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Sample records for application aux materiaux

  1. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    de ciment a permis d'ameliorer la resistance a l'adherence. (6) Il existe une relation lineaire entre la charge maximum et la longueur ancree des tendons. Des equations sont proposees. (7) La capacite a l'arrachement des ancrages injectes augmente avec l'augmentation du module d'elasticite du milieu encaissant. (8) Les mono-tendons et multi-tendons en materiaux composites injectes sur 1000 mm ont montre des comportements a l'arrachement acceptables conformement aux codes. (9) Les rigidites apparentes des tendons a base de fibres d'aramide sont de trois a cinq fois inferieures a celles des tendons a base de fibres de carbone. (10) L'amorce de la decohesion en haut de la zone ancree ne semble se produire qu'au-dela d'une charge de 0,35 fpu pour les tendons a base de fibres de carbone alors qu'elle prend naissance des l'application de la charge pour les tendons a base de fibres d'aramide. (11) Le taux de fluage depend du niveau de chargement ainsi que des caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques de l'ancrage (type de fibres, fini de surface, nombre de tendons, etc.). (12) Des equations regissant le comportement au fluage des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete etablies pour une periode d'essai de 60 mn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. PREFACE 2nd International Conference on Materials Physics and Applications (JIPMA 2009/MATERIAUX 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2010-11-01

    The 'Tunisian Materials Research Society: Tu-MRS' organized the International Days on Materials Physics and Applications 'JIPMA 2009' and the National Conference on Materials 'MATERIAUX 2009' in Gafsa (Tunisia) During the period 20-24 December 2009. The first International Days on Materials Physics and Applications 'JIPMA 2007' were organized in Annaba (Algeria) in November 2007 while the first National Conference on Materials 'MATERIAUX 2006' was organized in Douz (Tunisia) in December 2006. The 'JIPMA' conference series together with the 'MATERIAUX' intend to provide an excellent opportunity for international, Maghreb and Tunisian researchers to make their own works on materials known to a wider audience and to have discussions with other participants. This conference will also be an opportunity to exchange experiences, create and consolidate cooperation between different research structures in the Maghreb countries. This conference will equally promote research development, contribute to collaboration between universities and the socio-economical milieu. More than 300 senior researchers, Professors, PhD and Master students attended this conference from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, France, and Spain. Several researchers, engineers and managers from industrial firms also attended this scientific meeting. The conference consists of plenary and semi-plenary talks, oral contributions and poster presentations. The topics of the conference are: Nano-materials, nano-systems, thin films, surfaces and interfaces Multifonctional Materials, Magnetic Materials, Dielectric Materials, Superconducting Materials, Applications, ... Materials for Electronics, Informatics and Communications (Semi-conducting Materials, Electronic devices, Spintronic, ... Optoelectronic Materials, Sensors Ceramics, Glasses, Polymers, ... Natural Materials: Phosphates, Clay, ... Metallic Materials, alloys, ... Materials and Environment Materials and Energy Biomaterials Elaborating Methods and

  3. Preface: Materiaux 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2012-02-01

    The national conference 'MATERIAUX 2010', which took place in Mahdia (Tunisia), from 4-7 November 2010 was organized by The 'Tunisian Materials Research Society: Tu-MRS' in collaboration with the Materials Physics Laboratory of Sfax 'LPM', Faculty of Sciences, Sfax University and the Research Unit ' Physique, Informatique et Mathématiques ', Faculty of Sciences, Gafsa University The First National Conference on Materials 'MATERIAUX 2006' was organized in Douz (Tunisia) in December 2006. This was followed by 'MATERIAUX 2007' held in Hammamet (Tunisia) in April 2007 and the National Conference 'MATERIAUX 2009' organized jointly with the Second 'Journées Internationales de la Physique des Matériaux et Applications: JIPMA 2009' in Gafsa (Tunisia) from 20-24 December 2009. 'MATERIAUX 2010' is intended to provide an excellent opportunity for National, Maghreb and International researchers to make their own work on materials known to a wider audience and to have discussions with other participants. This conference will also be an opportunity to exchange experiences, create and consolidate cooperation between different research structures in the Maghreb countries and also the countries around the Mediterranean. This conference will equally promote research development, contribution to collaboration between universities and the socio-economical milieu. More than 300 senior researchers, Professors, PhD and Masters students attended this conference from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, France, Spain and Canada. Several researchers, engineers and managers from industrial firms also attended. The conference consisted of plenary talks (8), oral contributions (40) and poster presentations (250). The topics of the Conference were: Nano-materials, nano-systems, thin films, surfaces and interfaces, applications Multifunctionnal materials, magnetic materials, dielectric materials, superconducting materials, applications,... Materials for electronics, informatics and communication

  4. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  5. Adsorption de gaz sur les materiaux microporeux modelisation, thermodynamique et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Marc-Andre

    2009-12-01

    Nos travaux sur l'adsorption de gaz dans les materiaux microporeux s'inscrivent dans le cadre des recherches visant a augmenter l'efficacite du stockage de l'hydrogene a bord des vehicules. Notre objectif etait d'etudier la possibilite d'utiliser l'adsorption afin d'ameliorer l'efficacite de la liquefaction de l'hydrogene des systemes a petite echelle. Nous avons egalement evalue les performances d'un systeme de stockage cryogenique de l'hydrogene base sur la physisorption. Comme nous avons affaire a des plages de temperatures particulierement etendues et a de hautes pressions dans la region supercritique du gaz, nous avons du commencer par travailler sur la modelisation et la thermodynamique de l'adsorption. La representation de la quantite de gaz adsorbee en fonction de la temperature et de la pression par un modele semi-empirique est un outil utile pour determiner la masse de gaz adsorbee dans un systeme mais egalement pour calculer les effets thermiques lies a l'adsorption. Nous avons adapte le modele Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) pour modeliser des isothermes d'adsorption d'hydrogene, d'azote et de methane sur du charbon actif a haute pression et sur une grande plage de temperatures supercritiques en considerant un volume d'adsorption invariant. Avec cinq parametres de regression (incluant le volume d'adsorption Va), le modele que nous avons developpe permet de tres bien representer des isothermes experimentales d'adsorption d'hydrogene (de 30 a 293 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa), d'azote (de 93 a 298 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa) et de methane (de 243 a 333 K, jusqu'a 9 MPa) sur le charbon actif. Nous avons calcule l'energie interne de la phase adsorbee a partir du modele en nous servant de la thermodynamique des solutions sans negliger le volume d'adsorption. Par la suite, nous avons presente les equations de conservation de la niasse et de l'energie pour un systeme d'adsorption et valide notre demarche en comparant des simulations et des tests d'adsorption et de desorption. En plus de l

  6. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  7. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    Les modeles micromecaniques de transition d'echelles qui permettent de determiner les proprietes effectives des materiaux heterogenes a partir de la microstructure sont consideres dans ce travail. L'objectif est la prise en compte de la presence d'une interphase entre la matrice et le renforcement dans les modeles micromecaniques classiques, de meme que la reconsideration des approximations de base de ces modeles, afin de traiter les materiaux multiphasiques. Un nouveau modele micromecanique est alors propose pour tenir compte de la presence d'une interphase elastique mince lors de la determination des proprietes effectives. Ce modele a ete construit grace a l'apport de l'equation integrale, des operateurs interfaciaux de Hill et de la methode de Mori-Tanaka. Les expressions obtenues pour les modules globaux et les champs dans l'enrobage sont de nature analytique. L'approximation de base de ce modele est amelioree par la suite dans un nouveau modele qui s'interesse aux inclusions enrobees avec un enrobage mince ou epais. La resolution utilisee s'appuie sur une double homogeneisation realisee au niveau de l'inclusion enrobee et du materiau. Cette nouvelle demarche, permettra d'apprehender completement les implications des approximations de la modelisation. Les resultats obtenus sont exploites par la suite dans la solution de l'assemblage de Hashin. Ainsi, plusieurs modeles micromecaniques classiques d'origines differentes se voient unifier et rattacher, dans ce travail, a la representation geometrique de Hashin. En plus de pouvoir apprecier completement la pertinence de l'approximation de chaque modele dans cette vision unique, l'extension correcte de ces modeles aux materiaux multiphasiques est rendue possible. Plusieurs modeles analytiques et explicites sont alors proposee suivant des solutions de differents ordres de l'assemblage de Hashin. L'un des modeles explicite apparait comme une correction directe du modele de Mori-Tanaka, dans les cas ou celui ci echoue a

  8. Etude de la transition tribologique entre le fretting et le meso-fretting pour des materiaux de contact electrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Daniel

    Dans les installations electriques, les contacts sont toujours soumis a des contraintes alternees ou a des micro-deplacements. Il en resulte une corrosion par fretting, phenomene defini comme un type de deterioration de la surface qui se produit lorsque deux materiaux en contact sont soumis a des mouvements microscopiques d'oscillations de tres faible amplitude (0 a 100 mum). Ceci a pour effet de provoquer une degradation de la resistance de contact et une interruption du passage du courant. Ce phenomene a des repercussions considerables sur le plan pratique puisque les micro-deplacements de pieces en contact peuvent etre causes par la dilatation thermique differentielle des metaux, par des vibrations mecaniques, par la relaxation des contraintes ou par l'echauffement des contacts lorsqu'on interrompt et retablit le courant. Nous avons donc dans le cadre de cette these etudie plusieurs aspects du fretting (0--100 mum) et du meso-fretting (100 a 1000 mum) pour differents materiaux de contact electrique. Des travaux experimentaux ont ete realises a partir de deux montages reproduisant divers aspects de la degradation par le fretting. Un premier montage de fretting de type bille-plaque a ete entierement developpe a l'ETS et un second montage, de type fil-plaque a ete utilise en collaboration avec Hydro Quebec IREQ a Varennes. Plusieurs techniques de mesures et d'analyse relevant tant du domaine de la mecanique du contact que de la metallurgie ont ete utilisees pour traiter les resultats. L'influence du courant sur le taux d'usure et la force de friction a ete examinee pour divers materiaux de contacts. Des essais de fatigue thermique et electrique ont ete realises sur divers materiaux et lubrifiants de contact. Il a ete demontre que pour le domaine entre 100 mum et 1000 mum, le taux d'usure n'est pas le meme de 0 a 100 mum et au dela de 1000 mum. La plupart des materiaux evalues montrent un stade de comportement intermediaire dont le debut se situe entre 100 mum et

  9. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metiche, Slimane

    La demande croissante en poteaux pour les differents reseaux d'electricite et de telecommunications a rendu necessaire l'utilisation de materiaux innovants, qui preservent l'environnement. La majorite des poteaux electriques existants au Canada ainsi qu'a travers le monde, sont fabriques a partir de materiaux traditionnels tel que le bois, le beton ou l'acier. Les motivations des industriels et des chercheurs a penser a d'autres solutions sont diverses, citons entre autre: La limitation en longueur des poteaux en bois ainsi que la vulnerabilite des poteaux fabriques en beton ou en acier aux agressions climatiques. Les nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites se presentent comme de bons candidats a cet effet, cependant; leur comportement structural n'est pas connu et des etudes theoriques et experimentales approfondies sont necessaires avant leur mise en marche a grande echelle. Un programme de recherche intensif comportant plusieurs projets experimentaux, analytiques et numeriques est en cours a l'Universite de Sherbrooke afin d'evaluer le comportement a court et a long termes de ces nouveaux poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF). C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrit la presente these, et notre recherche vise a evaluer le comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux tubulaires coniques fabriques en materiaux composites par enroulement filamentaire et ce, a travers une etude theorique, ainsi qu'a travers une serie d'essais de flexion en "grandeur reelle" afin de comprendre le comportement structural de ces poteaux, d'optimiser la conception et de proposer une procedure de dimensionnement pour les utilisateurs. Les poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF) etudies dans cette these sont fabriques avec une resine epoxyde renforcee de fibres de verre type E. Chaque type poteaux est constitue principalement de trois zones ou les proprietes geometriques (epaisseur, diametre) et les proprietes mecaniques sont differentes d'une zone a l'autre. La difference

  10. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  11. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  12. Etudes optiques de nouveaux materiaux laser: Des orthosilicates dopes a l'ytterbium: Le yttrium (lutetium,scandium) pentoxide de silicium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Aurelie

    La decouverte et l'elaboration de nouveaux materiaux laser solides suscitent beaucoup d'interet parmi la communaute scientifique. En particulier les lasers dans la gamme de frequence du micron debouchent sur beaucoup d'applications, en telecommunication, en medecine, dans le domaine militaire, pour la, decoupe des metaux (lasers de puissance), en optique non lineaire (doublage de frequence, bistabilite optique). Le plus couramment utilise actuellement est le Nd:YAG dans cette famille de laser, mais des remplacants plus performants sont toujours recherches. Les lasers a base d'Yb3+ possedent beaucoup d'avantages compares aux lasers Nd3+ du fait de leur structure electronique simple et de leur deterioration moins rapide. Parmi les matrices cristallines pouvant accueillir l'ytterbium, les orthosilicates Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5 se positionnent tres bien, du fait de leur bonne conductivite thermique et du fort eclatement de leur champ cristallin necessaire a l'elaboration de lasers quasi-3 niveaux. De plus l'etude fine et systematique des proprietes microscopiques de nouveaux materiaux s'avere toujours tres interessante du point de vue de la recherche fondamentale, c'est ainsi que de nouveaux modeles sont concus (par exemple pour le champ cristallin) ou que de nouvelles proprietes inhabituelles sont decouvertes, menant a de nouvelles applications. Ainsi d'autres materiaux dopes a l'ytterbium sont connus pour leurs proprietes de couplage electron-phonon, de couplage magnetique, d'emission cooperative ou encore de bistabilite optique, mais ces proprietes n'ont encore jamais ete mises en evidence dans Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5. Ainsi, cette these a pour but l'etude des proprietes optiques et des interactions microscopiques dans Yb:Y2SiO 5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO5. Nous utilisons principalement les techniques d'absorption IR et de spectroscopie Raman pour determiner les excitations du champ cristallin et les modes de vibration dans le materiau

  13. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  14. Comment preparer des materiaux destines aux nouveaux lecteurs (How To Prepare Materials Intended for New Readers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan; And Others

    A French version of a guide originally published in Spanish for use in Latin America, this book explains how to develop instructional material for teaching reading to "new readers" in developing nations. The guide was developed to aid the teaching of reading to adults who can already read but who are not yet accomplished readers. The materials…

  15. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  16. Impact of Materials Defects on Engine Structures Integrity (L’Impact des Defauts des Materiaux sur l’Integrite des Structures des Moteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    participants ont fait le point des aspects traitement et contr6le des mat~riaux. en mettant I’accent sur les materiaux constitutifs des disques moteur en...adapte. Pour le physicien. un -d~faur’" peut tres bien se resumer A une imperfection de Ia structure rericulaire d’un materiau. En science des materiaux ... materiaux sur l~integrite des structures des moteurs Defence Research Ag~ency Matenials & Structures Department Farnborough. Hants GUt 14 fITD Rovaume-Uni

  17. Amélioration du modèle de Preisach. Application aux matériaux magnétiques doux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J. J.; Tenant, P.; Zegadi, L.

    1997-08-01

    Magnetic material modeling creates problems particulary when fast, easy to use and accurate models are needed. In this article an investigation of the Preisach model is presented. This model is not really suitable for soft magnetic material with flat loops. A new approach which gives rise to an important improvement of the Preisach model is described. The main properties of the Preisach model are retained. La modélisation des matériaux magnétiques pose de nombreux problèmes, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'allier simplicité, rapidité d'exécution et précision. Dans cet article, nous proposons une étude sur le générateur de cycles d'hystérésis de Preisach. Ce modèle s'avère mal adapté aux matériaux magnétiques à cycles d'hystérésis couchés. Nous suggérons une nouvelle approche qui permet d'accroître considérablement la précision du modèle de Preisach tout en conservant ses principales qualités.

  18. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus

  19. Dynamique d'un laser a colorant a pompage synchrone avec cavite couplee et applications aux ondes terahertz breves et intenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribault, Robert

    Nous presentons deux methodes de generation de battements de frequences terahertz pouvant servir a illuminer des antennes photoconductrices afin d'obtenir une emission a spectre etroit et une grande plage d'accordabilite dans l'infrarouge lointain (IRL). Nous discutons des differentes applications dans l'IRL, et presentons plusieurs techniques de generation d'IRL. Parmi ces methodes, nous choisissons celle qui depend de l'illumination incidente, basee sur un deplacement de charges dans un semi-conducteur soumis a une tension a ses bornes, l'antenne photoconductrice. Nous etudions l'emission d'ondes terahertz par cette antenne photoconductrice pour quatre types d'illumination, l'impulsion ultrabreve, l'impulsion ultrabreve modelee, le pseudo-battement par decalage d'impulsions avec glissement en frequence, et le battement. Nous presentons des resultats experimentaux d'illumination d'une antenne photoconductrice en silicium sur saphir endommage par radiation (rd-SOS) avec une impulsion breve et un battement. Un accroissement de l'efficacite est demontre pour le battement. Nous simulons la dynamique d'un laser a colorant a pompage synchrone (LACPS) afin de comprendre ses conditions optimales d'utilisation. Deux LACPS, pompes par le meme laser Nd:YAG, sont synchronises temporellement et spatialement et permettent d'obtenir un battement stable par le controle des delais optiques. Les durees a mi-hauteur des impulsions des deux LACPS doivent demeurer identiques en fonction de la longueur d'onde. La section efficace d'emission du milieu de gain est critique dans la dynamique de ce laser. La duree a mi-hauteur de l'impulsion varie peu avec la section efficace d'emission. Pour controler les fluctuations dues a l'emission spontanee, on ajoute une cavite couplee qui minimise l'effet de l'emission spontanee dans la dynamique du LACPS. Nous montrons les battements obtenus avec deux LACPS, de 0.5 THz et 18 THz, dont deux, a 0.85 THz et 9.36 THz sont amplifies jusqu'a une energie

  20. Etude theorique et experimentale de la correlation entre la resistance aux chocs thermiques et aux chocs mecaniques des materiaux refractaires utilises dans les fours de traitement de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebbani, Mohamed Jamal Eddine

    2001-07-01

    This work is a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the resistance to thermal shock and mechanical shock of refractory materials. The study of thermal shock showed that the Bahr and Hasselman approaches are alike and that they can be combined into a single, more general approach. This generalisation allowed the division of the theoretical models into two groups: the Hasselman model and the Harmuth model. However, neither of these approaches can predict the behaviour of all refractory materials submitted to thermal shock. Therefore, the generalisation of the Hasselman approach is more appropriate for more dense materials while the Hartmuth approach is more appropriate for less dense materials. The influence of porosity on the energy of rupture helped to explain the behaviour of the less dense material. The absence of generalisation in this case allows those parameters that could be correlated with thermal shock resistance to be dependent on the type of refractory. The study of mechanical shock provided a better understanding of this mechanism. The work performed showed, theoretically and experimentally, that the resistance of the refractory materials could be correlated with the parameter s20 Egwof n-22 . This new parameter helped to explain the statistical correlation between the resistance to mechanical impact and the soxRst parameter established in earlier work. The sintering influence, which makes the refractories more resistant to this type of demand, notably by reducing the "n" coefficient, was shown. This part of the study allowed the establishment of equivalence between thermal fatigue and fatigue by mechanical impact. An evaluation of the correlation between the two mechanisms demonstrated, theoretically and experimentally, that the mechanical and thermal demands could only be exceptionally correlated. In the case of thermal shock, which are imposed deformation demands, it is the shorter cracks which are the most dangerous. However, in the case of mechanical shock, which is constraint imposed, it is the longer cracks that are the most harmful. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  2. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  3. Contribution a l'etude des mecanismes de l'adhesion de la glace a differents materiaux et application a l'evaluation des materiaux glaciophobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalmi, Zahira

    Several Nordic countries with cold climates like Canada are often subjected to ice storms causing major economic and social losses. Ice or sticky snow adhesion on power network equipment can be a significant issue in transmission and distribution of electrical energy for companies operating in these regions. The costs of such events can be substantial, particularly due to the cessation of economic activities, equipment failures, deicing techniques (active methods), and population safety. Because of such events, power companies have understood the need to develop so-called superhydrophobic and/or icephobic surfaces, which can significantly reduce ice adhesion (passive methods). Several studies have led to the development of a variety of new nanostructured surfaces using various strategies. These studies have led to the design of superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angles greater than 150 and low ice adhesion strength. In order to optimally reduce the ice adhesion strength on different substrates, better understanding of the various mechanisms involved in the icing process is essential. It is in this context and within the framework of Canada's research chair on atmospheric icing of power networks (INGIVRE) that this thesis was carried out, aiming to improve the knowledge of atmospheric icing, and explain the forces involved at the ice/substrate interface. Furthermore, the effect of contact angle, surface roughness and porosity on icing and ice/substrate interface was investigated. This study clearly showed that the electrostatic, van der Waals and hydrogen bond forces are the main contributors to ice adhesion to a surface at the molecular level. The electrostatic energy, based on the principle of image charge, depends on the type of material in contact with the ice, the distance between the ice and the material, and the types of ice surface defects. The van der Waals energy depends on the material type, the thickness of the liquid water layer, and the temperature. For its part, the energy associated with hydrogen bonds depends on the material type, temperature, droplet mass, as well as on the static and sliding contact angles. Among these three forces, the electrostatic energy is the largest. Whereas the hydrogen bond energy is larger than the van der Waals energy. However, the latter is always present as long as ice is in contact with a solid surface. The experimental study showed that ice adhesion strength depends on the surface roughness of the substrate. In the case of metals with a thin natural protective oxide layer, higher roughness leads to higher ice adhesion strength. In other words, polished metallic surfaces exhibit lower ice adhesion strengths. However, in the case of anodized aluminum surfaces coated with PTFE, the roughened needle-like structure resulted in lower ice adhesion. The experimental results showed that PTFE coatings remain resistant to icing/deicing cycles. Even after 15 icing/deicing cycles, surfaces remain hydrophobic with a static contact angle greater than 130°.

  4. Application de la technologie des materiaux sol-gel et polymere a l'optique integree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddiki, Zakaria

    2002-01-01

    With the advancement of optical telecommunication systems, "integrated optics" and "optical interconnect" technology are becoming more and more important. The major components of these two technologies are photonic integrated circuits (PICs), optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), and optoelectronic multichip modules ( OE-MCMs). Optical signals are transmitted through optical waveguides that interconnect such components. The principle of optical transmission in waveguides is the same as that in optical fibres. To implement these technologies, both passive and active optical devices are needed. A wide variety of optical materials has been studied, e.g., glasses, lithium niobate, III-V semiconductors, sol-gel and polymers. In particular, passive optical components have been fabricated using glass optical waveguides by ion-exchange, or by flame hydrolysis deposition and reactive ion etching (FHD and RIE ). When using FHD and RIE, a very high temperatures (up to 1300°C) are needed to consolidate silica. This work reports on the fabrication and characterization of a new photo-patternable hybrid organic-inorganic glass sol-gel and polymer materials for the realisation of integrated optic and opto-electronic devices. They exhibit low losses in the NIR range, especially at the most important wavelengths windows for optical communications (1320 nm and 1550 nm). The sol-gel and polymer process is based on photo polymerization and thermo polymerization effects to create the wave-guide. The single-layer film is at low temperature and deep UV-light is employed to make the wave-guide by means of the well-known photolithography process. Like any photo-imaging process, the UV energy should exceed the threshold energy of chemical bonds in the photoactive component of hybrid glass material to form the expected integrated optic pattern with excellent line width control and vertical sidewalls. To achieve optical wave-guide, a refractive index difference Delta n occurred between the isolated (guiding layer) and the surrounding region (buffer and cladding). Accordingly, the refractive index emerges as a fundamental device performance material parameter and it is investigated using slab wave-guide. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Future Aluminium Technologies and Their Application to Aircraft Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Materials for the Structure f Aging Aircraft [les Nouveaux Materiaux metalliques pour les structures des aeronefs d’ancienne generation] To order the...for fatigue critical resistance and weldability over 2024-T351 at equivalent applications. There are occasional exceptions to this such as strength...fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth superplastic 7475 on Typhoon and high temperature 2618 on resistance . Concorde but overall these materials

  6. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  7. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  8. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  9. Applications of Composite Materials in Helicopter Construction (Les Applications des Materiaux Composite dans la Construction des Helicopteres),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-21

    developments. Besides the weight savings obtained by the use of composite materials, it is appropriate to stress the reliability, the resistance to corrosion...molding Assembly by gluing and "ultrasonic" welding or resistance welding Price Ratio 1 4 2 Advantages No risk of corrosion Weight slightly Weight...all-composite cabin floor in place of the metal sandwich construction of DAUPHIN N. Bending strength Shear resistance Better ball impact strength

  10. Photonic Metamaterials for Defence and Security Applications (Les meta-materiaux photoniques pour les applications de defense et de securite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    exceptionnelles qui ne sont pas facilement observables dans les matériaux naturels . La plupart des recherches sur les méta-matériaux ont été consacrées à...matériaux naturels ) est une des principales raisons qui a poussé les chercheurs à approfondir leurs études sur les méta-matériaux. Avec un index...rapports signal/bruit plus importants, une vitesse plus élevée, une taille réduite, et une gamme plus large pour les systèmes de capteurs optiques

  11. Effet de la composition des materiaux composites sur la caracterisation et detection par ondes de Lamb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude

    Les matériaux composites sont de plus en plus utilisés en aéronautique. Leurs excellentes propriétés mécaniques et leur faible poids leur procurent un avantage certain par rapport aux matériaux métalliques. Ceux-ci étant soumis à diverses conditions de chargement et environnementales, ils sont suceptibles de subir plusieurs types d'endommagements, compromettant leur intégrité. Des méthodes fiables d'inspection sont donc nécessaires pour évaluer leur intégrité. Néanmoins, peu d'approches non destructives, embarquées et efficaces sont présentement utilisées. Ce travail de recherche se penche sur l'étude de l'effet de la composition des matériaux composites sur la détection et la caractérisation par ondes guidées. L'objectif du projet est de développer une approche de caractérisation mécanique embarquée permettant d'améliorer la performance d'une approche d'imagerie par antenne piézoélectriques sur des structures composite et métalliques. La contribution de ce projet est de proposer une approche embarquée de caractérisation mécanique par ultrasons qui ne requiert pas une mesure sur une multitude d'échantillons et qui est non destructive. Ce mémoire par articles est divisé en quatre parties, dont les parties deux A quatre présentant les articles publiés et soumis. La première partie présente l'état des connaissances dans la matière nécessaires à l'acomplissement de ce projet de maîtrise. Les principaux sujets traités portent sur les matériaux composites, propagation d'ondes, la modélisation des ondes guidées, la caractérisation par ondes guidées et la surveillance embarquée des structures. La deuxième partie présente une étude de l'effet des propriétés mécaniques sur la performance de l'algorithme d'imagerie Excitelet. L'étude est faite sur une structure isotrope. Les résultats ont démontré que l'algorithme est sensible à l'exactitude des propriétés mécaniques utilisées dans le modèle. Cette

  12. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  13. Caracterisation des proprietes dielectriques de materiaux composites a base de polyethylene terephtalate recycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Fouzia

    The aim of this study is to examine the possibility of using thermoplastic composite materials for electrical applications such as supports of automotive engine ignition systems. We are particularly interested in composites based on recycled polyethylene terephtalate (PET). Conventional isolations like PET cannot meet the new prescriptive requirements. The introduction of reinforcement materials, such as glass fibers and mica can improve the mechanical characteristics of these materials. However, this enhancement may also reduce electrical properties especially since these composites have to be used under severe thermal and electric stresses. In order to estimate PET composite insulation lifetimes, accelerated aging tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 140°C and at a frequency of 300Hz. Studies at high temperature will help to identify the service temperature of candidate materials. Dielectric breakdown tests have been made on a large number of samples according to the standard of dielectric strength tests of solid insulating ASTM D-149. These tests have to identify the problematic samples and to check solid insulation quality. The different knowledge gained from this analysis was used to predict material performance. This will give the company the possibility to improve existing formulations and subsequently develop a material having electrical and thermal properties suitable for this application.

  14. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto

  15. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  16. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerjouan, Philippe; Boterel, Florence; Lostec, Jean; Bertot, Jean-Paul; Haussonne, Jean-Marie

    1991-11-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developped in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa2CU3O{7-δ} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa2CU3O{7-δ}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa2CU3O{7-δ} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. Les nouveaux matériaux supraconducteurs à haute température critique ont potentiellement un rôle important à jouer dans le domaine de l'électronique et de l'électrotechnique. En particulier, le dépôt d'oxydes supraconducteurs sur divers types de substrats est une technologie amenée à se développer. Nous avons donc entrepris une étude dont l'objet est la réalisation de conducteurs sérigraphiés sur alumine et composés essentiellement du matériau YBa2CU3O{7-δ}. Nous avons tout d'abord cherché à réaliser un composite verre/YBa2CU3O{7-δ}, par analogie au principe de réalisation de couches conductrices sérigraphiées, le verre permettant d'obtenir une liaison physico-chimique avec le substrat. Une étude préliminaire a permis de réaliser divers matériaux composites massifs, utilisant différentes familles de verres. Ces matériaux massifs, se présentant sous la forme de barreaux de 2 × 2 mm de section, étaient supraconducteurs à une température pouvant être voisine de celle du matériau YBa2CU3O{7-δ} initial. Nous avons mis les plus significatifs de ces matériaux composites en suspension dans un liant organique nous permettant de les déposer en couches épaisses sur des substrats d'alumine recouverts ou non d'une première couche de verre. Nous avons étudié après cuisson l'adhérence des dépôts, les interfaces alumine/verre/composite, ainsi que les propriétés supraconductrices.

  17. Materiaux piézoélectriques pour moteurs ultrasonores performances requises et problèmes technologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnard, P.; Eyraud, L.; Guillemot, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    For many years ultrasonic piezoelectric motors are the subject of a great number of papers and patents. The submitted structures yield a great variety of piezoceramics shapes, of the excitation mode and the applied electric fields. The main required properties of the active materials are presented on the basis of the figure of merit (coupling factor, electromechanical transformer ratio) and on the basis of losses and aging as well. The significant technological problems presented by some structures are analysed : reverse polarizations into a same ceramic, strong silkscreen printing, achievement of a strong, conductive and non absorbing, metal-ceramic bond,... At last an industrial outlet of piezoelectric motors will mainly depend on the upper cost limit of piezoceramics when built in great number. Such a cost will be bound to the required geometries and machining. Les moteurs piézoélectriques ultrasonores font depuis plusieurs années l'objet de très nombreuses publications et brevets. La diversité des structures proposées entraîne une grande variété des formes des céramiques piézoélectriques, de leur mode d'excitation et des champs électriques appliqués. Les principales performances requises des matériaux actifs sont présentées tant sur le plan des facteurs de mérites (facteur de couplage, rapport de transformation électromécanique, ... ) que sur celui des pertes ou du vieillissement. Les importants problèmes technologiques posés par certaines structures sont analysés : polarisations inversées dans une même céramique, sérigraphies résistantes, réalisation de liaisons céramiques-métal solides, conductrices et non amorties... Enfin le débouché industriel des moteurs piézoélectriques dépendra essentiellement du coût limite en fabrication de masse des éléments céramiques, piézoélectriques qui restera très lié aux géométries et aux usinages exigés.

