a graduate student also associated with the Wall group, to teach the Illiac to compose music. Using a modified Monte Carlo technique to select the notes and other aspects of the music, they applied increasingly complex rules to define what constituted acceptable music. The result was their String Quartet #4, produced in 1957, often called the Illiac Suite. It is generally acknowledged as the first piece of music composed by a computer. Hiller remained a pioneer in the field of copmuter composition during his distinguished career at the University of Illinois and the State University of New York at Buffalo. This paper traces Hiller's careers in chemistry and music and examines the connections between the two.

  15. Fundamental Characteristics of Inflatable Structure Composed of Sealed Multi-Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Kosei; Higuchi, Ken

    Inflatable structure is an attractive candidate as ultra-light space structures with high packaging efficiency. They consist of flexible membrane and some components for the deployment. For such pneumatic structure with membrane, the damage of the membrane caused by space debris is one of serious problems for the utilization in space. To solve the problem, multi-cellular inflatable structures are proposed. Inflatable structures composed of multi-cells are robust against the damage of membrane. In this paper, a new type of inflatable cylinder which is composed of sealed multi-cells was investigated. Because deployment of the structure can be driven by the gas pressure of the sealed multi-cells, no complex components such as gas tanks and electric valves are required for the deployment. The fundamental characteristics of the deployment are investigated experimentally. As a result, it is shown that the inflatable cylinder composed of sealed multi-cells can achieve the deployment with simple hold-release mechanism even though some cells are damaged. Furthermore, by applying with inner bellows and outside constraint wires, the deployment sequence can be controlled and almost straight deployment can be realized.

  16. Structure formation in pH-sensitive hydrogels composed of sodium caseinate and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanxia; Xie, Rui; Lin, Yanbin; Xu, Yunfei; Wang, Fengxia; Liang, Wanfu; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The pH-sensitive hydrogels composed of sodium caseinate (SC) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) were prepared and a new method to characterize the gelation process was presented in this work. Reological tests suggested that RSC/NOCC=3/7 (the weight ratio of SC and NOCC) was the best ratio of hydrogel. The well-developed three-dimensional network structures in the hydrogel were confirmed by AFM. Two structural parameters, tIS and tCS, denoted as the initial and critical structure formation time, respectively, were used to provide an exact determination of the start of structure formation and description of gelation process. The gelation process strongly depended on temperature changes, a high temperature resulted in an early start of gelation. The non-kinetic model suggested the higher activation energy in the higher temperatures was disadvantageous to structure formation, and vice versa. Due to the smart gel reported here was very stable at room temperature, we believed that the gel is required for applications in drug delivery or could be exploited in the development of potential application as molecular switches in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gel formulations containing catanionic vesicles composed of alprenolol and SDS: effects of drug release and skin penetration on aggregate structure.

    PubMed

    Dew, Noel; Edwards, Katarina; Eriksson, Jonny; Edsman, Katarina; Björk, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To fully utilize the extended contact time of gel formulations a novel formulation with drug containing catanionic aggregates offering prolonged drug release and skin penetration were investigated. This study aimed to further explore the drug release process from catanionic vesicles in gels. Catanionic vesicles were formed from alprenolol and sodium dodecyl sulphate. Physical gels composed of catanionic vesicles and a SoftCAT polymer were used as well as covalent Carbopol gels. Drug release was measured in vitro using a modified USP paddle method and the skin penetration was studied using dermatomized pig ear skin mounted in horizontal Ussing chambers. The aggregate structure was visualized with cryo-TEM during the drug release and skin penetration process. The study results show that catanionic vesicles are present in the formulations throughout the drug release process and during the clinically relevant skin application time. Hence, the decreased skin penetration rate stems from the prolonged release of drug substance from the gels. The rheological investigation shows that the gel structure of the physically cross-linked gels is maintained even as the drug substance is released and the gel volume is decreased. These findings indicate that the applicability of formulations like these is a future possibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  19. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  20. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  1. Algorithme d'adaptation du filtre de Kalman aux variations soudaines de bruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciu, Vintila