  18. Hygrothermal Effects in Continuous Fibre Reinforced Composites. Part I. Thermal and Moisture Diffusion in Composite Materials (Effets Hygrothermiques dans les Composites a Renfort de Fibre Continu. Partie I. Diffusion de L’Humidite et de la Chaleur dans les Materiaux Composites)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    HYGROTHERMIQUES DANS LES COMPOSITES A RENFORT DE FIBRE CONTINU PARTIE I - DIFFUSION DE L’HUMIDITE ET DE LA CHALEUR DANS LES MATERIAUX COMPOSITES by/par J.P...structures for space- craft hardware)[223]. Composite materials are often subjected to fatigue loads and should exhibit impact strength and shock resistance

  19. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  20. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning. PMID:23087694

  1. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  2. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  3. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  4. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  5. Tétanos associé aux soins: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo

    2016-01-01

    La prophylaxie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge des blessures, est une stratégie majeure de prévention du tétanos en milieu de soins. Toute défaillance de la prise en charge des blessures expose dangereusement les victimes à la maladie. Nous rapportons un cas de tétanos survenu à la suite d’une blessure frontale prise en charge dans une structure sanitaire sans prophylaxie antitétanique. L’objectif est de rappeler aux cliniciens sur l’importance de cette prophylaxie chez tout blessé non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. Patient de 52 ans non vacciné contre le tétanos a été admisau CHU YO pour cervicalgie, dysphagie, difficulté à la marche et à l’ouverture de la bouche. Dans ses antécédents il souligne une blessure frontale profonde ayant été suturée sans prophylaxie antitétanique il y a trois semaines environ. L’examen à son admission notaitun trismus lâche, une contracture abdominale, une dysphagie, une température à 36°5Cet une cicatrice au niveau du front mesurant environ 7 cm. Le diagnostic d’un tétanos généralisé stade II à porte d’entrée frontale a été retenu. Sous traitement l’évolution a été favorable et il est sorti de l’hôpital le 18septembre 2015. La prévention du tétanos associé aux soins requiert l’application rigoureuse des mesures d’asepsie, la systématisation de la sérothérapie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge de toute blessure profonde du patient non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. PMID:28292071

  6. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  7. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  8. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  9. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  10. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  11. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  15. Fundamentals and Special Problems of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Les Aspects Fondamentaux et les Problemes Specifiques aux Radars a Ouverture Synthetique (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION: IMAGING OF SHIPS *(x,y)- P(U)IU~e dU d# AT SEA) ) (80) 6.1. Modelization The integral over U is identified as an inverse ...Special SAR-methods like squint-, stretch- and spotlight-techniques for example will be presented in addition to the inverse SAR-techniques using the...pr~sentis en complement des techniques SAR inverses faisant appel aux mouvement des cibles au lieu du mouvement du radar. Le cycle de conferences; se

  16. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  18. Caracterisation de la propagation sans-fil dans les avions commerciaux pour une transmission dediee aux services aux passagers et aux systemes avioniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghir, Hassane

    Aircraft systems are interconnected by cable bundles that may represent a hundred kilometres. Those wirings penalize the aircraft weight. Cable bundles favour electromagnetic interference on board aircraft and routing a new cable for integrating new equipment boxes in a sustained aircraft requires a lot of retrofit work. Consequently, the aviation industry and aerospace community are working in the scope of different projects on new alternatives that will better fit to the future generation of aircrafts and help to reduce interconnecting wires on board. Wireless technologies represent a coveted solution that could make significant improvements and benefits to new generations of aircrafts. This research work focuses on the study of the wireless propagation over some frequency bands inside commercial aircrafts. The main objective is to provide conclusions and recommendations on criteria that may help optimizing the wireless communication without impacting the existent systems. Targeted applications are the inflight entertainment (IFE) service and wireless sensing systems. This work was conducted in collaboration with Bombardier-Aerospace based in Montreal (QC) in the frame of AVIO-402 project under the grant of CRIAQ (http://www.criaq.aero/). In this study, an experimental characterization of the propagation channel in the ISM band around 2.4 GHz frequency 5.8 GHz has been performed in a CRJ700 aircraft from Bombardier Aerospace. This characterization allowed to extract the parameters needed to analyze the channel behavior. The measurements results have shown that the propagation characteristics are close to those of both typical indoor medium in terms of the delay spread and a tunnel in terms of path loss. Then, a 3D channel modeling and simulation have been achieved with an RF prediction software (Wireless Insite Remcom). The simulations also consider the millimeter band around 60 GHz. The simulations yielded to analytical models of radio coverage which were

  19. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  20. AUX/LAX Genes Encode a Family of Auxin Influx Transporters That Perform Distinct Functions during Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Kamal; Ferguson, Alison; Seth, Malvika; Yang, Yaodong; Dhondt, Stijn; James, Nicholas; Casimiro, Ilda; Perry, Paula; Syed, Adnan; Yang, Haibing; Reemmer, Jesica; Venison, Edward; Howells, Caroline; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Alonso, Jose; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Laplaze, Laurent; Murphy, Angus; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Nielsen, Erik; Swarup, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE AUX1 [LAX] genes LAX1, LAX2, and LAX3). We report that all four members of this AUX/LAX family display auxin uptake functions. Despite the conservation of their biochemical function, AUX1, LAX1, and LAX3 have been described to regulate distinct auxin-dependent developmental processes. Here, we report that LAX2 regulates vascular patterning in cotyledons. We also describe how regulatory and coding sequences of AUX/LAX genes have undergone subfunctionalization based on their distinct patterns of spatial expression and the inability of LAX sequences to rescue aux1 mutant phenotypes, respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity at the protein level, transgenic studies reveal that LAX proteins are not correctly targeted in the AUX1 expression domain. Domain swapping studies suggest that the N-terminal half of AUX1 is essential for correct LAX localization. We conclude that Arabidopsis AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct developmental functions and have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22773749

  1. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  2. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  3. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu6-xAux

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu6-xAux are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition xc=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at xc. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phasemore » transition suggesting that the LaCu6-xAux series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  4. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  5. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  6. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  7. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  8. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  9. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-09-14

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H(+)-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms.

  10. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  11. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  12. Management of Heat and Cold Stress -- Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel (Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels medicaux de I’OTAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management of Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels...Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels médicaux de...NATO Nations and allied forces. RTO-TR-MSG-187 ES - 1 Gestion des Contraintes Thermiques (Chaleur et Froid) – Conseils aux Personnels Médicaux de

  13. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  14. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  15. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  16. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  17. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  18. The role of AUX1 gene and auxin content to the branching phenotype of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arumingtyas, Estri L; Mastuti, R; Indriyani, S

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify auxin gene, AUX1, and to determine the plant auxin content and their role in conferring branching on Kenaf. PCR analysis using AUX1 primer capable to amplify the DNA of non branching (KR11) and branching kenaf mutant, resulting in 800 bp PCR product. The sequence of the PCR product showed high degree of homology with the sequence of AUX1 gene of other plants in the NCBI GenBank database, confirming kenaf possession of the gene AUX1. However, some variation on the DNA sequence was found between branching and non branching phenotype indicated allele differences of the same gene which were responsible for the variation in the type of branching. Identification of auxin content in the roots, apical shoot, and axillary branches using spectrophotometry method showed that the branching plant has higher auxin content in the apical shoot compared to the content in the branches. This indicate that AUX1 controls the formation of branches by controlling either the content of auxin in the apical shoot and branches, or the ratio of auxin content in the shoot and branches.

  19. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  20. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  1. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Medicago truncatula during the Early Phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Luqin; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. Principal Findings Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. PMID:25226164

  3. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  4. Synthese et utilisation de fibres cellulosiques phosphatees pour la valorisation de la fibre vegetale dans l'amelioration des proprietes de surface du papier et la fabrication de materiaux ignifuges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentsolo Yalli, Gym Clerc

    Dans cette etude, nous souhaitions principalement greffer des groupements phosphates directement sur la cellulose comme materiau modele, et par la suite transposer les conditions optimales du design concu pour la cellulose, determine par modelisation a l'aide de l'outil JMP, sur la pate kraft. Ensuite, evaluer les proprietes physico-chimiques, optiques, d'hydrophilie, thermiques et d'inflammabilite des materiaux fabriques (feuilles ou pastilles fabriquees) a partir des fibres phosphorylees. Pour ce faire, nous avons pretraite la cellulose et la pate kraft dans une solution aqueuse de 10 a 15 % de LiCl a 70°C pendant 7 heures. Par la suite, nous avons procede a la reaction de phosphorylation in situ avec l'acide phosphorique et l'uree, dans des conditions de temperatures et de reactifs decrites par un design experimental, pendant 3 heures. La reaction de phosphorylation s'est realisee avec succes pour l'ensemble des resultats sur la cellulose, avec des taux de greffage variables selon les conditions operatoires. Les degres de substitutions (DSP), determines par ICP-OES, et les degres de polymerisation (DP), determines par viscosimetrie, etaient aussi variables, selon les conditions. L'etude des parametres experimentaux a permis de determiner les conditions optimales transposables sur la pate kraft (DSP = 1,47 et DP = 142,42 pour la cellulose, qui represente un taux de coupure de 38% de la fibre) et les facteurs critiques de la reaction. Les resultats de la reaction sur la fibre ont permis, non seulement de constater que les conditions utilisees pour la cellulose n'etaient directement transposables a la fibre, mais permettaient quand d'obtenir un DSP interessant ≥ a 1 avec un taux de coupure de 50 a 60 %. La structure du produit principal de la reaction (le sel de calcium du pyrophosphate d'ester de cellulose ou de pate kraft) a ete determinee par les analyses FTIR, XPS, RMN-13C et RMN-31P. L'etude de l'effet de la reaction de phosphorylation sur les proprietes

  5. Materials Substitution and Recycling. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel (57th) Held at Vimeiro, Portugal on 14-19 October 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    cognme ic premier choc petrobaer tie 1973. IFn mati~re de materiaux mitalliques aeronautiques. P’kvenement majeur a sans doutc Wt Is crise Zairoise de...ELEMENTS TRACES DANS LES SUPERALUIAGES par i.F.Wedier et J.Morlet 16 PROBLEMES POSES AUX MOTORISTES PAR LE RECYCLAGE DES MATERIAUX METALUIQUES pw...used In large amounts. Indeed, the development In ,outh Africa of a new family or weldable, corrosion- resistant alloys (termed 3C’N12 by Middleburg

  6. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  7. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  8. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  9. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  10. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  11. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  12. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  13. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  14. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming; Mi, Guohua; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-06-01

    Deposition of ammonium (NH₄+) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH₄+ is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root.

  15. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  16. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  17. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures.

  18. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  19. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    COMPOSITES ET NOUVEAUX MATERIAUX , 17 Sep 92] 1 France: Ministries Form Materials Council, Group [Paris COMPOSITES ET NOUVEAUX MATERIAUX , 17 Sep 92...ADVANCED MATERIALS Technologies for Space Applications Described 93WS0011A Paris COMPOSITES ET NOUVEAUX MATERIAUX in French I7 Sep 92 pp 3-6...curved plates, shells with stiffeners...) and assembled by means of high-temperature- resistant bolts to building larger struc- tures. The fields of

  1. Etude microdosimetrique de l'influence des materiaux sur l'efficacite biologique d'une source d'iode-125

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taschereau, Richard

    Cette these concerne les implants permanents pour la prostate. Les isotopes employes, le 103Pd et l'125I, semblent produire les memes resultats cliniques: le premier a cause d'une radiation plus efficace et le second a cause de sa demi-vie plus longue. La recherche utilise le cadre theorique de la microdosimetrie et des simulations Monte Carlo. Elle propose d'employer le spectre d'ejection dans le calcul de l'efficacite; ce changement fait passer l'efficacite relative du 103Pd de 10% a 5%. Elle montre ensuite qu'il est possible d'ameliorer l'efficacite de la radiation de 125I par l'exploitation des rayons X caracteristiques de la capsule. Une source amelioree faite de molybdene et d'yttrium est donnee en exemple. Elle procure une radiation de 5--7% plus efficace, ce qui surclasse les deux sources existantes. Les applications ne se limitent pas au traitement de la prostate; le traitement du melanome oculaire et la curietherapie endovasculaire pourraient en beneficier.

  2. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  4. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  5. Prise en compte des conditions des materiaux et du couplage axial le long d'un canal du reacteur refroidi a eau supercritique canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrisson, Genevieve

    This research project has established a simulation strategy capable of taking into account the conditions of the materials and the axial coupling along a fuel channel of the Canadian Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR). The proposed simulation strategy solves the transport equation for the complete channel defined in exact geometry without having to make three-dimensional calculation. The proposed simulation strategy consists of making a series of two-dimensional lattice cell calculations followed by a one-dimensional slab geometry calculation. It has been shown that the proposed simulation strategy is equivalent to a three-dimensional channel calculation within reasonable limits. For this demonstration, SERPENT 1.1.16 is used to perform the three-dimensional channel calculations and the two-dimensional lattice cell calculations while DRAGON 3.06 is used to perform the one-dimensional slab geometry calculations. From three-dimensional complete and partial channels with axial reflector, this research project has assessed the impact of the axial reflector on the channel neutronic properties and inversely, the impact of the fuel planes on the axial reflector neutronic properties. It was observed that the axial reflector affects mainly the neutronic properties of the fuel planes adjacent to the axial reflector and that the accuracy of the axial reflector neutronic properties increases as the number of fuel planes in the partial channels increases. In the second part, this research project has demonstrated the applicability of the proposed simulation strategy in the calculation chain conventionally used in neutronics and has evaluated its impact on the SCWR core neutronic properties. To do this, the proposed simulation strategy was entirely modeled using DRAGON 3.06 and the complete SCWR core was modeled with DONJON 3.02. Four models of reactor database were developed. The model of the isolated unit cell uses only one unit cell and changes only the fuel

  6. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  7. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches destaphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Maouloud, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Staphylocoque aureus reste un pathogène majeur de l'homme causant des infections très diverses, cutanées, urinaires, pulmonaires ainsi que des septicémies. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer la sensibilité des souches communautaires de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans différents produits pathologiques vis-à-vis des principaux antibiotiques utilisés, dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 281 souches de Staphylococus aureus isolées entre Janvier 2014 et Août 2015 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalier National et aux deux laboratoires privés de la ville de Nouakchott, dans différents produits pathologiques des patients non hospitalisés. La sensibilité aux antibiotiques a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion de disques en milieu gélosé de Mueller Hinton selon les recommandations du CA-SFM. Résultats Le taux de résistance à la pénicilline G était élevé (96 à 100%). Le taux de SARM communautaires se situe entre 25 et 26% dans les suppurations, de 34,3% dans les ECBU et de 28% dans les spermocultures. La résistance aux Macrolides-Lincosamyne-Streptogramines (MLS), donnant le phénotype MLSb inductible, était retrouvée dans 6% des souches urinaires et 27% des souches isolées à partir des suppurations. L'activité des aminosides est variable, l'amikacine était active sur toutes les souches. L'activité du cotrimoxazol est faible (77% de résistance) et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'a été notée. Conclusion L'activité de la Pénicilline G sur les souches de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans la région de Nouakchott est quasi nulle et le taux de SARM communautaire est important atteignant jusqu'à 34%. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par l'usage anarchique de ces molécules dans notre pays. PMID:28154631

  8. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  9. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  10. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-05

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.

  11. Le silicium nanoporeux: microstructuration diélectrique et application aux structures photoniques avancées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, P.

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this work is to elaborate and study photonic bandgap microstructures using nanoporous silicon. Planar microstructures like microcavities are first considered, and their influence on both angular and spectral distributions of photoluminescence are investigated. The primary conclusion derived from these studies is that it is essential to control the propagation of light in the plane, too. Thus, the lateral propagation of light, enhanced by a vertical structuring of the optical index (step-index waveguide as well as Bragg reflection waveguide) is studied. Furthermore, a numerical model based on the standard transfer-matrix method is suggested to calculate guiding losses. Finally, a holographic process is utilized to obtain a lateral structuring of the optical index, thereby allowing the investigation of its effects on the guided light. The transmittance, measured on a multimode waveguide using white light, shows several stopbands, which are attributed to diagonal and off-diagonal couplings. The comparison of these measurements to the coupled-mode theory allows a map of the optical index to be plotted. A strong birefringence in regions that were illuminated during the holographic process was illustrated. This suggests a stronger decrease of the extraordinary index (Δ n = -0.4) than the ordinary index (Δ n = -0.22). With a period of 450 nm, these values of index contrast are promising, even if the effective depth on which the index is modulated is only 0.5 μm. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation et à l'étude de microstructures photoniques à base de silicium nanoporeux. Nous commençons notre étude par des structures planaires de type microcavité, dont nous caractérisons l'influence sur la photoluminescence du matériau, en termes de redistribution spectrale et angulaire. Il apparaît très vite la nécessité de contrôler la propagation de la lumière dans le plan de la structure. Aussi, nous cherchons d'abord à favoriser la propagation latérale au moyen d'une structuration verticale de l'indice, et nous étudions le guidage au moyen de deux types de structures, exploitant soit à un guidage conventionnel par réflexion totale interne, soit à un guidage par réflexion de Bragg. À cette occasion nous proposons une méthode numérique, basée sur le formalisme des matrices de transfert, permettant de calculer l'atténuation de la puissance transportée dans le plan. Par la suite, nous mettons à profit le procédé holographique de structuration d'indice démontré par des travaux antérieurs et étudions son influence sur la lumière guidée. La transmission, mesurée en lumière blanche sur un guide multimode révèle de multiples bandes interdites que nous interprétons en termes de couplages diagonaux et non diagonaux. La confrontation des mesures avec une modélisation par la méthode des modes couplés nous permet d'établir une carte d'indice de notre structure. Il apparaît une biréfringence marquée dans les régions insolées par le procédé holographique, caractérisées par une diminution deux fois plus importante de l'indice extraordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}4) que de l'indice ordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}22). Avec une période de 450 nm, ces valeurs de contraste sont encourageantes, bien que la modulation d'indice ne soit présente que sur une profondeur effective de l'ordre de 0,5 μm.

  12. Optimisation de dispositifs en guide d'onde avec coupleur a réseau : application aux commutateurs optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, F.; Paraire, N.; Dansas, P.; Moresmau, N.

    1994-07-01

    Numerous devices used in the field of photonics and optronics are made of semiconductor multilayered structures including a nonlinear waveguide and a grating coupler. Optimization of such devices depends on the optical thicknesses of the various layers and on the grating characteristics. For a given sample, the layer parameters are usually known as a first approximation, but a good accuracy is necessary to define the operating wavelength and the coupler characteristics. In a particular case — a InP/InGaAsP/InP sample which operates for optical switching in the transmission mode — we have first defined an optimized structure. Then, we have built an experimental set-up able to measure reflection and transmission coefficients versus polarization, wavelength and incidence angle. From transmission measurements performed with this apparatus, we have deduced both real and imaginary parts of the layers refractive indices. These calculated values allowed us to reoptimize the structure and to determine the operating wavelength. De nombreux dispositifs utilisés en photonique et optoélectronique sont constitués de structures multicouches en semi-conducteurs comportant un guide d'onde non linéaire et d'un coupleur à réseau. Leurs performances dépendent, en particulier, des épaisseurs optiques des différentes couches constituantes et des caractéristiques du réseau de diffraction. Pour un échantillon, les paramètres nominaux des différentes couches sont connus en première approximation, mais il est nécessaire de les préciser pour définir les conditions de fonctionnement et les caractéristiques optimales du coupleur. Dans un cas particulier — échantillon de InP/InGaAsP/InP qui doit fonctionner en commutateur optique par transmission — nous avons défini une structure optimale, puis nous avons mis au point un montage expérimental permettant de mesurer les coefficients de réflexion et de transmission en fonction de la polarisation, de la longueur d'onde et de l'angle d'incidence. Nous avons déduit de ces mesures les parties réelle et imaginaire des indices. Ces résultats nous ont permis de réoptimiser la structure (définie a priori) et de déterminer sa longueur d'onde de fonctionnement.

  13. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  14. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  15. Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    using the Defence Planning Questionnaires (DPQ) to incorporate the impact of these alternatives in the NATO Force Requirement Analysis Process and the...report yearly, via their replies to the Defence Planning Questionnaire (DPQ)1, the degree of achievement of the goals applicable for that year and...concernant l’achat de ces ouvrages , adressez-vous par lettre ou par télécopie à l’adresse indiquée ci-dessus. Veuillez ne pas téléphoner. Des

  16. Miroirs multicouches C/SI a incidence normale pour la region spectrale 25-40 nanometres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigonis, Marius

    Nous avons propose la nouvelle combinaison de materiaux, C/Si, pour la fabrication de miroirs multicouches a incidence normale dans la region spectrale 25-40 nm. Les resultats experimentaux montrent que cette combinaison possede une reflectivite d'environ ~25% dans la region spectrale 25-33 nm et une reflectivite d'environ ~23% dans la region spectrale 33-40 nm. Ces valeurs de reflectivite sont les plus grandes obtenues jusqu'a maintenant dans la region spectrale 25-40 nm. Les miroirs multicouches ont ete par la suite caracterises par microscopie electronique a transmission, par diverses techniques de diffraction des rayons X et par spectroscopies d'electrons AES et ESCA. La resistance des miroirs aux temperatures elevees a ete egalement etudiee. Les resultats fournis par les methodes de caracterisation indiquent que cette combinaison possede des caracteristiques tres prometteuses pour son application comme miroir pour les rayons X mous.

  17. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    PubMed

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  18. Auxin Influx Carrier AUX1 Confers Acid Resistance for Arabidopsis Root Elongation Through the Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Okumura-Noda, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase regulates pH homeostasis and cell elongation in roots through the formation of an electrochemical H(+) gradient across the PM and a decrease in apoplastic pH; however, the detailed signaling for the regulation of PM H(+)-ATPases remains unclear. Here, we show that an auxin influx carrier, AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), is required for the maintenance of PM H(+)-ATPase activity and proper root elongation. We isolated a low pH-hypersensitive 1 (loph1) mutant by a genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana on low pH agar plates. The loph1 mutant is a loss-of-function mutant of the AUX1 gene and exhibits a root growth retardation restricted to the low pH condition. The ATP hydrolysis and H(+) extrusion activities of the PM H(+)-ATPase were reduced in loph1 roots. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the PM H(+)-ATPase was reduced in loph1 roots under both normal and low pH conditions without reduction of the amount of PM H(+)-ATPase. Expression of the DR5:GUS reporter gene and auxin-responsive genes suggested that endogenous auxin levels were lower in loph1 roots than in the wild type. The aux1-7 mutant roots also exhibited root growth retardation in the low pH condition like the loph1 roots. These results indicate that AUX1 positively regulates the PM H(+)-ATPase activity through maintenance of the auxin accumulation in root tips, and this process may serve to maintain root elongation especially under low pH conditions.

  19. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  20. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  1. Identification de lois constitutives et de lois de frottement adaptées aux grandes vitesses de sollicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalverny, O.; Capéraa, S.; Pantalé, O.; Sattouf, C.

    2002-12-01

    Cet article présente une méthodologie d'identification de lois constitutives et de lois de contact adaptées aux matériaux métalliques sous chargement dynamique à grande vitesse de déformation. Les essais sont effectués à partir de montages expérimentaux adaptés à un lanceur à gaz permettant d'obtenir une vitesse de projectile de l'ordre de 350m/s pour une masse totale de 30gr. Le premier essai consiste en un impact de Taylor correspondant à un chargement mécanique de type compression. Le second essai de type “extrusion conique" permet la détermination des lois de frottement à grande vitesse. La procédure générale d'identification des lois de comportement à partir d'essais dynamiques se fait au moyen d'une analyse post-mortem des échantillons et de la corrélation entre ces résultats expérimentaux et un modèle numérique des essais. Pour les deux cas précédemment cités, nous présentons la configuration optimale d'essai ainsi que les résultats obtenus à partir d'un algorithme d'optimisation de type Levenberg-Marquard.

  2. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  3. The PB1 Domain in Auxin Response Factor and Aux/IAA Proteins: A Versatile Protein Interaction Module in the Auxin Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An integral part of auxin-regulated gene expression involves the interplay of two types of transcription factors, the DNA binding auxin response factor (ARF) activators and the interacting auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressors. Insight into the mechanism of how these transcription factors interact with one another has recently been revealed from crystallographic information on ARF5 and ARF7 C-terminal domains (i.e., a protein-protein interaction domain referred to as domain III/IV that is related to domain III/IV in Aux/IAA proteins). Three-dimensional structures showed that this domain in ARF5 and ARF7 conforms to a well-known PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain that confers protein-protein interactions with other PB1 domain proteins through electrostatic contacts. Experiments verifying the importance of charged amino acids in conferring ARF and Aux/IAA interactions have confirmed the PB1 domain structure. Some in planta experiments designed to test the validity of PB1 interactions in the auxin response have led to updated models for auxin-regulated gene expression and raised many questions that will require further investigation. In addition to the PB1 domain, a second protein interaction module that functions in ARF-ARF dimerization and facilitates DNA binding has recently been revealed from crystallography studies on the ARF1 and ARF5 DNA binding domains. PMID:25604444

  4. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  5. Algorithme d'adaptation du filtre de Kalman aux variations soudaines de bruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciu, Vintila

    This research targets the case of Kalman filtering as applied to linear time-invariant systems having unknown process noise covariance and measurement noise covariance matrices and addresses the problem represented by the incomplete a priori knowledge of these two filter initialization parameters. The goal of this research is to determine in realtime both the process covariance matrix and the noise covariance matrix in the context of adaptive Kalman filtering. The resultant filter, called evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter, is able to adapt to sudden noise variations and constitutes a hybrid solution for adaptive Kalman filtering based on metaheuristic algorithms. MATLAB/Simulink simulation using several processes and covariance matrices plus comparison with other filters was selected as validation method. The Cramer-Rae Lower Bound (CRLB) was used as performance criterion. The thesis begins with a description of the problem under consideration (the design of a Kalman filter that is able to adapt to sudden noise variations) followed by a typical application (INS-GPS integrated navigation system) and by a statistical analysis of publications related to adaptive Kalman filtering. Next, the thesis presents the current architectures of the adaptive Kalman filtering: the innovation adaptive estimator (IAE) and the multiple model adaptive estimator (MMAE). It briefly presents their formulation, their behavior, and the limit of their performances. The thesis continues with the architectural synthesis of the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter. The steps involved in the solution of the problem under consideration is also presented: an analysis of Kalman filtering and sub-optimal filtering methods, a comparison of current adaptive Kalman and sub-optimal filtering methods, the emergence of evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter as an enrichment of sub-optimal filtering with the help of biological-inspired computational intelligence methods, and the step-by-step architectural

  6. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  7. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  8. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  9. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  10. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menaa, Mohamed

    The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration

  11. Acquisition de donnees a haute resolution et faible latence dediee aux capteurs avioniques de position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaa, Zied

    The communication network and the detection mechanisms are two critical systems in a plane. Their performance has a direct impact on aircrafts. This is of particular interest for avionics designers, who have increasingly invested more and more in the development of these elements. As a part of a project in this domain, we introduce the design and the development of a smart interface for position sensors dedicated to flights (Smart Sensor Interface - SSI). This interface will serve to connect sensors of different technologies (electromagnetic, optical and MEMS) to the new communication network, AFDX. The role of this interface is to generate an appropriate excitation signal for certain types of sensors (R/LVDT), and to treat, demodulate, and digitize their output signals. The proposed interface is thus composed of a Signal Acquisition Path (SAP) and an Excitation Signal Generation (ESG). By adopting the Integrated Modular Avionics architecture (IMA), we can minimize the size of the classic interface, reduce its energy consumption and improve its reliability and its performance. The focus of our design is particularly on the Data Acquisition Path (DAP). An Architecture characterized by a high resolution (14 bits) and a low latency (1.2 ms) of this module is introduced and developed in this prestigious work. This architecture was developed after a wellconducted study of existing solutions found in literature work and a detailed analysis of the problems arise in the design and implementation of this system (DAP). The conversion of the sensor signal into a digital signal is the most important step in acquiring data, as it sets the resolution of the acquired information and generates the majority of its latency. This module can also affect the reliability and stability of the system. Among different models and architectures, the Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is preferred for this application (for better resolution). This converter is formed by an analog

  12. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  13. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  14. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition.

  15. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  16. Les surdosages aux antivitamines K à Dakar: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Khadidiatou; Sarr, Simon Antoine; Mboup, Mohamed Cherif; Ba, Djibril Marie; Fall, Pape Diadie

    2016-01-01

    Les antivitamines K (AVK) sont largement utilisées dans la prévention et le traitement curatif des accidents thromboemboliques. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des surdosages en AVK et d’en déterminer les facteurs hémorragiques. Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive, transversale monocentrique réalisée à l’Hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients qui présentaient un INR supérieur à 5 étaient inclus. Etaient étudiés le sexe, l’âge du patient, l’AVK utilisé, l’ancienneté de sa prise, les indications, la valeur de l’INR, les médicaments associés, la présence d’hémorragie, la prise en charge immédiate et l’évolution. Nous avons inclus 154 patients. L’acénocoumarol était l’AVK le plus prescrit. Le sexe ratio était en faveur des femmes. L’âge moyen était de 63 ans. Le surdosage était asymptomatique chez 43% des patients. Les hémorragies étaient représentées principalement par des gingivorragies, épistaxis. Des hémorragies majeures étaient présentes chez 8,6% des patients représentées par des mélénas chez 6 patients (3,9%), un hématome musculaire profond chez 2 patients (1,3%) et des hématomes cérébraux intra-parenchymateux chez 2 autres. Deux patients présentaient un collapsus cardiovasculaire avec déglobulisation. Une prise d’AINS était notée chez 21% des patients. Les AVK ont été transitoirement arrêtés chez tous les patients. La mortalité était de 2% par hémorragie intracrânienne. La réduction des surdosages aux AVK passe par une maitrise par le personnel soignant des facteurs de surdosage et par bonne éducation thérapeutique des patients. PMID:27795783

  17. LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIA 1 of maize acts as a transcriptional activator in auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA gene rootless with undetectable meristem 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; von Behrens, Inga; Zimmermann, Roman; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Only little is known about target genes of auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA-ARF module. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that maize lateral root primordia 1 (lrp1) encodes a transcriptional activator that is directly regulated by the Aux/IAA protein ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 (RUM1). Expression of lrp1 is confined to early root primordia and meristems and is auxin-inducible. Based on its primary protein structure, LRP1 is predicted to be a transcription factor. This notion is supported by exclusive LRP1 localization in the nucleus and its ability to activate downstream gene activity. Based on the observation that lrp1 transcription is completely repressed in the semi-dominant gain of function mutant rum1, it was demonstrated that the lrp1 promoter is a direct target of RUM1 proteins. Subsequently, promoter activation assays indicated that RUM1 represses the expression of a GFP reporter fused to the native promoter of lrp1. Constitutive repression of lrp1 in rum1 mutants is a consequence of the stability of mutated rum1 proteins which cannot be degraded by the proteasome and thus constitutively bind to the lrp1 promoter and repress transcription. Taken together, the repression of the transcriptional activator lrp1 by direct binding of RUM1 to its promoter, together with specific expression of lrp1 in root meristems, suggests a function in maize root development via the RUM1-dependent auxin signalling pathway.