    This research targets the case of Kalman filtering as applied to linear time-invariant systems having unknown process noise covariance and measurement noise covariance matrices and addresses the problem represented by the incomplete a priori knowledge of these two filter initialization parameters. The goal of this research is to determine in realtime both the process covariance matrix and the noise covariance matrix in the context of adaptive Kalman filtering. The resultant filter, called evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter, is able to adapt to sudden noise variations and constitutes a hybrid solution for adaptive Kalman filtering based on metaheuristic algorithms. MATLAB/Simulink simulation using several processes and covariance matrices plus comparison with other filters was selected as validation method. The Cramer-Rae Lower Bound (CRLB) was used as performance criterion. The thesis begins with a description of the problem under consideration (the design of a Kalman filter that is able to adapt to sudden noise variations) followed by a typical application (INS-GPS integrated navigation system) and by a statistical analysis of publications related to adaptive Kalman filtering. Next, the thesis presents the current architectures of the adaptive Kalman filtering: the innovation adaptive estimator (IAE) and the multiple model adaptive estimator (MMAE). It briefly presents their formulation, their behavior, and the limit of their performances. The thesis continues with the architectural synthesis of the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter. The steps involved in the solution of the problem under consideration is also presented: an analysis of Kalman filtering and sub-optimal filtering methods, a comparison of current adaptive Kalman and sub-optimal filtering methods, the emergence of evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter as an enrichment of sub-optimal filtering with the help of biological-inspired computational intelligence methods, and the step-by-step architectural

  2. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  3. "If only you were a boy…": Friendship and sexual identity in Mireille Best's Hymne aux Murènes.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Stephanie

    2017-04-04

    While much French fiction devoted to lesbians focuses on romantic relationships, Mireille Best's (1943-2005) first novel, Hymne aux Murènes (Hymn to the Moray Eels) (1986), depicts a wide variety of relationships between the lesbian protagonist, Mila, and the other young women staying in a sanatorium of sorts for the treatment of an unnamed illness. In this all-female environment, Best depicts relationships between Mila and Paule, a closeted lesbian employee of the sanatorium; between Mila and young women like Josette and Lilli, who are somewhat attracted to Mila but, for the most part, do not act on this attraction; and between very close heterosexual friends (Nicoli and Nicola). In so doing, Best expands the reader's notion of friendship between women and blurs the lines between lesbians and heterosexuals, guiding the reader toward a more complex understanding of female friendship in general and lesbian friendship in particular. Throughout the novel, several characters express frustration about Mila's gender identity by saying, "If only you were a boy…" While Mila remains romantically frustrated, she develops close friendships with several young women, and Best thus conveys optimism about lesbians' ability to form friendships during adolescence and early adulthood, a time of life when, according to her characters, the boundaries between heterosexuality and lesbianism seem less rigid than they might be later in life. In this essay, I focus primarily on Best's first novel, but I include brief reflections on an earlier short story that echoes the presentation of lesbians and friendship found in the novel.

  4. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menaa, Mohamed

    The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration

  5. Partially flexible MEMS neural probe composed of polyimide and sucrose gel for reducing brain damage during and after implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Myounggun; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Jung, Dahee; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Sehyun; Cho, Il-Joo

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) neural probe that minimizes neuron damage and immune response, suitable for chronic recording applications. MEMS neural probes with various features such as high electrode densities have been actively investigated for neuron stimulation and recording to study brain functions. However, successful recording of neural signals in chronic application using rigid silicon probes still remains challenging because of cell death and macrophages accumulated around the electrodes over time from continuous brain movement. Thus, in this paper, we propose a new flexible MEMS neural probe that consists of two segments: a polyimide-based, flexible segment for connection and a rigid segment composed of thin silicon for insertion. While the flexible connection segment is designed to reduce the long-term chronic neuron damage, the thin insertion segment is designed to minimize the brain damage during the insertion process. The proposed flexible neural probe was successfully fabricated using the MEMS process on a silicon on insulator wafer. For a successful insertion, a biodegradable sucrose gel is coated on the flexible segment to temporarily increase the probe stiffness to prevent buckling. After the insertion, the sucrose gel dissolves inside the brain exposing the polyimide probe. By performing an insertion test, we confirm that the flexible probe has enough stiffness. In addition, by monitoring immune responses and brain histology, we successfully demonstrate that the proposed flexible neural probe incurs fivefold less neural damage than that incurred by a conventional silicon neural probe. Therefore, the presented flexible neural probe is a promising candidate for recording stable neural signals for long-time chronic applications.

  6. An extracellular fungal polysaccharide composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid residues.

    PubMed

    Watson, P R; Sandford, P A; Burton, K A; Cadmus, M C; Jeanes, A

    1976-02-01

    The black yeast-like fungus NRRL YB-4163, now tentatively identified as Rhinocladiella elatior Mangenot, has been found to produce an extracellular microbial polysaccharide composed mainly of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid residues. Polysaccharide (PS) YB-4163, when isolated in good yield as the neutral potassium salt, dissolves readily in water to produce extremely viscous solutions, which form stable foams and emulsions. By depolymerizing PS YB-4163 with [14C]methanol-HCl, the polysaccharide can be both identified and quantitated radiochemically by determining the individual [14C]methyl glycosides after their separation by paper chromatography. When the methyl glycosides of PS YB-4163 were reduced with NaB3H4, only the methyl glycosides of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-[6-3H]glucose were found. Analysis of the monosaccharide released from carboxyl-reduced PS YB-4163 by acid hydrolysis or methanolysis also showed 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid to be the main constituent. Previously, the only polysaccharides known to be composed entirely or hexosaminuronic acid have been cellular products from pathogens. Of these, the antigenic polysaccharide (SPSA) from Staphylococcus aureus is composed entirely of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid, but its amino groups are substituted equally with acetyl and N-acetylalanyl groups. The specific optical rotation of PS YB-4163, [alpha]20D -75 degrees (c 0.5, water), is similar to that of SPSA (-91 degrees), and suggests beta-D-linkages that must be either (1 leads to 3) or (1 leads to 4).

  7. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Hydrogen consentration meter utilizing a diffusion tube composed of 2 1/4 C r

    DOEpatents

    Roy, Prodyot; Sandusky, David W.; Hartle, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion tube hydrogen meter for improving the sensitivity and response time for the measurement of hydrogen in liquid sodium. The improved hydrogen meter has a composite membrane composed of pure nickel sleeve fitted, for example, over a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel or niobium diffusion tube. Since the hydrogen permeation rate through 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels is a factor of four higher than pure nickel, and the permeation rate of hydrogen through niobium is two orders of magnitude greater than the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, this results in a decrease in response time and an increase in the sensitivity.

  9. Tunable absorption in heterostructures composed of a highly absorptive metallic film and Fibonacci fractal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wei; Sun, Jie; Du, Gui-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the anomalous optical properties of heterostructures composed of a highly absorptive metal film and a truncated Fibonacci fractal photonic crystal. It is found that one or multiple highly reflected peaks, even enhanced transmission narrowband, can be realized in the near-complete absorption broadband, where the photonic crystals are selected with various Fibonacci sequences or a given sequence as the basic unit. These properties are significant to design important reflection or transmission optical devices in the visible and near-infrared ranges.

  10. Dynamics of two discrete vortices with different circulations composed of pure electron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Soga, Yukihiro; Mihara, Yasuhiro; Park, Youngsoo

    2015-06-29

    Two-dimensional dynamics of two vortex strings with different circulations were experimentally observed. The strings were composed of pure electron plasmas and were confined in a Malmberg–Penning trap. When one of the two vortices trapped in a conventional potential well had weak circulation, the orbits of the two vortices contradicted the point vortex theory. This disagreement stems from an unavoidable external electric field that exerts a different additional E × B drift velocity on each vortex. We resolved the discrepancy between observation and theory by applying a stepwise potential to the end electrodes, which produced a less non-ideal electric field.