  18. Developpement d'une plateforme de calcul d'equilibres chimiques complexes et adaptation aux problemes electrochimiques et d'equilibres contraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neron, Alex

    Avec l'arrivée de l'environnement comme enjeu mondial, le secteur de l'efficacité énergétique prend une place de plus en plus importante pour les entreprises autant au niveau économique que pour l'image de la compagnie. Par le fait même, le domaine des technologies de l'énergie est un créneau de recherche dont les projets en cours se multiplient. D'ailleurs, un des problèmes qui peut survenir fréquemment dans certaines entreprises est d'aller mesurer la composition des matériaux dans des conditions difficiles d'accès. C'est le cas par exemple de l'électrolyse de l'aluminium qui se réalise à des températures très élevées. Pour pallier à ce problème, il faut créer et valider des modèles mathématiques qui vont calculer la composition et les propriétés à l'équilibre du système chimique. Ainsi, l'objectif global du projet de recherche est de développer un outil de calcul d'équilibres chimiques complexes (plusieurs réactions et plusieurs phases) et l'adapter aux problèmes électrochimiques et d'équilibres contraints. Plus spécifiquement, la plateforme de calcul doit tenir compte de la variation de température due à un gain ou une perte en énergie du système. Elle doit aussi considérer la limitation de l'équilibre due à un taux de réaction et enfin, résoudre les problèmes d'équilibres électrochimiques. Pour y parvenir, les propriétés thermodynamiques telles que l'énergie libre de Gibbs, la fugacité et l'activité sont tout d'abord étudiées pour mieux comprendre les interactions moléculaires qui régissent les équilibres chimiques. Ensuite, un bilan énergétique est inséré à la plateforme de calcul, ce qui permet de calculer la température à laquelle le système est le plus stable en fonction d'une température initiale et d'une quantité d'énergie échangée. Puis, une contrainte cinétique est ajoutée au système afin de calculer les équilibres pseudo-stationnaires en évolution dans le temps. De plus, la

  19. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

  20. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  1. Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Hakimi, Ihssane; Boudhas, Adil; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Oukabli, Mohamed; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes (SICA) est une entité rare qui correspond à la forme complète des pseudohermaphrodismes androgynoïdes. Son incidence est en fait très variable, allant, selon les auteurs de 1/20000 à 1/60000 naissances. Il est caractérisé par la coexistence chez le même sujet d'un caryotype masculin (46 XY), avec des gonades males, et d'une morphologie féminine normale. Les auteurs rapportent deux observations de deux jeunes filles présentant le SICA ayant consulté pour aménorrhée primaire, illustrant les particularités cliniques, anatomopathologiques et biologiques du syndrome avec certaines particularités. PMID:26301004

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  4. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  5. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  6. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    PubMed Central

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  7. Traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures pour la simulation numérique unidimensionnelle de l'écoulement de l'eau dans les canaux à surface libre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M.; Vazquez, J.; Mose, R.; Zoaeter, M.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce papier, on décrit le traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures couplé avec la méthode explicite aux différences finies de Roe pour le développement d'une modélisation unidimensionnelle qui sert à résoudre les équations de Saint-Venant décrivant l'écoulement de l'eau à surface libre. Les deux méthodes les plus utilisées pour trouver la solution aux nœuds intérieurs et extérieurs définissant les conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures d'un schéma numérique sont décrites et comparées dans deux exemples: Le premier traite le problème du ressaut hydraulique et le second décrit l'écoulement de l'eau au dessus des seuils. Deux types de discrétisation du terme source, pointwise et upwind, sont considérés et comparés aussi. Les résultats obtenus et comparés avec la solution analytique dans le cas du ressaut, et avec les résultats numériques déjà publiés dans le cas des seuils, montrent l'avantage de la méthode des caractéristiques sur la méthode de l'extrapolation pour les conditions aux limites, et la discrétisation upwind du terme source sur la discrétisation pointwise.

  8. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  9. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  10. Developpement d'une plateforme de simulation et d'un pilote automatique - Application aux Cessna Citation X et Hawker 800XP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Georges

    This report presents several methodologies for the design of tools intended to the analysis of the stability and the control of a business aircraft. At first, a generic flight dynamic model was developed to predict the behavior of the aircraft further to a movement on the control surfaces or further to any disturbance. For that purpose, different categories of winds were considered in the module of simulation to generate various scenarios and conclude about the efficiency of the autopilot. Besides being realistic, the flight model takes into account the variation of the mass parameters according to fuel consumption. A comparison with a simulator of the company CAE Inc. and certified level D allowed to validate this first stage with an acceptable success rate. Once the dynamics is validated, the next stage deals with the stability around a flight condition. For that purpose, a first static analysis is established to find the trim conditions inside the flight envelop. Then, two algorithms of linearization generate the state space models which approximate the decoupled dynamics (longitudinal and lateral) of the aircraft. Then to test the viability of the linear models, 1,500 comparisons with the nonlinear dynamics have been done with a 100% rate of success. The study of stability allowed to highlight the need of control systems to improve first the performances of the plane, then to control its different axes. A methodology based on a coupling between a modern control technique (LQR) and a genetic algorithm is presented. This methodology allowed to find optimal and successful controllers which satisfy a large number of specifications. Besides being successful, they have to be robust to uncertainties owed to the variation of mass. Thus, an analysis of robustness using the theory of the guardian maps was applied to uncertain dynamics. However, because of a too sensitive region of the flight envelop, some analyses are biased. Nevertheless, a validation with the nonlinear dynamics allowed to prove the robustness of the controllers over the entire flight envelope. Finally, the last stage of this project concerned the control laws for the autopilot. Once again, the proposed methodology, bases itself on the association of flight mechanic equations, control theory and a metaheuristic optimization method. Afterward, four detailed test scenarios are presented to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of the entire autopilot.

  11. Cartographie de parametres forestiers par fusion evidentielle de donnees geospatiales multi-sources: Application aux peuplements forestiers en regeneration et feuillus matures du Sud du Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Brice

    2009-10-01

    Foresters are faced with difficulties to obtain sub-polygon information with the mapping methods available nowadays. The main objective of this work consisted in the development of new methods able to improve the map accuracy of regenerating forest stands and mature forest stands in the South of Quebec, Canada. The Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) showed their ability to integrate multiple heterogenous data sources to go further than the classical classification procedures like the maximum likelihood or the spectral unmixing, in terms of map accuracy. Improvement on the ability to map regenerating stands, passed from 82.7% with the maximum likelihood method to 91.1% with the Free DSm model with a total transfer of the mass of the "Union" class to the "Intersection" class (+ 8.4%). For the mature stands, the improvement passed from 63.8% with the K nearest neighbour to 79.5% with the DST according to a classical belief structuration and the hybrid decision rule for which the conflict threshold was fixed at 10% (+ 15.7%). Our results with DST and a bayesian belief structuration showed the difficulty to model the uncertainty in the fusion process. This is probably due to the lack of scientific knowledge about the influence of the biophysical and climatic parameters on the mapped forest stands and to the necessity to model specifically the uncertainty for each source. Our work showed concrete improvement when mapping forest stands with DST which is encouraging to continue explorating the fundamental principle of the proposed hybrid decision rule. This means a particular focus on the difference between the fused masses of each potential class after the fusion, to choose the best hypothesis. Keywords. forest mapping, Quebec, deciduous stands, regenerating stands, mature stands, data fusion, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Dezert-Smarandache Theory, hybrid decision rule

  12. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Materials for the Structure f Aging Aircraft [les Nouveaux Materiaux metalliques pour les structures des aeronefs d’ancienne generation] To order the...corrosion through design, the selection of military and civil aircraft during the last thirty years. Research materials that are resistant to corrosion and...fluid resistance and greater flexibility. New methods of paint stripping and novel processes for the 2.1 Design repair of pre-treatments and metal

  13. Application of Advanced Material for Turbomachinery and Rocket Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    UNUSUAL HEATING CONDITIONS by R.Eck, H.Bflstein, F.Simader, R.Stiekler and J.Timzl 21 LES MATERIAUX COMPOSITES REFRACTAIRES A HAUTE PERFORMANCE par 4...better especially in thermal shock resistance , where they are two to nine times better than currently used materials, and in resistance to hydrogen...development and quantities, and that they have crack growth resistances comparable to those of the graphite epoxy composites and potential use

  14. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  15. Etude de la resistance en fatigue des materiaux bitumineux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhara, Radouen

    The goal of this research program is to evaluate and characterize the fatigue behaviour of two GB20 hot mix asphalt made with two different bitumen. One of them is made in laboratory with a straight-run PG58-28 bitumen, while the second mix was made in an asphalt plant with a PG64-28 bitumen. Two characterization tests, in homogeneous conditions, done in traction/compression on cylindrical specimens are used in this study. First, a complex modulus test performed in the linear viscoelasticity (LVE) domain is used to characterize the mixes and second, a fatigue test is done to evaluate the mixes performances. The fatigue tests were done in strain controlled at different amplitude. All fatigue tests were performed at 10Hz, but at different temperatures (10, 20 and 30°C) in order to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the fatigue behaviour of those mixes. In this document, the results are presented, and the analysis of the results as a function of the grade of bitumen, the tests’ temperature and the dispersion of the results is performed. Also, the DGCB method is applied to the fatigue results to calculate the rate of damage per cycle followed by a study of the different failure criteria (Nf) to predict the fatigue life of asphalt mixes. Keywords: bituminous materials, fatigue, complex modulus, Damage.

  16. Caracterisation mecanique dynamique de materiaux poro-visco-elastiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Amelie

    Poro-viscoelastic materials are well modelled with Biot-Allard equations. This model needs a number of geometrical parameters in order to describe the macroscopic geometry of the material and elastic parameters in order to describe the elastic properties of the material skeleton. Several characterisation methods of viscoelastic parameters of porous materials are studied in this thesis. Firstly, quasistatic and resonant characterization methods are described and analyzed. Secondly, a new inverse dynamic characterization of the same modulus is developed. The latter involves a two layers metal-porous beam, which is excited at the center. The input mobility is measured. The set-up is simplified compared to previous methods. The parameters are obtained via an inversion procedure based on the minimisation of the cost function comparing the measured and calculated frequency response functions (FRF). The calculation is done with a general laminate model. A parametric study identifies the optimal beam dimensions for maximum sensitivity of the inversion model. The advantage of using a code which is not taking into account fluid-structure interactions is the low computation time. For most materials, the effect of this interaction on the elastic properties is negligible. Several materials are tested to demonstrate the performance of the method compared to the classical quasi-static approaches, and set its limitations and range of validity. Finally, conclusions about their utilisation are given. Keywords. Elastic parameters, porous materials, anisotropy, vibration.

  17. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  18. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development.

  19. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  20. Interagency Training for Comprehensive Operations: Government Partners Perceptions of Exercise Maple Guardian (La Formation Interorganismes aux fins d’Operations Globales: Perceptions des Partenaires Gouvernementaux de l’Exercise Maple Guardian)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    afghans durant l’exercice et quant à la valeur perçue de la formation pour se préparer à collaborer avec les membres de la population afghane durant le...contemporaines a poussé le gouvernement du Canada à adopter progressivement une approche globale face aux opérations, fondée en partie sur une intervention...supporting the creation and sustainment of good governance, are also critical to addressing the scope and depth of the needs of the people of such states

  1. RE(AuAl2)nAl2(AuxSi1-x)2: a new homologous series of quaternary intermetallics grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2008-03-17

    The combination of early rare earth metals (La- to Gd and Yb), gold, and silicon in molten aluminum results in the formation of intermetallic compounds with four related structures, forming a new homologous series: RE[AuAl2]nAl2(AuxSi(1-x))2, with x approximately 0.5 for most of the compound and n = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Because of the highly reducing nature of the Al flux, rare earth oxides instead of metals can also be used in these reactions. These compounds grow as large plate-like crystals and have tetragonal structure types that can be viewed as intergrowths of the BaAl4 structure and antifluorite-type AuAl2 layers. REAuAl2Si materials form with the BaAl4 structure type in space group I4/mmm (cell parameters for the La analogue are a = 4.322(2) A, c = 10.750(4) A, and Z = 2). REAu2Al4Si forms in a new ordered superstructure of the KCu4S3 structure type, with space group P4/nmm and cell parameters of the La analogue of a = 6.0973(6) A, c = 8.206(1) A, and Z = 2. REAu3Al6Si forms in a new I4/mmm symmetry structure type with cell parameters of a = 4.2733(7) A, c = 22.582(5) A, and Z = 2 for RE = Eu. The end member of the series, REAu4Al8Si, forms in space group P4/mmm with cell parameters for the Yb analogue of a = 4.2294(4) A, c = 14.422(2) A, and Z = 1. New intergrowth structures containing two different kinds of AuAl2 layers were also observed. The magnetic behavior of all these compounds is derived from the RE ions. Comparison of the susceptibility data for the europium compounds indicates a switch from 3-D magnetic interactions to 2-D interactions as the size of the AuAl2 layer increases. The Yb ions in YbAu(2.91)Al(6)Si(1.09) and YbAu(3.86)Al(8)Si(1.14) are divalent at high temperatures.

  2. Evolution de la résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala de 2005 à 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ebongue, Cécile Okalla; Tsiazok, Martial Dongmo; Mefo'o, Jean Pierre Nda; Ngaba, Guy Pascal; Beyiha, Gérard; Adiogo, Dieudonné

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude vise à déterminer le profil de résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala (Cameroun) et analyser leur évolution dans le temps. Méthodes Etude rétrospective, sur une période de huit ans (2005 - 2012), portant sur l'ensemble des souches d'entérobactéries isolées chez les malades ambulatoires et hospitalisés. Les prélèvements ont été analysés au laboratoire de bactériologie de l'Hôpital Général de Douala. Résultats Les entérobactéries étaient les germes les plus fréquents sur l'ensemble des souches isolées. Nous avons noté une prédominance d’Escherichia coli (48,5%) et de Klebsiella pneumoniae (32,8%). Pendant la période d’étude, nous avons observé des taux de résistance élevés aux principales classes d'antibiotiques, et une augmentation entre 2005 et 2012 de 29,1% à 51,6% pour les céphalosporines de troisième génération, de 29,2% à 44% pour la ciprofloxacine. L'imipénème, l'amikacine et la fosfomycine étaient les molécules les plus actives avec respectivement 1,3%, 12,9% et 13,4% des souches d'entérobactéries résistantes. Conclusion L’évolution des résistances des entérobactéries aux antibiotiques est un phénomène réel dans la ville de Douala. Il expose à des difficultés de prise en charge thérapeutique des infections. Lamaitrise actuelle de ce phénomène est une véritable urgence et nécessite une implication des pouvoirs publics. Des tests spécifiques de recherche des bétalactamases à spectre élargi (BLSE) et AmpC doivent être mis en place dans nos laboratoires afin de mettre en évidence les différents phénotypes de résistances. PMID:26140070

  3. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals. Technical Digest Series, Volume 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    population In Ge doped silica studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, B. Poumellec, H. Cens, Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie des Matiriaux, France...silica glasses. B. Poumellec1, V.M. Mashinsky2. 1 CNRS LIRA 446 Thermodynamique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux, Universite de Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay... Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie des matenaux, Bat. 415, UPS Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France. Tel 33 01 69 15 63 51 Fax 33 01 69 15 48 19 e-mail bp

  4. Symposium I: Nanoscale Magnetic Materials and Applications. Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 25-30, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Rostoker method and of the Kubo-Greenwod equation equilibrium domain wall widths and corresponding domain wall resistivities are calculated for...been shown to induce uniaxial anisotropy [1], enhancement in magneto- resistance (MR) [2] and two-staged switching [3] in ferromagnetic thin films...Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux , Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France. In DyFe2YFe2 superlattices, competition

  5. CFD Techniques for Propulsion Applications Panel Symposium (77th), Held in San Antonio, Texas on 27-31 May 1991 (Les Techniques de l’Aerodynamique Numerique pour les Applications aux Propulseurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    numerical grid with respect to the form an initial value problem which can be sol - plane {(f-i, i(imax+ l )/ 2 ). ved numerically. When the computational...reprsentaiives de l ’&oulement seront montr~es ct analysees dans diff6rents plans successifs. Pour fixer les Wdes les plans seront rep6r~s par rapport...des fluctuations des diffdrentes grandeurs physiques, regissant l 𔄀coulement de faqon par exemple A analyser un phenom.ne local plus finement, it faut

  6. Pollution Atmosphérique et Santé: Corrélation ou Causalité? Le Cas de la Relation entre l'Exposition aux Particules et la Mortalité Cardio-pulmonaire.

    PubMed

    Dab, William; Ségala, Claire; Dor, Frédéric; Festy, Bernard; Lameloise, Philippe; Moullec, Yvon Le; Tertre, Alain Le; Médina, Sylvia; Quénel, Philippe; Wallaert, Benoît; Zmirou, Et Denis

    2001-02-01

    De nombreuses études épidémiologiques ont observé dans des contextes différents une faible relation à court terme entre les particules et la mortalité cardio-pulmonaire, même quand les normes de qualité de l'air n'étaient pas dépassées. La causalité de cette relation est un enjeu de santé publique en raison de l'importance de la population exposée. Notre objectif est de faire l'inventaire critique des arguments utilisés dans 15 revues de la littérature publiées. Nous expliquons l'importance de distinguer la validité de la causalité et analysons de façon systématique les différents critères de jugement dans le contexte des études écologiques temporelles. Notre conclusion est que la relation observée est valide et que la plupart des critères de causalité sont respectés. Diminuer le niveau d'exposition des populations aux particules est souhaitable. En Europe, en agissant à la source, notamment sur les émissions Diesel, on diminuera aussi d'autres polluants qui peuvent jouer un rôle sanitaire. Aux États-Unis, la situation est plus complexe car les particules sont surtout secondaires. Il est également indispensable de poursuivre les recherches pour mieux connaître les déterminants des expositions globales des individus et mieux comprendre le rôle toxique des différents facteurs physico-chimiques des particules.

  7. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  8. Séroprévalence et facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nkala, Isabelle Vanessa Monthe; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kamga, Hortense Gonsu; Noubom, Michel; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique réalisée de février 2012 à Juin 2012 dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Au total, 982 personnes ont été dépistées pour le VIH et les hépatites virales B et C. Les femmes représentaient 56,3% des personnes dépistées. La tranche d’âge la plus représentée était celle des 20 à 24 ans. L’âge médian était de 34,5 ans. Les prévalences du VIH, de l'AgHBs, et de l'Ac anti HCV étaient respectivement de 6,0%, 4,1%, et 0,4%. La prévalence du VIH était 2 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes que les hommes avec 8,1% contre 3,5% (p=0,01). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de 30 à 34 ans, 40 à 44 ans avec 15,0% et 11,5% (p=0,01), les personnes sans emploi avec 11,1% (p<0,001) et les personnes en union libre avec 17,9% (p=0,000). La prévalence du VIH n’était pas directement liée aux comportements et pratiques sexuels de la population de l’étude. On enregistrait une prévalence élevée de 29,3% chez les individus ayant déclaré avoir au moins une infection sexuellement transmissible (p=0,000). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de mettre en place des stratégies de prévention contre le VIH, les hépatites virales et les facteurs associés au Cameroun. PMID:26113899

  9. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencelle, Francois

    seul hydrure et en choisissant une temperature plus elevee pour la desorption (150°C). Un hydrure ABS (LaNi4.8Sn0.2) a ete soumis a 1000 cycles d'hydrogenation (article II). Sa structure et ses performances thermodynamiques et cinetiques ont ete mesurees avant et apres le cyclage. La capacite d'absorption a diminue de 0.02 H-pds%. Les particules d'hydrure ont diminue de taille sans changement apparent de leur structure cristalline. Le maintien des performances de cet hydrure apres cyclage en fait un excellent materiau pour les applications thermodynamiques. Nous avons effectue des simulations du reacteur d'hydrures utilise dans le compresseur. Celui-ci comporte une mousse d'aluminium qui est modelisee sous forme d'une cavite spherique (article III). Les performances modelisees sont comparables aux mesures obtenues et ce modele devient donc un outil de developpement pour de nouveaux reservoirs. D'apres cette etude, notre reacteur fonctionne de maniere optimale. Les performances du compresseur (chapitre 5) dependent des choix des temperatures et pressions a l'entree et a la sortie. La duree d'un cycle permettant l'absorption de la pleine capacite des materiaux est de ˜20 min mais en diminuant cette duree a <10 minutes un debit plus eleve 15-20 L/heure peut etre obtenu au detriment de l'efficacite. Le compresseur construit fonctionne bien mais il comporte des limitations clairement identifiees: pertes de chaleur dans la tuyauterie et les fixations des reacteurs. Le rejet thermique d'un electrolyseur est suffisant pour comprimer l'hydrogene qu'il produit d'un facteur 20:1 avec un compresseur a hydrure.

  10. Thermoelectric Properties of Au- Containing Type-I Clathrates Ba8AuxGa16-3xGe30+2x

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zuxin; Cho, Jung Young; Tessema, Misle M.; Salvador, James R.; Waldo, Richard A.; Yang, Jihui; Wang, Hsin; Cai, Wei; Kirkham, Melanie J; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Type I clathrates, with compositions based on Ba8Ga16Ge30, are a class of promising thermoelectric materials due to their intrinsically low thermal conductivity. It has been demonstrated previously that the thermoelectric performance can be improved by transition metal substitution of the framework atoms. In this study, the effects of Au substitution for Ga/Ge on thermal and electrical transport properties of type I clathrate compounds have been investigated. Polycrystalline samples with a large range of Au content have been synthesized using conventional solid state techniques with the actual compositions of resulting materials approximately following Zintl-Klemm rules. The charge carrier type changes from electrons (n) to holes (p) as the Au content increases. The Seebeck coefficient (S) and power factor (S2/ where is the electrical resistivity) were improved by Au substitution and the resulting overall thermoelectric properties were enhanced by Au substitution with a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ~ 0.63 at temperature T = 740 K for the composition Ba8Au5.47Ge39.96. The results presented herein show that Au-containing type I clathrates are promising p-type thermoelectric materials for high temperature applications.

  11. Surveillance urinaire des professionnels de la santé exposés aux antinéoplasiques dans le cadre de leur travail: revue de la littérature de 2010 à 2015

    PubMed Central

    Poupeau, Céline; Roland, Christel; Bussières, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte Il existe de plus en plus de données sur la présence de traces de médicaments dangereux dans l’urine des professionnels de la santé exposés à ces médicaments. Objectif Présenter une revue de la littérature scientifique concernant la surveillance urinaire de professionnels de la santé exposés aux anti-néoplasiques dans le cadre de leur travail. Sources de données Recherche sur PubMed avec les Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) « occupational exposure » et « antineoplastic agents » ainsi que sur Google Scholar avec les termes « antineoplastic », « urine » et « occupational exposure ». Sélection des études et extraction des données L’examen a porté sur tous les articles en anglais et en français ayant trait aux professionnels de la santé exposés à des médicaments dangereux dans le cadre de leur travail, publiés entre le 1er janvier 2010 et le 31 décembre 2015. Les articles ne comportant pas de résultats urinaires et ceux concernant les vétérinaires ainsi que les revues de littérature, les éditoriaux, les lettres à la rédaction et les résumés de congrès ont été exclus. Synthèse des données Vingt-quatre articles ont été retenus. Les études ont été menées dans 52 établissements de santé provenant de sept pays. Elles regroupaient 826 travailleurs exposés à des médicaments dangereux et 175 témoins, notamment des infirmiers (n = 16 études), des pharmaciens (n = 10), des assistants techniques en pharmacie (n = 8), des médecins (n = 7), des aides-soignants (n = 2) et autres (n = 8). Différentes méthodes analytiques ont été utilisées pour quantifier la présence de 13 médicaments dangereux, principalement le cyclophosphamide (n = 16 études), les platines (n = 7) et l’alpha-fluoro-béta-alanine, un métabolite urinaire du 5-fluorouracile (n = 3). La proportion de travailleurs qui ont étés déclarés positifs s’étendait de 0 % (n = 10 études) à 100 % (n = 4). Si l’on ne retient que

  12. Application des modèles de Langmuir et Freundlich aux isothermes d'adsorption des métaux lourds par l'argile purifiée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, F.; Srasra, E.; Trabelsi-Ayadi, M.

    2004-12-01

    Bentonite, which consist essentially of clay minerals belonging to the smectite group, have a wide range of chemical and industrial uses. The structure chemical composition, exchangeable-ion type and small crystal size of smectite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area, a high cation-exchange capacity and interlamellar surface having usual hydratation characteristics. A sample collected from Zaghouan (North East Tunisia, North Africa) is studied through some physico-chemical methods. Results from X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), cation exchange capacities, specific and total surfaces, confirm the general smectite character of the sample. The adsorption capacity of this clay was tested out using three metallic ions (Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+). The results showed that, in all cases, adsorption can be illustrated by Freundlich or Langmuir isotherms. However, for 10-3M Pb2+ the low value of the correlation coefficient (R2) indicated that the experimental data for the adsorption didn't fit to any linear form of the Langmuir equation. Metal adsorbed onto Zaghouan clay varied in the decreasing order PbPb2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ and fitted in satisfactorily with the uptake capacity. For Pb2+ the amount of adsorbed ions remained higher than the CEC (cation exchange capacity) of the clay fraction. This result may be due to adsorption of hydroxy lead complex in addition to sorption of bivalent lead form which explains the high amount of Pb2+ removed from aqueous solution.

  13. Etude analytique et numérique de la réponse en vibration à hautes fréquences d'éprouvettes de fatigue vibratoire des métaux. Application aux aciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Aich, A.; El Kihel, B.; Kifani, A.; Sahban, F.

    1994-07-01

    In the present paper, the so-called " ultrasonic fatigue " or fatigue at very high frequency has been studied in the materials elastic behaviour case while neglecting the thermal effects that influence the mechanical fields. The determination of mechanical fields and specimen resonance length has been done both analytically and numerically. The numerical method used for this calculation is the finite element method (FEM). Martensitic steel " Soleil A2 " and austenitic steel " ICL 472 BC " have been considered in order to compare the two methods (analytical and numerical). It is shown that a perfect convergence is obtained between the two solutions. Dans le présent travail, la fatigue vibratoire a été étudiée dans le cas du comportement élastique des matériaux en négligeant les effets thermiques pouvant influencer les champs mécaniques. La détermination de ces champs et de la longueur de résonance des éprouvettes de fatigue a été faite analytiquement et numériquement. Le calcul numérique effectué se base sur la méthode des éléments finis. Dans le but d'une comparaison des solutions analytiques et numériques, deux aciers ont été considérés : un acier martensitique (Soleil A2) et un acier austénitique de type 18-10 (ICL 472 BC). Une parfaite convergence est obtenue entre les deux solutions.

  14. Formalisme rationnel le la méthode de détermination des contraintes résiduelles par diffraction des rayons X: application aux couches minces et multicouches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, K. F.; Kahloun, C.; Grilhé, J.

    1993-06-01

    The use of the rational formalism in the residual stress determination method by X-ray diffraction improves the precision and the mathematical elegance of this method. It eliminates the approximations made in the conventional formalism, and corrects the results by more than 15% in certain case of thin films and multilayers. L'utilisation du formalisme rationnel dans la méthode de détermination des contraintes résiduelles par diffraction des rayons X améliore la rigueur, la précision et l'élégance mathématique de la méthode. Elle permet d'éviter les approximations faites dans le formalisme conventionnel, et apporte des corrections qui dépassent 15 % dans certains cas de couches minces et de multicouches.

  15. Utilisation de la teledetection, des SIG et de l'intelligence artificielle pour determiner le niveau de susceptibilite aux mouvements de terrain: Application dans les Andes de la Bolivie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloquin, Stephane

    1999-11-01

    The socio-economic impact of mass movements for our society is getting more and more serious. The loss of lives and economic losses are now ten times greater than they were at the beginning of the decade. In the hope of reducing these impacts, it is essential to adopt a preventive policy that will encourage mapping of mass movement susceptibility level (MMSL) in critical zones. However, this task is complex and only experts using present techniques can provide satisfactory results. To make possible the production of these maps by a larger number of individuals, we have developed an expert system called EXPERIM that uses remote sensing data and geographic information systems to facilitate the complex tasks without requiring the user to be highly competent in this field of study. This thesis presents the results obtained from a complete strategy developed for a region surrounding Cochabamba, Bolivia. The operational expert system prototype will soon be integrated within the watershed management program directed by the local executing organisation PROMIC. The knowledge acquisition and its expression in concrete terms constitute the principal axis of this research, while the results obtained are the heart of the EXPERIM expert system. These strategic steps aim to establish a knowledge base of data and rules that describe field conditions for each MMSL. We have been able to extract this information by using binary discriminant analysis of a MMSL map produced by an expert for a pilot zone called Cuenca Taquina, which is geoecologically representative of the 38 neighbouring watersheds. Using this technique, we were able to establish a sensitivity model that recreates the expert's map with a success rate of 89% and 78% when two or three MMS levels are used. Based on a detailed analysis of the susceptibility model it was evident that stability conditions are the result of the topographic, geologic and geomorphologic environments. The level of susceptibility was found to be independent of the vegetation condition. In order to apply the model to the surrounding watersheds, we integrated remotely sensed data within the spatial database to map the presence/absence of five essential geoecological units required by the susceptibility model. This was done using a hierarchical classification method. Three sensors were evaluated: Landsat, SPOT and RADARSAT. In the elaboration of this specific step, we evaluated the most efficient spectral band combinations within each image and between images for each of the five geoecological units. For each of the land cover types, the analysis shows that LANDSAT constitutes the most powerful sensor to map these units and that image fusion does not provide significantly better results when compared to the extra amount of work that this requires. Using remote sensing data instead of field data or airphotograph interpretation in watersheds where only topographic data are available decreases the level of accuracy by less than 10%.