  11. Single molecule spectroscopic studies of organic rectifiers composed of pyrene and perylenebisimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardino, Debra Jo; Kota, Rajesh; Mattern, Daniell L.; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2012-10-01

    Single molecule spectroscopic characteristics of two organic molecular rectifiers are reported. Composed of pyrene as the donor and perylenebisimide (PBI) as the acceptor, these groups are separated by bridges of one or four carbon atoms. Whereas the solution phase absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar, spectra are much more diverse and exhibit different degrees of photostability at the single molecule level. It was found that the addition of pyrene affects the stability of PBI's emission and analysis of dipole emission patterns reveal that pyrene functions as an orientational directing group for PBI in polymer thin films.

  12. Efficacy of a self-etching dentin primer composed of TEGMA and phenyl-P.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Shinichiro; Itoh, Kazuo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Inoue, Mitsuko; Hisamitsu, Hisashi; Sasa, Ryuuji

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental self-etching dentin primer composed of TEGMA and phenyl-P using primary and young permanent teeth. The efficacy of the self-etching dentin primer was evaluated by measuring the wall-to-wall polymerization contraction gap width and the shear bond strength to the flat dentin surface. The contraction gap formation was prevented completely in the specimens primed with the 35 vol% TEGMA and 20% phenyl-P for 30 sec.

  13. Magnetically tunable double-negative material composed of ferrite-dielectric and metallic mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guanghua; Wu, Rui-xin; Poo, Yin; Chen, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We designed and studied a magnetic tunable metamaterial composed of ferrite-dielectric and metallic mesh. The retrieved electromagnetic parameters and the transmission characteristic showed the composite has a double-negative regime in magnetized state. Moreover, this regime is tunable in external magnetic fields. The composite has a lower loss with minimum about -0.3 dB/mm. The simulations of the wave propagation on the interface of the composite clearly display a negative refraction. The negative indexes calculated from Snell's law are in good agreement with the indexes retrieved from S parameters, quantitatively confirms the negative index of the composite.

  14. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  15. First Description of Discrete Stars Composing the Milky Way in Thomas Watson's Hekatompathia (1582)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, E. L.; Jansen, W.

    2003-12-01

    We note the first description of the Milky Way as being composed of a large number of discrete stars in Sonnet 31 of Thomas Watson's (d 1592) Hekatompathia (1582). After prefatory material invoking classical sources and making clear he is discussing the Milky Way, Watson's poem then starts: Who can recount the vertues of my deare, Or say how farre her fame hath taken flight, That can not tell how many starres appeare In part of heav'n, which Galaxia hight, Or number all the moates in Phebus rayes, Or golden sandes, wheron Pactolus playes? We discuss the scientific, literary and historical significance of this finding.

  16. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition.

  17. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  18. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  19. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  20. Carrier behavior in special multilayer device composed of different transition metal oxide-based intermediate connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yan-Hong; Chen, Xiang-Yu E-mail: xychen@suda.edu.cn; Ou, Qing-Dong; Wang, Qian-Kun; Jiang, Xiao-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Li, Yan-Qing E-mail: xychen@suda.edu.cn

    2014-06-02

    The impact of illumination on the connection part of the tandem organic light-emitting diodes was studied by using a special organic multilayer sample consisted of two organic active layers coupled with different transition metal oxide (TMO)-based intermediate connectors (ICs). Through measuring the current density-voltage characteristic, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristic, we observe an unsymmetrical phenomenon in current density-voltage and capacitance-voltage curves of Mg:Alq{sub 3}/MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 3} composed devices, which was induced by the charge spouting zone near the ICs region and the recombination state in the MoO{sub 3} layer. Moreover, Mg:Alq{sub 3}/MoO{sub 3} composed device displays a photovoltaic effect and the V{sub oc} shifts to forward bias under illumination. Our results demonstrate that the TMO-based IC structure coupled with photovoltaic effect can be a good approach for the study of photodetector, light sensor, and so on.

  1. Prenatal listening to songs composed for pregnancy and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nwebube, Chineze; Glover, Vivette; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-05-08

    Prenatal anxiety and depression are distressing for the expectant mother and can have adverse effects on her fetus and subsequently, her child. This study aimed to determine whether listening to specially composed songs would be an effective intervention for reducing symptoms of prenatal anxiety and depression. Pregnant women were recruited online and randomly assigned to one of two groups: the music group (daily listening to specially composed songs) or control group (daily relaxation) for 12 weeks each. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of State and Trait anxiety (Spielberger) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)). Trait anxiety was measured as the primary outcome, while State anxiety and depression were the secondary outcomes. 111 participants were randomised to each group. 20 participants in the intervention group and 16 participants in the active control group completed the study. The music group demonstrated lower Trait Anxiety (p = .0001) (effect size 0.80), State Anxiety (p = .02) (effect size 0.64), and EPDS (p = .002) (effect size 0.92) scores at week 12 compared to baseline, by paired t test. There were no such changes in the control group. Though this pilot study had high levels of attrition, the results do suggest that regular listening to relaxing music should be explored further as an effective non-pharmacological means for reducing prenatal anxiety and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02776293 LV-001. Registered 17 May 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  2. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Zhou, Xinlin; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-02-01

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3).

  3. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Zhou, Xinlin; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-02-15

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3).

  4. PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Samberg, Joshua P.; Kajbafvala, Amir; Koolivand, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of PbO networks through a simple chemical precipitation route. • The synthesis method is rapid and low-cost. • Each network is composed of single crystalline PbO nanosheets. • A possible growth mechanism is proposed for synthesized PbO networks. - Abstract: For the field of energy storage, nanostructured lead oxide (PbO) shows immense potential for increased specific energy and deep discharge for lead acid battery technologies. In this work, PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets were synthesized utilizing a simple, low cost and rapid chemical precipitation method. The PbO networks were prepared in a single reaction vessel from starting reagents of lead acetate dehydrate, ammonium hydroxide and deionized water. Lead acetate dehydrate was chosen as a reagent, as opposed to lead nitrate, to eliminate the possibility of nitrate contamination of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized PbO networks. The reproducible method described herein synthesized pure β-PbO (massicot) powders, with no byproducts. A possible formation mechanism for these PbO networks is proposed. The growth is found to proceed predominately in the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈2 0 0〉 directions while being limited in the 〈0 1 1〉 direction.

  5. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue-penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste) and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste-disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  6. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2014-06-07

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion 'that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex'.

  7. A thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrogel composed of quaternized chitosan/glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Su, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Guang-Hui

    2006-06-06

    The quaternized chitosan was synthesized by the reaction of chitosan and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) and named as N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC). A novel hydrogel system composed of HTCC/glycerophosphate (HTCC/GP) with thermo- and pH-sensitivity was synthesized and used as an intelligent drug carrier. The formulation was solution below or at room temperature, which allowed it injectable and to incorporate living cells, proteins, enzymes or other therapeutic drugs easily. Once the surrounding temperature was up to 37 degrees C, the system was transformed to a non-flowing hydrogel, and the formed hydrogel can release the trapped drug as a function of pH values. The swelling behavior of the system and the release profiles of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DX) as a model drug at different pH values were investigated. At acidic condition the hydrogel dissolved and released drug quickly, while it absorbed water and released drug slowly at neutral or basic conditions. Hydrogel composed of chitosan hydrochloride and glycerophosphate (CS/GP) was also prepared to compare with HTCC/GP hydrogel. The HTCC/GP hydrogel in this study was transparent which made it suitable for some specific uses such as ocular drug formulation.

  8. A case of acute retinal toxicity caused by an intraocular foreign body composed of cobalt alloy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Youb; Lee, Seung Uk; Nam, Ki Yup; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-06-01

    We describe a case of acute retinal toxicity caused by an intraocular foreign body composed of a cobalt alloy. A 36-year-old man presented to an outside clinic with a traumatic cataract and corneal laceration of his left eye, which had occurred while grinding a shelf. The lacerated cornea was closed primarily and the traumatic cataract was phacoemulsified. He was transferred to our hospital due to identification of a metallic intraocular foreign body in the vitreous. On arrival at our institution, the intraocular foreign body was removed as soon as possible after vitrectomy. On the first postoperative day, vasculitis and serous retinal detachment were observed on the retina at the previous site of the foreign body. Two months after surgery, atrophy of nearly half of the inferior retina was noted on funduscopy, and visual acuity was such that the patient could only count fingers at 30 cm. Analysis of the foreign body revealed that it was composed of 84.99% tungsten carbide, 15% cobalt and had traces of titanium and alumina. Cobalt containing metallic foreign bodies should be immediately removed, as they have the potential to cause permanent visual disturbance.