  16. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  17. Conception axiomatique des joints hybrides a recouvrement simple en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, Marc

    Minimizing weight is a primary objective in every system design in the aerospace and automotive industry. Therefore, the use of composite materials has become an integral part of the design of mechanical components. However, in composite structure design, their complexity normally makes it impossible to design them as a single part. This leads to the necessity of using joints. Sadly, these joints introduce discontinuities in the stress distribution within the components and are often the sites of stress concentration. Therefore, they may limit the performance of a structure, in addition to increasing the overall mass significantly due to the use of mechanical fasteners such as bolts and rivets. This is why bonded joints are increasingly popular. They are much lighter than bolted or riveted joints and are often more rigid. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to inspect a bonded joint for defects since the presence of cracks in the adhesive cannot be observed with the naked eye. The main objective of this work is to propose a new design methodology for hybrid joints. To accomplish this, it is necessary to establish reliable analysis tools to improve our understanding of the behavior of these joints when subjected to an external force. A better understanding of the interactions between the parameters is also required. To improve our knowledge on the subject, a literature review was conducted. This review was structured as to emphasize on the behavior of hybrid single lap joints when subjected to an external force in tension. Following this literature review, an analysis of the stress distribution within the joint was carried out using a finite element model. The model and the results were compared with those from two papers in order to validate the quality of representation. Subsequently, a modification was made to an existing analytical model in order to add the bolts' preload as a parameter. These two models, namely the finite element model and the analytical model, were then used for a sensitivity study using a design of experiments. To perform this analysis, a kriging model was used to reduce the computing time. Finally, the hybrid single lap joint was analyzed using axiomatic design in order to propose new approach to design these joints. The results of this work can be divided into three parts. First, an analytical model identified in the literature review has been improved to take into account the bolts' preload. The results are satisfactory within the limitations of the original model. It must be pointed out that this model does not consider the non-linear behavior of materials used in the joint, which can lead to poor reliability when highly non-linear materials are used. The sensitivity analysis carried out using the analytical model and the finite element model identified the influence of the parameters on the mechanical performances of the joint. It should be noted that the width of the joint is one of the most important parameter, as well as the thickness of the adherents. The sensitivity analysis also identified the notable effect of the radial clearance of the bolt shank. This parameter should be minimized in order to maximize performances. Finally, the geometry obtained with the axiomatic design and through physical integration reduced the maximum peel stress considerably. The use of washers based on Belleville springs allowed to significantly increase the area affected by the bolts' preload. Therefore, this final geometry should significantly increase the maximum external load that can be supported by the joint and increase its fatigue life. Finally, an improved geometry was proposed using the theory of axiomatic design. The use of chamfers at the ends of the adherents, the addition of modified washers and the use of a stiffer adhesive between the two bolts have significantly reduced the maximum peel stress in the adhesive layer. These changes have also increased the rigidity of the joint. However, analyzes have not demonstrated a decrease in the maximum shear stress inside the adhesive. Therefore, further work should be considered to assess the effect of some parameters of the improved joint on the distribution of shear stress in the adhesive layer. Among the parameters to consider, the ratio between the surfaces bonded by each of the two adhesives and the dimensions of the chamfers and the modified washers should be analyzed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Debonding/Delamination of Composites (Le Decollement et le Delaminage des Materiaux Composites)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Delamination Onset in Composite Tensile Coupons," M S Thesis, Department of Civil Engineenng, the Ohio State3. Harris , A. and Orringer, 0...P in the vicinity of t2 be described by t - (I will be used in the sequel. exp(-a)(o< < 1, 0<a<n). The complex poter - .. i W can then be put in the

  19. Developpement de methodes analytiques pour un outil de dimensionnement de cadre de fuselage en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauve, Jeremie

    The goal of this research project is to prepare a series of analytical formulations to be used by a sizing tool for composite airplane fuselage frames. This tool verifies a series of failure modes related to a frame and calculates their respective margins of safety. The tool follows an iterative process until the optimal frame is reached according to user defined parameters. The failure modes taken into account by the sizing tool are the composite material failure, local buckling, crippling, lateral buckling and global buckling. Each phenomenon is associated with its own mathematical formulations, assumptions and limitations. Existing formulations for the margin of safety calculations of each failure phenomenon was found from a literature review. Also, new formulations were developed within the current project for local and lateral buckling. In particular, an analytical formulation and an approximation method based on results obtained from finite element have been developed. Those two methods, combined, allow the estimation of the lateral buckling load of a fuselage composite frame. Finally, the current project required to create some secondary tools used during the development of the methodology for lateral buckling. Those tools are also presented in this thesis.

  20. Caracterisation electrique de materiaux en composite pour fuselages d'avions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, William

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade or so, the rise of oil price is being felt all over the world. Oil being one of the primary sources of energy highly exploited, it plays a great role in the today's world economy, especially in the transport domain. To remain competitive, companies striving in this domain need therefore to modify their approach in the design phase of new or improved products. In the aerospace industry for example, weight reduction in aircraft structures have become a primordial aspect in the design phase of new models making them lighter and more efficient. In the framework of this project, the research is related to new weight-reduction of structural materials used in aircrafts. As of today, much research effort has been undertaken to find good substitutes to replace the materials presently used (aluminum). Several materials such as aluminum-lithium and carbon fibre composite bring great interest as substitutes. This last one presents superior mechanical properties over aluminum such as lightweight and rigidity; its electrical properties though remain still ambiguous. The objective of this project, proposed by Bombardier Core EMC, is to find a way to characterize the composite in a conventional way that would allow an extraction of its electrical properties (permittivity (epsilonr), conductivity (sigma), etc). In this Master thesis, the existing studies and characterization approaches for the composite material are presented and discussed. These approaches will help anticipate the electrical behaviour of the composite material under test. A comparison between known elements (ex: aluminum) and the composite material will also be tackled in order to gauge its conductivity level, particularly for low frequencies (≈ MHz), and up to high frequencies (≈ 12 GHz). Finally, some tests have been simulated with electromagnetic modelling software in order to reproduce and validate the experimental results. At the end of the thesis, a discussion/conclusion presenting the results and validating their integrity is given. The results enable us to do an estimation of the composite's conductivity and to observe its attenuation properties in function of the frequency. The tests were made with composite laminated panels without wire mesh. The wire mesh here is a copper matrix integrated at the exterior surface of the composite for added electromagnetic protection.

  1. Modelisation de materiaux composites adaptatifs munis d'actionneurs en alliage a memoire de forme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Charles

    Technological development of structures having the capabilities to adapt themselves to different operating conditions is increasing in many areas of research such as aerospace. In fact, numerous works are now oriented toward the design of adaptive aircraft wings where the goal is to enhance the aerodynamic properties of the wing. Following this approach, the work realised in the framework of this master thesis presents the steps leading to the creation of a numerical model that can be used to predict the behavior of an adaptive panel, and therefore, eventually of an adaptive aircraft wing. Foremost, the adaptive panel of this project has been designed from a carbon-epoxy composite, acting as host structure, where shape memory alloy (SMA) wires, acting as actuators, have been inserted in it. SMA actuators have also been embedded asymmetrically along the direction of the panel thickness in order to generate a bending moment when the SMA wires are activated. To achieve the modeling of such structure it has been firstly shown that a numerical model composed of only solid finite elements could be used to represent the panel. However, a second numerical model composed of shell, beam and link finite elements showed that identical results can be obtained with much less nodes (the first model was composed of more than 300 000 nodes compared with 1 000 nodes for the second). The combination of shell-beam-link elements has then been chosen. Secondly, a constitutive relation had to be used for modeling the particular behavior of SMA. For the present work, a uniaxial version of the Likhachev's model is used. Due to its fairly straightforward mathematical formulation, this material law is able to model the main functional properties of SMA including the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) at zero stress obtained after a thermomechanical education treatment. The last step was to compare the results of the numerical simulations with those obtained with a prototype where 19 actuators were embedded in a composite panel of 425 mm x 425 mm. Various load cases were performed. However, during experimental tests, it has been found that the measured actuator temperature was systematically underestimated. Therefore, by comparing the radius of curvature (rho) of the panel as a function of the activation temperature (T) of the actuators, an offset (in temperature) between the curves numerically and experimentally obtained is observable. Aside from this technological difficulty, the experimental and numerical results are very similar and therefore, this numerical model can be used for predicting the behavior of an adaptive panel. In addition, one the main advantages of this numerical model resides in its versatility where it has been shown that a "warping" of the panel could be realized by controlling independently each actuator. Future works should now obviously focus on the temperature measurement while considering the improvement of the numerical model and the possibility to model an initially curved adaptive panel whose form could resemble an aircraft wing.

  2. Etude du comportement hydrogeologique de couvertures avec effet de barriere capillaire faites entierement de materiaux miniers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalonji, Alex Kabambi

    The acid mining drainage (AMD) generating mine sites must be restored to limit their long-term contamination of the environment. At the end of mining operations, covers with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), generally made of natural materials soils, are used as an oxygen barrier to isolate the tailings that generate acid mining drainage (AMD) from their immediate environment. Due to economic and social acceptability contraints and to the environmental impact of stripping (footprint) of natural soil pits, mining companies are increasingly interested in using non-acid generating waste rock as a substitute for natural soils as base materials to form capillary break layers in covers. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the hydrogeological behaviour of CCBE made entirely of mining materials (desulphurized tailings from a desulphurization process and non-acid generating waste rock). The specific objectives of this project were : 1) to characterize the hydrogeological properties of waste rock (with truncated size) and desulphurized tailings; 2) to evaluate in laboratory instrumented columns the effectiveness of CCBE made entirely of mining materials; 3) to simulate the column tests using a 1D numerical code to model the fluid (water and gas) flow in the unsaturated media; and 4) to validate with 2D numerical modeling the ability to restore LaRonde tailings impoundment (Agnico Eagle Mines Limited) using a CCBE made of low-sulfide tailings and non-acid generating waste rock. To achieve the objectives, samples of waste rock were collected from Bousquet waste rock pile and tailings from the ore concentration plant before being pumped to the tailings impoundment. Desulphurized tailings with less than 2% S were produced in order to construct a non-reactive CCBE. After the physical, chemical, mineralogical and hydrogeotechnical characterization of cover materials, laboratory physical models of CCBC in instrumented columns were performed. Three configurations were tested. The first two columns had a different waste rock grain size (0-20 mm and 0-50 mm) in their lower coarse layers, and the tailings were introduced at a high solid percent, approximatively 74% (simulating mechanical deposition). The third column also had waste rock with particle size 0-50 mm in its bottom coarse layer, but with tailings placed a lower solid percent, approximatively 55% (simulating hydraulic deposition). The particle size of the coarse waste rock in the top layers was set at 0-50 mm for all three columns. Several cycles of wetting drainage in the three columns were performed. The results of these laboratory investigations in terms of volumetric water content and suction profiles confirm the potential of non-acid generating waste rock to be used in the capillary break layers of CCBE. To assess the long-term performance, several scenarios of numerical modeling were performed using Vadose/W 2007 numerical codes, by Geoslope int. A variation of the depth of the water table and natural and extreme climatic conditions were considered in this parametric study. The results of these predictions confirmed the long-term effectiveness of covers with mine waste rock in capillary break layers. The effectiveness was evaluated in terms of oxygen flux at the interface between the moisture-retaining layer (MRL) and the bottom capillary break layer. Under natural and extreme climatic conditions (two months without infiltration), and a variation of the depth of the water table level from 2 to 6 m, cumulative oxygen flux over a one year period varied between 10.6 and 97.5 g/m 2/year. For extreme climatic conditions, and for the same variation of the depth of the water table, the oxygen flux varied between 14.3 and 117.9 g/m2/year. The highest oxygen flux (117 g/m2/year) was obtained for a water table depth of 6 m under extreme climatic conditions. The influence of the particle size contrast between the water retention layer and the bottom capillary break layer on the oxygen flux was further highlighted using relatively fine and coarse sand in the coarse bottom layer. The numerical modeling results obtained with the coarse sand were almost similar to those obtained with waste rock. In the absence of the strong contrast (when the relatively fine sand was used), the water retention layer was drained and the oxygen flux which reached at the bottom of this layer increased considerably. The water table depth, the grain size, and the hydraulic contrast between the MRL and the bottom capillary break layer (CBL) proved to be the key parameters of the simulated model. In field conditions, CCBE are often inclined, and that this inclination can affect the performance of the cover to control the migration of oxygen. 2D modeling was also performed. The numerical model was built to represent approximatively the case of one of the dams of LaRonde tailings impoundment. Preliminary results show that CCBE made entirely of mining materials are effective even when placed over slopes. The degree of saturation of the two slopes in the numerical model was higher than 85%. The influence of the slope has not significantly affected yet the performance of the cover for the model studied in this thesis. The cumulative oxygen flux over one year at the bottom of the MRL (for horizontal distance of 182 m of the numerical model) are 4031.3g (22.1 g/m2/year) and 4617.7g (25.3 g/m2/year) for natural and extreme climatic conditions respectively. This study confirms that waste rocks have good potential to be used as capillary break materials in the configuration of such CCBE. Thereby, it is suggested that the option of using only mining materials be included in the analysis of the optimal mode of mine reclamation. This project also suggests that good management of the tailings and waste rock produced during mining operations will provide the materials which could then be used to restore the site. More research is recommended to further investigate this reclamation option through field experimental cells. If further research validates the laboratory results at the intermediate scale, the use of mining materials would be considered as an effective option for CCBE used to control post-closure pollution. This scenario could reduce the construction costs while promoting the social acceptability of mining projects by reducing the use of natural soils.

  3. Optimizing the electric field around solid and core-shell alloy nanostructures for near-field applications.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Priede, Luis; Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Rivera, Antonio; Guerrero-Martínez, Andrés; Pal, Umapada

    2016-08-21

    The near electric field enhancement around plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is very important for applications like surface enhanced spectroscopies, plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced OLEDs, where the interactions occur close to the surface of the NPs. In this work we have calculated the near-field enhancement around solid and core-shell alloy NPs as a function of their geometrical parameters and composition. We have found that the field enhancement is lower in the AuxAg1-x alloys with respect to pure Ag NPs, but it is still high enough for most near-field applications. The higher order modes have a stronger influence over the near-field due to a sharper spatial decay of the near electric field with the increase of the order of multipolar modes. For the same reason, in AuxAg1-x@SiO2 core-shell structures, the quadrupolar mode is dominant around the core, whereas the dipolar mode is predominant around the shell. The LSPR modes can have different behaviours in the near- and the far-field, particularly for larger particles with high Ag contents, which indicates that caution must be exercised for designing plasmonic nanostructures for near-field applications, as the variations of the LSPR in the near-field cannot be inferred from those observed in the far-field. These results have important implications for the application of gold-silver alloy NPs in surface enhanced spectroscopies and in the fabrication of plasmon-based optoelectronic devices, like dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced organic light-emitting diodes.

  4. Optimizing the electric field around solid and core-shell alloy nanostructures for near-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaño-Priede, Luis; Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Rivera, Antonio; Guerrero-Martínez, Andrés; Pal, Umapada

    2016-08-01

    The near electric field enhancement around plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is very important for applications like surface enhanced spectroscopies, plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced OLEDs, where the interactions occur close to the surface of the NPs. In this work we have calculated the near-field enhancement around solid and core-shell alloy NPs as a function of their geometrical parameters and composition. We have found that the field enhancement is lower in the AuxAg1-x alloys with respect to pure Ag NPs, but it is still high enough for most near-field applications. The higher order modes have a stronger influence over the near-field due to a sharper spatial decay of the near electric field with the increase of the order of multipolar modes. For the same reason, in AuxAg1-x@SiO2 core-shell structures, the quadrupolar mode is dominant around the core, whereas the dipolar mode is predominant around the shell. The LSPR modes can have different behaviours in the near- and the far-field, particularly for larger particles with high Ag contents, which indicates that caution must be exercised for designing plasmonic nanostructures for near-field applications, as the variations of the LSPR in the near-field cannot be inferred from those observed in the far-field. These results have important implications for the application of gold-silver alloy NPs in surface enhanced spectroscopies and in the fabrication of plasmon-based optoelectronic devices, like dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced organic light-emitting diodes.

  5. Les recommandations de prise en charge des complications métaboliques associées aux antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Josephine; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; McCrindle, Brian; Grisaru, Silviu; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération s’associent souvent à des complications métaboliques. Ces médicaments sont utilisés plus souvent pour le traitement des troubles de santé mentale chez les enfants, ce qui a requis l’élaboration de lignes directrices officielles sur la surveillance de leur innocuité et de leur efficacité. Des lignes directrices ont déjà été élaborées pour surveiller les complications métaboliques et neurologiques. Afin d’aider les praticiens qui effectuent ces interventions de surveillance, une série de recommandations thérapeutiques complémentaires a été élaborée pour les cas où l’on observe des mesures ou des résultats anormaux. OBJECTIF : Créer des recommandations probantes afin de contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques chez les enfants traités au moyen d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des publications sur les complications métaboliques des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants. Les membres du groupe consensuel ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à l’analyse bibliographique systématique et ont fait appel à un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus à l’égard de recommandations thérapeutiques. Dans la mesure du possible, ils se sont reportés aux lignes directrices existantes sur l’évaluation et le traitement des anomalies métaboliques chez les enfants. RÉSULTATS : Des recommandations probantes sont présentées pour contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques, y compris la prise de poids, l’augmentation du tour de taille, l’élévation des taux de prolactine, de cholestérol, de triglycérides et de glucose, les épreuves de fonction hépatique anormales et les études thyroïdiennes anormales. CONCLUSION : Il faut recourir à des mesures de surveillance convenables lorsqu’on prescrit

  6. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  7. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure

  8. Barrier-Free Design: Access to and Use of Buildings by Physically Disabled People = Amenagement pour Acces Facile: Acces Facile aux Immeubles et Leur Utilisation par les Personnes Handicapees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Works Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The manual describes, for people with physical disabilities, a building standard of accessibility and the policy for its application. Policies address both new construction and renovation work based on principles of building accessibility to a broad range of users, public service accessibility, and equality of access to employment opportunities.…

  9. Prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère chez l'enfant avec des préparations locales alternatives aux F-75 et F-100: résultats et défis

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Adjahoung, Chritoph Akazong; Keugoung, Basile; Kamgaing, Nelly; Dongmo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mise en œuvre des directives de l'OMS permettrait de réduire significativement la mortalité hospitalière due à la malnutrition sévère. Cependant, elle n'est pas effective et la pénurie en aliments thérapeutiques est l'une des principales causes. L’étude décrit notre expérience sur la prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère avec des laits alternatifs aux F75 et F100 composés localement. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'un essai clinique non randomisé. La prise en charge des patients utilisait les laits composés localement et une évaluation quotidienne du gain pondéral était faite. Résultats L’étude a porté sur 41 sujets âgés de 6 à 59 mois. Au total, 73,2% avaient le kwashiorkor-marasmique, 17,0% le kwashiorkor, 9,8% le marasme et 41,5% étaient infectés par le VIH. Nous avons noté une prise progressive du poids d'environ 10 g/kg/jour vers le 7ème jour et de 15 à 20 g/kg/jour en fin d'hospitalisation. Le taux de mortalité était de 21,9% soit une réduction de 8,4% des chiffres antérieurs. Conclusion Malgré les obstacles financiers liés au coût des ingrédients, les préparations lactées alternatives aux standards F75 et F100, sont adaptables dans notre contexte. En l'absence des formules standards de l'OMS et lorsque la référence vers une structure qui en disposent n'est pas possible, les préparations locales permettraient de réhabiliter efficacement les patients. D'autres recherches pointues permettraient de tirer les ingrédients uniquement de notre environnement. Elles contribueraient ainsi à minimiser les couts des préparations et de favoriser la pérennisation des laits thérapeutiques locaux. PMID:26587175

  10. How is Modelling and Simulation Meeting the Defence Challenges out to 2015? (Comment la modelisation et la simulation repondent-elles aux defis de la Defense jusqu’en 2015?)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    understanding the state-of-the- art applications, leading-edge research efforts, and conceptual contributions supporting the conclusion that NATO is... nouveau degré d’agilité conceptuelle et d’adaptivité technique. Les communications présentées lors de ce symposium ont permis d’appréhender les...les moyens de relever ce nouveau défi complexe. Au cours de cette conférence de deux jours, 24 exposés furent présentés, répartis en sept sessions

  11. Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Fedotov, Sergei; Horsthemke, Werner

    Reaction-transport equations have found many applications to biological processes of interest in medicine and microbiology. Examples range from cancer invasion to virus dispersal and transport in spiny dendrites.

  12. Rejected applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review membership application materials (especially rejected applications) to the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) during its formative years (1947–1953). Methods: Detailed study of materials in the AAN Historical Collection. Results: The author identified 73 rejected applications. Rejected applicants (71 male, 2 female) lived in 25 states. The largest number was for the Associate membership category (49). These were individuals “in related fields who have made and are making contributions to the field of neurology.” By contrast, few applicants to Active membership or Fellowship status were rejected. The largest numbers of rejectees were neuropsychiatrists (19), neurosurgeons (16), and psychiatrists (14). Conclusion: The AAN, established in the late 1940s, was a small and politically vulnerable organization. A defining feature of the fledgling society was its inclusiveness; its membership was less restrictive than that of the older American Neurological Association. At the same time, the society needed to preserve its core as a neurologic society rather than one of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Hence, the balance between inclusiveness and exclusive identity was a difficult one to maintain. The Associate membership category, more than any other, was at the heart of this issue of self-definition. Associate members were largely practitioners of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Their membership was a source of consternation and was to be carefully been held in check during these critical formative years. PMID:24944256

  13. ASCI applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D.A.; Christensen, R.C.

    1997-11-11

    ASCI applications codes are key elements of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP). They will provide the simulation capabilities needed to predict the performance, safety, reliability, and manufacturability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent.

  14. Application note :

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  15. Characterisation of Fibre Reinforced Titanium Matrix Composites. (La Caracterisation des Materiaux Composites a Matrice de Titane Renforces par Fibres)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    fabrication of thick varying stages of preform walled rings. development, or are developed for reduction of fiber movement during Whereas the originally ...compressor in the original consortium were: components or hypervelocity plane structural components. These are characteristically high Harwell Laboratory...allows a larger for which the main loading originates from the number of single fibre ruptures before the composite centrifugal forces due to the high

  16. Short-Crack Growth Behaviour in Various Aircraft Materials (Le Developpement des Petites Fissures dans Divers Materiaux Aeronautiques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    2024 aluminun AGARD Core Test Program. This aluminum-lithium material’s resistance to crack initiation and subsequent fast crack growth resulted in...boundaries did not seem to offer any resistance to crack propagation. This would be consistent with a sheet which is textured such that preferred slip...Regime to Overall Fatigue Resistance , Small Fatigue Cracks, R. 0. Ritchie and J. Lankford, eds., The Metallurgical Society, 1986, pp. 73-95 4 Edwards

  17. Etude de la performance de piles a combustible microbiennes et l'effet des materiaux d'electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Edith

    Recent climate change has brought a whole new dimension to the energy field since now we must change our primary source, fossil fuels. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology emerged as a result of recent efforts in the development of alternative sources of energy. This project aims to improve the performance maximization of such celsl. It is assumed that the microbial fuel cells' functioning is influenced by the operation conditions as well as the biofilm development and other limitations. It is also appropriate to suppose that the electrode materials also have consequences on either the microorganisms' activity or the electrochemical reaction reactivity. Thus, various operating conditions and configurations are tested to identify the specific effects of these changes on cell performance. Also, the development of the biofilm is extensively studied under various conditions to improve the electrons transfer between the active biofilm and the anode. These experiments and analyses permitted to identify various effects that can improve the microbial fuel cell performance. Thus, the influence of organic load (of glucose and acetate), pH and operating temperature of the fuel cell has been shown and optimal values were determined, leading to a significant increase in the anodic biofilm activity and a decrease of the methanogens activity, the latter reducing the coulombic efficiency by diverting a non-negligible substrate amount for their benefit. Hence, organic loading of 2 to 4 g L-1 day-1, pH between 6,25 and 6,5 as well as high cathode temperature (62 °C) but moderate anode temperature (30 °C) caused a maximum power generation increase to 19,2 W m -3. During the experiments with acetate as substrate, distance between electrodes and fuel cell volume have been reduced, leading to a power density of 92,4 W m-3. All these observations are the subject of the first article presented in this thesis. Since the microbial fuel cell power generation depends on the number of anode-reducing microorganisms populating the biofilm, this relationship was deepened in the second manuscript. This article, which intended to monitor the biofilm development, highlights the influence of external load changing rate during the active biofilm growth. Thus, when the external load is adjusted rapidly to approach the cell internal resistance, electrons exchange is enhanced as well as the proliferation of microorganisms responsible of these electrons generation. By promoting faster anode-reducing microorganisms growth, other species are somewhat disadvantaged and substrate consumption is primarily involved in the electricity production rather than any other unwanted products (eg.: methane). This article also demonstrates the influence of the biofilm development level on the diffusion limitation of the anodic reaction, a limitation that becomes more pronounced as the biofilm grows. The third article clarifies the diffusion limitation of the charge transfer at the anode. Therefore, the organic load variation of acetate in microbial fuel cells with carbon felt (3D) and carbon paper (2D) anodes as well as the electrolyte conductivity decrease has targeted protons diffusion out of the biofilm as the current generation limitation. In addition, a secondary electrochemical reaction has been identified at the anode, creating an electrode resistance increase and thereby a slight power output decrease. Finally, multiple electrochemical analyses helped to establish with certainty that the electron transfer mechanism carried out by anode-reducing microorganisms is by direct contact with the anode via microorganisms themselves or the conductive biofilm matrix, cytochromes being responsible for the electrons transport in both cases. The last manuscript deals with new cathode materials (carbon, Mn 2O3 and Fe2O3) evaluation in comparison to a platinum cathode. These materials were chosen for their potential to stimulate the proliferation of microorganisms capable of influencing cathode activity in order to obtain a biocathode; however, this phenomenon has not been verified. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Effet de l'usinage sur les proprietes mecaniques en tension et controle non-destructif des materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genereux, Louis-Alexandre

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate the impact of milling operations on the integrity of unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminate. Milling, often used for finishing composite structures, cause some damage in the form of craters, cracks and thermal damage to the matrix. Here, two approaches are used to qualify and quantify the amount of damage. First, two nondestructive testing methods, namely immersion ultrasonic inspection and pulsed thermography, are evaluated on samples with artificial defects. These techniques are then used on machined samples with realistic machining damages. Only ultrasounds allowed the detection and quantification of the machining damages, but only if the damages are at the surface of the laminate. The depth of damage depends primarily on the fiber orientation of the first ply with respect to the cutting direction. The ultrasonic inspections are also accompanied by scanning electron microscope observations. The second approach is to check whether the presence of the machining damage will affect the mechanical properties of the laminate. To do this, static tensile tests are performed on samples prepared by three different methods, namely, by abrasive diamond saw, by saw cut followed by sanding and finally by milling. The results show that the damages caused by the milling operation are not important enough to affect the ultimate stress and elastic modulus. Despite this, it would be interesting, for future works, to investigate this aspect in fatigue rather than with static tests. The presence of damages on the edge might promote delamination during cyclic loads.

  19. Detection de l'initiation de la delamination des materiaux composites par suivi de l'emission acoustique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversides, Ian

    Cette étude, basée sur la surveillance des ondes d'émission acoustique (E.A.), présente le développement d'une approche de prédiction de l'initiation de la délamination de pièces composites soumises à des chargements statiques et en fatigue. La surveillance des ondes d'E.A. fait parti d'un nombre restreint de méthodes pouvant détecter, en continu, l'apparition et la croissance de dommages dans les matériaux composites. L'approche est comparée à des méthodes conventionnelles ainsi qu'à une modélisation numérique pour des composites à fibre de carbone unidirectionnels et tissés, sur une gamme de rapports de mode mixte. Le présent mémoire met en lumière les différentes étapes abordées durant l'étude. L'utilisation des matériaux composites est mise en contexte au premier chapitre. La complexité des matériaux composites ainsi que la nécessité de modèles de prédiction fiables sont soulignées. Le deuxième chapitre contient une revue de la littérature et présente les outils disponibles pour analyser le délaminage et bâtir un modèle prédictif de sa propagation. Les sujets traités sont la délamination dans un contexte de mécanique de la rupture, la modélisation numérique d'une propagation de fissure, l'approche du monitorage par émission acoustique puis l'analyse fractographiques des surfaces de rupture. Les résultats des essais mécaniques et de la modélisation sont présentés sous forme d'article dans le troisième chapitre. Des essais statiques et en fatigue ont permis de calculer le taux de restitution d'énergie de déformation à l'initiation de la délamination selon des méthodes classiques pour ensuite les comparer à une méthode développée, basée sur le suivi des ondes d'émission acoustique. Une série d'essais de propagation de la délamination en fatigue ont permis d'observer des corrélations entre les émissions acoustiques, la longueur de la délamination, la vitesse de croissance des fissures et la sévérité du chargement. Finalement, une méthodologie de reconnaissance des formes non supervisée est présentée afin de discriminer les signaux d'E.A. d'amorçage et de propagation de fissure du bruit associé à la fatigue. Mots-clés : Émission acoustique, initiation de la délamination, fatigue, composite, mode mixte I et II, Virtual Crack Closure Technique.

  20. Vers le calcul efficace des propriétés effectives de materiaux microstructurés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, Carl-Friedrich; Zimmer, Johannes; Chenchiah, Isaac V.

    2004-03-01

    An algorithm for partially relaxing multiwell energy densities, such as for materials undergoing martensitic phase transitions, is presented here. The detection of the rank-one convex hull, which describes effective properties of such materials, is carried out for the most prominent nontrivial case, namely the so-called Tk-configurations. Despite the fact that the computation of relaxed energies (and with it effective properties) is inherently unstable, we show that the detection of these hulls ( T4-configurations) can be carried out exactly and with high efficiency. This allows in practice for their computation to arbitrary precision. In particular, our approach to detect these hulls is not based on any approximation or grid-like discretization. This makes the approach very different from previous (unstable and computationally expensive) algorithms for the computation of rank-one convex hulls or sequential-lamination algorithms for the simulation of martensitic microstructure. It can be used to improve these algorithms. In cases where there is a strict separation of length scales, these ideas can be integrated at a sub-grid level to macroscopic finite-element computations. The algorithm presented here enables, for the first time, large numbers of tests for T4-configurations. Stochastic experiments in several space dimensions are reported here. To cite this article: C.-F. Kreiner et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  1. Recuperation d'energie issue des deformations de structures aeronautiques a l'aide de materiaux piezoelectriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeaux, Sebastien

    Aerospace structural maintenance (fuselage, wings) is a major component of operational costs which requires aircraft to be grounded and some of its parts to be dismantled in order to proceed to inspection. In order to allow in situ monitoring, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been proposed where sensors and actuators are integrated on the structure. To avoid extensive wiring of the nodes, wireless sensors and actuators are attractive but should be self powered to fully benefit from them. One idea is to convert the mechanical energy (vibrations) available all over an aircraft into electricity using piezoelectric materials. This work investigates the potential of strain-based energy harvesters (as opposed to inertial harvesters) to supply wireless nodes on typical aircraft structures. A simple model is used to describe typical dynamic behavior of aircraft components: a beam representing the whole wing subjected to aerodynamic loading and a plate representing a fuselage panel subjected to pressure fields (jet noise and turbulent boundary layer). Various configurations of piezoelectric materials are tested such as bulk PZT, PZT fiber composite and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) in order to evaluate the influence of their characteristics (size, polarization, electrodes' shape, capacitance...) on the harvested power. The results show that for a typical aerospace excitation of the beam (10 Hz and 56 μdef), the energy produced is up to 40 mJ with bulk PZT for a 7 minutes loading time. From the literature, this appears sufficient for RF transmission (25 μJ). For other excitation sources (for instance jet noise), the energy produced is up to only 1 mJ with bulk PZT for a 25 minutes loading time. The drawback is that we should wait for several seconds in order to charge the harvester's battery. And, considering that many other components than the RF transceiver will require energy in the meantime, the time laps between two' measures could increase to several minutes. Therefore, strain-based energy harvester could be used for supplying wireless sensor nodes but they would not allow real time measurement. However this approach is a simple and convenient way to scavenge energy compared to other kinds of harvesters (inertial, solar...) since it amounts to bonding a piezoelectric material on a flexible surface. Some design advices are eventually proposed for this kind of harvesters. They could be used for designing a harvester able to produce desired power from a known excitation. Keywords: Power harvesting, piezoelectric, piezoelectric fiber composite, vibration energy, structural health monitoring.

  2. Photography applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Goodman, James A.; Purkis, Samuel J.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.

  3. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  4. Intoxications aigues aux organophosphores chez la femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Bannour, Badra; Barhoumi, Tarek; Jouini, Rami; Marwene, Nadia; Fatnassi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Les intoxications aiguës par les pesticides organophosphorés (OP) au cours de la grossesse sont des événements rares, peu décrites dans la littérature. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous rapportons les résultats de sept cas d’ingestion suicidaire d’OP chez des femmes enceintes. Cette intoxication était le plus souvent grave. En effet, cinq des sept parturientes avaient un Glasgow initial < 9 et le POP score était ≥ 3 chez toutes les parturientes. Cinq patientes avaient nécessité une ventilation mécanique de durée moyenne de 3,4 jours. L’évolution était favorable pour toutes les patientes mais dans plus de la moitié des cas elle était défavorable pour le fœtus (mort fœtal in utéro). Deux mécanismes peuvent expliquer ces complications fœtales. Le premier est l’hypoxie fœtale associée ou non à un état de choc qui peuvent se traduire au niveau du RCF par une tachycardie ou des décélérations et aboutir ainsi à un décès in utero. Le deuxième mécanisme est le passage de ces pesticides à travers la barrière placentaire, ce qui pose un risque potentiel pour le fœtus par altération des systèmes enzymatiques des microsomes. PMID:28293343

  5. Lésions concomitantes aux genoux flottants et gravite

    PubMed Central

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Le genou flottant est issu d’un traumatisme de haute énergie, dont la genèse suggère de vaste dégâts aussi bien sur le plan locorégional que général. Faisant référence au polytaumatisme. Le but de notre étude était de recenser toutes les lésions concomitantes au genou flottant dans notre milieu de pratique et d’évaluer la sévérité. Nous avons mené une étude descriptive et rétrospective couvrant une période de 14 ans et 9 mois. Sur un échantillon de 75 genoux flottants, avec une moyenne d’âge de 35 ans. Soixante six patients avaient obtenu un score d’ISS supérieur ou égal à 16 donc qualifié de polytraumatisé. Les traumatismes crâniens, les lésions thoraciques et abdominales retrouvés en même temps que le genou flottant exigent une réanimation adéquate. PMID:28292046

  6. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  7. Apports du cryo-microscope électronique à balayage à émission de champ à l'étude des matières organiques et des relations organo-minérales naturelles. Application aux croûtes microbiotiques des sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Défarge, Christian; Issa, Oumarou Malam; Trichet, Jean

    1999-05-01

    The cryo-SEM (SEM equipped with a freeze-drying sample preparation system) allows the micromorphological transformations occurring during desiccation-rewetting cycles of microbiotic crusts from Sahelian soils to be visualised, like the swelling up of mucilaginous envelopes of the constituent micro-organisms through water absorption. When the cryo-SEM is equipped with a field emission gun, which permits observations at low voltage operation (1 kV) without coating, the natural surface of the samples may be revealed, in particular the presence, at the surface of mineral grains, of microbe-derived organic meshes that probably play a role in the resistance of these crusts to erosion.

  8. BPPD Internal Application Checklists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, BPPD internal application checklists for internal guidance to assist BPPD employees in their evaluation of applications submitted to BPPD by applicants and/or registrants.

  9. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  10. Profil comparatif et évolutif des personnes infectées par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine traitées aux antirétroviraux à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Tshingani; Mukumbi, Henri; Malandala, Ghislain Lubangi Muteba; Donnen, Philippe; Wilmet–Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A trithérapie (ARV) introduite en R.D.Congo en 1996, a permis l′amélioration substantielle de la qualité de vie des PVVIH et a réduit la morbimortalité liée au sida en R.D. Congo. L'objectif de cette étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique comparatif, clinique, ainsi que l’évolution anthropométrique des PVVIH sous ARV à Kinshasa. Méthodes Etude de cohorte sur 438 PVVIH, de 18 ans et plus, suivies entre mai 2010 à 2011 à Amo Congo à Kinshasa. Une comparaison a été faite entre les patients suivis pendant un an et ceux perdus de vue. Le Chi carré de Mc Nemar et l'analyse de variance pour mesures répétées ont été appliqués pour étudier l’évolution. Résultats Près 12 mois de suivi, 11,4% de patients ont été perdus de vue. Parmi eux, on observait des proportions significativement plus élevées de personnes de niveau socioéconomique bas, d'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) bas, présentant de l'anorexie, des affections opportunistes. Les proportions de patients aux stades OMS 3 & 4 et naïfs étaient également significativement plus élevées et la durée sous ARV plus courte. Les gains moyens des paramètres anthropométriques au 12ème mois, étaient importants: de 3,6 [3,2 - 4,0] kg pour le poids, 1,8 (1,4 - 2,3) cm pour le périmètre abdominal, 0,9 (0,8 - 1,2) cm pour le périmètre brachial, 1,4 (1,2 - 1,5) kg/m2 pour l'IMC. La proportion de patients avec un IMC <18,5 kg/m2 a significativement plus baissé entre l'admission et le 12ème mois parmi les patients sans stomatite que parmi ceux avec stomatite. L'IMC moyen évoluait significativement différemment entre l'admission et le 12ème mois selon l’âge et la taille de ménage. Conclusion Les facteurs fragilisant la rétention des patients sous antirétroviraux et une évolution progressive de l’état nutritionnel ont été observés. PMID:25995784

  11. Sight Application Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G.

    2014-09-17

    The scale and complexity of scientific applications makes it very difficult to optimize, debug and extend them to support new capabilities. We have developed a tool that supports developers’ efforts to understand the logical flow of their applications and interactions between application components and hardware in a way that scales with application complexity and parallelism.

  12. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  13. Ruby on Rails Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    Ruby on Rails is an open source web application framework for the Ruby programming language. The first application I built was a web application to manage and authenticate other applications. One of the main requirements for this application was a single sign-on service. This allowed authentication to be built in one location and be implemented in many different applications. For example, users would be able to login using their existing credentials, and be able to access other NASA applications without authenticating again. The second application I worked on was an internal qualification plan app. Previously, the viewing of employee qualifications was managed through Excel spread sheets. I built a database driven application to streamline the process of managing qualifications. Employees would be able to login securely to view, edit and update their personal qualifications.

  14. Fluid Dynamics of Jets with Applications to V/STOL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    masaique dana ia veine, en raison de iaugmentation de la densitg du gaz entratnd lorsque celui- ci eat refroidi. Up calcul de trompe effectu6 de...de donner quelques pr~cisions sur lea montages at lea capteurs utilis~s. 11r. certain nambra de difficultis exp~rimentales qui sont apparues dans ia...mesure des fluctuations de presaion,concarnant principalament lea aspects suivants: - N~cessitg da disposer de capteurs insansibles aux vibrations. - N

  15. Virtual Interfaces: Research and Application (Les Interfaces Virtuelles entre Recherche et Applications).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    donndes et de la d6tection des mouvements humains, alli6s aux mod6les informatis6s des milieux naturels et artificiels, ont conduit A la mise el pltace...d’interfaces dites virtuelles. Les interfaces virtuelles offrent plus de souplesse et de naturel et elles sont donc envisag6es pour les domaines tels...contr6leurs a6ricns. principes d𔄀tude du langage naturel . Basd sur l’utilisation concomnitante d’une interface 11 GENERALITES vocale (synth~se et

  16. CYBER 200 Applications Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, J. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Applications suited for the CYBER 200 digital computer are discussed. Various areas of application including meteorology, algorithms, fluid dynamics, monte carlo methods, petroleum, electronic circuit simulation, biochemistry, lattice gauge theory, economics and ray tracing are discussed.

  17. RHC Technologies and Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a portal to learning about several of the most common types of renewable heating and cooling technologies and end use applications. A clickable diagram compares technologies and applications with respect to their working temperatures.

  18. EPA Geospatial Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed many applications that allow users to explore and interact with geospatial data. This page highlights some of the flagship geospatial web applications but these represent only a fraction of the total.

  19. Entomopathogenic nematode application technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol success when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema relies on a variety of factors including components of the application event itself. Successful application encompasses both abiotic and biotic influences. For example, adverse array of equi...

  20. Industrial storage applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a technology demonstration for the food processing industry, development and technology demonstrations for selected near-term, in-plant applications and advanced industrial applications of thermal energy storage are overviewed.

  1. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  2. Inertial MEMS System Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Inertial MEMS System Applications N. Barbour, R. Hopkins, A. Kourepenis, P. Ward The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (P-4993) 555 Technology...driven by gun-launched projectile requirements. The application of silicon MEMS inertial technology to competent munitions efforts began in the early...requirements. These applications have a unique combination of requirements including, performance over temperature, high-g launch survivability, fast

  3. Guides d'ondes infrarouges pour applications en télécommunications, capteurs chimiques et biochimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smektala, F.; Bureau, B.; Adam, J. L.; Lucas, J.

    2002-06-01

    Les énergies de phonons élevés des verres à base de silice limitent leurs applications dans l'infrarouge. Il devient donc incontournable de créer des verres à plus faible énergie de phonons pour développer une optique passive guidée opérationnelle dans l'IR moyen et pour réaliser de nouveaux guide d'ondes optiques activés par des lanthanides pouvant jouer le rôle soit d'amplificateurs optiques soit de fibres lasers. Les compositions de verres stables répondant à ces critères sont exceptionnelles et appartiennent aux familles chimiques des fluorures et des chalcogénures. Les verres de fluorures, convenablement dopés par des terres rares, ont permis la réalisation d'amplificateurs optiques opérant dans la fenêtre télecom de la silice (1.3 μm avec le praséodyme, 1.45 μm avec le thulium et 1.55 μm avec l'erbium. Les verres de chalcogénures permettent la réalisation de fibres opérationnelles jusqu'à 12 μm mais seulement pour des applications courtes distances telles que le transport d'énergie moyenne, la radiométrie à l'ambiante et la spectrométrie IR déportée par fibre optique de molécules chimiques ou de tissus biologiques.

  4. Application Portable Parallel Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) computer program is subroutine-based message-passing software library intended to provide consistent interface to variety of multiprocessor computers on market today. Minimizes effort needed to move application program from one computer to another. User develops application program once and then easily moves application program from parallel computer on which created to another parallel computer. ("Parallel computer" also include heterogeneous collection of networked computers). Written in C language with one FORTRAN 77 subroutine for UNIX-based computers and callable from application programs written in C language or FORTRAN 77.

  5. Engineering electrochemical capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitor (EC) applications have broadened tremendously since EC energy storage devices were introduced in 1978. Then typical applications operated below 10 V at power levels below 1 W. Today many EC applications operate at voltages approaching 1000 V at power levels above 100 kW. This paper briefly reviews EC energy storage technology, shows representative applications using EC storage, and describes engineering approaches to design EC storage systems. Comparisons are made among storage systems designed to meet the same application power requirement but using different commercial electrochemical capacitor products.

  6. SNS application programming plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C. M.; Galambos, J. D.; Wei, J.; Allen, C.; McGehee, P. M.; Malitsky, N.

    2001-01-01

    The plan for Spallation Neutron Source accelerator physics application programs is presented. These high level applications involve processing and managing information from the diagnostic instruments, the machine control system, models and static databases and will be used to investigate and control beam behavior. Primary components include an SNS global database and Java-based XAL Application Toolkit. A key element in the SNS application programs is time synchronization of data used in these applications, due to the short pulse (1 ms), pulsed (60 Hz) nature of the device. The data synchronization progress is also presented.

  7. Biopharmaceutical applications of nanogold

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Fars K.; Radwan, Awwad A.; Alsarra, Ibrahim A.

    2010-01-01

    The application of nanogold in biopharmaceutical field is reviewed in this work. The properties of nanogold including nanogold surface Plasmon absorption and nanogold surface Plasmon light scattering are illustrated. The physical, chemical, biosynthesis methods of nanogold preparation are presented. Catalytic properties as well as biomedical applications are highlighted as one of the most important applications of nanogold. Biosensing, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of gold nanoparticles are evaluated. Moreover, gold nanoparticles in drugs, biomolecules and proteins’ delivery are analyzed. Gold nanoparticles for the site-directed photothermal applications are reviewed as the most fruitful research area in the future. PMID:24936133

  8. ERIP application instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, D.M.

    1992-01-02

    This report provides background information and instructions to assist applicants in writing Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) applications. Initial feedback fro usage for the new instructions shows that the best instructions would not be read and followed by all applicants. Applications from more than thirty applicants who have received the new instructions indicated that few had read the instructions. Based on this feedback, the instructions have been further revised to include a title page and table of contents. A warning was also added to advise applicants of the potential penalty of delayed review if these instructions are not followed. This revision was intended to address the possibility that some applicants did not see or bother to follow the instructions which followed the background information about ERIP. Included are two examples of ERIP applications which have been prepared for handout at workshops or mailing to applicants. Writing of example applications was time consuming and more difficult than expected for several reasons: (1) Full disclosures can be lengthy, very detailed, and technical. This contrasts with the desire to prepare examples which are comparatively short and easy for the non-technical person to read. (2) Disclosures contain confidential information which should not be published. (3) It is difficult to imagine that applicants will study examples when they do not bother to read the basic instructions.

  9. The SED-TOX: Toxicity-directed management tool to assess and rank sediments based on their hazard -- concept and application

    SciTech Connect

    Bombardier, M.; Bermingham, N.

    1999-04-01

    This article introduces the sediment Toxicity (SED-TOX) Index for the assessment and ranking of toxic hazards in sediment. Major features include expression of toxicity responses on a single scale of measurement (dry weight-based toxic units), consideration of multiple routes of exposure (pore water, organic extract, wet sediment, and whole sediment), application of differential treatments to toxicity data depending on the level of response, and use of weighting factors to discriminate sediment exposure phases and effect endpoints on the basis of sensitivity. A battery of seven bioassays with four test species (Vibrio fischeri, Escherichia coli, Lytechinus pictus, and Amphiporeia virginiana) was conducted on 49 marine sediment samples collected from six sites at Anse-a-Beaufils and Cap-aux-Meules, which are in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The SED-TOX scores were calculated for each sampling station and compared with sediment contaminant concentrations. Results indicate that physico-chemical characterization is not sufficient to assess contaminated-sediment hazard for organisms; furthermore, using several exposure phases and test species belonging to various trophic levels increases the possibility of correctly identifying toxic sediments. The results of this study indicate that the SED-TOX approach is valuable as a toxicity assessment and ranking tool for sediments. It could easily be combined with other measures of ecosystem disturbance to discriminate between polluted and unpolluted sites.

  10. Technical applications of aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-18

    Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g.; supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical application, as well. This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels.

  11. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

    2012-02-06

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  12. Exploiting chaos for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ditto, William L.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2015-09-15

    We discuss how understanding the nature of chaotic dynamics allows us to control these systems. A controlled chaotic system can then serve as a versatile pattern generator that can be used for a range of application. Specifically, we will discuss the application of controlled chaos to the design of novel computational paradigms. Thus, we present an illustrative research arc, starting with ideas of control, based on the general understanding of chaos, moving over to applications that influence the course of building better devices.

  13. Application Layer Multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allani, Mouna; Garbinato, Benoît; Pedone, Fernando

    An increasing number of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Internet applications rely today on data dissemination as their cornerstone, e.g., audio or video streaming, multi-party games. These applications typically depend on some support for multicast communication, where peers interested in a given data stream can join a corresponding multicast group. As a consequence, the efficiency, scalability, and reliability guarantees of these applications are tightly coupled with that of the underlying multicast mechanism.

  14. LANL application communication patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Pakiin, Scott

    2011-01-10

    This brief presentation describes the communication patterns used by a set of unclassified applications developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory: XNobel/XRAGE/RAGE/SAGE, Krak, Sweep3D, and Partisn. It mentions which processes communicate with which other processes, whether the application is typically run in a strong-scaling mode or a weak-scaling mode, what message sizes are commonly used, and how the application's performance changes at scale.

  15. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  16. A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience (Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non- Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Scientifiques Voir Blgique Minist~ re de la De6fense Nationale NOR VEGE Ottawa, Ontario KI A 0K2 Norwegian Defence Research Establishment DANEMARK Attn...r6vision des turbines, le developpement des procedts de contr6le/examen non destructif NDE/NDI, et I’application des methodes statistiques. Les mati ... res prtsentees s’appliquent aux adronefs, aux motoristes et aux organisations de maintenance civils et militaires. Les conferences examineront les

  17. 76 FR 60836 - Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION... applicants have filed with the Federal Maritime Commission an application for a license as a Non-Vessel... Intermediaries, Federal Maritime Commission, Washington, DC 20573, by telephone at (202) 523-5843 or by e-mail...

  18. Application Security Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  19. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  20. Network aware distributed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Johnston, William

    2001-02-04

    Most distributed applications today manage to utilize only a small percentage of the needed and available network bandwidth. Often application developers are not aware of the potential bandwidth of the network, and therefore do not know what to expect. Even when application developers are aware of the specifications of the machines and network links, they have few resources that can help determine why the expected performance was not achieved. What is needed is a ubiquitous and easy-to-use service that provides reliable, accurate, secure, and timely estimates of dynamic network properties. This service will help advise applications on how to make use of the network's increasing bandwidth and capabilities for traffic shaping and engineering. When fully implemented, this service will make building currently unrealizable levels of network awareness into distributed applications a relatively mundane task. For example, a remote data visualization application could choose between sending a wireframe, a pre-rendered image, or a 3-D representation, based on forecasts of CPU availability and power, compression options, and available bandwidth. The same service will provide on-demand performance information so that applications can compare predicted with actual results, and allow detailed queries about the end-to-end path for application and network tuning and debugging.

  1. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  3. NASA Applications Data Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Applications Data Service (ADS), which is being developed to provide timely, affordable access to readily usable multisource data products and services for NASA-affliliated space-technology applications researchers, is presented. The system concept of a decentralized information network, which retrieves data from existing data bases and provides it to the user, has been adopted, and feasibility studies of the compatibility of the ADS with other existing or planned network data systems are under way. Other current efforts include the definition of the requirements and services necessary to support NASA applications experiments and encourage private industry to design the system and commercially implement it, as well as applications scenarios support, commercialization potential, standards identification, and concept justification with respect to future applications missions.

  4. Stirling engine application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  5. L'hélium polarisé : méthodes et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, D. S.; Leduc, M.

    Optical pumping is a method for creating large polarizations of electronic and nuclear spins in a gas of helium 4 and of helium 3. Recently some progress was made in this field with tunable infrared lasers. Nuclear polarizations over 50 % were thus obtained in helium 3 at room temperature. These techniques, combined with low temperature ones, allow polarizing to 50 % a relatively dense gas of helium 3 (n ˜ 10^18 cm-3) at 4 K. These results give a renewed interest to the applications of polarized helium, several of which are discussed in this article : helium magnetometers, NMR gyroscopes, beams of polarized particles extracted from the helium discharges (ions, electrons, metastable atoms, etc...), targets of polarized helium 3 for nuclear physics, helium 3 fuel for controlled fusion reactors and at last potential use of solid metastable helium for energy storage. Le pompage optique est une méthode qui permet d'atteindre de fortes polarisations de spin électronique et nucléaire dans un gaz d'hxA9lium 4 ou d'hélium 3. Récemment des progrès ont été réalisés dans ce domaine grâce aux lasers infrarouges accordables. Des polarisations nucléaires de 50 % et plus ont ainsi été observées dans l'hélium 3 à température ambiante. Ces techniques, combinées avec celle des basses températures, permettent d'obtenir des polarisations d'environ 50 % dans un gaz d'hélium 3 relativement dense (n ˜ 10^18 cm-3) à 4 K. Ces résultats ouvrent des perspectives en ce qui concerne les applications de l'hélium polarisé, dont plusieurs sont discutées dans cet article : magnétomètres à hélium, gyroscopes à RMN, faisceaux de particules polarisées extraits de l'hélium pompé (ions, électrons, métastables, etc...), cibles d'hélium 3 polarisé pour la physique nucléaire, combustible d'hélium 3 pour les réacteurs de fusion contrôlée et enfin utilisation éventuelle de l'hélium solide métastable pour le stockage de l'énergie.

  6. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  7. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The deployment of parabolic dish systems into the industrial sector for the purpose of providing users, suppliers, sponsors, and developers with a realistic assessment of system feasibility in selected near-term industrial applications will be accomplished initially through the industrial module experiment and later through additional experiments involving thermal, electric, and combined thermal and electrical systems. The approach is to progress through steps, from single module to multi-module systems, from thermal-only applications to more complex combined thermal and electric applications. The experience of other solar thermal experiments, particularly those involving parabolic dish hardware, will be utilized to the fullest extent possible in experiment planning and implementation.

  8. Wind energy applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  9. Application Interoperability with SAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Laurino, O.; Paioro, L.; Taylor, M. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Simple Applications Messaging Protocol (SAMP) is a Virtual Observatory (VO) specification that enables astronomy software tools to exchange control information and data, allowing desktop applications to work as an integrated suite of tools rather than requiring complex functionality to be (redundantly) built into tools individually. In addition, SAMP allows new workflows to be created for the science user that leverages the advantages of each tool (e.g. visualization of tables or images, analysis, etc.), greatly reducing the time needed to switch between applications and tasks. We present here a short introduction to the protocol itself, a survey of some toolkits for application authors who wish to introduce SAMP functionality into their tools, and some examples of real-world usage.

  10. Photochemical Modeling Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides access to modeling applications involving photochemical models, including modeling of ozone, particulate matter (PM), and mercury for national and regional EPA regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule

  11. Potential Applications for AQUATOX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AQUATOX has a myriad of potential applications to water management issues and programs, including water quality criteria and standards, TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), and ecological risk assessments of aquatic systems.

  12. Novel Applications of Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Barbara G.

    1970-01-01

    Presents some novel applications of the computer to physics research. They include (1) a computer program for calculating Compton scattering, (2) speech simulation, (3) data analysis in spectrometry, and (4) measurement of complex alpha-particle spectrum. Bibliography. (LC)

  13. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  14. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  15. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  16. Applications of supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses supercritical fluids in industrial and near-to-industry applications. Supercritical fluids are flexible tools for processing materials. Supercritical fluids have been applied to mass-transfer processes, phase-transition processes, reactive systems, materials-related processes, and nanostructured materials. Some applications are already at industrial capacity, whereas others remain under development. In addition to extraction, application areas include impregnation and cleaning, multistage countercurrent separation, particle formation, coating, and reactive systems such as hydrogenation, biomass gasification, and supercritical water oxidation. Polymers are modified with supercritical fluids, and colloids and emulsions as well as nanostructured materials exhibit interesting phenomena when in contact with supercritical fluids that can be industrially exploited. For these applications to succeed, the properties of supercritical fluids in combination with the materials processed must be clearly determined and fundamental knowledge of the complex behavior must be made readily available.

  17. Evaluation de l'effet de la temperature de cure sur le comportement des materiaux bitumineux de type mr-5 traites a la mousse de bitume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Jose Alberto

    Cold recycling mixes and cold mixes with RAP are used in Quebec since 1991. However, this practice is not recommended at temperatures below 10 ° C. Very little research on this subject and the effects of low temperatures on the behavior of early mixes are being done. The present study compares the behavior of a MR-5 mix under different cure temperature, 0 ° C, 5 ° C, 10 ° C, and 23 ° C as the reference temperature. The cold curing conditions are explained in details. The research is based on two main aspects: the effect of curing temperature on the cold recycling materials with foamed asphalt and the comparison between two methods of testing the mechanical properties, there are the Marshall stability and the Indirect Tensile Strenght ITS. The study is divided into three stages. The first stage is the optimization of the foam properties and the mix design of test. The second stage is to prepare the specimens of MR-5 MB and the storage on the predefined cure conditions. Finally, the third stage consists of mechanical strength testing of briquettes at the curing time appointed. Meanwhile, at each stage, we evaluate the associated parameters, which are little known and highly useful in road construction. Firstly, we assess the foam index and the surface of contraction, which is used for formulating and optimization of the foam bitumen mixes. Secondly, we evaluate the index of fracture (IF) and the ductility index (ID) associated with the mechanical strength. At the end of the project, we compare the resistance of the MR-5 foamed bitumen used in this research with the MR-5 bitumen emulsion. The latter is more used in the road industry in Quebec and serves as a reference for the comparison. Both tests show that there is an increase in the resistance of the materials with time, even at temperature below 10 ° C. We notice that the percentage of increase in the resistance of the materials is significantly different in both tests. However, the ITS is highly effective in cold mixes characterization and gives more details on the behavior of the MR-5 materials in different temperature.

  18. Optimisation structurale de dalles de chaussees en beton jointees avec des goujons en materiaux composites en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres de Verre (PRFV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricola, Julien

    In Quebec, the majority of the road network was built in the 60's - 70's and show obvious signs of ageing. Moreover, the increase of road traffic and the rigorous weather conditions, render the maintenance and the exploitation of roads in this Northern American part quite difficult. Indeed, these environmental conditions cause severe damages for roads, especially in winter. The degradation factor of the jointed rigid pavement is intensified by the highway salt. So, the phenomena of deteriorations appears mainly by the corrosion of the steel at the joints (structural elements) guaranteeing the durability of roads. The jointed rigid pavements or "short jointed pavements" are still mainly sized with steel dowels placed at the lining of joints. One of the main functions of these structures is to control the formation of cracking due to the thermal and environmental conditions. In order to reduce these , disorders, the Ministry of Transport of Quebec (MTQ) turned towards new techniques and innovative materials to ensure the longevity of roads. With the rapid evolution of specific methods and knowledge in roads design, joined with technologies and new products, the MTQ emphasizes the research and development. That way, advanced techniques and diverse technologies in the Quebecois context are settled. As a matter of fact, one of the axes of these development researches concerns the composite materials which have recently been given good results in the civil engineering area. That is why Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) dowels bars appear as a solution to the steel corrosion. In fact, they provide better durability with lower costs: the increase of service life as well as the decrease of maintenance persons and traffics impac. Thus, this project proposes an optimization of structural design of GFRP dowels for transverse jointed highway pavement slabs, also keeping in mind their use in new projects. The GFRP dowels which are given in this essay are made by the Pultrall Inc. Company from Thetford Mines (Quebec, Canada). The resin used for the polymer materials is only vinylester resin and the dowels have diameters going from 28.6 mm to 34.9 mm. Finally, only a stiff base is used for the road, its particularity is the modulus of subgrade reaction. Keywords: concrete pavement, dowelled slab, jointed concrete pavement, GFRP dowels, optimization, structural, design .

  19. Elaboration d'un simulateur de gravure par plasma de haute densite base sur une approche cellulaire pour l'etude de profils dans divers materiaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saussac, Jerome

    Sub-micrometer and nanometer-size device manufacturing requires perfect control of fabrication processing, in particular plasma etching. The fabrication of such devices is complex and the requirements in terms of quality and geometry of the etching profiles impose to use the best adapted operating conditions. Simulation of space and time-etching profile evolution that is proposed in this thesis addresses these issues. The simulator yields a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that occur during plasma etching of features in various materials. It enables to test the influence of plasma parameters on the profile shape and thus to determine the optimal operating conditions. The development of the simulator is based on the fundamental concepts in plasma etching. From thorough review of the various numerical approaches available to simulate etching profile evolution, we have developed a stable and flexible algorithm that enables to emphasize the importance of some key-parameters for the realization of etching profiles by high-density and low-pressure plasma. The capabilities of this algorithm were tested on the study of Si sputtering in an argon plasma and of ion-assisted chemical etching of SiO2/Si in a chlorine plasma. From comparisons between simulated and experimental profiles, we have shown the importance of some parameters, like the nature of the gas, the plasma pressure, the initial shape of the mask, the mask/material selectivity, the neutral/ion flux ratio, etc. We also linked these parameters to the formation of defects in the profile, for exemple mask facetting, sidewall bowing and microtrenching. Finally, we have shown that redeposition of sputtered atoms compete with electric surface charging to explain V-shape profiles observed on Pt sputtered in argon plasmas. Keywords. plasma, etching, profile, simulation, silicon, platinum, redeposition, microtrenching

  20. Etude de l'influence de defauts sur les proprietes mecaniques de materiaux composites fabriques par le procede de placement de fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legay, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The effect of automated fiber placement defects on composite material mechanical properties needs to be characterized. Impact behavior and laminate compressive properties can be affected by these defects. This study aims at characterizing the effect of AFP defects on impact (ASTM D7136), compression after impact (ASTM D7137) and open hole compression properties (ASTM D6484) of a quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminate (G40-800/5276-1). The defects that we studied were “critical” because they were located in every plies of same orientation and they were stacked. First, we performed open hole compression tests on coupons containing defects. 7 defect configurations were studied with gaps and overlaps placed in the compression direction and perpendicular to the compression direction. The results are compared with an analytical modeling of defects and they reveal that if defects are placed along compression direction they do not cause stress concentrations which lead to specimen failure. If defects are placed in plies which are perpendicular to compression direction, fiber waviness leads to a more important reduction of compressive strength. But electron microscope observations revealed that fiber waviness only affect plies that are adjacent to defects (+/-45°) and do not affect 0° plies which carry most of the load. It explains that compressive strength reduction is low even for 90° defects. Then we performed impact and compression after impact tests. We studied the results of impact tests (impactor contact force and impact absorbed energy) and we also performed ultrasonic measures (C-scan) and electron microscope observations, it allowed us to characterize impact damages. We first studied the effect of impact energy on laminate damage modes. For lower impact energies there is no damage in the material. When the impact energy increases, matrix cracking and délaminations appear, they are followed by the first fiber fractures. The damage spreads in plies which are opposed to the impact point. For higher energies, material properties are highly reduced and the laminate cannot support the load increase, the damage propagates through the laminate thickness. Finally impact and compression after impact tests performed on coupons containing defects reveal that gaps and overlaps have a local effect on damage: defects do not affect coupons global mechanical properties.

  1. Space applications of superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  2. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  3. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  4. Aluminum powder applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurganus, T.B.

    1995-08-01

    Aluminum powders have physical and metallurgical characteristics related to their method of manufacture that make them extremely important in a variety of applications. They can propel rockets, improve personal hygiene, increase computer reliability, refine exotic alloys, and reduce weight in the family sedan or the newest Air Force fighter. Powders formed into parts for structural and non-structural applications hold the key to some of the most exciting new developments in the aluminum future.

  5. Nanotubes in biological applications.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Ruchir V; Wu, Xia; Sauer, Jeremy; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kane, Ravi S

    2014-08-01

    Researchers over the last few years have recognized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as promising materials for a number of biological applications. CNTs are increasingly being explored as potent drug carriers for cancer treatment, for biosensing, and as scaffolds for stem cell culture. Moreover, the integration of CNTs with proteins has led to the development of functional nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties. This review aims at understanding the critical role of CNTs in biological applications with a particular emphasis on more recent studies.

  6. Galileo Timing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting Intranet S Internet NetRecord NetRecord NetRecord Figure 11. NetRecorder and Trusted...Summary of application domains for the use of time in cryptography. B2G B2B B2C Applications Military waypoints, judicial reports, construction...document in different languages uses contradicting terms like “UTC,” “GMT,” and world time to refer to exactly the same thing • Individual countries

  7. Applications for alliform carbon

    DOEpatents

    Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym; McDonough, IV, John Kenneth; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre Louis

    2017-02-21

    This invention relates to novel applications for alliform carbon, useful in conductors and energy storage devices, including electrical double layer capacitor devices and articles incorporating such conductors and devices. Said alliform carbon particles are in the range of 2 to about 20 percent by weight, relative to the weight of the entire electrode. Said novel applications include supercapacitors and associated electrode devices, batteries, bandages and wound healing, and thin-film devices, including display devices.

  8. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  9. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  10. Applications of electrospun fibers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Ding, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The simplicity of the electrospinning fabrication process, the diversity of electrospinnable materials, and the unique features associated with electrospun fibers make this technique and resultant structures attractive for various applications. The past few years witnessed the significant progresses in the application areas of electrospun fibers, which were demonstrated by the numbers of the recent published patents on electrospinning. It is very apparent that the current focus has been shifted from studying the modification of the electrospinning conditions and apparatus for obtaining fibers with different sizes, shapes, morphologies, structures, alignments before 2000 to looking for the possible applications of these resultant nanofibers with broad functionalities after 2001. The current paper presents a systematic review on the recent applications of electrospun nanofibers in a broad range of fields including biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound dressing and cosmetics, functional materials and devices such as composite reinforcement, filters, protective clothing and smart textiles, and energy and electronics such as batteries/cells and capacitors, sensors and catalysts. Although some of these applications may be still remained in the laboratory in the current stage, plenty of successful examples have proved that electrospun nanofibers have a bright future in a variety of industries.