  9. Changes in the specific surface area of tablets composed of pharmaceutical materials with various deformation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Busignies, Virginie; Leclerc, Bernard; Truchon, Stéphane; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of compaction on the specific surface area of tablets composed of various pharmaceutical materials (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and anhydrous calcium phosphate) compacted under seven degrees of compaction pressure. In a first part, the influence of the deformation behavior of the compacted materials on the evolution of the specific surface area is observed. In a second part, the brittle and ductile abilities of the materials are calculated using the specific surface area values. The experimental results are used to calculate the number and the force of interparticulate bonds inside the tablet. Tablets made of microcrystalline cellulose, which deform plastically, have specific surface areas that fall under pressure. In the case of lactose, the tablet specific surface area first increases to reach a maximum value at a pressure of 150 MPa. At higher pressure, however, the specific surface area decreases. The specific surface area of tablets composed of anhydrous calcium phosphate consistently increases, whatever the compaction pressure applied. Moreover, the evolution of the specific surface area is correlated with the tensile strength of the corresponding tablets. The number and the force of interparticulate bonds make it possible to classify the materials according to their deformation behavior and to quantify their ability to form cohesive tablets.

  10. Direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Shang, Tinghua; Yang, Guang; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    The direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted SiO2 (SiO2-PMMA) nanospheres via electrospinning was investigated in detail. SiO2-PMMA nanospheres were successfully prepared, with the SiO2 nanospheres synthesized via the Stober method, followed by in situ surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Electrospinning was carried out with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent to disperse SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. The size of the SiO2 core, the molecular weight of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution all had substantial effects on the morphology and structure of electrospun nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. When these determining factors were well-tailored, it was found that one-dimensional necklace-like nanofibres were obtained, with SiO2-PMMA nanospheres aligned one by one along the fibre. The successful fabrication of nanofibres by directly electrospinning the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution verified that polymer-grafted particles possess polymer-like characteristics, which endowed them with the ability to be processed into desirable shapes and structures.

  11. Formation of clusters composed of C60 molecules via self-assembly in critical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Takahiro; Ishii, Koji; Kurosu, Shunji; Whitby, Raymond; Maekawa, Toru

    2007-04-01

    Fullerenes are promising candidates for intelligent, functional nanomaterials because of their unique mechanical, electronic and chemical properties. However, it is necessary to invent some efficient but relatively simple methods of producing structures composed of fullerenes for the development of nanomechatronic, nanoelectronic and biochemical devices and sensors. In this paper, we show that various structures such as straight fibres, networks formed by fibres, wide sheets and helical structures, which are composed of C60 molecules, are created by placing C60-crystals in critical ethane, carbon dioxide and xenon even though C60 molecules do not dissolve or disperse in the above fluids. It is supposed, judging by the intermolecular potentials between C60 and C60, between C60 and ethane, and between ethane and ethane, that C60-clusters grow with the assistance of solvent molecules, which are trapped between C60 molecules under critical conditions. This room-temperature self-assembly cluster growth process in critical fluids may open up a new methodology of forming structures built up with fullerenes without the need for any ultra-fine processing technologies.

  12. Les surdosages aux antivitamines K à Dakar: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Khadidiatou; Sarr, Simon Antoine; Mboup, Mohamed Cherif; Ba, Djibril Marie; Fall, Pape Diadie