  11. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-01

    "Cavity-optomechanics" aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  12. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  13. Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application

    SciTech Connect

    Koffman, Larry D.; Lee, Patricia L.; Cook, James R.; Wilhite, Elmer L.

    2008-01-15

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  14. Realisation de guides d'onde plans faibles pertes en nitrure de silicium pour un biocapteur integre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Arnaud

    utilisant le nitrure depose par LF-PECVD (basse frequence), et leurs performances sont comparees aux guides deposes par HF-PECVD (haute frequence). Nous demontrons, en variant le debit des precurseurs, que l'absorption et les pertes en propagation des couches de nitrure sont plus faibles lorsque les depots sont faits par la technique LF-PECVD par rapport a la technique HFPECVD. Cette difference s'explique probablement par le fait que le bombardement ionique, beaucoup plus important a basse frequence qu'a haute frequence, reduit la presence d'amas de silicium dans la couche, responsables de l'absorption dans le visible en plus de densifier les couches par enlevement de l'hydrogene qui s'incorpore durant la deposition PECVD. Nous demontrons egalement que pour la technique LF-PECVD, les proprietes optiques des couches sont ameliorees en utilisant une basse puissance pour la source r-f du plasma. En effet a haute puissance, le bombardement, tres energetique cree des defauts dans la couche et favorise la rupture des liaisons N-H plutot que des liaisons Si-H. Finalement des guides d'onde plans de nitrure de silicium, avec une epaisseur de 80 nm et un indice de refraction de 2, sont fabriques et caracterises. Des pertes de 0.1 dB/cm a 633 nm et 1.05 dB/cm a 532 nm sont obtenues et comparees avec les performances des autres materiaux. Mots cles: biocapteur, integration, guides plans, nitrure de silicium, couches minces

  15. Report on the International Workshop on Progress towards Molecular Scale Electronics Held in University of Durham on 25-28 March 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-28

    experimentally that the electrical signals are subject to modulation by the load resistance , the electrical characteristics of the supporting inert...Laboratoire des Materiaux Moleculaires, C.N.R.S. , 2 rue Henri-Dunant, 94320 Thiais, France Conjugated oligomers, such as thiophene derivatives, can be...and A. Skoulios Institute de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg Groupe des Materiaux Organiques, I.C.S. Strasbourg, France R. D. Miller IBM

  16. Structural Effects in the Dielectric Constant Rare-Earth Oxides: Nd2O3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER *Laboratoire d’Electrostatique at des Materiaux Dielectriques CNRS, BP 166 38042 Grenoble, Cedex, France...87117 and ,P. Gonon Laboratoire d’Electrostatique at des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex, France 1 also at...Laboratoire d’Electrostatique at des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex, France ABSTRACT Thin films of Nd2O3 have been

  17. Active Noise and Vibration Control Literature Survey: Sensors and Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    duire leur detectabilite done leur vulnerabilite a l’attaque ennemie. Le present rapport contient une etude approfondie des technologies des capteurs ...concentree sur une vaste gamme de materiaux de capteur et d’actionneur, tels que les materiaux piezoelectriques et electrostrictifs, les materiaux...l’air. On a etudie les technologies des capteurs et des actionneurs convenant a la limitation active du bruit se propageant par ces trajets (ou des

  18. Assessing Vulnerability of Biometric Technologies for Identity Management Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    télésurveillance et acquisition de données), et les services e- gouvernement , l’équipe d’étude pour PTSP-02-336BIOM a élaboré un cadre pour s’attaquer aux...cadre d’assurance de l’identité en ce qui concerne les systèmes informatiques, y compris les systèmes SCADA et des services e- gouvernement , et des...Les agences et ministères du gouvernement du Canada ont besoin d’information sur la performance, les vulnérabilités et l’efficacité des solutions

  19. Military Application of Space-Time Adaptive Processing (Les applications militaires du traitement adaptatif espace-temps)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    et spatiaux. Comparé aux autres capteurs ( optiques et infrarouges, visibles), le radar offre des performances complémentaires telles qu’un...SET-057) Synthèse La surveillance de la terre par des capteurs aéroportés et spatiaux est devenu un facteur essentiel de la guerre moderne. Des...opérations récentes (la guerre du Golfe, la Bosnie, l’Afghanistan), ont démontré l’intérêt des informations fournies par les capteurs aéroportés

  20. Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Michael T.

    2013-12-02

    This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, open source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.

  1. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  2. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  3. Data management applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's primary institutional computer is a 4 megabyte IBM 4341 with 3.175 billion characters of IBM 3350 disc storage. This system utilizes the Software AG product known as ADABAS with the on line user oriented features of NATURAL and COMPLETE as a Data Base Management System (DBMS). It is operational under the OS/VSI and is currently supporting batch/on line applications such as Personnel, Training, Physical Space Management, Procurement, Office Equipment Maintenance, and Equipment Visibility. A third and by far the largest DBMS application is known as the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) which is operational on a Honeywell 6660 (dedicated) computer system utilizing Honeywell Integrated Data Storage I (IDSI) as the DBMS. The SIMS application is designed to provide central supply system acquisition, inventory control, receipt, storage, and issue of spares, supplies, and materials.

  4. APTASENSORS FOR BIOSECURITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, N; Tarasow, T; Tok, J

    2007-01-03

    Nucleic acid aptamers have found steadily increased utility and application steadily over the last decade. In particular, aptamers have been touted as a valuable complement to and in some cases replacement for antibodies due to their structural and functional robustness as well as their ease in generation and synthesis. They are thus attractive for biosecurity applications, e.g. pathogen detection, and are especially well suited since their in vitro generation process does not require infection of any host systems. Herein we provide a brief overview of the aptamers generated against biopathogens over the last few years. In addition, a few recently described detection platforms using aptamers (aptasensors) and potentially suitable for biosecurity applications will be discussed.

  5. Clinical applications of magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Stufflebeam, Steven M; Tanaka, Naoaki; Ahlfors, Seppo P

    2009-06-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), in which magnetic fields generated by brain activity are recorded outside of the head, is now in routine clinical practice throughout the world. MEG has become a recognized and vital part of the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy and patients with brain tumors. We review investigations that show an improvement in the postsurgical outcomes of patients with epilepsy by localizing epileptic discharges. We also describe the most common clinical MEG applications that affect the management of patients, and discuss some applications that are close to having a clinical impact on patients.

  6. Microgravity Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The report presents fifteen papers from a workshop on microgravity science and applications held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, on December 3 to 4, 1984. The workshop and panel were formed by the Solid State Sciences Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council in response to a request from the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The goal was to review the microgravity science and applications (MSA) program of NASA and to evaluate the quality of the program. The topics for the papers are metals and alloys, electronic materials, ceramics and glasses, biotechnology, combustion science, and fluid dynamics.

  7. Applications Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, C. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the plans of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications for the Shuttle/Spacelab missions. It is reported that the current program contains dedicated low-gravity mission (Spacelab 3 mission) and several minor missions planned for flight during 1980-1982. It is noted that these missions have either Materials Processing or Earth viewing emphasis. Finally, several representative experiments are used to illustrate the Applications Spacelab Program, such as the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA), and the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Measured by Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment.

  8. Polyimide composites: Application histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poveromo, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced composite hardware exposed to thermal environments above 127 C (260 F) must be fabricated from materials having resin matrices whose thermal/moisture resistance is superior to that of conventional epoxy-matrix systems. A family of polyimide resins has evolved in the last 10 years that exhibits the thermal-oxidative stability required for high-temperature technology applications. The weight and structural benefits for organic-matrix composites can now be extended by designers and materials engineers to include structures exposed to 316 F (600 F). Polyimide composite materials are now commercially available that can replace metallic or epoxy composite structures in a wide range of aerospace applications.

  9. Science Application Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the science application team activities. Science Application team are: (1) Represent the diversity of NASA onboard computing of the future. (2) Drive architecture and system software requirements. (3) Demonstrate the benefit of highly capable computing onboard. (4) Study the birth of the first galaxies. (5) Study formation of stars. (6) Discusses the next generation space telescope hardware/software requirement: image processing and on-board optical calibration. Also discusses gamma ray large area space telescope; orbital thermal imaging spectrometer; solar terrestrial probe program; autonomous Mars rover;fault tolerance and errors.

  10. Location Based Application Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem Akram, Raja; Markantonakis, Konstantinos; Mayes, Keith

    Smart cards are being integrated into a diverse range of industries: ranging from banking, telecom, transport, home/office access control to health and E-passport. Traditionally, cardholders are required to carry a smart card for each application. However, recent developments in the Near Field Communication (NFC) have renewed the interest in multiple applications for different services on a single device. This paper builds onto the NFC initiative and avoids the smart card ownership issues that hinder the adoption of such devices. The proposal integrates the Global Positioning System with the NFC in mobile phones to provide a ubiquitously and flexible service access model.

  11. National information infrastructure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.; George, J.; Greenfield, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a telemedical application in which medical records are electronically searched and digital signatures of real CT scan data are indexed and used to characterize a range of diseases and are used to compare on-line medical data with archived clinical data rapidly. This system includes multimedia data management, interactive collaboration, data compression and transmission, remote data storage and retrieval, and automated data analysis integrated in a distributed application between Los Alamos and the National Jewish Hospital.

  12. Future communications satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  13. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  14. Applications of Superconductivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodkind, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Presents a general review of current practical applications of the properties of superconducters. The devices are classified into groups according to the property that is of primary importance. The article is inteded as a first introduction for students and professionals. (Author/DS)

  15. Transducer applications, a compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and applications of transducers are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) thermal measurements, (2) liquid level and fluid flow measurements, (3) pressure transducers, (4) stress-strain measurements, (5) acceleration and velocity measurements, (6) displacement and angular rotation, and (7) transducer test and calibration methods.

  16. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  17. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  18. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  20. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  1. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  2. Clinical Application of Electrocardiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammell, H. L.; Orr, William

    The scalar electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most important and commonly used clinical tools in medicine. A detailed description of the recordings of cardiac electrical activity made by the ECG is presented, and the vast numbers of uses made with the data provided by this diagnostic tool are cited. Clinical applications of the ECG are listed.…

  3. Computer applications in bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Bungay, H R

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnologists have stayed at the forefront for practical applications for computing. As hardware and software for computing have evolved, the latest advances have found eager users in the area of bioprocessing. Accomplishments and their significance can be appreciated by tracing the history and the interplay between the computing tools and the problems that have been solved in bioprocessing.

  4. Applications of kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. This report presents the author's derivation of analytical solutions useful in understanding the operation of a CFB. The report is in a form of a chapter that reviews the kinetic theory applications.

  5. VCSEL Applications and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson; Goorjian, Peter; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Li, Jian-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) simulation and its applications. Details are given on the optical interconnection in information technology of VCSEL, the formulation of the simulation, its numeric algorithm, and the computational results.

  6. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  7. Arizona's Application Service Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Darla

    2002-01-01

    Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service provider (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, provides access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home. (EV)

  8. Microcontroller for automation application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  9. Les Reseaux de Bragg dans la Fibre Optique et leurs Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn

    Dans les systemes de communications optiques actuels, la fibre optique ne constitue qu'un canal de transmission. L'amplification des signaux transmis ainsi que les decisions les concernant, comme la commutation, se font electroniquement. La conversion des signaux optiques en signaux electroniques (et vice versa) est couteuse et d'efficacite restreinte. Il est donc necessaire pour les chercheurs de trouver des strategies qui permettraient de transmettre le signal d'un bout a l'autre de la ligne sous forme optique. Deja, des amplificateurs a fibre existent pour repondre au premier probleme; il reste a trouver une maniere tout-optique de prendre des decisions par rapport au signal transmis. L'utilisation de filtres passifs, hautement selectifs en longueur d'onde et inscrits directement dans la fibre optique, est une solution elegante pour repondre a ce second probleme. Les reseaux de Bragg dans la fibre optique correspondent a cette description: nous avons donc decide de les etudier de facon rigoureuse. Nous avons d'abord tente de mieux comprendre la reaction photosensible provoquant l'inscription de ce genre de dispositif dans certaines fibres optiques. Ensuite, une nouvelle methode d'inscription de reseaux de Bragg dans la fibre optique a ete elaboree et caracterisee. Finalement, certaines applications des reseaux que nous avons inscrits ont ete proposees. L'etude de la reaction photosensible a ete faite indirectement, a l'aide de phenomenes provoques par celle -ci: la photoluminescence, l'attenuation photo-induite et les changements d'indice photo-induits. L'observation de ces phenomenes nous a permis de developper un modele sommaire, expliquant en partie la reaction photosensible. Le montage d'ecriture des reseaux de Bragg dans la fibre optique nous a permis d'observer la nature quasi -isotrope du changement d'indice photo-induit. La qualite des reseaux de Bragg inscrits a l'aide de ce montage a ete evaluee. Le montage nous a aussi permis de demontrer que la

  10. 10 CFR 611.100 - Eligible applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant's debt-to-equity ratio as of the date of the loan application; (2) The applicant's earnings before... to the date of the loan application; (3) The applicant's debt to EBITDA ratio as of the date of the... application; (6) The applicant's liquidity as of the date of the loan application; (7) Statements...

  11. Vie sociale I: Introduction aux droits et aux responsabilites des citoyens americains (Social Studies I: Introduction to the Rights and Responsibilities of American Citizens).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    The textbook for a social studies course on citizenship rights and responsibilities in the United States, presented entirely in French, consists of eight chapters. Each contains a preview of vocabularly and key ideas; a brief introductory text on the chapter topic; and a series of more specific texts, with illustrations, a list of questions for…

  12. Novel Applications of Peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Abdul; Ball, Andrew S.; Tuncer, Munir; Wilson, Michael T.

    1997-02-01

    The article entitled "Novel Biocatalysts Will Work Even Better for Industry" published recently in this Journal (1) was informative and interesting. However it touched only briefly on the application of peroxidase as catalyst. Here, we would like to mention in more detail the novel applications of peroxidase in agricultural, paper pulp, water treatment, pharmaceutical, and medical situations. Firstly, the peroxidase isolated from Phanerochaete chyrosporium has been shown to detoxify herbicides such as atrazine to less toxic compounds and would certainly find potential application in agriculture (2). Secondly, the peroxidase produced by Streptomyces thermoviolaceus may find application in the paper pulp industry as a delignifying agent (3). Thirdly, it has been shown that extracellular peroxidase produced by Streptomyces avermitilis can remove the intense color from paper-mill effluent obtained after semichemical alkaline pulping of wheat straw (4), and thus this enzyme might find application as a catalyst in water treatment plants. Fourthly, the heme-containing horseradish peroxidase enzyme has been exploited in several diagnostic applications in pharmaceutics and medicine, such as the detection of human immunodeficiency virus and cystic fibrosis (5-10). Finally, recent work from our laboratory has suggested that thermophilic nonheme peroxidase produced by Thermomonospora fusca BD25 may find medical use in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (11, 12). Literature Cited 1. Wiseman, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 55-58. 2. Mougin, C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60, 705-708. 3. McCarthy A. J.; Peace, W.; Broda, P. Appl. Microbiol. Technol. 1985, 23, 238-244. 4. Hernandez, M; Rodriguez J; Soliveri, J; Copa, J. L; Perez, M. I; Arias, M. E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60, 3909-3913. 5. Hopfer, S. M.; Aslanzadeh, J. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1995, 25, 475-480. 6. Suzuki, K; Iman, M. J. Virol. Methods 1995, 55, 347-356. 7. Nielsen, K. J. Immunoassay 1995, 16, 183-197. 8

  13. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  14. Nattokinase: production and application.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Behfar, Abdolazim; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Irajie, Cambyz; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 3.4.21.62) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed.

  15. Biochemiluminescence and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Champiat, D; Roux, A; Lhomme, O; Nosenzo, G

    1994-12-01

    Although used for analytical purposes for more than 40 years it is only recently that biochemiluminescence (BCL) has found widespread acceptance. Methods employing BCL reactions now play an important role in biomedical research and laboratory medicine. The main attractions for the assay technology include exquisite sensitivity (attomole-zeptomole), high selectivity, speed and simplicity. In biomedical research, the most important applications of BCL are: (1) to estimate microbial numbers and to assess cellular states (e.g., after exposure to antibiotic or cytotoxic agents) and in reporter gene studies (firefly luciferase gene); (2) NAD(P)H involved in redox/dehydrogenase studies using Vibrio luciferase complex; (3) BCL labels and CL detection of enzyme labels in immunoassays are the most widespread routine application for this technology. BCL enzyme immunoassays represent the most active area of development, e.g., enhanced BCL method for peroxidase and BCL assays for alkaline phosphatase labels using adamantyl 1,2-dioxetane.

  16. NASA: Biomedical applications team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status of projects involving the adaptation of NASA technologies for medical purposes is reviewed. Devices for the measurement of joint deformation of arthritic hands, the development of an artificial pancreas, provision of an auditory signal to avert epileptic seizures, are described along with the control of medication levels, a compressed air tank to supply power for field dentistry, and an electroencephalogram monitor. The use of the Lixiscope as a portable fluoroscope, thermal laminates for hand and foot warmers for patients with Raynaud's syndrome, and the use of absorptive coatings for instruments for controlling medication levels are described. The applicability of occupation health and safety practices to industry, computerized patient scheduling, impregnation of the common facial tissue with an agent for killing respiratory viruses, commercial applications of anthropometric data, and multispectral image analysis of the skin as a diagnostic tool are reviewed.

  17. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  18. Glyconanomaterials for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nanjing; Neranon, Kitjanit; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2016-02-15

    Nanomaterials constitute a class of structures that have unique physiochemical properties and are excellent scaffolds for presenting carbohydrates, important biomolecules that mediate a wide variety of important biological events. The fabrication of carbohydrate-presenting nanomaterials, glyconanomaterials, is of high interest and utility, combining the features of nanoscale objects with biomolecular recognition. The structures can also produce strong multivalent effects, where the nanomaterial scaffold greatly enhances the relatively weak affinities of single carbohydrate ligands to the corresponding receptors, and effectively amplifies the carbohydrate-mediated interactions. Glyconanomaterials are thus an appealing platform for biosensing applications. In this review, we discuss the chemistry for conjugation of carbohydrates to nanomaterials, summarize strategies, and tabulate examples of applying glyconanomaterials in in vitro and in vivo sensing applications of proteins, microbes, and cells. The limitations and future perspectives of these emerging glyconanomaterials sensing systems are furthermore discussed.

  19. Glyconanomaterials for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Nanjing; Neranon, Kitjanit

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials constitute a class of structures that have unique physiochemical properties and are excellent scaffolds for presenting carbohydrates, important biomolecules that mediate a wide variety of important biological events. The fabrication of carbohydrate-presenting nanomaterials, glyconanomaterials, is of high interest and utility, combining the features of nanoscale objects with biomolecular recognition. The structures can also produce strong multivalent effects, where the nanomaterial scaffold greatly enhances the relatively weak affinities of single carbohydrate ligands to the corresponding receptors, and effectively amplifies the carbohydrate-mediated interactions. Glyconanomaterials are thus an appealing platform for biosensing applications. In this review, we discuss the chemistry for conjugation of carbohydrates to nanomaterials, summarize strategies, and tabulate examples of applying glyconanomaterials in in vitro and in vivo sensing applications of proteins, microbes, and cells. The limitations and future perspectives of these emerging glyconanomaterials sensing systems are furthermore discussed. PMID:26212205

  20. QMRPACK and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.W.; Nachtigal, N.M.

    1994-10-01

    QMRPACK is a package of quasi-minimal residual algorithms for the iterative solution of linear systems. In this paper, the authors describe the main features of QMRPACK, comment on the implementations found in the package, and discuss how they would be invoked in a user code. They briefly describe two applications of the codes in the area of simulation of material properties from first principles, and in circuit simulation. They conclude by presenting future directions for QMRPACK.

  1. 1994 Technology Applications Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    converting the oxygen to an active form that kills the cancer cells. Another system, still in the research stage, will be used in fertility...chemical company for improved honeycomb-based ceramics for industrial catalytic converters . ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY HfMI develops new molding, forming...other areas as well. .Developers, in turn, have converted their BMDO sensor products to commercial uses such as oil drilling and automotive applications

  2. Glyconanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chang-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two decades, glycosylated nanoparticles (i.e., glyconanoparticles having sugar residues on the surface) received much attention for biomedical applications such as bioassays and targeted drug delivery. This minireview focuses on three aspects: (1) glycosylated gold nanoparticles, (2) glycosylated quantum dots, and (3) glyconanoparticles self-assembled from amphiphilic glycopolymers. The synthetic methods and the multivalent interactions between glyconanoparticles and lectins is shortly illustrated.

  3. Baltimore applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T. S.; Yaffee, P.

    1978-01-01

    The Baltimore Applications Project (BAP) was originally designed as an experimental effort to assist the government of the City of Baltimore in applying technology to the solution of municipal problems. Recent modifications in the structuring and operation of the program are discussed. A tabular update on the individual tasks undertaken and their treatment is provided. Details of energy and nonenergy related tasks are presented in appendices.

  4. Applications of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-06-01

    Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas.

  5. Biomedical applications of photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Barbara Pui

    2010-10-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities and research opportunities in this field are discussed.

  6. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Aubrey L. Anderson (O), Lennart A. Anderson (V), Kathleen W. Baird (V), William R. Bergmann (A), E. N. Bernard (O), Joyce R. Blueford (O), Wayne M. Brewer (T), Nancy Ann Brewster (O), Philip S. Callahan (O), Jack G. Calvert (A), Drew A. Carey (O), Benjamin Chen (O), J. W. Cole (V), George Courtney (T), Charles G. Crawford (H).

  7. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  8. Oxide Films RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    different stabilities and properties . Certain applications, such as integrated dielectrics or photoelectrochemical cells, require thin films of TiO2 that...interesting dielectric properties . Another is that the (001) plane of anatase TiO2 is one of the two main layers stacked along the (100) direction in...Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES .bDib ibuUl I U 1 iited 14. ABSTRACT TiO2 films were grown using a reactive molecular beam epitaxy system

  9. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  10. Opportunities for PV applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, John A.; Rahilly, W. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    Workshop members devoted the majority of time to discussing future prospects for technology support of photovoltaic applications. Photovoltaics has provided power for almost every spacecraft launched in the free world in the last 25 years. Over this time, photovoltaics has demonstrated impressive growth in power level, operating lifetime and specific power (W/kg and W/square m). Yet, the current attitude toward this reliable form of space power generation is likely to preclude further dramatic performance gains.

  11. Fresnel lens light applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Castel, J.C.; Kerwin, R.G.

    1987-09-01

    A therapeutic laser radiation applicator is described which consists of: means for providing laser radiation in an elliptical transverse distribution; and means for converting the elliptical transverse distribution of the laser radiation into a circular distribution thereof comprising at least two axially spaced fresnel lenses, and means for mounting the fresnel lenses in preselected association with the laser radiation means for refracting a portion of a laser radiation to the circular distribution adapted to provide a therapeutic tissue irradiation pattern.

  12. Agricultural application of SWECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.

    Principal applications of wind energy for agriculture are (1) farmstead power, mainly electrical, (2) building heating, (3) irrigation pumping, (4) product storage and processing, (5) hot water for residences and dairies, and (6) associated industries of agribusiness such as feedlots, fertilizer elevators, greenhouses, etc. Field experiments show that wind energy is a viable alternative, however, reliability and maintenance are still major problems. Test results of the various experiments are described.

  13. Newton polyhedron and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    We give a simple presentation of an algorithm of selecting asymptotical first approximations of equations (algebraic and ordinary differential and partial differential). Here the first approximation of a solution of the initial equation is a solution of the corresponding first approximation of the equation. The algorithm is based on the geometry of power exponents including the Newton polyhedron. We give also a survey of applications of the algorithm in problems of Celestial Mechanics and Hydrodynamics.

  14. Space vehicle accelerometer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The physics of accelerometer applications are reviewed, and details are given on accelerometer instruments and the principles of their operations. The functions to which accelerometers are applied are listed, and terms commonly used in accelerometer reports are defined. Criteria guides state what rule, limitation, or standard must be imposed on each essential design element to insure successful design. Elaboration of these criteria in the form of recommended practices show how to satisfy each of these criteria, with the best procedure described when possible.

  15. 40 CFR 194.15 - certification application(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Applications Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re-certification application(s... Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  17. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  18. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  19. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  20. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  1. Commercial applications for COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  2. FPA Depot - Web Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Edwin M. Martinez; Muniz, Ricardo; Szafran, Jamie; Dalton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Lines of code (LOC) analysis is one of the methods used to measure programmer productivity and estimate schedules of programming projects. The Launch Control System (LCS) had previously used this method to estimate the amount of work and to plan development efforts. The disadvantage of using LOC as a measure of effort is that one can only measure 30% to 35% of the total effort of software projects involves coding [8]. In the application, instead of using the LOC we are using function point for a better estimation of hours in each software to develop. Because of these disadvantages, Jamie Szafran of the System Software Branch of Control And Data Systems (NE-C3) at Kennedy Space Canter developed a web application called Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot. The objective of this web application is that the LCS software architecture team can use the data to more accurately estimate the effort required to implement customer requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the domain model used for function point analysis as project managers continually strive to generate more accurate estimates.

  3. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  4. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  5. [The applicability of results].

    PubMed

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied.

  6. Application des codes de Monte Carlo à la radiothérapie par rayonnement à faible TEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcié, S.

    1998-04-01

    In radiation therapy, there is low LET rays: photons of 60Co, photons and electrons to 4 at 25 MV created in a linac, photons 137Cs, of 192Ir and of 125I. To know the most exactly possible the dose to the tissu by this rays, software and measurements are used. With the development of the power and the capacity of computers, the application of Monte Carlo codes expand to the radiation therapy which have permitted to better determine effects of rays and spectra, to explicit parameters used in dosimetric calculation, to verify algorithms , to study measuremtents systems and phantoms, to calculate the dose in inaccessible points and to consider the utilization of new radionuclides. En Radiothérapie, il existe une variété, de rayonnements ? faible TLE : photons du cobalt 60, photons et ,électron de 4 à? 25 MV générés dans des accélérateurs linéaires, photons du césium 137, de l'iridium 192 et de l'iode 125. Pour connatre le plus exactement possible la dose délivrée aux tissus par ces rayonnements, des logiciels sont utilisés ainsi que des instruments de mesures. Avec le développement de la puissance et de la capacité, des calculateurs, l'application des codes de Monte Carlo s'est ,étendue ? la Radiothérapie ce qui a permis de mieux cerner les effets des rayonnements, déterminer les spectres, préciser les valeurs des paramètres utilisés dans les calculs dosimétriques, vérifier les algorithmes, ,étudier les systèmes de mesures et les fantomes utilisés, calculer la dose en des points inaccessibles ?à la mesure et envisager l'utilisation de nouveaux radio,éléments.

  7. LAVA Applications to Open Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Housman, Jeff; Barad, Mike; Brehm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Outline: LAVA (Launch Ascent Vehicle Aerodynamics); Introduction; Acoustics Related Applications; LAVA Applications to Open Rotor; Structured Overset Grids; Cartesian Grid with Immersed Boundary; High Speed Case; High Speed Case with Plate Low Speed Case.

  8. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  9. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  10. Laser Ablation for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    Medical applications of laser are measurement, laser surgery, in-situ monitoring, and processing of medical devices. In this paper, author briefly reviews the trends of medical applications, describes some new applications, and then discuss about the future trends and problems of medical applications. At present, the domestic market of laser equipment for medical applications is nearly 1/10 of that for industrial applications, which has registered significant growth continuously. Laser surgery as a minimum invasive surgery under arthroscope is expected to decrease the pain of patients. Precise processing such as cutting and welding is suitable for manufacturing medical devices. Pulsed laser deposition has been successfully applied to the thin film coating. The corneal refractive surgery by ArF excimer laser has been widely accepted for its highly safe operation. Laser ablation for retinal implant in the visual prosthesis is one of the promising applications of laser ablation in medicine. New applications with femtosecond laser are expected in the near future.

  11. Capacitor Technologies, Applications and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of capacitor technologies and applications are discussed. Major emphasis is placed on: the causes of failures; accelerated testing; screening tests; destructive physical analysis; applications techniques; and improvements in capacitor capabilities.

  12. Application Kit for Federal Assistance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Grant & Cooperative Agreement Act of 1977 requires Federal agencies to use a contract to acquire property or services that directly benefit the Federal government.This letter to the applicant explains the Application Kit for Federal Assistance.

  13. Applicant Analysis: 2001 Entering Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Ramanna, Satyan; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents findings of the annual analysis of dental school applicant numbers and characteristics conducted by the American Dental Education Association. There were 7,412 applicants to dental schools in 2001, and 57.6% were enrolled in 2001. Provides other data about applicants and admissions. (SLD)

  14. Birthdates of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L; Sokol, Robert J.; Kruger, Michael L.; Yargeau, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    We determined if the "relative age" effect, wherein older students in an age cohort in early grades do better academically, extends to birthdates of applicants to medical schools, and if birthdates are related to the success of their applications. We examined birthdays of applicants from Michigan to Wayne State University's School of…

  15. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  16. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  17. Systems Applications in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schure, Alexander

    This paper discusses the application of computers for higher education and describes a philosophy and initial application of an accountability system that can aid in coping with the problems of occupationally related schools. Discussed are: (1) the role of computers in systems application; (2) the need for systems related information: the…

  18. Technological Applications in Science Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L.; Kumar, David D.

    Educational technology has been a focus of development and research in science teaching and learning. This document reviews research dealing with computer and hypermedia applications to assessment in science education. The paper reports the findings first for computer applications for assessment and then for hypermedia applications in assessment.…

  19. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  20. Factsheets Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,FRANK; REEDER,ROXANA G.

    2000-10-30

    The Factsheets web application was conceived out of the requirement to create, update, publish, and maintain a web site with dynamic research and development (R and D) content. Before creating the site, a requirements discovery process was done in order to accurately capture the purpose and functionality of the site. One of the high priority requirements for the site would be that no specialized training in web page authoring would be necessary. All functions of uploading, creation, and editing of factsheets needed to be accomplished by entering data directly into web form screens generated by the application. Another important requirement of the site was to allow for access to the factsheet web pages and data via the internal Sandia Restricted Network and Sandia Open Network based on the status of the input data. Important to the owners of the web site would be to allow the published factsheets to be accessible to all personnel within the department whether or not the sheets had completed the formal Review and Approval (R and A) process. Once the factsheets had gone through the formal review and approval process, they could then be published both internally and externally based on their individual publication status. An extended requirement and feature of the site would be to provide a keyword search capability to search through the factsheets. Also, since the site currently resides on both the internal and external networks, it would need to be registered with the Sandia search engines in order to allow access to the content of the site by the search engines. To date, all of the above requirements and features have been created and implemented in the Factsheet web application. These have been accomplished by the use of flat text databases, which are discussed in greater detail later in this paper.

  1. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  2. Direct application of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  3. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  4. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  5. Introduction to Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Ashley J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    The first two parts of this book describe various theories associated with light propagation in tissue and the resulting response. If coherence or polarization information is not needed, we assume that the transport equation governs the optical interaction of light with tissue and the heat conduction equation provides the basis for estimating the thermal response of tissue to laser radiation. In part III of this book, the theory for optical and thermal interactions of laser light with tissue are used to analyze medical applications. In particular, the concepts of parts I and II

  6. NASA RFID Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick, Ph.D.; Kennedy, Timothy, Ph.D; Powers, Anne; Haridi, Yasser; Chu, Andrew; Lin, Greg; Yim, Hester; Byerly, Kent, Ph.D.; Barton, Richard, Ph.D.; Khayat, Michael, Ph.D.; Studor, George; Brocato, Robert; Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. D., Ph.D.; Gross, Julia; Phan, Chau; Ni, David, Ph.D.; Dusl, John; Dekome, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some potential uses for Radio Frequency Identification in space missions. One of these is inventory management in space, including the methods used in Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and Space Station. The potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost are reviewed. The use of Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking are examined such as that used in Sapphire DART The advantages of RFID in passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications are shown such as: Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities The potential for E-textiles for wireless and RFID are also examined.

  7. Microdosimetry: Principles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim to present the most important aspects of Microdosimetry, a research field in radiation biophysics. Background microdosimetry is the branch of radiation biophysics that systematically studies the spatial, temporal and spectral aspects of the stochastic nature of the energy deposition processes in microscopic structures. Materials and Methods we briefly review its history, the people, the formalism and the theories and devices that allowed researchers to begin to understand the true nature of radiation action on living matter. Results and Conclusions we outline some of its applications, especially to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, attempting to explain the biological effectiveness of the boron thermal neutron capture reaction. PMID:26933397

  8. Antenna applications of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. C.

    1991-09-01

    The applicability of superconductors to antennas is examined. Potential implementations that are examined are superdirective arrays; electrically small antennas; tuning and matching of these two; high-gain millimeter-wavelength arrays; and kinetic inductance slow wave structures for array phasers and traveling wave array feeds. It is thought that superdirective arrays and small antennas will not benefit directly, but their tuning/matching networks will undergo major improvements. Miniaturization of antennas will not be aided, but much higher gain millimeter-wave arrays will be realizable. Kinetic inductance slow-wave lines appear advantageous for improved array phasers and time delay, as well as for traveling-wave array feeds.

  9. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Henry D. I. Abarbanel (O), Julia C. Allen (H), Gwendolyn L. Anson (GP), Andrew Bakun (O), C. A. Bengtson (T), Patricia A. Berge (S), Peter R. Betzer (O), Pierre Boivin (V), Michael V. Capobianco (P), Martin C. Chapman (S), Chu-Yung Chen (V), Timothy J. Clarke (S), Steven C. Constable (GP), Michele Dermer (H), G. M. Dow (T), Carl E. Draper (G), Dean A. Dunn (O), I. B. Everingham (S).

  10. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus; Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry.

  11. Widening ERTS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    In less than two years of operation ERTS-1 is shown to have successfully completed its experimental mission and to be delivering an ever-increasing roster of benefits. The widening ERTS applications reviewed include air quality and weather modification, aid to oil exploration, ore-deposit exploration, short-lived event observation, flood area assessment and flood-plain mapping, land and water quality assessment, soil association mapping, crop production measurements, wildlife resources, drought and desertification studies, ground-water exploration, watershed surveys, snow and ice monitoring, surface water mapping, and iceberg surveys. Future projects and developments are also briefly reviewed.

  12. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

  13. Electromagnetic levitation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bayazitoglu, Y.

    1996-11-01

    At high temperatures, most materials react with the walls of their containers. This inevitably leads to material contamination and property degradation. Therefore, it becomes difficult to process materials to the required degree of purity and/or measure their properties at high temperatures. Levitation melting has been used on earth and microgravity since to circumvent this problem. In this paper, first a broad survey of the work done in electromagnetic levitation since its invention is given. Then the heat generation due to an alternating magnetic field is studied. Finally, the application of levitation melting in the determination of thermal diffusivity, emissivity, surface tension and viscosity of liquid metals is presented.

  14. Composite prepreg application device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A heated shoe and cooled pressure roller assembly for composite prepreg application is provided. The shoe assembly includes a heated forward contact surface having a curved pressure surface. The following cooled roller provides a continuous pressure to the thermoplastic while reducing the temperature to approximately 5.degree. C. below glass transition temperature. Electric heating coils inside the forward portion of the shoe heat a thermoplastic workpiece to approximately 100.degree. C. above the glass transition. Immediately following the heated contact surface, a cooled roller cools the work. The end sharpened shape of the heated shoe trailing edge tends to prevent slag buildup and maintain a uniform, relaxed stress fabrication.

  15. Thermoplastics for prosthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R B; Davies, R M

    1981-10-01

    The rapid and accurate thermoforming of plastics for prosthetic applications has been the subject of considerable research and development by the Bioengineering Centre. This paper outlines the progress in the general concepts that have been effected to date. The original below knee (B/K) socket vacuum forming technique has been extended to above knee (A/K) and supracondylar cases, and there have been developments in rotational casting technology. The work is necessarily based on a sound understanding of the properties of the materials concerned and of the associated manufacturing processes. The contribution of the Bioengineering Centre is outlined together with summaries of collaborative work carried out with other organizations.

  16. Laser applications in phlebology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Leonardo; Mancini, S.; Postiglione, Marco; Postiglione, M. G.

    2001-06-01

    PURPOSE: review of laser used in phlebology METHOD: critical analysis of scientific data taken from the literature and based on 25 years personal experience. RESULTS: we have three groups of laser applications in phlebology: for the diagnosis, as physical therapy and as surgical therapy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: the laser-doppler studies the microcirculations, the no-surgical therapy shown positive results in the treatment of venous ulcers and for the wound healing. It could be indicate also as antiphlogistic and anti-edema therapy, in superficial thrombophlebitis. The surgical laser is useful for the surgical cleaning of ulcers, for haemorroids, angiomas and telangiectases.

  17. Lubricants in conveyor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, C.G.; Bland, S.B.; Melley, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper looks at four critical lubricants used in the conveyor systems of the northern Albertan oil sand facility. The requirements for the lubricants used in the electric motors and gear boxes of the drive systems, the pulley bearings and the idler bearings are discussed in terms of the application and the environment. A number of developments that have occurred in recent years are presented. Data from the field and from custom designed testing in the laboratory are used to support the role of simulation testing in problem solving in this area of technology. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Digital communications: Microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, K.

    Transmission concepts and techniques of digital systems are presented; and practical state-of-the-art implementation of digital communications systems by line-of-sight microwaves is described. Particular consideration is given to statistical methods in digital transmission systems analysis, digital modulation methods, microwave amplifiers, system gain, m-ary and QAM microwave systems, correlative techniques and applications to digital radio systems, hybrid systems, digital microwave systems design, diversity and protection switching techniques, measurement techniques, and research and development trends and unsolved problems.

  19. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  20. Plasma core reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, T. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall. Results of calculations for outward-directed radiant energy fluxes corresponding to radiating temperatures of 2000 to 5000 K indicate total operating pressures from 80 to 650 atm, centerline temperatures from 6900 to 30,000 K, and total radiated powers from 25 to 2500 MW, respectively. Applications are described for this type of reactor such as (1) high-thrust, high specific impulse space propulsion, (2) highly efficient systems for generation of electricity, and (3) hydrogen or synthetic fuel production systems using the intense radiant energy fluxes.

  1. Superstatistics: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.

    2015-12-01

    Many driven nonequilibrium systems are described by a superposition of several dynamics on various time scales. If time scales are clearly separated then the formalism of superstatistics can be applied, leading effectively to a more general statistical mechanics relevant for complex systems. In these types of systems there is often dynamical behavior that is characterized by spatio-temporal fluctuations of an intensive parameter β. This parameter may be for example the inverse temperature, or an effective friction constant, or the amplitude of Gaussian white noise, or the energy dissipation in turbulent flows, or simply a local variance parameter extracted from a measured signal. A nonhomogenoeus spatially extended system with fluctuations in β on a large time scale, larger than the local relaxation time, leads to a superstatistical description, by averaging local Boltzmann factors using a suitable weight function f(β). Kappa distributions in space plasma physics are one example which naturally follows out of this formalism, but there are many applications in other areas as well. In this talk I will sketch the basic theory underlying the superstatistical approach and then describe a couple of recent applications.

  2. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  3. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  4. Novel oral laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Beer, F.; Verhagen, L.; Wittschier, M.; Wintner, E.

    2007-03-01

    In dental hard tissue ablation, ultra-short laser pulses have proven sufficiently their potential for material ablation with negligible collateral damage providing many advantages. The absence of micro-cracks and the possibility to avoid overheating of the pulp during dental cavity preparation may be among the most important issues, the latter opening up an avenue for potential painless treatment. Beside the evident short interaction time of laser radiation with the irradiated tissue, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of required quality and shape. Additionally, long-pulsed laser systems have demonstrated successfully their suitability for decontamination purposes. In this paper, an overview of different indications for laser application in dental therapies in both pulse regimes is presented. A special focus is set on the decontamination of dental implants in periimplantitis therapy. Having employed commercially available long pulse systems for dental applications and ultra-short 330 fs pulses, we present first results for temperature development and corresponding ablation thresholds for dental implants, as in the future more gentle implant cleaning by ultra-short laser pulses could become of interest.

  5. Surety applications in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure surety can make a valuable contribution to the transportation engineering industry. The lessons learned at Sandia National Laboratories in developing surety principles and technologies for the nuclear weapons complex and the nuclear power industry hold direct applications to the safety, security, and reliability of the critical infrastructure. This presentation introduces the concepts of infrastructure surety, including identification of the normal, abnormal, and malevolent threats to the transportation infrastructure. National problems are identified and examples of failures and successes in response to environmental loads and other structural and systemic vulnerabilities are presented. The infrastructure surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories are described. Currently available technologies including (a) three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing packages interactively combined with virtual reality systems, (b) the complex calculational and computational modeling and code-coupling capabilities associated with the new generation of supercomputers, and (c) risk-management methodologies with application to solving the national problems associated with threats to the critical transportation infrastructure are discussed.

  6. Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  7. Web Platform Application

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsworth, Ashley; Kurtz, Jim; Brun de Pontet, Stephanie

    2016-06-15

    Sunvestment Energy Group (previously called Sunvestment Group) was established to create a web application that brings together site hosts, those who will obtain the energy from the solar array, with project developers and funders, including affinity investors. Sunvestment Energy Group (SEG) uses a community-based model that engages with investors who have some affinity with the site host organization. In addition to a financial return, these investors receive non-financial value from their investments and are therefore willing to offer lower cost capital. This enables the site host to enjoy more savings from solar through these less expensive Community Power Purchase Agreements (CPPAs). The purpose of this award was to develop an online platform to bring site hosts and investors together virtually.

  8. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  9. Terahertz technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, P.

    2002-01-01

    Despite great scientific interest since at least the 1920's, the THz frequency range remains on e of the least tapped regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sandwiched between traditional microwave and optical technologies where there is a limited atmospheric propagation path, little commercial emphasis has been placed on THz systems. This has, perhaps fortunately, preserved some unique science and applications for tomorrow's technologies. For over 25 years the sole niche for THz technology has been in the high resolution spectroscopy and remote sensing areas where heterodyne and Fourier transform techniques have allowed astronomers, chemists, Earth, planetary and space scientists to measure, catalog and map thermal emission lines for a wide variety of lightweight molecules. As it turns out, no where else in the electromagnetic spectrum do we receive so much information about these chemical species. In fact, the universe is bathed in THz energy, most of it going unnoticed and undetected.

  10. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  11. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  12. Laser applications in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerullo, Leonard J.

    1985-09-01

    The "false start" of the laser in neurosurgery should not be misconstrued as a denial of the inherent advantages of precision and gentleness in dealing with neural tissue. Rather, early investigators were frustrated by unrealistic expectations, cumbersome equipment, and a general ignorance of microtechnique. By the early 70s, microneurosurgery was well established, surgical laser equipment for free hand and microlinked application had been developed, and a more realistic view of the limitations of the laser had been established. Consequently, the late 70s really heralded the renaissance of the laser in neurosurgery. Since then, there has been an overwhelming acceptance of the tool in a variety of clinical situations, broadly categorized in five groups. 1)|Perhaps the most generally accepted area is in the removal of extra-axial tumors of the brain and spinal cord. These tumors, benign by histology but treacherous by location, do not present until a significant amount of neurological compensation has already occurred. The application of additional trauma to the neural tissue, whether by further tumor growth or surgical manipulation, frequently results in irreversible damage. Here, the ability of the laser to vaporize tissue, in a fairly hemostatic fashion, without mechanical or thermal damage to sensitive surrounding tissues, is essential. 2)|The ability to incise delicate neural tissue with minimal spread of thermal destruction to adjacent functioning tissue makes the laser the ideal instrument when tumors deep under the surface are encountered in the brain or spinal cord. Thus, the second group of applications is in the transgression of normal neural structures to arrive at deeper pathological tissue. 3)|The third area of benefit for the laser in neurosurgery has been in the performance of neuroablative procedures, calling for deliberate destruction of functioning neural tissue in a controlled fashion. Again, the precision and shape confinement of the destructive

  13. Biomedical applications of collagens.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John A M

    2016-05-01

    Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies.

  14. Applications of magnetic sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, S. G.; Andrews, D. G.

    The interplanetary magnetic sail is a low-thrust propulsion device that derives its motive power from the interaction of solar wind ions with the magnetic field of a circular current-bearing loop of superconducting cable. The principal advantage of a magnetic sail is that it produces thrust in opposition to the sun's gravity without consuming any propellant whatsoever. The low acceleration of a magnetic sail restricts its applicability to missions that do not demand rapid changes in velocity. In many cases, though, that disadvantage is overwhelmed by the desirability of a system that does not have to be refuelled. Missions well suited for magnetic sails include propulsion for a robot asteroid surveyor, orbital correction for structures in unstable libration points, motive power for orbital correction near planets with magnetic fields, and aerobraking in planetary ionospheres.

  15. The Booster Applications Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, David P.

    2001-02-01

    In support of the human exploration program, NASA is providing $33 million to the U.S. Department of Energy to construct a radiation simulator, known as the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The BAF justification is briefly reviewed (e.g., to reduce the radiation risk uncertainties from its present factor of 4 to 15). The BAF beam specifications are provided, as are discussions of the BAF construction schedule and anticipated operating schedules (e.g., initial operation anticipated for October 1, 2002). A breakdown of the BAF construction costs is included and the operating costs are discussed (e.g., $5 to $6 million per year). The BAF laboratory layout and the various types of DOE support for the BAF are summarized, as are the peer reviews of the project. The characteristic parameters of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron are also included. .

  16. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma.

  17. Applications Outside HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dû, Patrick

    High energy and particle physics has considerable acquired knowledge, expertise and resources that can, when transferred in a realistic way, significantly impact the practice of medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. This overview introductory talk "from basic science to the clinical reality" intends to show how successful technology transfer between fundamental research in particle physics and medical imaging can be achieved using some specific examples. Using as input, the recent advance of HEP state of the art techniques and tools in detectors developments such as solid state and gaseous detectors, calorimeters, photodetectors, read-out electronics and simulations, some direct applications in medical and molecular imaging will be presented like Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and particle therapy.

  18. Stimulus Application? Not Me

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-06-01

    I am afraid the situation with respect to the Challenge Grants will be similar in that only a small fraction of the expected deluge of grants will be funded. NIH has provided a very specific list of over 60 topics and a simple calculation shows that only a couple of grants will be funded per topic. Science magazine quotes the Vice Chancellor for Research at the University of California, Irvine as saying that her campus will be submitting “over 200” Challenge Grants. My discussions with friends from other universities suggest that this is a typical response. Even if this is an overestimate by a factor of 2, this would still translate to many thousands of applications flooding into the NIH, putting the payline well below the 4% that I experienced from the DoD. As was the case with the Army grants, I suspect that if the topics are not addressed exactly, grants will not stand a chance.

  19. Applications of modern ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Scott, J F

    2007-02-16

    Long viewed as a topic in classical physics, ferroelectricity can be described by a quantum mechanical ab initio theory. Thin-film nanoscale device structures integrated onto Si chips have made inroads into the semiconductor industry. Recent prototype applications include ultrafast switching, cheap room-temperature magnetic-field detectors, piezoelectric nanotubes for microfluidic systems, electrocaloric coolers for computers, phased-array radar, and three-dimensional trenched capacitors for dynamic random access memories. Terabit-per-square-inch ferroelectric arrays of lead zirconate titanate have been reported on Pt nanowire interconnects and nanorings with 5-nanometer diameters. Finally, electron emission from ferroelectrics yields cheap, high-power microwave devices and miniature x-ray and neutron sources.

  20. Panarchy: theory and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Holling, Crawford S.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of panarchy provides a framework that characterizes complex systems of people and nature as dynamically organized and structured within and across scales of space and time. It has been more than a decade since the introduction of panarchy. Over this period, its invocation in peer-reviewed literature has been steadily increasing, but its use remains primarily descriptive and abstract. Here, we discuss the use of the concept in the literature to date, highlight where the concept may be useful, and discuss limitations to the broader applicability of panarchy theory for research in the ecological and social sciences. Finally, we forward a set of testable hypotheses to evaluate key propositions that follow from panarchy theory.

  1. Topography measurements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Junfeng; Vorburger, Theodore

    2006-11-01

    Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or topography) difference, D s, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D topographies with a single number. When D s = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D topographies must be exactly the same (point by point). A 2D and 3D topography measurement system was established at NIST. This system includes data acquisition stations using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters D s and the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max. Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 standard bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques. An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff, λc, is proposed for topography measurements.

  2. Clinical application of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin as a human natural hormone is involved in fundamental regulatory processes of eating and energy balance. Ghrelin signals the nutrient availability from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, up-regulates food intake and lowers energy expenditure mainly through hypothalamic mediators acting both centrally and peripherally including the gastrointestinal tract (motility, epithelium), promotes both neuro-endocrine and inflammatory signals to increase skeletal muscle growth and decrease protein breakdown, and increases lipolysis while body fat utilization is reduced. Ghrelin does more to exert its probably sentinel role around "human energy": it influences through mainly extra-hypothalamic actions the hedonic and incentive value of food, mood and anxiety, sleep-wake regulation, learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Recently numerous ghrelin gene-derived peptides were discovered, demonstrating the complexity within the ghrelin/ghrelin receptor axis. For clinical applications, not only the natural ghrelin and its slice variants, but also several modified or artificial molecules acting at ghrelin-associated receptors were and are developed. Current clinical applications are limited to clinical studies, focusing mainly on cachexia in chronic heart failure, COPD, cancer, endstage- renal-disease or cystic fibrosis, but also on frailty in elderly, gastrointestinal motility (e.g., gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, postoperative ileus), after curative gastrectomy, anorexia nervosa, growth hormone deficient patients, alcohol craving, sleep-wake regulation (e.g. major depression), or sympathetic nervous activity in obesity. The results of completed, preliminary studies support the clinical potential of ghrelin, ghrelin gene-derived peptides, and artificial analogues, suggesting that larger clinical trials are demanded to move ghrelin towards an available and reimbursed pharmaceutical intervention.

  3. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  4. USAF solar thermal applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.; Simpson, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Process heat applications were compared to solar thermal technologies. The generic process heat applications were analyzed for solar thermal technology utilization, using SERI's PROSYS/ECONOMAT model in an end use matching analysis and a separate analysis was made for solar ponds. Solar technologies appear attractive in a large number of applications. Low temperature applications at sites with high insolation and high fuel costs were found to be most attractive. No one solar thermal technology emerges as a clearly universal or preferred technology, however,, solar ponds offer a potential high payoff in a few, selected applications. It was shown that troughs and flat plate systems are cost effective in a large number of applications.

  5. Parallel programming of industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, M; Koniges, A; Simon, H

    1998-07-21

    In the introductory material, we overview the typical MPP environment for real application computing and the special tools available such as parallel debuggers and performance analyzers. Next, we draw from a series of real applications codes and discuss the specific challenges and problems that are encountered in parallelizing these individual applications. The application areas drawn from include biomedical sciences, materials processing and design, plasma and fluid dynamics, and others. We show how it was possible to get a particular application to run efficiently and what steps were necessary. Finally we end with a summary of the lessons learned from these applications and predictions for the future of industrial parallel computing. This tutorial is based on material from a forthcoming book entitled: "Industrial Strength Parallel Computing" to be published by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers (ISBN l-55860-54).

  6. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  7. 76 FR 35411 - Applications for Trademark Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Trademark Electronic Application System (TEAS) using a regular TEAS application form or a TEAS Plus application form. Applicants that file their applications using the TEAS Plus form pay a reduced filing fee if... through TEAS, and agree to receive communications concerning the application by e-mail. TEAS...

  8. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by...

  9. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by...

  10. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by...

  11. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by...

  12. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by...

  13. Transparent Glass Ceramics Doped by Chromium(III) and Chromium(III) and Neodymium(III) as New Materials for Lasers and Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-30

    Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-Unite associee au CNRS 69622 - Villeurbanne, France Anne-Marie...Bouderbala, Georges Boulon Laboratoire de Physico-Chemie des Materiaux Luminescents Universite Claude Bernard Lyon - Unite associee au CNRS 69622

  14. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  15. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  16. Holographic Cinematography And Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1987-09-01

    We describe several applications of cineholography to objects scattering light by reflection: single-exposure cineholograms on 126-mm films at a repetition rate of 25 holograms per second for 3-D movies and for flight simulators applications, double-exposure cineholograms for medical and industrial applications (NDT). Limitations of cineholography are also described. The light source used for cineholograms recording is a frequency-doubled pulse YAG-laser.

  17. Microplasmas: from applications to fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguon, Olivier; Huang, Sisi; Gauthier, Mario; Karanassios, Vassili

    2014-05-01

    Microplasmas are receiving increasing attention in the scientific literature and in recent conferences. Yet, few analytical applications of microplasmas for elemental analysis using liquid samples have been described in the literature. To address this, we describe two applications: one involves the determination of Zn in microsamples of the metallo-enzyme Super Oxide Dismutase. The other involves determination of Pd-concentration in microsamples of Pd nanocatalysts. These applications demonstrate the potential of microplasmas and point to the need for future fundamental studies.

  18. Applications and limitations of radiomics.

    PubMed

    Yip, Stephen S F; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2016-07-07

    Radiomics is an emerging field in quantitative imaging that uses advanced imaging features to objectively and quantitatively describe tumour phenotypes. Radiomic features have recently drawn considerable interest due to its potential predictive power for treatment outcomes and cancer genetics, which may have important applications in personalized medicine. In this technical review, we describe applications and challenges of the radiomic field. We will review radiomic application areas and technical issues, as well as proper practices for the designs of radiomic studies.

  19. Applications and limitations of radiomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Stephen S. F.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.

    2016-07-01

    Radiomics is an emerging field in quantitative imaging that uses advanced imaging features to objectively and quantitatively describe tumour phenotypes. Radiomic features have recently drawn considerable interest due to its potential predictive power for treatment outcomes and cancer genetics, which may have important applications in personalized medicine. In this technical review, we describe applications and challenges of the radiomic field. We will review radiomic application areas and technical issues, as well as proper practices for the designs of radiomic studies.

  20. Applications of Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.J.; Chapman, J.R.; Follen, S.M.; O'Regan, P.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This report provides a summary of potential and actual applications of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) technology and insights. Individual applications are derived from the experiences of a number of US nuclear utilities. This report identifies numerous applications of PRA techniques beyond those typically associated with PRAs. In addition, believing that the future use of PRA techniques should not be limited to those of the past, areas of plant operations, maintenance, and financial resource allocation are discussed. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Surgical applications of femtosecond lasers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Samuel H; Mazur, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation permits non-invasive surgeries in the bulk of a sample with submicrometer resolution. We briefly review the history of optical surgery techniques and the experimental background of femtosecond laser ablation. Next, we present several clinical applications, including dental surgery and eye surgery. We then summarize research applications, encompassing cell and tissue studies, research on C. elegans, and studies in zebrafish. We conclude by discussing future trends of femtosecond laser systems and some possible application directions.

  2. Missions and Means Framework Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-22

    Missions and Means Framework Application 25 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...The Missions and Means Framework Application 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The Missions and Means Framework Application Presentation to 73rd MORSS U.S. Military Academy 22 June 2005 Paul

  3. Porous microsphere and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Porous microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of porous microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the porous microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359

  4. Pulmonary Testing Laboratory Computer Application

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Martin E.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer application reporting patient pulmonary function data has been developed by Washington, D.C. VA Medical Center staff. A permanent on-line data base of patient demographics, lung capacity, flows, diffusion, arterial blood gases and physician interpretation is maintained by a minicomputer at the hospital. A user oriented application program resulted from development in concert with the clinical users. Rapid program development resulted from employing a newly developed time saving technique that has found wide application at other VA Medical Centers. Careful attention to user interaction has resulted in an application program requiring little training and which has been satisfactorily used by a number of clinicians.

  5. Enabling network-aware applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Stouffer, Martin

    2001-08-01

    Many high performance distributed applications use only a small fraction of their available bandwidth. A common cause of this problem is not a flaw in the application design, but rather improperly tuned network settings. Proper tuning techniques, such as setting the correct TCP buffers and using parallel streams, are well known in the networking community, but outside the networking community they are infrequently applied. In this paper, we describe a service that makes the task of network tuning trivial for application developers and users. Widespread use of this service should virtually eliminate a common stumbling block for high performance distributed applications.

  6. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark; Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system is described: a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when pre-existing, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  7. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Cooper, Robert; Wood, Mark; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system (a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software) is described. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real-time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user-defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when preexisting, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  8. 24 CFR 232.505 - Application and application fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application and application fee. 232.505 Section 232.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  9. Manual control theory and applications. [physiological and neurological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoff, M.; Repa, B.

    1974-01-01

    Control theory, including manual control theory, and a review of some previous physiological and neurological applications of control theory and associated engineering concepts are reported. The discussion includes a specially tailored battery of critical control tasks that are being developed to monitor astronaut performance in long term orbital flight. The application of these concepts and tasks to patients with various neurological disorders is considered.

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  11. Carbon nano structures: Production and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig Agha, Rosa

    L'objectif de ce memoire est de preparer et de caracteriser des nanostructures de carbone (CNS -- Carbon Nanostructures, en licence a l'Institut de recherche sur l'hydrogene, Quebec, Canada), un carbone avec un plus grand degre de graphitisation et une meilleure porosite. Le Chapitre 1 est une description generale des PEMFCs (PEMFC -- Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) et plus particulierement des CNS comme support de catalyseurs, leur synthese et purification. Le Chapitre 2 decrit plus en details la methode de synthese et la purification des CNS, la theorie de formation des nanostructures et les differentes techniques de caracterisation que nous avons utilises telles que la diffraction aux rayons-X (XRD -- X-ray diffraction), la microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM -- transmission electron microscope ), la spectroscopie Raman, les isothermes d'adsorption d'azote a 77 K (analyse BET, t-plot, DFT), l'intrusion au mercure, et l'analyse thermogravimetrique (TGA -- thermogravimetric analysis). Le Chapitre 3 presente les resultats obtenus a chaque etape de la synthese des CNS et avec des echantillons produits a l'aide d'un broyeur de type SPEXRTM (SPEX/CertiPrep 8000D) et d'un broyeur de type planetaire (Fritsch Pulverisette 5). La difference essentielle entre ces deux types de broyeur est la facon avec laquelle les materiaux sont broyes. Le broyeur de type SPEX secoue le creuset contenant les materiaux et des billes d'acier selon 3 axes produisant ainsi des impacts de tres grande energie. Le broyeur planetaire quant a lui fait tourner et deplace le creuset contenant les materiaux et des billes d'acier selon 2 axes (plan). Les materiaux sont donc broyes differemment et l'objectif est de voir si les CNS produits ont les memes structures et proprietes. Lors de nos travaux nous avons ete confrontes a un probleme majeur. Nous n'arrivions pas a reproduire les CNS dont la methode de synthese a originellement ete developpee dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de

  12. Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Márquez, Francisco; Morant, Carmen

    2015-01-15

    A large part of the advances in nanotechnology have been directed towards the development of highspeed electronics, more efficient catalysts, and sensors. This latter group of applications has great relevance and unprecedented development potential for the coming years. Some of the main objectives for the development of sensors have focused on making more sensitive, effective and specific sensing devices. The improvement of these systems and the increase of specificity are clearly associated with a decrease in size of the components, which can lead to obtaining more rapid action, almost in real time. Nanomaterials currently used in sensor development include a long list of nanostructured systems, as for example: Metal nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibers, nanocomposites, nanorods, nanoparticles, nanostructured polymers, and different allotropes of carbon as carbon nanotubes, graphene or fullerenes, among others [1]. These nanomaterials are characterized by having unique physicochemical properties, including high electrical and thermal conductivity, extremely high surface area/volume ratio, high mechanical strength and even excellent catalytic properties [1] [2]. These materials, may exhibit relevant physicochemical behavior, such as quantization or electronic confinement effects, which can be used in the development of all kinds of sensors [2]. So far, sensors have been developed for determination and quantification of gases, radiation, biomolecules, microorganisms, etc. [2] [3]. The sensors developed so far usually use the system lock and key, wherein the selective receptor (lock) is selectively anchored to the analyte of interest (or key). This system has great limitations when analyzing the analyte in the presence of other analytes, which can alter the sensitivity or specificity of the measure, as occurs in sensors used in biomedical applications [3] [4]. One possible solution is based on the development of sensor arrays, consisting of a combination of different and

  13. Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Márquez, Francisco; Morant, Carmen

    2015-01-15

    A large part of the advances in nanotechnology have been directed towards the development of highspeed electronics, more efficient catalysts, and sensors. This latter group of applications has great relevance and unprecedented development potential for the coming years. Some of the main objectives for the development of sensors have focused on making more sensitive, effective and specific sensing devices. The improvement of these systems and the increase of specificity are clearly associated with a decrease in size of the components, which can lead to obtaining more rapid action, almost in real time. Nanomaterials currently used in sensor development include amore » long list of nanostructured systems, as for example: Metal nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibers, nanocomposites, nanorods, nanoparticles, nanostructured polymers, and different allotropes of carbon as carbon nanotubes, graphene or fullerenes, among others [1]. These nanomaterials are characterized by having unique physicochemical properties, including high electrical and thermal conductivity, extremely high surface area/volume ratio, high mechanical strength and even excellent catalytic properties [1] [2]. These materials, may exhibit relevant physicochemical behavior, such as quantization or electronic confinement effects, which can be used in the development of all kinds of sensors [2]. So far, sensors have been developed for determination and quantification of gases, radiation, biomolecules, microorganisms, etc. [2] [3]. The sensors developed so far usually use the system lock and key, wherein the selective receptor (lock) is selectively anchored to the analyte of interest (or key). This system has great limitations when analyzing the analyte in the presence of other analytes, which can alter the sensitivity or specificity of the measure, as occurs in sensors used in biomedical applications [3] [4]. One possible solution is based on the development of sensor arrays, consisting of a combination of

  14. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  15. Laser applications in surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azadgoli, Beina

    2016-01-01

    In modern medicine, lasers are increasingly utilized for treatment of a variety of pathologies as interest in less invasive treatment modalities intensifies. The physics behind lasers allows the same basic principles to be applied to a multitude of tissue types using slight modifications of the system. Multiple laser systems have been studied within each field of medicine. The term “laser” was combined with “surgery,” “ablation,” “lithotripsy,” “cancer treatment,” “tumor ablation,” “dermatology,” “skin rejuvenation,” “lipolysis,” “cardiology,” “atrial fibrillation (AF),” and “epilepsy” during separate searches in the PubMed database. Original articles that studied the application of laser energy for these conditions were reviewed and included. A review of laser therapy is presented. Laser energy can be safely and effectively used for lithotripsy, for the treatment of various types of cancer, for a multitude of cosmetic and reconstructive procedures, and for the ablation of abnormal conductive pathways. For each of these conditions, management with lasers is comparable to, and potentially superior to, management with more traditional methods. PMID:28090508

  16. Streamers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemen, A. J. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this invited lecture we give an overview of our 15 years of experience on streamer plasma research. Efforts are directed to integrating the competence areas of plasma physics, pulsed power technology and chemical processing. The current status is the development of a large scale pulsed corona system for gas treatment. Applications on biogas conditioning, VOC removal, odor abatement and control of traffic emissions have been demonstrated. Detailed research on electrical and chemical processes resulted in a boost of efficiencies. Energy transfer efficiency to the plasma was raised to above 90%. Simultaneous improvement of the plasma chemistry resulted in a highly efficient radical generation: O-radical production up to 50% of the theoretical maximum has been achieved. A major challenge in pulsed power driven streamers is to unravel, understand and ultimately control the complex interactions between the transient plasma, electrical circuits, and process. Even more a challenge is to yield electron energies that fit activation energies of the process. We will discuss our ideas on adjusting pulsed power waveforms and plasma reactor settings to obtain more controlled catalytic processing: the ``Chemical Transistor'' concept.

  17. Applications of quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarico, E.; Sanguinetti, B.; Sekatski, P.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.

    2011-10-01

    Quantum Cloning Machines (QCMs) allow for the copying of information, within the limits imposed by quantum mechanics. These devices are particularly interesting in the high-gain regime, i.e., when one input qubit generates a state of many output qubits. In this regime, they allow for the study of certain aspects of the quantum to classical transition. The understanding of these aspects is the root of the two recent applications that we will review in this paper: the first one is the Quantum Cloning Radiometer, a device which is able to produce an absolute measure of spectral radiance. This device exploits the fact that in the quantum regime information can be copied with only finite fidelity, whereas when a state becomes macroscopic, this fidelity gradually increases to 1. Measuring the fidelity of the cloning operation then allows to precisely determine the absolute spectral radiance of the input optical source. We will then discuss whether a Quantum Cloning Machine could be used to produce a state visible by the naked human eye, and the possibility of a Bell Experiment with humans playing the role of detectors.

  18. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  19. Nanoplasmonics for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammo, Eliyas D.; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Richards, Bryce S.

    2012-06-01

    Plasmonics has become a focus of recent research in photovoltaic applications primarily due to their effects in enhancing the absorption performance of solar cells. In this paper a review of different approaches that have been proposed to integrate plasmonics technologies into solar cells is presented. It has been observed that a range of metallic nanostructures that show plasmon resonance wavelength in the visible and near-infrared regime can be utilized to increase the coupling of light into the solar cell. This is widely used to increase the coupling of light that can be trapped in thin layers of active regions as in thin film technologies. In this review paper, more attention is given to the techniques of fabricating the metallic nanoparticles and the ways to control their plasmon resonance wavelengths. The role of the shape, size, dielectric permittivity of the host and the type of the metallic nanoparticles on tuning the resonance wavelength are analyzed. Furthermore, the cluster of nanoparticles gives different resonance wavelength from the individual nanoparticles due to dipolar coupling among the nanoparticles. In conclusion, we show how the plasmon resonance can be engineered to increase the absorption performance of conventional solar cells.

  20. Medical applications of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Waracki, Mateusz; Bugaj, Bartosz; Pypno, Damian; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-10-29

    Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  1. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533

  2. Applications of chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  3. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  4. Waiver Applicants Steer Wary Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The latest batch of states seeking relief under the No Child Left Behind Act dodge pitfalls that tripped up the first round of applicants. In the latest round of applications for waivers under the No Child Left Behind Act, states have learned lessons from their predecessors and dodged pitfalls that triggered some big revisions from first-round…

  5. Piezoelectric Transformers for Space Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    TWTA payload configuration is shown in Figure 3. DC Batteries HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUITS Collectors Cathode Solar Cells Inverter High Voltage... SOLAR PANNELS SPACE- CRAFT PRIMARY POWER BUS 28 V / 42 V THRUSTER HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY CONTROL CIRCUIT IGNITION...to a second group of applications. Worldwide companies are now investigating the use of PTs for power applications, including battery chargers

  6. Information Processing Applications: Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia. Div. of Vocational-Technical and Adult Education Services.

    This guide is intended to serve as a resource for business education instructors who are teaching a course in information processing for the automated office. The following topics are covered: program goals, student learning objectives for production applications, an introduction to production applications, a curriculum outline, student learning…

  7. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.

  8. Applications Development: A Wholistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tobey L.

    1982-01-01

    Louisiana State University applied a wholistic philosophy to its computer applications development. The new standards provide a step-by-step plan for the entire application process, from initiation to implementation and maintenance; list required deliverables instead of rules; and allow the programer and analyst flexibility to exercise technical…

  9. Practical Applications of Space Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…

  10. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  11. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces. PMID:7479721

  12. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed

    Kamm, C

    1995-10-24

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  13. User Interfaces for Voice Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Candace

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  14. Microwave applicators for BPH thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jan; Hlavac, R.; Herza, Jan; Chovanec, Roman; Cvek, Jakub; Oppl, L.

    2004-04-01

    Paper deals with new results in the field of intracavitary microwave applicators used for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. We demonstrate here that it is necessary to use more sophisticated applicators than a simple monopole radiating structure. One of the good possibilities for safe and efficient treatments we propose here is a helix structure.

  15. Evaluating Application Resilience with XRay

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sui; Bronevetsky, Greg; Li, Bin; Casas-Guix, Marc; Peng, Lu

    2015-05-07

    The rising count and shrinking feature size of transistors within modern computers is making them increasingly vulnerable to various types of soft faults. This problem is especially acute in high-performance computing (HPC) systems used for scientific computing, because these systems include many thousands of compute cores and nodes, all of which may be utilized in a single large-scale run. The increasing vulnerability of HPC applications to errors induced by soft faults is motivating extensive work on techniques to make these applications more resiilent to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithmspecific error detection and tolerance techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of how a given application is affected by soft faults to ensure that (i) efforts to improve application resilience are spent in the code regions most vulnerable to faults and (ii) the appropriate resilience technique is applied to each code region. This paper presents XRay, a tool to view the application vulnerability to soft errors, and illustrates how XRay can be used in the context of a representative application. In addition to providing actionable insights into application behavior XRay automatically selects the number of fault injection experiments required to provide an informative view of application behavior, ensuring that the information is statistically well-grounded without performing unnecessary experiments.

  16. Processor Emulator with Benchmark Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, G. Scott; Pearce, Roger; Gokhale, Maya

    2015-11-13

    A processor emulator and a suite of benchmark applications have been developed to assist in characterizing the performance of data-centric workloads on current and future computer architectures. Some of the applications have been collected from other open source projects. For more details on the emulator and an example of its usage, see reference [1].

  17. HPRR operating experience and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Sims, C.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) is a small, unmoderated fast pulse reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HPRR is the principal research tool of ORNL's Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group. The reactor is described, its operating experience is presented, and its major applications are discussed.

  18. NAS Applications and Advanced Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Biswas, Rupak; VanDerWijngaart, Rob; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the applications most commonly run on the supercomputers at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation (NAS) facility. It analyzes the extent to which such applications are fundamentally oriented to vector computers, and whether or not they can be efficiently implemented on hierarchical memory machines, such as systems with cache memories and highly parallel, distributed memory systems.

  19. Automatix Incorporated in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, C.

    1983-03-01

    Robotic assembly and artificial vision applications are currently employed or have potential in aerospace manufacturing. Automatix vision guided robotics have been used for electronic component assembly, welding of aluminum alloys with both gas metal arc welding (MIG). Other applications include gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), and visual gauging. The unique control concept has provided a single robotic controller with virtual robotic arm interchangeability.

  20. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  1. Evaluation acousto-ultrasonique de l'endommagement thermique dans un materiau composite carbone/epoxyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beland, Sylvie

    1998-12-01

    Les materiaux composites avances a matrice polymerique lorsqu'utilises dans des applications structurales aerospatiales sont souvent exposes a des temperatures tres elevees durant de courtes periodes de temps. Ces expositions thermiques peuvent affecter de facon significative leurs proprietes mecaniques. Cette degradation des proprietes suite a la surchauffe est un probleme qui souleve de plus en plus d'inquietude au sein de la communaute aerospatiale. On s'interesse tout autant a la caracterisation de l'endommagement resultant de l'exposition thermique qu'a son evaluation non-destructive. Bien que la technique acousto-ultrasonique semble etre une technique d'evaluation non-destructive toute indiquee pour la detection et la caraterisation de l'endommagement thermique dans les composites avances, il semblerait qu'on ne l'ait pas encore exploitee en ce sens. Cette lacune combinee a l'engagement du Ministere canadien de la defense nationale a developper une technique d'evaluation non-destructive in-situ de l'endommagement thermique de structures composites dans certains avions de chasse de la flotte canadienne constituent la motivation majeure de ce projet de recherche. Cette etude evalue la capacite de la technique acousto-ultrasonique a detecter et quantifier l'endommagement subi par un materiau composite suite a une exposition thermique. Pour parvenir a cet objectif, l'approche de cette etude a ete principalement de nature experimentale. Dans ce contexte, une base importante de donnees acousto-ultrasoniques a ete generee sur des materiaux composites vierges et conditionnes dans le but de correler ces donnees a celles issues des essais mecaniques et des analyses micrographiques et fractographiques. L'evaluation acousto-ultrasonique de la degradation thermique a ete realisee sur des echantillons de resine pure et de composite ayant ete expose a divers conditionnements. De plus, l'evolution de l'endommagement dans des composites vierges et degrades thermiquement a ete

  2. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement.

  3. Studies on deaf mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    The deaf normally considered to be disabled that do not need any mobile technology due to the inabilities of hearing and talking. However, many deaf are using mobile phone in their daily life for various purposes such as communication and learning. Many studies have attempted to identify the need of deaf people in mobile application and level of usage of the applications. This study aims in studying the recent research conducted on deaf mobile application to understand the level of importance of mobile technology for this disabled community. This paper enable identification of studies conducted are limited and the need of more research done of this disabled people to ensure their privilege of using mobile technology and its application, which leads to the identification of deaf user requirement for mobile application as future study.

  4. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  5. Steering UNICORE applications with VISIT.

    PubMed

    Eickermann, Thomas; Frings, Wolfgang; Gibbon, Paul; Kirtchakova, Lidia; Mallmann, Daniel; Visser, Anke

    2005-08-15

    The UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing REsources) software provides a Grid infrastructure together with a computing portal for engineers and scientists to access supercomputer centres from anywhere on the Internet. While UNICORE is primarily designed for the submission and control of batch jobs, it is also feasible to establish an on-line connection between an application and the UNICORE user-client. This opens up the possibility of performing on-line visualization and computational steering of applications under UNICORE control while maintaining the security provided by this system. This contribution describes the design of a steering extension to UNICORE based on the steering toolkit VISIT (VISualization Interface Toolkit). VISIT is a lightweight library that supports bidirectional data exchange between visualizations and parallel applications. As an example application, a parallel simulation of a laser-plasma interaction that can be steered by an AVS/Express application is presented.

  6. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  7. Ultrafast fiber lasers: practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastirk, Igor; Sell, Alexander; Herda, Robert; Brodschelm, Andreas; Zach, Armin

    2015-05-01

    Over past three decades ultrafast lasers have come a long way from the bulky, demanding and very sensitive scientific research projects to widely available commercial products. For the majority of this period the titanium-sapphire-based ultrafast systems were the workhorse for scientific and emerging industrial and biomedical applications. However the complexity and intrinsic bulkiness of solid state lasers have prevented even larger penetration into wider array of practical applications. With emergence of femtosecond fiber lasers, based primarily on Er-doped and Yb-doped fibers that provide compact, inexpensive and dependable fs and ps pulses, new practical applications have become a reality. The overview of current state of the art ultrafast fiber sources, their basic principles and most prominent applications will be presented, including micromachining and biomedical implementations (ophthalmology) on one end of the pulse energy spectrum and 3D lithography and THz applications on the other.

  8. NGI performance for teleradiology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogel, Greg T.; Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Zheng; Dey, Partha S.; Gill, Michael J.; Liu, Brent J.

    2002-05-01

    Tele-medical imaging applications require low cost, and high-speed backbone wide area networks (WAN) to carry large amount of imaging data for rapid turn around interpretation. Current low cost commercially WAN is too slow for medical imaging applications, while high speed WAN is too costly. The next generation Internet (NGI) or Internet2 is federal initiatives for the integration of higher speed backbone communication networks (up to 2.4 Gbits/sec) as a means to replace the current inadequate Internet for many applications including medical imaging. This paper describes our preliminary experience of connecting to Internet2 for teleradiology application. A case study is given for the NGI WAN connection between Childrens Hospital Los Angeles and National Library of Medicine. NGI WAN performance for different image modalities, measured in throughput rate and application response time, were obtained and then compared to the T1 WAN connection between Childrens Hospital Los Angeles and Saint John's Health Center Santa Monica.

  9. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  10. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  11. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  12. Les accidents aux AVK: étude rétrospective à propos de 30 cas

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Aissaoui, Younés; Quamouss, Youssef; Sedikki, Rachid; Taj, Nourredine; Salim Alaoui, Jaafar; Zoubir, Mohamed; Boughanem, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Les accidents hémorragiques sous AVK (antivitamines K) sont la première cause d’hospitalisation iatrogène. Le but de cette étude est de ressortir les caractéristiques des patients présentant des accidents hémorragiques graves sous AVK et de mettre le point sur la prise en charge. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 30 malades, réalisée au service de réanimation de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 59, 6 avec un sexe ratio de 1,5 (18 femmes et 12 femmes). On note dans notre série le terrain multi-taré des patients sous AVK avec plusieurs antécédents en cause. La fibrillation auriculaire était la principale indication recensée. Plus que la moitié ne bénéficiaient pas d’une bonne surveillance biologique à base d’INR (international normalized ratio). Le saignement d’origine gastro-intestinal était le plus fréquent. La conduite était différente en fonction des cas mais axée sur l’arrêt des AVK, l’administration de vit K, la transfusion de culots globulaires et plasma frais congelé. Plus du quart des patients admis sont décédés. L’index de Landefeld s’est avéré utile, il permet de classer les patients selon le risque prédictif de saignement (élevé moyen ou faible), ce qui concordait avec les résultats de notre étude. Son importance est d’ autant plus qu’il est facile à mesurer et à appliquer par le médecin en ambulatoire et permet de définir les patients nécessitant une surveillance accrue. La polymédication et les antécédents de saignement digestif sont apparus comme facteur de risque de saignement sous AVK. La prévention de la survenue de ces accidents est le pilier de la prise en charge, d’où l’importance de l’information et de l’éducation des différents intervenants dans cette complication iatrogène potentiellement mortelle. PMID:22514758

  13. Pratique d'apprentissage en ligne aux etudes superieures (Online Learning for Higher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Online learning requires new approaches to teaching and learning. At the University of Montreal, 28 graduate students in education and adult students specializing in educational technology attended an experimental distance education course. Students identified advantages and disadvantages of online learning/teaching and reflected on how the course…

  14. La contribution des astronomes aux mesures de précision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debarbat, S.

    The system for astronomical constants includes the astronomical unit, the velocity of light and the light-time for the unit distance in the metric system. In France, at least from the 17th century, scientists had in mind to unify the units. But it is not before the time of the French Revolution that it was succeeded to adopt a unified system based on the metre. Measurements were made of an arc of meridian, from Dunkirk to Barcelona to determine the new unit as the fraction of 1 over 107 of a quarter of any part of the Earth from the north pole to the equator. On the occasion of the bicentenary of the nomenclature of the metric system (1795), the Paris Observatory has presented during more than six months in 1995, mostly for students, manuscripts, documents related to the subject, in its galeries on the first floor of the Perrault building. The exhibition ended with the 1960 and 1983 definitions of the meter to which the Paris Observatory has contributed. For astronomers it was recalled the reason for which the Angström had to be considered as not more usable, being only close to the fraction 1/1010 of the meter.

  15. COURS DE LANGUE FRANCAISE DESTINE AUX JEUNES FRANCO-AMERICAINS ("BOWDOIN MATERIALS").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAULT, GERALD J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DATA IN THIS REPORT COMPRISE A TEACHING GUIDE FOR USE IN FRENCH LANGUAGE COURSE FOR YOUNG FRANCO-AMERICANS. THE MATERIAL IS ORAL EXERCISES IN FRENCH DEALING WITH VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR PRESENTED ENTIRELY IN THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. ACCOMPANYING THE MATERIAL IS A MANUAL AND A WORKBOOK FOR AIDING INSTRUCTION. (WN)

  16. Education et Developpement. Une Approche aux Interventions d'Education en Milieux Defavorises. MEQ, Mars 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This document is a commentary on a report by the Quebec Ministry of Education on the problem of educating the disadvantaged. One basic criticism of the report is that it is not enough to decry the failure of the schools and propose a strategy of compensatory education to solve the problem of disadvantagement. It is necessary to realize that the…

  17. Fabrication de cristaux photoniques par croissance cristalline anisotrope par la méthode aux hydrures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudi, R.; Gil-Lafon, E.; Trassoudaine, A.; Castelluci, D.; Ramdani, R. M.; Darraud, C.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons utilisé la croissance cristalline à morphologie contrôlée pour l'élaboration de cristaux photoniques bidimensionnelles de matériaux III-V sur substrat III V masqué. Appliquée sur GaAs cette méthode a démontré qu'il est possible de faire croître différentes formes de cristaux en jouant sur l'anisotropie de la vitesse de croissance des faces exposées du substrat. Les potentialités de cette technique sont très prometteuses car elle permet d'envisager une fabrication de masse des composants à base de cristaux photoniques.

  18. Analyse numerique de la microplasticite aux joints de grains dans les polycristaux metalliques CFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriamisandratra, Mamiandrianina

    La rupture par fatigue concerne aujourd’hui encore beaucoup de pièces métalliques soumises en service à un chargement répétitif. À l’échelle de la microstructure, les joints de grains sont connus pour jouer un rôle important dans la tenue en fatigue du matériau grâce au durcissement qu’ils confèrent. Cependant les joints de grains eux-mêmes ou la zone à leur proximité ont souvent été identifiés comme lieux d’amorçage de fissures de fatigue, particulièrement dans le cas des métaux cubiques à faces centrées (CFC). Dans le but de caractériser le comportement micromécanique à proximité de différents types de joint de grain, le comportement à l’interface en traction monotone uniaxiale a été modélisé par la méthode des éléments finis et une loi de plasticité cristalline a été utilisée. De plus, quelques configurations cristallographiques bicristallines ont alors été simulées et leur comportement a été analysé sous un chargement de traction axiale monotone. Le cadre de validité de la modélisation a été restreint à celui des petites déformations (<5%). Quatre critères importants dictant le comportement mécanique cristallin ont été identifiés. Il s’agit de la rigidité élastique, du facteur de Schmid des deux systèmes de glissement les plus favorables, et enfin du ratio entre ces deux plus forts facteurs de Schmid traduisant la propension au glissement simple ou multiple. Des simulations de traction sur des monocristaux ont ainsi permis de comprendre l’influence propre de chaque critère sur le comportement macroscopique (contraintes et déformations) et microscopique (glissements cristallins). Les calculs bicristallins ont ensuite mis en évidence l’activation particulière de certains systèmes de glissement à priori non favorables au niveau du joint de grain. Ce phénomène a été associé avec la nécessité d’assurer la compatibilité mécanique de déformation de part et d’autre de l’interface. Le profil de la déformation dans le sens longitudinal de l’éprouvette a montré une baisse systématique de déformation au niveau du joint et dont l’intensité augmente avec la désorientation angulaire entre les deux grains. L’hétérogénéité de la déformation en chaque section de l’éprouvette est quant à elle surtout liée au caractère fortement anisotrope de la plasticité et s’avère plus prononcée lorsque le mode de déformation est assuré par un glissement simple. Enfin, un cas bicristallin qui présentait une compatibilité microscopique des traces de glissement dans le plan du joint de grain a été étudié. Cependant, aucune corrélation avec le profil de glissement n’a été relevée, une cause macroscopique étant plus vraisemblablement à l’origine du profil observé. Mots-clés: joints de grains, localisation, plasticité cristalline, éléments finis, bicristal.

  19. Introduction to Flight Test Engineering (Introduction aux techniques des essais en vol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    34, 18 Mar 1971 with Amendment 1 of 30 Jun 1983. MIL-D-8708A( WEP ), "Demonstration Requirements for Airplanes", 13 Sep 1960. DoD Directive (DoDD) 5000.3...this, static ARP tests can be executed on full- scale airframes, mockups or airframe sections mounted atop heavy 3-axis positioners on outdoor antenna...and mockups , extending through partial and full simulations, and continuing through on-aircraft ground and flight test missions in operationally

  20. Propagation du bruit des erreurs expérimentales dans les modèles théoriques gérés par des systèmes linéaires. Deux applications en transfert thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depecker, P.; Draoui, A.; Beghein, Cl.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports sensitivity analysis relative to the field of uncertainty of experimental measured parameters used as model imputs. After describing the experimental uncertainty and its consequences, we present the mathematical tool adapted to models based on linear system resolution. Using examples from heat transfer field, we report two of the most common situations arising to the physicist. The former situation comes up to the experimenter who cannot determine directly some characteristics of his physical system. As the direct measurement of these characteristics is impossible, they are calculated from a model representing the experimental set up. The latter occurs to the model builder, who developes a theoretical model. Building such a model requires knowledge of physical basic characteristics, supposed to be previously determined from experimental measurement. In both cases, measurement induces unertainties spreading into the models. The first application of these principles deals with the study of radiant emitters in real scale dwelling cells. The second one refers to the modeling of coupled heat transfer in a semi-transparent medium such as glass. From both examples, the author point out that the stability of model solutions should be checked, such a stability being not a priori detectable. Ce texte introduit la notion de sensibilité des modèles aux incertitudes avec lesquelles on connaît les paramètres mesurés expérimentalement (donc entachés d'erreurs) entrant dans le formalisme de ces modèles. Après avoir exposé une problématique générale de l'erreur expérimentale et de ses conséquences, on décrit l'outillage mathématique permettant de cerner la question dans le cas des modèles fondés sur des systèmes linéaires. On s'intéresse ensuite aux deux situations les plus classiques dans lesquelles peut se trouver le physicien, en s'appuyant sur des exemples empruntés au domaine des transferts thermiques. La première est celle de l

  1. Java Application Shell: A Framework for Piecing Together Java Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Philip; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This session describes the architecture of Java Application Shell (JAS), a Swing-based framework for developing interactive Java applications. Java Application Shell is being developed by Commerce One, Inc. for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Code 588. The purpose of JAS is to provide a framework for the development of Java applications, providing features that enable the development process to be more efficient, consistent and flexible. Fundamentally, JAS is based upon an architecture where an application is considered a collection of 'plugins'. In turn, a plug-in is a collection of Swing actions defined using XML and packaged in a jar file. Plug-ins may be local to the host platform or remotely-accessible through HTTP. Local and remote plugins are automatically discovered by JAS upon application startup; plugins may also be loaded dynamically without having to re-start the application. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) to define actions, as opposed to hardcoding them in application logic, allows easier customization of application-specific operations by separating application logic from presentation. Through XML, a developer defines an action that may appear on any number of menus, toolbars, and buttons. Actions maintain and propagate enable/disable states and specify icons, tool-tips, titles, etc. Furthermore, JAS allows actions to be implemented using various scripting languages through the use of IBM's Bean Scripting Framework. Scripted action implementation is seamless to the end-user. In addition to action implementation, scripts may be used for application and unit-level testing. In the case of application-level testing, JAS has hooks to assist a script in simulating end-user input. JAS also provides property and user preference management, JavaHelp, Undo/Redo, Multi-Document Interface, Single-Document Interface, printing, and logging. Finally, Jini technology has also been included into the framework by means of a Jini services browser and the

  2. Applications of multilayer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao; Mu, Baozhong; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Fengli; Xu, Jing; Li, Wenbin; Chen, Lingyan

    2010-11-01

    Recent development of multilayer mirror and its applications in extreme ultraviolet (EUV), soft X-ray ranges in China was reviewed in this paper. Three types of multilayer mirrors were developed with special performance for dense plasma diagnostics, EUV astronomical observation. Firstly, dual-periodic W/B 4C multilayer mirror was designed for Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) microscopy working at TiKα line (4.75 keV), which is highly reflective both at hard X-ray (CuKα line at 8.05 keV) and soft X-ray (4.75 keV). Using this mirror, the K-B system can be aligned conveniently in air using hard X-ray instead of in vacuum. The second mirror is aperiodic Mg/SiC multilayer, also a bi-functional mirror with high reflectivity for He-II emission line (30.4 nm) but suppressing He-I emission line (58.4 nm) in astronomy observation, which will replace the traditional combination of periodic multilayer and the fragile film filter. This will be more safe in satellite launching. The third mirror is Mo/Si periodic multilayer, depositing on a parabolic substrate with diameter of 230 mm, which is designed for EUV telescope for imaging of solar corona by selecting Fe-XII emission (19.5 nm). The uniformity of lateral layer thickness distribution is within ±0.3% along the diameter of mirror, measured by X-ray reflectometry. The measured peak reflectivity is 42% at the wavelength of 19.5 nm. All these multilayer mirrors were prepared by using magnetron sputtering system in our group.

  3. Security Data Warehouse Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, Lynn R.; Hennan, Robert; Ortiz, Chris; Gonzalez, Steve; Roane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Security Data Warehouse (SDW) is used to aggregate and correlate all JSC IT security data. This includes IT asset inventory such as operating systems and patch levels, users, user logins, remote access dial-in and VPN, and vulnerability tracking and reporting. The correlation of this data allows for an integrated understanding of current security issues and systems by providing this data in a format that associates it to an individual host. The cornerstone of the SDW is its unique host-mapping algorithm that has undergone extensive field tests, and provides a high degree of accuracy. The algorithm comprises two parts. The first part employs fuzzy logic to derive a best-guess host assignment using incomplete sensor data. The second part is logic to identify and correct errors in the database, based on subsequent, more complete data. Host records are automatically split or merged, as appropriate. The process had to be refined and thoroughly tested before the SDW deployment was feasible. Complexity was increased by adding the dimension of time. The SDW correlates all data with its relationship to time. This lends support to forensic investigations, audits, and overall situational awareness. Another important feature of the SDW architecture is that all of the underlying complexities of the data model and host-mapping algorithm are encapsulated in an easy-to-use and understandable Perl language Application Programming Interface (API). This allows the SDW to be quickly augmented with additional sensors using minimal coding and testing. It also supports rapid generation of ad hoc reports and integration with other information systems.

  4. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  5. Transform coding for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only the use of lossless compression methods (if that). With the advent of better, faster, cheaper missions, an opportunity has arisen for lossy data compression methods to find a use in science applications as requirements for perfect quality reconstruction runs into cost constraints. This paper presents a review of the data compression problem from the space application perspective. Transform coding techniques are described and some simple, integer transforms are presented. The application of these transforms to space-based data compression problems is discussed. Integer transforms have an advantage over conventional transforms in computational complexity. Space applications are different from broadcast or entertainment in that it is desirable to have a simple encoder (in space) and tolerate a more complicated decoder (on the ground) rather than vice versa. Energy compaction with new transforms are compared with the Walsh-Hadamard (WHT), Discrete Cosine (DCT), and Integer Cosine (ICT) transforms.

  6. 42 CFR 435.907 - Written application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written application. 435.907 Section 435.907 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of Columbia Applications § 435.907 Written application. (a) The agency must require a written application from the applicant, an...

  7. 42 CFR 435.907 - Written application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written application. 435.907 Section 435.907 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of Columbia Applications § 435.907 Written application. (a) The agency must require a written application from the applicant, an...

  8. 42 CFR 435.907 - Written application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written application. 435.907 Section 435.907 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of Columbia Applications § 435.907 Written application. (a) The agency must require a written application from the applicant, an...

  9. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... renewal. Previously, the utility, design, and plant applications were broken out in a manner that helped... New Plant 7 hours and 36 minutes 350 2,660 Applications--Application Data Sheet. Original New Design 5... Divisional Applications. Plant Continuation/Divisional 2 hours and 12 minutes 150 330 Applications....

  10. 33 CFR 125.21 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oath in writing and shall include applicant's answers in full to inquiries with respect to such matters... application also shall include applicant's complete identification, citizenship record, personal description, military record, if any, and a statement of the applicant's sponsor certifying the applicant's...

  11. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Mooney, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers. PMID:22125349

  12. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  13. Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

    2014-11-01

    This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

  14. Bistable Mechanisms for Space Applications.

    PubMed

    Zirbel, Shannon A; Tolman, Kyler A; Trease, Brian P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bistable mechanisms are monolithic devices with two stable equilibrium positions separated by an unstable equilibrium position. They show promise in space applications as nonexplosive release mechanisms in deployment systems, thereby eliminating friction and improving the reliability and precision of those mechanical devices. This paper presents both analytical and numerical models that are used to predict bistable behavior and can be used to create bistable mechanisms in materials not previously feasible for compliant mechanisms. Materials compatible with space applications are evaluated for use as bistable mechanisms and prototypes are fabricated in three different materials. Pin-puller and cutter release mechanisms are proposed as potential space applications.

  15. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  16. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  17. Industrial Application Of Instant Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorner, J.; Rottenkolber, H.

    1983-10-01

    The development of holographic test methods has lead to a wide industrial application. Today serial tests of aircraft tyres with holography have become routine. A large chemical company is testing their plastic materials like tanks, wheels and fans with the method of holographic interferometry. In the power engine industry turbine blades are tested holographically to find an optimal shape and to test the vibration behaviour. The automotive industry is using holographic methods' for construction optimization. The economic application of these test methods was possible by using instant holography. The principle of a new hologramrecorder is presented. The application of this equipment is shown in examples of testing materials, optimizing constructions and vibration analysis.

  18. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  19. Austempered Materials for Powertrain Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Justin; Hayrynen, Kathy L.

    2013-07-01

    Austempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, Austempering may provide the following benefits to producers of powertrain components such as gears and shafts: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance and enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of powertrain components in numerous applications for a wide range of industries, from gears and shafts to clutch plates and crankshafts. This paper focuses on Austempered solutions for powertrain applications with an emphasis on gear and shaft solutions.

  20. Bistable Mechanisms for Space Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Tolman, Kyler A.; Trease, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bistable mechanisms are monolithic devices with two stable equilibrium positions separated by an unstable equilibrium position. They show promise in space applications as nonexplosive release mechanisms in deployment systems, thereby eliminating friction and improving the reliability and precision of those mechanical devices. This paper presents both analytical and numerical models that are used to predict bistable behavior and can be used to create bistable mechanisms in materials not previously feasible for compliant mechanisms. Materials compatible with space applications are evaluated for use as bistable mechanisms and prototypes are fabricated in three different materials. Pin-puller and cutter release mechanisms are proposed as potential space applications. PMID:28030588