    2016-01-01

    Les antivitamines K (AVK) sont largement utilisées dans la prévention et le traitement curatif des accidents thromboemboliques. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des surdosages en AVK et d’en déterminer les facteurs hémorragiques. Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive, transversale monocentrique réalisée à l’Hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients qui présentaient un INR supérieur à 5 étaient inclus. Etaient étudiés le sexe, l’âge du patient, l’AVK utilisé, l’ancienneté de sa prise, les indications, la valeur de l’INR, les médicaments associés, la présence d’hémorragie, la prise en charge immédiate et l’évolution. Nous avons inclus 154 patients. L’acénocoumarol était l’AVK le plus prescrit. Le sexe ratio était en faveur des femmes. L’âge moyen était de 63 ans. Le surdosage était asymptomatique chez 43% des patients. Les hémorragies étaient représentées principalement par des gingivorragies, épistaxis. Des hémorragies majeures étaient présentes chez 8,6% des patients représentées par des mélénas chez 6 patients (3,9%), un hématome musculaire profond chez 2 patients (1,3%) et des hématomes cérébraux intra-parenchymateux chez 2 autres. Deux patients présentaient un collapsus cardiovasculaire avec déglobulisation. Une prise d’AINS était notée chez 21% des patients. Les AVK ont été transitoirement arrêtés chez tous les patients. La mortalité était de 2% par hémorragie intracrânienne. La réduction des surdosages aux AVK passe par une maitrise par le personnel soignant des facteurs de surdosage et par bonne éducation thérapeutique des patients. PMID:27795783

  13. 17 CFR 41.15 - Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. 41.15 Section 41.15 Commodity and... Indexes § 41.15 Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. (a) An index is not a narrow-based security index if: (1)(i) Each of the securities of an issuer...

  14. 17 CFR 41.15 - Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. 41.15 Section 41.15 Commodity and... Indexes § 41.15 Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. (a) An index is not a narrow-based security index if: (1)(i) Each of the securities of an issuer...

  15. Determining Methane Leak Locations and Rates with a Wireless Network Composed of Low-Cost, Printed Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. J.; Kim, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ng, T. N.; Beck, V.; Ganguli, A.; Saha, B.; Daniel, G.; Lee, J.; Whiting, G.; Meyyappan, M.; Schwartz, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    We will present our progress on the development of a wireless sensor network that will determine the source and rate of detected methane leaks. The targeted leak detection threshold is 2 g/min with a rate estimation error of 20% and localization error of 1 m within an outdoor area of 100 m2. The network itself is composed of low-cost, high-performance sensor nodes based on printed nanomaterials with expected sensitivity below 1 ppmv methane. High sensitivity to methane is achieved by modifying high surface-area-to-volume-ratio single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with materials that adsorb methane molecules. Because the modified SWNTs are not perfectly selective to methane, the sensor nodes contain arrays of variously-modified SWNTs to build diversity of response towards gases with adsorption affinity. Methane selectivity is achieved through advanced pattern-matching algorithms of the array's ensemble response. The system is low power and designed to operate for a year on a single small battery. The SWNT sensing elements consume only microwatts. The largest power consumer is the wireless communication, which provides robust, real-time measurement data. Methane leak localization and rate estimation will be performed by machine-learning algorithms built with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations of gas plume formation. This sensor system can be broadly applied at gas wells, distribution systems, refineries, and other downstream facilities. It also can be utilized for industrial and residential safety applications, and adapted to other gases and gas combinations.

  16. Quantum spin Hall insulators in centrosymmetric thin films composed from topologically trivial BiTeI trilayers.

    PubMed

    Nechaev, I A; Eremeev, S V; Krasovskii, E E; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V

    2017-03-02

    The quantum spin Hall insulators predicted ten years ago and now experimentally observed are instrumental for a break- through in nanoelectronics due to non-dissipative spin-polarized electron transport through their edges. For this transport to persist at normal conditions, the insulators should possess a sufficiently large band gap in a stable topological phase. Here, we theoretically show that quantum spin Hall insulators can be realized in ultra-thin films constructed from a trivial band insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling. The thinnest film with an inverted gap large enough for practical applications is a centrosymmetric sextuple layer built out of two inversely stacked non-centrosymmetric BiTeI trilayers. This nontrivial sextuple layer turns out to be the structure element of an artificially designed strong three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te2I2. We reveal general principles of how a topological insulator can be composed from the structure elements of the BiTeX family (X = I, Br, Cl), which opens new perspectives towards engineering of topological phases.

  17. Stacking dependent electronic properties of the nanofilms composing of super-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; He, Xiujie; Qu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-06-01

    Films composed of super-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been widely used in electronic devices. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the energetically most favorable stacking patterns and the electronic structures of SWCNT monolayers and bilayers formed by super-aligned (5, 5) and (7, 0) SWCNTs. It is found that the (5, 5) SWCNT monolayer prefers a ‘face-by-face’ stacking pattern with the binding energy of 13.90 meV/atom, whereas the (7, 0) SWCNT monolayer favors an ‘edge-by-edge’ pattern with the binding energy of 10.82 meV/atom. The (5, 5) SWCNT arrays are semiconducting with a band gap up to 114 meV for the bilayer, while the (7, 0) SWCNT arrays are metallic with a tiny overlap between valence and conduction bands, in sharp contrast to the cases of isolated (5, 5) and (7, 0) SWCNTs. This implies that weak van der Waals interactions between SWCNTs play an important role in applications of SWCNT films in electronic devices.

  18. Quantum spin Hall insulators in centrosymmetric thin films composed from topologically trivial BiTeI trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, I. A.; Eremeev, S. V.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The quantum spin Hall insulators predicted ten years ago and now experimentally observed are instrumental for a break- through in nanoelectronics due to non-dissipative spin-polarized electron transport through their edges. For this transport to persist at normal conditions, the insulators should possess a sufficiently large band gap in a stable topological phase. Here, we theoretically show that quantum spin Hall insulators can be realized in ultra-thin films constructed from a trivial band insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling. The thinnest film with an inverted gap large enough for practical applications is a centrosymmetric sextuple layer built out of two inversely stacked non-centrosymmetric BiTeI trilayers. This nontrivial sextuple layer turns out to be the structure element of an artificially designed strong three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te2I2. We reveal general principles of how a topological insulator can be composed from the structure elements of the BiTeX family (X = I, Br, Cl), which opens new perspectives towards engineering of topological phases.

  19. Quantum spin Hall insulators in centrosymmetric thin films composed from topologically trivial BiTeI trilayers

    PubMed Central

    Nechaev, I. A.; Eremeev, S. V.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    The quantum spin Hall insulators predicted ten years ago and now experimentally observed are instrumental for a break- through in nanoelectronics due to non-dissipative spin-polarized electron transport through their edges. For this transport to persist at normal conditions, the insulators should possess a sufficiently large band gap in a stable topological phase. Here, we theoretically show that quantum spin Hall insulators can be realized in ultra-thin films constructed from a trivial band insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling. The thinnest film with an inverted gap large enough for practical applications is a centrosymmetric sextuple layer built out of two inversely stacked non-centrosymmetric BiTeI trilayers. This nontrivial sextuple layer turns out to be the structure element of an artificially designed strong three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te2I2. We reveal general principles of how a topological insulator can be composed from the structure elements of the BiTeX family (X = I, Br, Cl), which opens new perspectives towards engineering of topological phases. PMID:28252656

  20. Novel bilayer wound dressing composed of silicone rubber with particular micropores enhanced wound re-epithelialization and contraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Luo, Gaoxing; Xia, Hesheng; He, Weifeng; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Bo; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Liu, Daisong; Wang, Yuzhen; Yao, Zhihui; Zhan, Rixing; Yang, Sisi; Wu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Wound dressing is critical important for cutaneous wound healing. However, the application of current products is limited due to poor mechanical property, unsuitable water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), poor anti-infective property or poor biocompatibility, etc. In the present study, a microporous silicone rubber membrane bilayer (SRM-B) composed of two layers with different pore sizes was prepared. The physical properties, the influences of pore structure on the bacterial penetration, the cell adhesion and proliferation were studied. Lastly, the effects of the SRM-B on the healing of a mouse full-thickness wound were examined. The data showed that the small pore upper layer of SRM-B could effectively prevent the bacterial invasion, as well as properly keep the water vapor transmission rate; the large pore lower layer of SRM-B could promote the cell adhesion and proliferation. The in vivo results showed that SRM-B could significantly enhance wound re-epithelialization and contraction, which accelerated the wound healing. Our data suggested that the SRM-B, with different particular pore sizes, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing.