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Sample records for application bla medical

  1. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  2. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  3. Outbreak of Infection with Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying blaIMP-8 in a University Medical Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2001-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with the transferable carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases, which include IMP- and VIM-type enzymes, remain extremely rare. To investigate whether IMP- or VIM-producing K. pneumoniae isolates had spread at a university medical center in Taiwan, a total of 3,458 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae consecutively collected in 1999 and 2000 were tested by the agar diffusion method, colony hybridization, PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. A total of 40 isolates (1.2%), or 17 nonrepetitive isolates, from 16 patients were found to carry blaIMP-8, a metallo-β-lactamase gene recently identified from a K. pneumoniae strain in Taiwan. Carriage of blaVIM or other blaIMP genes was detected in none of the remaining isolates. Of the 17 nonrepetitive blaIMP-8-positive isolates, 15 isolates (88.2%) appeared susceptible to imipenem (MICs, ≤4 μg/ml) and meropenem (MICs, ≤1 μg/ml), indicating the difficulty in detecting blaIMP-8 in K. pneumoniae by routine susceptibility tests; 14 isolates (82.4%) produced SHV-12 as well; and 14 isolates (82.4%) were also resistant to fluoroquinolones. The organisms caused wound infections in eight patients and bloodstream infections in three patients. They were not directly associated with the death of nine patients. Before the recovery of the blaIMP-8-positive isolates, all 16 patients had undergone various surgical procedures, and 15 patients had been admitted to the surgical intensive care unit, suggesting a nosocomial outbreak. Two major patterns were observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for 14 of the 17 nonrepetitive isolates, indicating that the clonal spread was mainly responsible for the outbreak. PMID:11724857

  4. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    The recent progress in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic-resonance imaging (nmr or mri), computer tomography (CT with X-rays), and positron-emission tomography (PET scanning using short-lived radioactive nuclei) has been impressive. Two areas where diagnostic tools lacked behind have been tomography of the blood vessels of the brain and of the bronchi.

  5. Introduction to Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Ashley J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    The first two parts of this book describe various theories associated with light propagation in tissue and the resulting response. If coherence or polarization information is not needed, we assume that the transport equation governs the optical interaction of light with tissue and the heat conduction equation provides the basis for estimating the thermal response of tissue to laser radiation. In part III of this book, the theory for optical and thermal interactions of laser light with tissue are used to analyze medical applications. In particular, the concepts of parts I and II

  6. Laser Ablation for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    Medical applications of laser are measurement, laser surgery, in-situ monitoring, and processing of medical devices. In this paper, author briefly reviews the trends of medical applications, describes some new applications, and then discuss about the future trends and problems of medical applications. At present, the domestic market of laser equipment for medical applications is nearly 1/10 of that for industrial applications, which has registered significant growth continuously. Laser surgery as a minimum invasive surgery under arthroscope is expected to decrease the pain of patients. Precise processing such as cutting and welding is suitable for manufacturing medical devices. Pulsed laser deposition has been successfully applied to the thin film coating. The corneal refractive surgery by ArF excimer laser has been widely accepted for its highly safe operation. Laser ablation for retinal implant in the visual prosthesis is one of the promising applications of laser ablation in medicine. New applications with femtosecond laser are expected in the near future.

  7. Function impairing mutations in blaZ and blaR genes of penicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tasara, T; Cernela, N; Stephan, R

    2013-06-01

    Molecular based approaches have gained increasing importance in routine mastitis diagnostics for typing and antibiotic resistance testing of Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 78 S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk 10 of them harbored blaZ, blaI and blaR genes. Although 5 strains were phenotypically resistant to penicillin, the other 5 (all belonging the clonal complex 8) were penicillin susceptible. PCR amplification confirmed the presence of the blaZ, blaR and blaI genes in all 5 strains. Sequencing of these genes uncovered a 29 base deletion within the blaZ gene in all these strains that causes a translational frame shift, which is predicted to induce abrogation of BlaZ expression. Additionally single nucleotide insertions and deletions were detected in blaR of 3 strains. These insertions cause translation reading frame shifts and premature stop codons that are predicted to induce expression of truncated BlaR proteins. Using the genetically altered blaZ genes detected as targets, a real-time PCR system for detecting CC8 associated blaZ positive S. aureus strains that still remain susceptible to penicillin was developed. Such strains are part of detection challenges that must be considered in routine application of genotypic resistance testing of bovine mastitis S. aureus.

  8. Birthdates of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L; Sokol, Robert J.; Kruger, Michael L.; Yargeau, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    We determined if the "relative age" effect, wherein older students in an age cohort in early grades do better academically, extends to birthdates of applicants to medical schools, and if birthdates are related to the success of their applications. We examined birthdays of applicants from Michigan to Wayne State University's School of…

  9. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter “linac”); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laser-based acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  10. Medical applications of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Waracki, Mateusz; Bugaj, Bartosz; Pypno, Damian; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-10-29

    Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  11. Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-C-0043 TITLE: Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Jeff Guy Directed Energy , Inc...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Under this Phase II SBIR effort, Directed Energy Inc.’s (DEI) proprietary ultraviolet (UV...non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical communication data links operating in the solar blind region (200–280 nm). The intended application is covert

  12. Potential medical applications of TAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahy, J. Ben; Kaucic, Robert; Kim, Yongmin

    1986-01-01

    In cooperation with scientists in the University of Washington Medical School, a microcomputer-based image processing system for quantitative microscopy, called DMD1 (Digital Microdensitometer 1) was constructed. In order to make DMD1 transportable to different hosts and image processors, we have been investigating the possibility of rewriting the lower level portions of DMD1 software using Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) libraries and subsystems. If successful, we hope to produce a newer version of DMD1, called DMD2, running on an IBM PC/AT under the SCO XENIX System 5 operating system, using any of seven target image processors available in our laboratory. Following this implementation, copies of the system will be transferred to other laboratories with biomedical imaging applications. By integrating those applications into DMD2, we hope to eventually expand our system into a low-cost general purpose biomedical imaging workstation. This workstation will be useful not only as a self-contained instrument for clinical or research applications, but also as part of a large scale Digital Imaging Network and Picture Archiving and Communication System, (DIN/PACS). Widespread application of these TAE-based image processing and analysis systems should facilitate software exchange and scientific cooperation not only within the medical community, but between the medical and remote sensing communities as well.

  13. First description of bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48), bla(OXA-181) producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in Romania.

    PubMed

    Székely, Edit; Damjanova, Ivelina; Jánvári, Laura; Vas, Krisztina E; Molnár, Szabolcs; Bilca, Doina V; Lőrinczi, Lilla K; Tóth, Akos

    2013-12-01

    We report the first isolation and characterization of several Enterobacteriaceae strains harboring bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48) and/or bla(OXA-181) genes in a Romanian emergency teaching hospital. Between January 2010 and September 2012 nine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were identified. The bla(NDM-1) gene was present in two Enterobacter cloacae strains, an Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. One of these K. pneumoniae strains also harbored the bla(OXA-181) gene. Three other K. pneumoniae strains and one Serratia marcescens carried bla(OXA-48).

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica and Photorhabdus asymbiotica β-lactamases BlaA are exported by the twin-arginine translocation pathway.

    PubMed

    Schriefer, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Schmid, Franz X; Schmid, Annika; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In general, β-lactamases of medically important Gram-negative bacteria are Sec-dependently translocated into the periplasm. In contrast, β-lactamases of Mycobacteria spp. (BlaC, BlaS) and the Gram-negative environmental bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (L2) and Xanthomonas campestris (Bla(XCC-1)) have been reported to be secreted by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system. Yersinia enterocolitica carries 2 distinct β-lactamase genes (blaA and blaB) encoding BlaA(Ye) and the AmpC-like β-lactamase BlaB, respectively. By using the software PRED-TAT for prediction and discrimination of Sec from Tat signal peptides, we identified a functional Tat signal sequence for Yersinia BlaA(Ye). The Tat-dependent translocation of BlaA(Ye) could be clearly demonstrated by using a Y. enterocolitica tatC-mutant and cell fractionation. Moreover, we could demonstrate a unique unusual temperature-dependent activity profile of BlaA(Ye) ranging from 15 to 60 °C and a high 'melting temperature' (T(M)=44.3°) in comparison to the related Sec-dependent β-lactamase TEM-1 (20-50°C, T(M)=34.9 °C). Strikingly, the blaA gene of Y. enterocolitica is present in diverse environmental Yersinia spp. and a blaA homolog gene could be identified in the closely related Photorhabdus asymbiotica (BlaA(Pa); 69% identity to BlaA(Ye)). For BlaA(Pa) of P. asymbiotica, we could also demonstrate Tat-dependent secretion. These results suggest that Yersinia BlaA-related β-lactamases may be the prototype of a large Tat-dependent β-lactamase family, which originated from environmental bacteria.

  15. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  16. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  17. Co-Carriage of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Hospital Infections from India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Deepjyoti; Dhar Chanda, Debadatta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Chakravarty, Atanu; Sharma, Gauri Dutt; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Global spread of KPC poses to be a serious threat complicating treatment options in hospital settings. The present study investigates the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of India. The study isolates were collected from different wards and clinics of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India, from 2012-2013. The presence of blaKPC was confirmed by genotypic characterization followed by sequencing. Cloning of the blaKPC-2 gene was performed and the genetic environment of this gene was characterized as well. Transferability of the resistance gene was determined by transformation assay and Southern hybridization. Additionally, restriction mapping was also carried out. Two isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to harbor blaKPC-2, were resistant towards aminoglycosides, quinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination. In both the isolates, the resistance determinant was associated with class 1 integron and horizontally transferable. Both the isolates were co-harboring blaNDM-1. The first detection of this integron mediated blaKPC-2 coexisting with blaNDM-1 in P. aeruginosa from India is worrisome, and further investigation is required to track the gene cassette mediated blaKPC-2 in terms of infection control and to prevent the spread of this gene in hospitals as well as in the community.

  18. Escherichia coli of sequence type 3835 carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Yang, Ping; Xie, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2015-07-21

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 μg/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and belonged to ST3835. bla NDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (bla CMY-42) and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12). bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. bla CMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and bla CTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). bla CMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of bla CMY-42 was due to the transposition of ISEcp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of bla NDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of bla NDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China.

  19. Biochemical Characterization of β-Lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Materon, Isabel C.; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M.; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer β-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities. PMID:12760895

  20. Biochemical characterization of beta-lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Materon, Isabel C; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer beta-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities.

  1. Rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cancan; Zheng, Fen; Rui, Yongyu

    2014-12-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes. Six oligonucleotides, including outer, inner, and loop primers, were designed for eight distinct regions in each target gene. Two qualitative criteria were used to evaluate LAMP reactions: visual inspection of color change and real-time detection of fluorescence change. The lower detection limit was 10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction for real-time detection and 100 CFU per reaction for visual inspection for each gene. Two hundred twenty-two carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (including 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 Acinetobacter sp., and 22 Enterobacteriaceae) were tested by LAMP assay. At the same time, these isolates were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. In these clinical isolates, the results of 11 strains with blaNDM, 11 strains with blaKPC, 11 strains with blaVIM, and 2 strains with blaIMP obtained using LAMP assays were concordant with conventional PCR. The LAMP method reported here may be a useful and powerful tool for rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria.

  2. Polycapillary optics for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. A.; Petruccelli, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Polycapillary optics can be designed for a wide variety of x-ray applications, including x-ray fluorescence for non-destructive materials analysis and diffraction applications such as protein crystallography. Of particular interest are medical applications, including the removal of Compton scattering with the resultant improvement in contrast and resolution in mammography, the production of monochromatic parallel beams for high-contrast imaging in clinical settings and the localization of radioactive tracers. A recent development is the use of polycapillary optics to improve beam coherence for x-ray phase imaging. Conventional radiographic techniques depend on attenuation, which provides only low contrast between soft tissues. Phase imaging can yield significantly higher contrast but requires spatially coherent beams. Conventional sources small enough to produce high coherence are necessarily low power, requiring long exposures. Polycapillary optics employed to create a small secondary source from high power sources have been shown to yield strong phase effects. Polycapillary optics can also be combined with other x-ray optics. A combination of a toroidally bent crystal with a polycapillary optic has been shown to produce enhanced resolution in a magnified image. Another x-ray imaging technique which does not rely on the small attenuation contrast is the capture of coherently scattered radiation, for which polycapillary optics could be used as angular filters to collect the beam, resulting in a map of tissue or material type.

  3. Medical applications of shape memory polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory polymers are described here and major advantages in some applications are identified over other medical materials such as shape memory alloys (SMA). A number of medical applications are anticipated for shape memory polymers. Some simple applications are already utilized in medical world, others are in examination process. Lately, several important applications are being considered for CHEM foams for self-deployable vascular and coronary devices. One of these potential applications, the endovascular treatment of aneurysm was experimentally investigated with encouraging results and is described in this paper as well.

  4. MEMS for medical technology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisk, Thomas; Roxhed, Niclas; Stemme, Göran

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an in-depth description of two recent projects at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) which utilize MEMS and microsystem technology for realization of components intended for specific applications in medical technology and diagnostic instrumentation. By novel use of the DRIE fabrication technology we have developed side-opened out-of-plane silicon microneedles intended for use in transdermal drug delivery applications. The side opening reduces clogging probability during penetration into the skin and increases the up-take area of the liquid in the tissue. These microneedles offer about 200µm deep and pain-free skin penetration. We have been able to combine the microneedle chip with an electrically and heat controlled liquid actuator device where expandable microspheres are used to push doses of drug liquids into the skin. The entire unit is made of low cost materials in the form of a square one cm-sized patch. Finally, the design, fabrication and evaluation of an integrated miniaturized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based "electronic nose" microsystem for detection of narcotics is described. The work integrates a novel environment-to-chip sample interface with the sensor element. The choice of multifunctional materials and the geometric features of a four-component microsystem allow a functional integration of a QCM crystal, electrical contacts, fluidic contacts and a sample interface in a single system with minimal assembly effort, a potential for low-cost manufacturing, and a few orders of magnitude reduced in system size (12*12*4 mm 3) and weight compared to commercially available instruments. The sensor chip was successfully used it for the detection of 200 ng of narcotics sample.

  5. Rapid discrimination of blaIMP-1, blaIMP-6, and blaIMP-34 using a multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Shizuo; Ohge, Hiroki; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Stealth-type carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to almost all β-lactams except imipenem is emerging in Japan. This resistance is mediated by specific variants of the metallo-β-lactamases (blaIMP-6 or blaIMP-34) that differs by one amino acid from the common variant blaIMP-1. We developed an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR assay enabling rapid, sequence independent, identification of these variants.

  6. Medical applications of artificial olfactometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor); Kelso, David M. (Inventor); Munoz, Beth C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for detecting the presence of an analyte indicative of various medical conditions, including halitosis, periodontal disease and other diseases are also disclosed.

  7. [Distribution of blaOXA genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakkı; Aşık, Gülşah; Karakeçe, Engin; Oksüz, Lütfiye; Yağcı, Server; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Atasoy, Ali Rıza; Koçoğlu, Esra; Gül, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Köksal Çakırlar, Fatma; Seyrek, Adnan; Berktaş, Mustafa; Gültepe, Bilge; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the most important agent of nosocomial infections within the Acinetobacter genus. This gram-negative coccobacillus is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics used in antimicrobial therapy, and capable of developing resistance including carbapenems. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) kit for OXA subgroups in A.baumannii, and to investigate the distribution of OXA subgroups in A.baumannii strains isolated from geographically different regions of Turkey. A total of 834 A.baumannii clinical isolates collected from different state and university medical centers in 13 provinces (Afyonkarahisar, Ankara, Bolu, Elazig, Erzurum, Isparta, Istanbul, Kahramanmaras, Konya, Sakarya, Van) between 2008-2011, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and automated systems [Vitek2 (bioMerieux, ABD) and Phoenix (BD Diagnostic, MD)]. The susceptibility profiles of the isolates were studied with automated systems and standard disc diffusion method. All samples were subjected to qPCR to detect blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. A conventional PCR method was also used to detect blaOXA-24-like gene. The resistance rates observed during the study period were as follows: 96.8% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 86.8% for ciprofloxacin, 74.7% for gentamicin, 71.7% for amikacin, 73.5% for cefaperozone-sulbactam, 72.1% for imipenem and 73% for meropenem. Six hundred and two (72.2 %) isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Colistin was found to be the most effective antibiotic against A.baumannii isolates with 100% susceptibility rate. All isolates were positive for blaOXA-51-like, however blaOXA-24-like gene could not be demonstrated in any isolate. Total positivity rates of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes were found as 53.7% and 12.5%, respectively, while these rates were 74.4% and 17.3% in carbapenem-resistant isolates

  8. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  9. 77 FR 33469 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... submissions (average annual): 38 premarket approval applications (PMA, PDP, PMR, BLA),\\1\\ 3,561 premarket... development protocol, PMR means postmarketing requirements, and BLA means biologics license applications....

  10. Real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of carbapenemase genes (bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Jèssica; Royo, Elena; Balcázar, José Luis; Borrego, Carles M

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we have developed real-time PCR assays using SYBR Green chemistry to detect all known alleles of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like carbapenemase genes in water, sediment, and biofilm samples collected from hospital and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and rivers receiving chronic WWTP discharges. The amplification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48 DNA was linear over 7 log dilutions (R (2) between 0.995 and 0.997) and showing efficiencies ranging from 92.6% to 100.3%. The analytical sensitivity indicated that the reaction for bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes was able to detect 35, 16, and 19 copy numbers per assay, respectively. The three carbapenemase genes were detected in hospital effluents, whereas only the bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in biofilm and sediment samples collected from wastewater-impacted rivers. The detection of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in different matrices suggests that carbapenem-resistant bacteria occur in both planktonic and benthic habitats thus expanding the range of resistance reservoirs for last-resort antibiotics. We believe that these real-time PCR assays would be a powerful tool for the rapid detection and quantification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in complex environmental samples.

  11. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  12. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  13. [Standards in Medical Informatics: Fundamentals and Applications].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon

    2013-09-01

    The use of computers in medical practice has enabled novel forms of communication to be developed in health care. The optimization of communication processes is achieved through the use of standards to harmonize the exchange of information and provide a common language for all those involved. This article describes the concept of a standard applied to medical informatics and its importance in the development of various applications, such as computational representation of medical knowledge, disease classification and coding systems, medical literature searches and integration of biological and clinical sciences.

  14. Tissue localization and regulation by juvenile hormone of human allergen Bla g 4 from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Gore, J C; Redding, K O; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D; Schal, C

    2005-01-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), produces several potent protein aeroallergens, including Bla g 4, a approximately 20 kDa lipocalin. RT-PCR, Northern analyses and in situ hybridization showed that Bla g 4 is expressed only in the adult male reproductive system. Western blotting and ELISA with rBla g 4 antiserum detected immunoreactivity in the utricles and the conglobate gland, but not in other tissues of the male reproductive system. The Bla g 4 protein content of males increased from adult emergence to day 14, but during copulation Bla g 4 was depleted in the male and transferred to the female within the spermatophore. Topical application of juvenile hormone III stimulated Bla g 4 production by both conglobate gland and utricles.

  15. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement.

  16. Medical Applications of Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Lasers are finding many applications in medicine and biology. While most laser use focuses on the heat generation of the laser beam interacting with tissue, spectroscopic aspects play a more dominating part in a number of emerging applications. Tumour-seeking agents, such as hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), in combination with laser radiation provide new possibilities for cancer tumour detection and treatment. The fluorescence emission from tissue irradiated with UV light can be used for tumour localization. Natural tissue fluorescence as well as fluorescence due to injected HPD can be utilized. Results from studies on animals and from clinical applications are reported. The use of fluorescence for identifying atherosclerotic plaque in human vessels is illustrated. Spectroscopic analysis of the laser-induced plasma obtained when a high-power, pulsed laser beam interacts with tissue is also discussed with applications to plaque removal and laser fragmentation of kidney- and gall-stones.

  17. Silica Materials for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vallet-Regí, María; Balas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The two main applications of silica-based materials in medicine and biotechnology, i.e. for bone-repairing devices and for drug delivery systems, are presented and discussed. The influence of the structure and chemical composition in the final characteristics and properties of every silica-based material is also shown as a function of the both applications presented. The adequate combination of the synthesis techniques, template systems and additives leads to the development of materials that merge the bioactive behavior with the drug carrier ability. These systems could be excellent candidates as materials for the development of devices for tissue engineering. PMID:19662110

  18. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, O. A.; Faieza, A. A.; Syakirah, K.

    2013-06-01

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  19. Recent developments in photodetection for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosá, Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    The use of the most advanced technology in medical imaging results in the development of high performance detectors that can significantly improve the performance of the medical devices employed in hospitals. Scintillator crystals coupled to photodetectors remain to be essential detectors in terms of performance and cost for medical imaging applications in different imaging modalities. Recent advances in photodetectors result in an increase of the performance of the medical scanners. Solid state detectors can provide substantial performance improvement, but are more complex to integrate into clinical detectors due mainly to their higher cost. Solid state photodetectors (APDs, SiPMs) have made new detector concepts possible and have led to improvements in different imaging modalities. Recent advances in detectors for medical imaging are revised.

  20. Carbon nanostructures for orthopedic medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Lijuan; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-09-01

    Carbon nanostructures (including carbon nanofibers, nanostructured diamond, fullerene materials and so forth) possess extraordinary physiochemical, mechanical and electrical properties attractive to bioengineers and medical researchers. In the past decade, numerous developments towards the fabrication and biological studies of carbon nanostructures have provided opportunities to improve orthopedic applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review on carbon nanostructure advances in orthopedic research. Orthopedic medical device applications of carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers and nanostructured diamond (including particulate nanodiamond and nanocrystalline diamond coatings) are emphasized here along with other carbon nanostructures that have promising potential. In addition, widely used fabrication techniques for producing carbon nanostructures in both the laboratory and in industry are briefly introduced. In conclusion, carbon nanostructures have demonstrated tremendous promise for orthopedic medical device applications to date, and although some safety, reliability and durability issues related to the manufacturing and implantation of carbon nanomaterials remain, their future is bright.

  1. Medical diagnostic applications and sources.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, T A

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which ultrasound is used in medical diagnosis are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the ultrasound source (probe) and implications for acoustic exposure. A brief discussion of the choice of optimum frequency for various target depths is followed by a description of the general features of diagnostic ultrasound probes, including endo-probes. The different modes of diagnostic scanning are then discussed in turn: A-mode, M-mode, B-mode, three-dimensional (3D) and 4D scanning, continuous wave (CW) Doppler, pulse-wave spectral Doppler and Doppler imaging. Under the general heading of B-mode imaging, there are individual descriptions of the principles of chirps and binary codes, B-flow, tissue harmonic imaging and ultrasound contrast agent-specific techniques. Techniques for improving image quality within the constraints of real-time operation are discussed, including write zoom, parallel beam forming, spatial compounding and multiple zone transmission focusing, along with methods for reducing slice thickness. At the end of each section there is a summarising comment on the basic features of the acoustic output and its consequences for patient safety.

  2. Medical applications of shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Witold; Metcalfe, Annick; Hayashi, Shunichi; Yahia, L'Hocine; Raymond, Jean

    2007-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are lightweight, have a high strain/shape recovery ability, are easy to process, and required properties can be tailored for variety of applications. Recently a number of medical applications have been considered and investigated, especially for polyurethane-based SMP. SMP materials were found to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-mutagenic. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) can be tailored for shape restoration/self-deployment of clinical devices when inserted in the human body. Newly developed SMP foams, together with cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) processing, further broaden their potential biomedical applications. Polyurethane-based SMP are described here and major advantages are identified over other medical materials. Some SMP applications are already used in a clinical setting, whereas others are still in development. Lately, several important applications are being considered for CHEM foams as self-deployable vascular and coronary devices. One example is the endovascular treatment of aneurysms.

  3. Glass microspheres for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in <1 week, without causing any detectable joint damage. The combination of dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres and EDTA chelation therapy provides an unique "tool" for the medical community, which can deliver a large dose (>100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass

  4. Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biological and Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising material for biological and medical applications, owning to its relatively inexpensive and large-scale synthesis, unique structure, and superior optical properties. However, most biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and bio-imaging, are dependent upon the precise control of the surfaces, and can be significantly affected by the type, distribution and stability of chemical funtionalisations of the nanodiamond surface. In this paper, recent studies on nanodiamonds and their biomedical applications by conjugating with different chemicals are reviewed, while highlighting the critical importance of surface chemical states for various applications.

  5. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  6. Theory development and application in medical education.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, Anna T; Eva, Kevin W; Colliver, Jerry A

    2013-01-01

    The role and status of theory is by no means a new topic in medical education. Yet summarizing where we have been and where we are going with respect to theory development and application is difficult because our community has not yet fully elucidated what constitutes medical education theory. In this article, we explore the idea of conceptualizing theory as an effect on scholarly dialogue among medical educators. We describe theory-enabled conversation as argumentation, which frames inquiry, permits the evaluation of evidence, and enables the acquisition of community understanding that has utility beyond investigators' local circumstances. We present ideas for assessing argumentation quality and suggest approaches to increasing the frequency and quality of argumentation in the exchange among diverse medical education scholars.

  7. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  8. Regulatory frameworks for mobile medical applications.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    A mobile application (app) is a software program that runs on mobile communication devices such as a smartphone. The concept of a mobile medical app has gained popularity and diffusion but its reference regulatory context has raised discussion and concerns. Theoretically, a mobile app can be developed and uploaded easily by any person or entity. Thus, if an app can have some effects on the health of the users, it is mandatory to identify its reference regulatory context and the applicable prescriptions.

  9. Medically related activities of application team program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Application team methodology identifies and specifies problems in technology transfer programs to biomedical areas through direct contact with users of aerospace technology. The availability of reengineering sources increases impact of the program on the medical community and results in broad scale application of some bioinstrumentation systems. Examples are given that include devices adapted to the rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders, power sources for artificial organs, and automated monitoring and detection equipment in clinical medicine.

  10. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-05-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  11. New Medical Applications Of Metal Vapor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; McIntosh, Alexander I.

    1989-06-01

    The first medical application for metal vapor lasers has been granted marketing approval by the FDA. This represents a major milestone for this technology. Metalaser Technologies recently received this approval for its Vasculase unit in the treatment of vascular lesions such as port wine stains, facial telangiectasia and strawberry hemangiomas.

  12. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1) were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%), followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST), the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and the extraordinary

  13. Microwave generator for scientific and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Ciupa, R.; Neamtu, C.

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays power microwave radiation is widely used in medical applications as hyperthermia, diathermy or ablation and for scientific applications such as plasma generation, digestion, or as a catalyst in green chemistry. Nevertheless, designing a suitably adapted microwave generator that meets both the scientific and the more restrictive medical criteria remains a difficult task. We present here a simplified approach in designing such a microwave generator, according to the IEC60601 medical standard. The generator, based on a continuous wave (CW) magnetron, is coupled via a TE10 waveguide to feed either a hyperthermia applicator or a reactor chamber. Microwave interactions with the probe (or the tissue) depend strongly on the magnetron's power supply parameters and the impedance match of the entire microwave circuit. Any unmatched elements (magnetron to waveguide, waveguide to applicator, applicator to patient) give rise to a large voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) which loads the generator with a surplus energy, converted to heat. Extra heating of the magnetron will deteriorate the amplitude of the generated microwave power field. We show here that, by using a proprietary patented temperature sensor sheet, we were able to detect and improve the impedance matching of the microwave circuit.

  14. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  15. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes.

  16. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. PMID:25808341

  17. Attitudes of Medical Graduate and Undergraduate Students toward the Learning and Application of Medical Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that the teaching of medical statistics needs to be improved, yet areas for priority are unclear as medical students' learning and application of statistics at different levels is not well known. Our goal is to assess the attitudes of medical students toward the learning and application of medical statistics, and discover their…

  18. Application of Light Sources to Medical Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizojiri, Takafumi; Kimura, Makoto

    The purpose of this paper is to show application of light sources to medical field. It is described the process of light sources development applied to photodynamic therapy; PDT or photodynamic diagnosis; PDD. Actually, as a successful experience, we show the verification results obtained by primary and clinical experiments using metal halide lamp which emitted spectra is optimized to absorbed wavelength of photosensitizer for PDT.

  19. Nuclear data calculation methods for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.; Lunev, V.P.; Masterov, V.S.; Kurenkov, N.V.; Kulikov, E.V.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron deficient radionuclides play an important role in medicine, where they are used for diagnostic with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET). Using some reactions connected with the producing most widely used radioisotopes {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99}Tc as example we calculated reaction cross sections and discuss the possibilities of the models and codes and recent progress in the methods to predict nuclear data for medical and other applications in medium energy region.

  20. [Additive Manufacturing and Its Medical Applications].

    PubMed

    Song, Zewen; Wang, Guohui; Gao, Qin; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of technologies based on the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Characterized by its direct manufacturing and rapidity, it has been regarded by the Economist Journal as one of the key techniques which will trigger the third industry reformation. The present article, beginning with a brief introduction of the history of AM and the process of its major technologies, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages and medical applications of the technique.

  1. The regulation of mobile medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali Kemal; Martinez-Hurtado, J L; da Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando; Simsekler, M C Emre; Akram, Muhammad Safwan; Lowe, Christopher R

    2014-03-07

    The rapidly expanding number of mobile medical applications have the potential to transform the patient-healthcare provider relationship by improving the turnaround time and reducing costs. In September 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance to regulate these applications and protect consumers by minimising the risks associated with their unintended use. This guidance distinguishes between the subset of mobile medical apps which may be subject to regulation and those that are not. The marketing claims of the application determine the intent. Areas of concern include compliance with regular updates of the operating systems and of the mobile medical apps themselves. In this article, we explain the essence of this FDA guidance by providing examples and evaluating the impact on academia, industry and other key stakeholders, such as patients and clinicians. Our assessment indicates that awareness and incorporation of the guidelines into product development can hasten the commercialisation and market entry process. Furthermore, potential obstacles have been discussed and directions for future development suggested.

  2. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4. PMID:27877527

  3. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  4. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4.

  5. Ultrafast laser pulses for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Serbin, Jesper; Bauer, Thorsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Welling, Herbert; Mueller, Wiebke; Schwab, Burkard; Singh, Ajoy I.; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2002-04-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a promising tool for micromachining and extremely precise ablation of all kinds of materials. Due to the low energy threshold, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the bu micrometers range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: in ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of cornael flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs- laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosklerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  6. Medical laser application: translation into the clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Hennig, Georg; Brittenham, Gary M.; Rühm, Adrian; Lilge, Lothar

    2015-06-01

    Medical laser applications based on widespread research and development is a very dynamic and increasingly popular field from an ecological as well as an economic point of view. Conferences and personal communication are necessary to identify specific requests and potential unmet needs in this multi- and interdisciplinary discipline. Precise gathering of all information on innovative, new, or renewed techniques is necessary to design medical devices for introduction into clinical applications and finally to become established for routine treatment or diagnosis. Five examples of successfully addressed clinical requests are described to show the long-term endurance in developing light-based innovative clinical concepts and devices. Starting from laboratory medicine, a noninvasive approach to detect signals related to iron deficiency is shown. Based upon photosensitization, fluorescence-guided resection had been discovered, opening the door for photodynamic approaches for the treatment of brain cancer. Thermal laser application in the nasal cavity obtained clinical acceptance by the introduction of new laser wavelengths in clinical consciousness. Varicose veins can be treated by innovative endoluminal treatment methods, thus reducing side effects and saving time. Techniques and developments are presented with potential for diagnosis and treatment to improve the clinical situation for the benefit of the patient.

  7. Optical parametric oscillators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Lawrie A. W.; Golding, Paul S.; King, Terence A.

    1996-04-01

    In recent years optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have undergone a renaissance largely due to the discovery of new nonlinear materials capable of wide continuous tuning ranges spanning from the UV to the near-infrared spectral regions. To date, however, OPOs have not been exploited in the medical field despite their advantages over the dye laser in terms of tuning range and solid state structure. We consider the development of an OPO based on barium borate (BBO) which can be tailored to suit applications in medicine. Converting the maximum number of pump photons to tunable signal and idler photons is of great importance to secure high-fluence radiation necessary for many treatments. With this in mind, we report on an all- solid-state system using BBO which has been optimized by computer modeling with the potential of delivering amplification factors of typically up to 20 over a continuous tuning range of 700 nm to 1000 nm. As an example of its biomedical application, we describe the selective excitation of biomolecules and chromophores for cell destruction using malachite green isothiocyanate labelled bacteria. The potential for development is reviewed towards other medical applications such as diagnostic sensing and phototherapy.

  8. Nanosilver: a nanoproduct in medical application.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Schluesener, H J

    2008-01-04

    Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine. However, only few nanoproducts are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nanosilver particles are generally smaller than 100nm and contain 20-15,000 silver atoms. At nanoscale, silver exhibits remarkably unusual physical, chemical and biological properties. Due to its strong antibacterial activity, nanosilver coatings are used on various textiles but as well as coatings on certain implants. Further, nanosilver is used for treatment of wounds and burns or as a contraceptive and marketed as a water disinfectant and room spray. Thus, use of nanosilver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications and due to increasing exposure toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. In sharp contrast to the attention paid to new applications of nanosilver, few studies provide only scant insights into the interaction of nanosilver particle with the human body after entering via different portals. Biodistribution, organ accumulation, degradation, possible adverse effects and toxicity are only slowly recognized and this review is focusing on major questions associated with the increased medical use of nanosilver and related nanomaterials.

  9. Nanoporous membranes for medical and biological applications

    PubMed Central

    Adiga, Shashishekar P; Jin, Chunmin; Curtiss, Larry A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic nanoporous materials have numerous potential biological and medical applications that involve sorting, sensing, isolating and releasing biological molecules. Nanoporous systems engineered to mimic natural filtration systems are actively being developed for use in smart implantable drug delivery systems, bioartificial organs, and other novel nano-enabled medical devices. Recent advances in nanoscience have made it possible to precisely control the morphology as well as physical and chemical properties of the pores in nanoporous materials that make them increasingly attractive for regulating and sensing transport at the molecular level. In this work, an overview of nanoporous membranes for biomedical applications is given. Various in vivo and in vitro membrane applications, including biosensing, biosorting, immunoisolation and drug delivery, are presented. Different types of nanoporous materials and their fabrication techniques are discussed with an emphasis on membranes with ordered pores. Desirable properties of membranes used in implantable devices, including biocompatibility and antibiofouling behavior, are discussed. The use of surface modification techniques to improve the function of nanoporous membranes is reviewed. Despite the extensive research carried out in fabrication, characterization, and modeling of nanoporous materials, there are still several challenges that must be overcome in order to create synthetic nanoporous systems that behave similarly to their biological counterparts. PMID:20049818

  10. Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the results of a molecular epidemiological survey of 15 carbapenemase-encoding genes from a recent collection of clinical isolates. The most salient findings revealed that (i) 60% of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes, (ii) the blaDIM-1 gene that has only been reported in...

  11. Fibers and materials of medical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, L. I.

    1993-01-01

    Efferent sorption methods of organism detoxication (by medical trend) are presented. Recently, specialists have shown their keen interest in the problem of treating exogenous and endogenous intoxications. This was stipulated by the growing production and accumulation of chemical products for industrial, agricultural, and domestic needs. To solve this problem the industrial production of carbon fibrous adsorbents was developed and implemented at NII Chimvolokno in St. Petersburg. A description of the carbon fibers is given. Also, application of modern composite materials for manufacturing compression-distraction apparatus used for setting fractured bones is described.

  12. Co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ramoul, Abir; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane; Amiri, Sabrina; Dekhil, Mazouz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in an Algerian hospital. A total of 43 imipenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 were identified using API 20NE and were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and Etest methods. Carbapenemase activity was detected using microbiological tests and PCR. Genetic transfer of the blaNDM-1 gene was performed by conjugation using sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as recipient strain. Clonal relationships were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using partial sequences of the csuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 43 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (>32μg/mL). The strains harboured blaOXA-23, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-58 and/or blaOXA-24 genes. Co-existence of blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 was detected in two isolates and one isolate, respectively. NDM-1 plasmid transfer to E. coli J53 was successful only for one of the three strains harbouring both blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58. The phylogenetic tree obtained from concatenation of the partial sequences of csuE and blaOXA-51 showed that there was no genetic relationship between the isolates and the blaNDM-1 resistance gene. Here we report for the first time the co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 along with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in recent clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Northeast Algeria. These findings re-emphasise the dissemination and rapid spread of blaNDM-1 carbapenemase genes in multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii isolates in Algeria.

  13. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the practice of medicine (does not include medical research). (2) Commodities or software are... Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  14. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  15. Optical polymers for laser medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanova, Nina G.; Kasarova, Stefka N.; Nikolov, Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    In medicine, optical polymers are used not only in ophthalmology but in many laser surgical, diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The application in lens design is determined by their refractive and dispersive properties in the considered spectral region. We have used different measuring techniques to obtain precise refractometric data in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Dispersive, thermal and other important optical characteristics of polymers have been studied. Design of a plastic achromatic objective, used in a surgical stereo-microscope at 1064 nm laser wavelength, is accomplished. Geometrical and wavefront aberrations are calculated. Another example of application of polymers is the designed all-mirror apochromatic micro-lens, intended for superluminescent diode fiber coupling in medical systems.

  16. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given.

  17. Applications of digital photogrammetry to medical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, H. L.

    Photogrammetric measurement for the diagnosis and treatment of human conditions and for bio-medical research is a form of close-range photogrammetry with its own distinctive challenges and constraints. Reports of fully digital systems are somewhat limited so far, being restricted primarily to face and body measurement and to motion recording, but clear patterns are apparent in the approaches being adopted. The effectiveness of photogrammetric measurement in gait analyses and some other body measurements involving targets, has stimulated commercial development of a number of comprehensive digital systems. They are characterised by the use of multiple cameras, LED or reflective targets, fast image processing based on target detection, links to other recording systems, and by the provision of comprehensive medical information. Surface shape measurements by state-of-the-art photogrammetric systems have been aimed primarily at the face, back and torso. But in contrast to target-based measurement systems, they are characterised not by commercial systems, but by individually tailored hardware and software systems based on low-cost, low-resolution cameras, the casting of a texturising light pattern, image processing to detect features within the pattern, and area-based rather than feature-based matching methods for automated stereoscopic correlation. In common with motion measurement, effective and informative output is crucial for these applications. Medical photogrammetry does not end with these applications, but distinctive trends in the use of digital methodology are not apparent among other measurement tasks. On the other hand, digital image processing has contributed usefully to optical measurement techniques which are not strictly photogrammetric but which are useful for external measurement on the human body.

  18. The transferability of blaOXA-23 gene in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruno Silvester; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ismail, Muhammad A; Shibl, Atef M; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Forbes, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have been increasingly reported worldwide including Saudi Arabia and Egypt. We examined 64, non-repetitive, Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected in 2013 and 2014 from four different medical centres (two from Saudi Arabia and two from Egypt). All the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. The intI1 harbouring blaGES-11 and aac-6'-1b was detected in 19% (n=12) of the isolates. ISAba1 over-expression of blaADC gene was observed in 65% (n=42) of isolates. Of all the isolates 19% (n=12) had ISAba1 upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene, 69% (n=44) carried the blaOXA-23 gene within the Tn2006 structure, 8% (n=5) had blaOXA-24-like gene and 9% (n=6) harboured either blaVIM-2 or blaNDM-1 gene. Eighty nine percent (n=57) of isolates were resistant to imipenem and had an MIC of ≥8mg/L. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed the presence of 23 different PFGE. Three PFGE types were very widespread, ST236 (CC104) (PFGE type 1, n=15), ST208 (CC92) (PFGE type 2, n=10), ST884 (CC unassigned) (PFGE type 3, n=7) in and across all four medical centres. The blaOXA-23 gene was found to be present on a 60kb transferable plasmid in both PFGE type 1 and 2 but was absent in PFGE type 3. This is the first study to report on the emergence of ST236 in Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and spread of distinct carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clones belonging to ST884, ST945 and ST1096 in Saudi Arabia.

  19. 78 FR 29390 - Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Medical Technologies (SHINE) filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pursuant to...

  20. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A. K.; Rai, N. K.; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A. K.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Rai, Pramod K.

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail.

  1. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  2. [Research on medical data mining and its applications].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanzhen; Wang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    With the development of computer technology, medical data has developed from traditional paper pattern into electronic mode, which could effectively promote the medical development. This paper at first presents the status and characteristics of medical data mining. Then, it discusses the critical method of medical data mining in classification, clustering and prediction, respectively. The paper focuses on the application and assessment of five algorithms which are designed for medical data mining, including decision tree, cluster analysis, association rule, intelligent algorithm and the mix algorithm. Finally, this paper outlooks the data mining application in medical domain.

  3. Successful fiber sensor for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Brett A.

    1993-05-01

    The use of fiber optics in communications and data transmission applications has become wide spread in the last decade. At the same time fiber optic sensors have not gained wide commercial acceptance even though many are known and indeed numerous U.S. and foreign patents have been granted. Camino Laboratories a small medical device concern has successfully marketed a fiber optic pressure monitoring system and become a leader in the area of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. Some curiosity about the company and its products has been expressed. This presentation will briefly give a background of the company, an explanation of the product, an account of the transfer from concept to volume manufacture and a word on limiting drawbacks of an intensity modulating fiber optic sensor.

  4. Collaborative social and medical service application.

    PubMed

    Petermann, C A; Buffone, G J; Bobroff, R B; Moore, D M; Dargahi, R; Moreau, D R; Gilson, H S; Li, Y; Fowler, J; Beck, J R

    1995-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine has five Teen Health Clinics (THC) dispersed throughout Harris county. The population served by the clinics includes inner-city adolescent boys and girls 19 years of age and under. Patients receive services such as family planning, sexually transmitted disease screening and treatment, perinatal care, counseling, and support services. Adolescents may receive services at any one of the clinics at no cost to the adolescent or their dependents. Given the geographical distribution of the clinics and the reliance on paper-based records, client services cannot be provided efficiently or expeditiously. According to the statistics developed by Clinic staff, ineffective coordination of service needs and client schedules undermine the follow-up needed for effective care. For example, a counselor will often need to balance a school schedule, clinic visits, well baby follow-up, and the Best Friends Program for a new mother. In addition, the lack of ready access to patient information impairs the ability of clinical and social service staff to provide continuity of care. In fact, some cases of client dropout are attributable to these difficulties. We have developed the Collaborative Social and Medical Service Application (CSMSA) to facilitate the provision of social and medical services to this population. The CSMSA is a domain-specific application based on a robust infrastructure known as the Ambulatory Services Architecture (ASA). This system is designed to support integrated social and ambulatory care. The ASA is a Baylor developed application framework and architecture for the computerization of the patient medical record in the ambulatory care setting. The working environment for the CSMSA user is an integrated desktop which provides an operating environment for both third-party applications and the CSMSA, as well as a fundamental set of services. The integrated desktop services include a mechanism for object organization or grouping, a facility

  5. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  6. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  7. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  8. Potential applications of medical and non-medical robots for neurosurgical applications.

    PubMed

    Alric, Matthieu; Chapelle, Frédéric; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Gogu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the state-of-the-art in medical robotic systems used for different surgical applications, and to position and evaluate their concepts according to the design requirements of an innovative, robotized neurosurgical system, capable of performing tumor ablation or electrode positioning. A few other non-medical systems, which have interesting concepts, will also be discussed. The overall aim is to determine the robotic concept (structure, actuation, etc.) most applicable to specific tasks in neurosurgery. The first section of the article describes the requirements of the task and each important aspect is expressed by an evaluation criterion. Then, 59 systems are described, according to the fields of medical applications and the robotic concepts. An evaluation of the different systems is conducted, based on the five most significant criteria. However, the main characteristic assessed is the deployment capability of the system i.e. extension and retraction. The final section presents an overview of concepts transferable to neurosurgical applications. Continuum concepts, such as "elephant trunks", seem to be the most adapted solutions, utilizing pneumatic and/or spring and/or cable actuations. Pneumatics offer deployment forces and cables can control and guide the deployment. The design of a new neurosurgical device should take into account these observations as a base.

  9. Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Saldua, Meagan A.; Bixler, Joel N.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in fiber optic technology and miniaturized optics and mechanics have propelled confocal endomicroscopy into the clinical realm. This high resolution, non-invasive imaging technology provides the ability to microscopically evaluate cellular and sub-cellular features in tissue in vivo by optical sectioning. Because many cancers originate in epithelial tissues accessible by endoscopes, confocal endomicroscopy has been explored to detect regions of possible neoplasia at an earlier stage by imaging morphological features in vivo that are significant in histopathologic evaluation. This technique allows real-time assessment of tissue which may improve diagnostic yield by guiding biopsy. Research and development continues to reduce the overall size of the imaging probe, increase the image acquisition speed, and improve resolution and field of view of confocal endomicroscopes. Technical advances will continue to enable application to less accessible organs and more complex systems in the body. Lateral and axial resolutions down to 0.5 μm and 3 μm, respectively, field of view as large as 800×450 μm, and objective lens and total probe outer diameters down to 350 μm and 1.25 mm, respectively, have been achieved. We provide a review of the historical developments of confocal imaging in vivo, the evolution of endomicroscope instrumentation, and the medical applications of confocal endomicroscopy. PMID:21994069

  10. 75 FR 29403 - Special Issuance of Airman Medical Certificates to Applicants Being Treated With Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... With Certain Antidepressant Medications; Re-Opening of Comment Period AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airmen medical certificates to applicants using certain antidepressant medication. The comment period is... Medical Certificates to Applicants Being Treated With Certain Antidepressant Medications.'' The...

  11. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  12. A swordless knight: epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the blaKPC-negative sequence type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae clone.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Paikin, Svetlana; Sterlin, Yelena; Glick, Josef; Edgar, Rotem; Aronov, Rima; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2012-10-01

    In June 2010, a bla(KPC)-negative, ertapenem-resistant ST-258 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from a patient in the Laniado Medical Center (LMC). Our aims were (i) to describe its molecular characteristics and resistance mechanisms and (ii) to assess whether the bla(KPC)-negative ST-258 K. pneumoniae clone spreads as efficiently as its KPC-producing isogenic strain. In a prospective study, surveillance of all ertapenem-resistant, carbapenemase-negative K. pneumoniae (ERCNKP) isolates was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 at LMC (314 beds) and from July 2008 to December 2010 at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (TASMC) (1,200 beds). Molecular typing was done by arbitrarily primed PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 8 of 42 (19%) ERCNKP isolates in LMC and 1 of 32 (3.1%) in TASMC belonged to the ST-258 clone. These strains carried the bla(CTX-M-2) or the bla(CTX-M-25) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene. Sequencing of the ompK genes showed a frameshift mutation in the ompK35 gene. The fate of the bla(KPC)-carrying plasmid, pKpQIL, was determined by S1 analysis and by PCR of the Tn4401 transposon, repA, and the truncated bla(OXA-9). Plasmid analysis of the ERCNKP ST-258 isolates showed variability in plasmid composition and absence of the Tn4401 transposon and the pKpQIL plasmid. In addition, the ST-258 clone was identified in 35/35 (100%) of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates but in none of 62 ertapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates collected in the two centers. Our results suggest that ERCNKP ST-258 evolved by loss of the bla(KPC)-carrying plasmid pKpQIL. ERCNKP ST-258 appears to have low epidemic potential.

  13. Medical applications of digital image morphing.

    PubMed

    Penska, Keith; Folio, Les; Bunger, Rolf

    2007-09-01

    The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and/or failure of the physiological healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus, several sequential x-rays obtained throughout orthopedic surgical procedures and the healing process were morphed together representing a time-lapsed video of the healing process. The end result is a video that demonstrates the healing process in an animation that radiologists envision and report to other clinicians. For the brown recluse spider bite, a seemingly benign skin lesion transforms into a wide gaping necrotic wound with dramatic appearance within days. This novel technique is not presented for readily apparent clinical advantage, rather, it may have more immediate application in providing treatment options to referring providers and/or patients, as well as educational value of healing or disease progression over time. Image morphing is one of those innovations that is just starting to come into its own. Morphing is an image processing technology that transforms one image into another by generating a series of intermediate synthetic images. It is the same process that Hollywood uses to turn people into animals in movies, for example. The ability to perform morphing, once restricted to high-end graphics workstations, is now widely available for desktop computers. The authors describe how a series of radiographic images were morphed into a short movie clip using readily available software and an average laptop. The resultant video showed the healing process of an open comminuted humerus fracture that helped demonstrate how amazingly the human body heals in a case presentation in a time-lapse fashion.

  14. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  15. Nanotechnology on duty in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kubik, T; Bogunia-Kubik, K; Sugisaka, M

    2005-02-01

    At the beginning of 21(st) century, fifty years after discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double helix structure, scientific world is faced with a great progress in many disciplines of biological research, especially in the field of molecular biology and operating on nucleid acid molecules. Many molecular biology techniques have been implemented successfully in biology, biotechnology, medical science, diagnostics, and many more. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted in improving old and designing new laboratory devices for PCR amplification and analysis of amplified DNA fragments. In parallel to these efforts, the nature of DNA molecules and their construction have attracted many researchers. In addition, some studies concerning mimicking living systems, as well as developing and constructing artificial nanodevices, such as biomolecular sensors and artificial cells, have been conducted. This review is focused on the potential of nanotechnology in health care and medicine, including the development of nanoparticles for diagnostic and screening purposes, the manufacture of unique drug delivery systems, antisense and gene therapy applications and the enablement of tissue engineering, including the future of nanorobot construction.

  16. US biosimilar pathway unlikely to be used: developers will opt for a traditional BLA filing.

    PubMed

    Wiatr, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    In March 2010, the US passed the healthcare reform bill, including The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, which established an abbreviated Biologic License Application (aBLA) pathway for the approval of biosimilars. The aBLA pathway may never be used. At the "Business of Biosimilars" meeting in Boston in September, developers of both innovator and generic biologics as well as representatives from the scientific, regulatory, and legal communities noted that, because of unclear requirements for clinical data and the need for public disclosure of proprietary data, manufacturers of generic biologics are unlikely to take advantage of the aBLA process, opting instead for a standard Biologic License Application (BLA). The implications of an unusable biosimilars pathway in the US dampen our already soft outlook for biosimilars. Companies will still develop follow-on biologics, but approved compounds will behave as new branded drugs. Biosimilars in the US are therefore not likely to lead to aggressive pricing, but will more likely mirror current situations where several similar biologics are available. For example, the interferon (IFN) β-1a products Avonex® and Rebif®, and Betaseron® (IFN β-1b) have all enjoyed >10% price increases for the last several years in spite of their clinical similarities. inThought reiterates its outlook for generic erosion of a typical biologic that projects a loss of revenue of 30% over 5 years compared to the 90% revenue loss for a typical branded small molecule.

  17. Rapid and simultaneous detection of blaKPC and blaNDM by use of multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Michael; Kwak, Yoon I; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil; McGann, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of carbapenem nonsusceptibility among clinically important species is of global concern. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying carbapenem nonsusceptibility is critical for epidemiological investigations. In this report, we describe a real-time PCR-based assay capable of simultaneously detecting blaKPC and blaNDM, two of the most important carbapenemases, directly from culture in less than 90 min. The assay was validated with blaKPC- and blaNDM-carrying clinical isolates and demonstrated 100% concordance with the Carba NP test.

  18. Citrobacter freundii carrying blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1: characterization by whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Espedido, Björn; Feng, Yu; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-07-28

    A carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii strain WCHCF65 was recovered from hospital sewage and was characterized by genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. The strain carried nine genes encoding β-lactamases including two carbapenemase genes, blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2. blaNDM-1 was carried on an IncX3 plasmid, which was identical to a plasmid found in a local Escherichia coli, suggesting interspecies horizontal transfer. blaKPC-2 was bracketed by two copies of insertion sequence ISKpn19, which could form a composite transposon with the potential to mobilize blaKPC-2, on a new type of plasmid. The coexistence of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 conferred higher levels of resistance to carbapenems compared with blaNDM-1 or blaKPC-2 alone. The coexistence of these carbapenemase genes, on two different plasmids, in one strain may allow new genetic platforms to be generated to mediate their spread.

  19. Characterization of a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 476 carrying both bla KPC-2 and bla IMP-4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cao, W; Zhu, X; Chen, Z; Li, L; Zhang, B; Wang, B; Tian, L; Wang, F; Liu, C; Sun, Z

    2012-08-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has recently spread rapidly throughout China. In this study, we characterized a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolate that produced both KPC-2 and IMP-4 type carbapenemases. A clinical isolate of K. pneumoniae, resistant to both meropenem and imipenem, was recovered from a urine sample. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and Etest (bioMérieux, France). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for gene type analysis. bla (KPC) and the encoding genes of ESBLs and plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced. Plasmids were analyzed by transformation, enzyme restriction and Southern blot. PCR analysis revealed that the isolate was simultaneously carrying bla (KPC-2), bla (IMP-4), bla (TEM-1), and bla (OKP-B) genes. MLST assigned the isolate to a novel sequence type, ST476. bla (KPC-2)-harbouring plasmids of the isolate and comparative strains had similar EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps, while IMP-4-harbouring plasmids had variable HindIII restriction maps. Coexistence of bla (KPC-2) and bla (IMP-4) was probably due to bla (IMP-4)-harbouring plasmid transmission into KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae (ST476). The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses both therapeutic and infection control problems.

  20. Emergence of blaKPC carbapenemase genes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Sally R; Ginn, Andrew N; Wiklendt, Agnieszka M; Ellem, Justin; Wong, Jenny S J; Ingram, Paul; Guy, Stephen; Garner, Sarah; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2015-02-01

    blaKPC genes encoding resistance to carbapenems are increasingly widely reported and are now endemic in parts of several countries, but only one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate carrying blaKPC-2 had previously been reported in Australia, in 2010. Here we characterised this isolate, six additional K. pneumoniae and one Escherichia coli carrying blaKPC and another K. pneumoniae lacking blaKPC, all isolated in Australia in 2012. Seven K. pneumoniae belonged to clonal complex (CC) 292, associated with blaKPC in several countries. Five with blaKPC-2 plus the isolate lacking a blaKPC gene were sequence type 258 (ST258) and the seventh was the closely related ST512 with blaKPC-3. The eighth K. pneumoniae isolate, novel ST1048, and the E. coli (ST131) also carried blaKPC-2. blaKPC genes were associated with the most common Tn4401a variant, which gives the highest levels of expression, in all isolates. The ST258 isolates appeared to share a similar set of plasmids, with IncFIIK, IncX3 and ColE-type plasmids identified in most isolates. All K. pneumoniae isolates had a characteristic insertion in the ompK35 gene resulting in a frameshift and early termination, but only the ST512 isolate had a GlyAsp insertion in loop 3 of OmpK36 that may contribute to increased resistance. The clinical epidemiology of blaKPC emergence in Australia thus appears to reflect the global dominance of K. pneumoniae CC292 (and perhaps E. coli ST131). Some, but not all, patients carrying these isolates had previously been hospitalised outside Australia, suggesting multiple discrete importation events of closely related strains, as well as undetected nosocomial spread.

  1. Social marketing: application to medical education.

    PubMed

    David, S P; Greer, D S

    2001-01-16

    Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated.

  2. Application of Stereo-Imaging Technology to Medical Field

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. Methods We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Results Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. Conclusions The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices. PMID:23115737

  3. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible

  4. Solid state dye laser for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldag, Henry R.

    1994-06-01

    The development of solid state dye lasers could lead to a major breakthrough in the cost and compactness of a medical device. Advantages include: elimination of the flow system for the gain medium; ease with which to implement wavelength agility or the replacement of a degraded rod or sheet; and toxicity and flammability become a non-issue. Dye lasers have played a role in cardiology, dermatology, and urology. Of these cardiology is of interest to Palomar. The Palomar Model 3010 flashlamp-pumped dye laser medical device was used during phase 1 FDA clinical trials to break-up blood clots that cause heart attacks, a process known as coronary laser thrombolysis. It is the objective of this research and development effort to produce solid matrix lasers that will replace liquid dye lasers in these medical specialties.

  5. Application of data mining to medical risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Yokoyama, Shigeki

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an application of data mining to medical risk management, where data mining techniques were applied to detection, analysis and evaluation of risks potentially existing in clinical environments. We applied this technique to the following two medical domains: risk aversion of nurse incidents and infection control. The results show that data mining methods were effective to detection and aversion of risk factors.

  6. [Current problems of information technologies application for forces medical service].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Korneenkov, A A; Bogomolov, V D; Borisov, D N; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-06-01

    The modern information technologies are the key factors for the upgrading of forces medical service. The aim of this article is the analysis of prospective information technologies application for the upgrading of forces medical service. The authors suggested 3 concepts of information support of Russian military health care on the basis of data about information technologies application in the foreign armed forces, analysis of the regulatory background, prospects of military-medical service and gathered experience of specialists. These three concepts are: development of united telecommunication network of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation medical service, working out and implementation of standard medical information systems for medical units and establishments, monitoring the military personnel health state and military medical service resources. It is noted that on the assumption of sufficient centralized financing and industrial implementation of the military medical service prospective information technologies, by the year 2020 the united information space of the military medical service will be created and the target information support effectiveness will be achieved.

  7. [blaTEM, blaSHV y blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacterias isolated from patients with hospital-acquired infections].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Militza; Rodríguez, Eliosmar; Antón, Karen; Silva, Suyin; Navarro, Jhonilys; Lastra, Loriannys; Salazar, Elsa; Alonso, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to identify the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates, collected between September and November 2005. In addition to third-generation cephalosporin resistance, the isolates also showed resistance to chloramphenicol (59.2%), amikacin (37.0%) and gentamicin (40.7%), and demonstrated sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem. Nine strains were capable of transferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance, as well as the production of ESBL. In the clinical isolates, the genes blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected, being more prevalent the types blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-5 blaSHV-5-2a and blaCTX-M-1; while in the trans-conjugated only blaTEM-1, blaSHV-5 y blaSHV-5-2awere found. In total, seven types of genes were identified, five of which were codifying genes for ESBL-type enzymes. This demonstrates that in the hospital center, resistance to third-generation cephalosporin is mediated by several enzymes.

  8. Characterization of the blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes and the novel blaKPC-15 gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongguo; Hou, Wei; Chen, Jiayu; Mou, Yonghua; Yang, Linjun; Yang, Liqin; Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Meiyun

    2014-07-01

    Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenem were analysed by PCR, PFGE, gene mapping, plasmid conjugation and Southern blot hybridization using a blaKPC probe. In addition to the frequently reported blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes, a novel blaKPC-15 gene was identified in one of the isolates. The results of plasmid analysis and Southern blot hybridization revealed that the three blaKPC genes were located on transferable plasmids exhibiting three different patterns. The patterns A, B and C were observed in the genetic makeup of each individual plasmid, and all three structures contained ISKpn6-like and ISKpn8 transposons. The results of the gene mapping and hybridization experiments performed with the blaKPC probe demonstrated that the plasmids harboured the three genes at approximately the 85.0, 54.0 and 73.0 kb positions. The study concluded that carbapenem resistance in the three isolates was primarily due to the production of carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase.

  9. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  10. Medical technology management: from planning to application.

    PubMed

    David, Y; Jahnke, E

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively manage their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for optimizing costs of ownership of all equipment. Clinical engineers can identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They can review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with cost accounting analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. Cost accounting analysis is a multivariate function that includes determining the amount, based upon a strategic plan and financial resources, of funding to be allocated annually for medical equipment acquisition and replacement. Often this function works closely with clinical engineering to establish equipment useful life and prioritization of acquisition, upgrade, and replacement of inventory within budget confines and without conducting time consuming, individual financial capital project evaluations.

  11. Capillary waveguide optrodes for Medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieslinger, Dietmar; Weigl, Bernhard H.; Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1997-01-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. The capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Different optical setups have been investigated and compared regarding its waveguiding properties.

  12. Optical properties of plastic materials for medical vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanova, N. G.; Kasarova, S. N.; Nikolov, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    Several types of optical polymer materials suitable for ophthalmic or medical vision applications have been studied. We have measured refractive indices of studied plastics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Important optical characteristics as Abbe numbers, dispersion coefficients and curves, principal and relative partial dispersion have been evaluated. Calculated refractometric data at many laser emission wavelengths used for medical surgery, therapy and diagnostics is included. As an example of a medical vision application of plastics, optical design of a micro-triplet for use in disposable endoscopes is presented.

  13. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  14. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  15. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2016-10-15

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  16. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Akio; SORA, Shigeo; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; HARADA, Kanako; SUGITA, Naohiko; SAITO, Nobuhito; MITSUISHI, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care. PMID:27464471

  17. Application of computerized adaptive testing in medical education.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2009-06-01

    Application of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in medical education is still spare in the high stakes examination or in the school-based examination. In the medical school in Belgium, CAT was used for an assessment tool in general practice as pilot test was reported. In Hallym University, CAT has been introduced in the evaluation of the students' performance as in-course general evaluation test and parasitology test. Another examples of application of CAT for high stakes examination are Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination - Part 1 in Canada and National Council Licensure EXamination - Registered Nurse in USA. CAT has some merits such as accurate estimation of the ability parameters of the examinees and the shorter period of examination. To apply the CAT in medical education more actively, medical teachers should have an interest in the modern measurement theories such as item response theory and technologies. It is still uncertain if CAT may be prosperous in the medical education as a tool for the measurement of the examinees' ability. However, we should prepare the era of application of CAT in high stakes examination such as medical licensing examination.

  18. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  19. Learning and Career Specialty Preferences of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Terry D.; Witzke, Donald B.; Elam, Carol L.; Cheever, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined relationships among medical school applicants' preferred approaches to learning, methods of instruction, and specialty areas (n=912). Based on confidential responses to a progressive series of paired comparisons, applicants' preferences for lecture (L), self-study (SS), group discussion (GD), and computers (C) were…

  20. pRMH760, a precursor of A/C₂ plasmids carrying blaCMY and blaNDM genes.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of plasmids in the repA/C2 group carrying genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins (bla(CMY)) or to carbapenems (bla(NDM)) and cephalosporins (bla(CMY)), the sequence of plasmid pRMH760 that lacks the β-lactamase genes was determined and compared to all available A/C2 plasmid sequences. pRMH760 is 170.6 kb and carries several antibiotic resistance genes in a 45.1 kb complex transposon structure located upstream of the rhs gene. In plasmid pR148, the closest relative of pRMH760, the antibiotic resistance island is in the same position but the resistance genes differ. pRMH760 also contains a deletion in the rhs gene. Sequenced A/C2 plasmids containing bla(CMY) or bla(CMY) and bla(NDM) have backbones closely related to the pRMH760/pR148 backbone, and they include resistance islands in the same location, indicating that they arose from a plasmid related to pRMH760/pR148. However, the gene content of this resistance island differs in each case, and the island family was designated ARI-A. The bla(NDM) gene is within ARI-A. The ISEcp1-bla(CMY) fragment is located elsewhere and is always in the same location, consistent with a single acquisition event. Plasmids containing only bla(CMY) carry a second resistance island, designated ARI-B, which includes the sul2 gene and a variable set of further resistance genes. Nine A/C2 plasmids that were not of this type (type 1) were found to have a similar backbone that can be simply distinguished by the presence of two exchanged regions and two insertions. Antibiotic resistance islands in type 2 plasmids are in different locations and have different structures.

  1. Development of NO Generator for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namihira, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Okamoto, Kazufumi

    Since NO was identified as effective in treatments involving endothelium-derived relaxing factor in 1987, inhalation of NO (iNO) has been widely used in the medical treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury, high blood pressure, and other related illnesses. Current iNO systems usually include a gas cylinder of N2 with a high concentration of NO. This system has an inherent risk of generating nitric dioxide (NO2) if leaked NO mixes with air. NO2 is thought to be toxic to the lungs. Therefore, a system that does not include storage of NO is very desirable for administering iNO. In this paper, Prototype of On-site NO generator, which includes a discharge reactor, a NO2-NO catalyst, a charcoal and a particle filter, is developed for animal experiments.

  2. Medical applications of shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Machado, L G; Savi, M A

    2003-06-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are materials that have the ability to return to a former shape when subjected to an appropriate thermomechanical procedure. Pseudoelastic and shape memory effects are some of the behaviors presented by these alloys. The unique properties concerning these alloys have encouraged many investigators to look for applications of SMA in different fields of human knowledge. The purpose of this review article is to present a brief discussion of the thermomechanical behavior of SMA and to describe their most promising applications in the biomedical area. These include cardiovascular and orthopedic uses, and surgical instruments.

  3. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels. PMID:27877320

  4. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the ISAba1-bla OXA-23,51 and ISAba1-bla ADC-7 genes in Monteria, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pedro; Mattar, Salim

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/bla OXA-23, ISAba1/bla OXA-51 and ISAba1/bla ADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2-7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried bla OXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the bla ADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1/ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Characteristics of Various blaPER Genes in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lianyan; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Fangfang; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    We describe the genetic characteristics and possible transmission mechanism of blaPER in 25 clinical Gram-negative bacilli in Shanghai. blaPER, including blaPER-1, blaPER-3, and blaPER-4, was located chromosomally or in different plasmids. Tn1213 harboring blaPER-1 was first identified in two Proteus mirabilis isolates in China. The other blaPER variants were preceded by an ISCR1 element inside the complex class 1 integron associated with IS26, Tn21, Tn1696, and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element. PMID:27067315

  6. Direct detection of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles by multiplex-touchdown PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, M-Y; Geng, J-L; Chen, Y-J; Song, Y; Sun, M; Liu, H-Z; Hu, C-J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and ESBL(Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase)-producing bacteria are the most important resistant pathogens in sepsis. In this study, a new multiplex-touchdown PCR method (MT-PCR) was developed to detect rapidly and simultaneously the presence of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles. The technique showed a sensitivity of 10(3 ) CFU ml(-1) for mecA detection and of 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) for other genes, and 100% specificity in the detection of all genes. All genes were detected in the spiked blood culture bottles artificially contaminated with reference strains. Three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), two methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) and 32 ESBL-producing bacteria, were isolated from the clinical blood culture specimens in 48 h by standard microbiological procedures. The corresponding genes were detected directly in the three MRSA, two MRSE and 29 ESBL-producing bacteria from the clinical blood culture specimens in 4 h by MT-PCR assay. None of the blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in three other bottles with ESBL-producing bacteria because of other ESBL genotypes in the pathogens. Likewise, all bottles proven negative by culture remained negative by PCR. The proposed method was rapid, sensitive and specific, and was able to directly detect the genes of MRS and ESBL-producing bacteria from the blood culture bottles.

  7. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  8. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangpeng; Li, Qingtao; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm MQ

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver particles (NSPs), are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs’ biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed. PMID:24876773

  9. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema

    Tijana Rajh

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  10. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  11. Present and future medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Moscovici, Misu

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-20th century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan – as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan – in capsules and oral care products). Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment, or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well-suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral) characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a broad future ahead

  12. Present and future medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Misu

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-20th century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan - as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan - in capsules and oral care products). Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment, or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well-suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral) characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a broad future ahead.

  13. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Erli, Hans J; Marx, Rudolf; Paar, Othmar; Niethard, Fritz U; Weber, Michael; Wirtz, Dieter C

    2003-01-01

    Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties) usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m). This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body. PMID:14561228

  14. Advanced Imaging and Robotics Technologies for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamune, Ken; Hong, Jaesung

    2011-10-01

    Due to the importance of surgery in the medical field, a large amount of research has been conducted in this area. Imaging and robotics technologies provide surgeons with the advanced eye and hand to perform their surgeries in a safer and more accurate manner. Recently medical images have been utilized in the operating room as well as in the diagnostic stage. If the image to patient registration is done with sufficient accuracy, medical images can be used as "a map" for guidance to the target lesion. However, the accuracy and reliability of the surgical navigation system should be sufficiently verified before applying it to the patient. Along with the development of medical imaging, various medical robots have also been developed. In particular, surgical robots have been researched in order to reach the goal of minimal invasiveness. The most important factors to consider are determining the demand, the strategy for their use in operating procedures, and how it aids patients. In addition to the above considerations, medical doctors and researchers should always think from the patient's point of view. In this article, the latest medical imaging and robotic technologies focusing on surgical applications are reviewed based upon the factors described in the above.

  15. Clinical simulators: applications and implications for rural medical education.

    PubMed

    Ypinazar, V A; Margolis, S A

    2006-01-01

    Medical education has undergone significant changes globally. Calls for the revitalisation of centuries old pathways of learning have resulted in innovative medical curricula. Didactic modes of teaching which involved the learning of copious amounts of facts have given way to curricula that focus on the horizontal and vertical integration of basic and clinical sciences. Increasing concern for patient care and safety has led to a 'gap' between the needs of medical students to acquire necessary psychomotor skills and the safety and wellbeing of the patient. This has resulted in alternate teaching methods that include non-patient based training for the acquisition of clinical skills. The use of computerised, full-sized human simulators provides medical students with the necessary psychomotor and clinical reasoning skills in a realistic learning environment, while remaining risk free to patients. These clinical simulators are powerful learning tools that have applications at all levels of medical education across multiple disciplines, emphasising the multidisciplinary approach required in many medical situations. This article reviews the literature on medical simulation and provides the contextual basis for the establishment of a Clinical Simulation Learning Centre (CSLC) in a rural clinical school in Australia. The educational program, as well as the design, layout and equipment of the CSLC are described, as well as implications for rural practitioners. The CSLC has been a major capital investment in a relatively under-resourced part of regional Australia and has provided opportunities for ongoing education across a range of healthcare professionals in the community.

  16. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L. )

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland, OR, Houston, TX, and Galveston, TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulation of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  17. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  18. Nanoporous hard carbon membranes for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Roger J; Jin, Chunming; Menegazzo, Nicola; Mizaikoff, Boris; Gerhardt, Rosario A; Andara, Melanie; Agarwal, Arvind; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Current blood glucose sensors have proven to be inadequate for long term in vivo applications; membrane biofouling and inflammation play significant roles in sensor instability. An ideal biosensor membrane material must prevent protein adsorption and promote integration of the sensor with the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, biosensor membranes must be sufficiently thin and porous in order to allow the sensor to rapidly respond to fluctuations in analyte concentration. In this study, the use of diamondlike carbon-coated anodized aluminum oxide as a potential biosensor membrane is discussed. Diamondlike carbon films and diamondlike carbon-coated anodized aluminum oxide nanoporous membranes were examined using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and platelet rich plasma testing. The diamondlike carbon-coated anodized aluminum oxide membranes remained free from protein adsorption during in vitro platelet rich plasma testing. We anticipate that this novel membrane could find use in immunoisolation devices, pacemakers, kidney dialysis membranes, microdialysis systems, and other devices facing biocompatibility issues that limit in vivo function.

  19. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  20. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  3. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.

  4. Rapid and Direct Real-Time Detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from Surveillance Samples

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the performance of a duplex real-time PCR assay for blaKPC and blaNDM performed directly (D-PCR) on perianal and perirectal swabs and stool. Spiked specimens and 126 clinical surveillance swabs (comprising a sensitivity panel of 46 perirectal double swabs previously determined to be culture positive for blaKPC-PCR-positive Enterobacteriaceae and a specificity panel of 80 perianal swabs from patients at risk of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [CPE] colonization) were studied. For the surveillance swabs, D-PCR was compared to PCR after broth enrichment (BE-PCR) and two culture-based methods: the HardyCHROM ESBL agar (HC-A) and the CDC screening (CDC-A) methods. PCR was performed on morphologically distinct colonies that were isolated by culture. All of the initial PCR testing was done without extraction using a simple lysis procedure. The analytical sensitivities of D-PCR for blaKPC were 9 CFU/μl (for swabs) and 90 CFU/μl (for stool), and for blaNDM, it was 1.9 CFU/μl (for both swabs and stool). In the clinical sensitivity panel, D-PCR and BE-PCR were initially positive for blaKPC in 41/46 (89.1%) and 43/46 (93.5%) swabs, respectively. The swabs that were initially negative by D-PCR (n = 5) and BE-PCR (n = 3) were visibly stool soiled; all swabs were blaKPC positive upon repeat testing after lysate extraction. The CDC-A and HC-A yielded blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae from 36/46 (78.3%) and 35/46 (76.1%) swabs, respectively (sensitivities of D-PCR/BE-PCR postextraction of soiled specimens versus HC-A, P = 0.0009, and versus CDC-A, P = 0.0016). All swabs in the specificity panel were negative for CPE by all four methods. D-PCR allows for the timely detection of blaKPC and blaNDM carriage with excellent sensitivity when specimens visibly soiled with stool undergo preparatory extraction. PMID:23966498

  5. Rapid and direct real-time detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Kohner, Peggy C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K; Patel, Robin

    2013-11-01

    We assessed the performance of a duplex real-time PCR assay for bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) performed directly (D-PCR) on perianal and perirectal swabs and stool. Spiked specimens and 126 clinical surveillance swabs (comprising a sensitivity panel of 46 perirectal double swabs previously determined to be culture positive for bla(KPC)-PCR-positive Enterobacteriaceae and a specificity panel of 80 perianal swabs from patients at risk of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [CPE] colonization) were studied. For the surveillance swabs, D-PCR was compared to PCR after broth enrichment (BE-PCR) and two culture-based methods: the HardyCHROM ESBL agar (HC-A) and the CDC screening (CDC-A) methods. PCR was performed on morphologically distinct colonies that were isolated by culture. All of the initial PCR testing was done without extraction using a simple lysis procedure. The analytical sensitivities of D-PCR for bla(KPC) were 9 CFU/μl (for swabs) and 90 CFU/μl (for stool), and for bla(NDM), it was 1.9 CFU/μl (for both swabs and stool). In the clinical sensitivity panel, D-PCR and BE-PCR were initially positive for bla(KPC) in 41/46 (89.1%) and 43/46 (93.5%) swabs, respectively. The swabs that were initially negative by D-PCR (n = 5) and BE-PCR (n = 3) were visibly stool soiled; all swabs were bla(KPC) positive upon repeat testing after lysate extraction. The CDC-A and HC-A yielded bla(KPC)-positive Enterobacteriaceae from 36/46 (78.3%) and 35/46 (76.1%) swabs, respectively (sensitivities of D-PCR/BE-PCR postextraction of soiled specimens versus HC-A, P = 0.0009, and versus CDC-A, P = 0.0016). All swabs in the specificity panel were negative for CPE by all four methods. D-PCR allows for the timely detection of bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) carriage with excellent sensitivity when specimens visibly soiled with stool undergo preparatory extraction.

  6. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) use in human medical applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifei; Kubat, Nicole J; Isenberg, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    A number of electromagnetic field-based technologies are available for therapeutic medical applications. These therapies can be broken down into different categories based on technical parameters employed and type of clinical application. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) therapy is a non invasive, electromagnetic field-based therapeutic that is based on delivery of pulsed, shortwave radio frequency energy in the 13-27.12 MHz carrier frequency range, and designed for local application to a target tissue without the intended generation of deep heat. It has been studied for use in a number of clinical applications, including as a palliative treatment for both postoperative and non postoperative pain and edema, as well as in wound healing applications. This review provides an introduction to the therapy, a summary of clinical efficacy studies using the therapy in specific applications, and an overview of treatment-related safety.

  7. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  8. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  9. Applications of artificial neural networks in medical science.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigneshkumar L; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2007-09-01

    Computer technology has been advanced tremendously and the interest has been increased for the potential use of 'Artificial Intelligence (AI)' in medicine and biological research. One of the most interesting and extensively studied branches of AI is the 'Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)'. Basically, ANNs are the mathematical algorithms, generated by computers. ANNs learn from standard data and capture the knowledge contained in the data. Trained ANNs approach the functionality of small biological neural cluster in a very fundamental manner. They are the digitized model of biological brain and can detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent as well as independent variables in a data where human brain may fail to detect. Nowadays, ANNs are widely used for medical applications in various disciplines of medicine especially in cardiology. ANNs have been extensively applied in diagnosis, electronic signal analysis, medical image analysis and radiology. ANNs have been used by many authors for modeling in medicine and clinical research. Applications of ANNs are increasing in pharmacoepidemiology and medical data mining. In this paper, authors have summarized various applications of ANNs in medical science.

  10. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  11. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network

    PubMed Central

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN. PMID:26835422

  12. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network.

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN.

  13. [Features of PHITS and its application to medical physics].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shintaro; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Iwase, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Furuta, Takuya; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    PHITS is a general purpose Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code to analyze the transport in three-dimensional phase space and collisions of nearly all particles, including heavy ions, over wide energy range up to 100 GeV/u. Various quantities, such as particle fluence and deposition energies in materials, can be deduced using estimator functions "tally". Recently, a microdosimetric tally function was also developed to apply PHITS to medical physics. Owing to these features, PHITS has been used for medical applications, such as radiation therapy and protection.

  14. Software development for safety-critical medical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1992-01-01

    There are many computer-based medical applications in which safety and not reliability is the overriding concern. Reduced, altered, or no functionality of such systems is acceptable as long as no harm is done. A precise, formal definition of what software safety means is essential, however, before any attempt can be made to achieve it. Without this definition, it is not possible to determine whether a specific software entity is safe. A set of definitions pertaining to software safety will be presented and a case study involving an experimental medical device will be described. Some new techniques aimed at improving software safety will also be discussed.

  15. WITS - A Coaxial Cable Bus Network for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    LaSonde, Clarence J.

    1980-01-01

    Walter Reed ARMY Medical Center has been serving as a Army test bed for coaxial cable-based local area networks since early 1978. This particular network, called the WRAMC Information Transfer System (WITS), carries commercial television, FM radio, closed-circuit TV and maintenance intercom audio, as well as digital data. The technology has proven successful. Broadband coaxial cable systems provide an opportunity to realize communications architectures that are flexible, highly reliable, and inexpensive. They are particularly appropriate for use in medical facilities where applications change over time and when many and varied systems are required to interact together.

  16. Integrated Medical Model Project - Overview and Summary of Historical Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Butler, D.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons, B.; Walton, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project. Methods: Figure 1 [see document] illustrates the IMM modeling system and scenario process. As illustrated, the IMM computational architecture is based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment techniques. Nineteen assumptions and limitations define the IMM application domain. Scenario definitions include crew medical attributes and mission specific details. The IMM forecasts probabilities of loss of crew life (LOCL), evacuation (EVAC), quality time lost during the mission, number of medical resources utilized and the number and type of medical events by combining scenario information with in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical information stored in the iMED. In addition, the metrics provide the integrated information necessary to estimate optimized in-flight medical kit contents under constraints of mass and volume or acceptable level of mission risk. Results and Conclusions

  17. Carbon nanotubes: potential medical applications and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique atomic structure, as well as outstanding thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties, making them extremely attractive materials for several different applications. Many research groups are focusing on biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, however the application of CNTs to the biomedical field is not developing as fast as in other areas. While CNTs-based products are already being used in textiles, polymer matrices to strengthen materials, sports articles, microelectronics, energy storage, etc., medicinal products and medical devices for in vivo application based on CNTs have not been commercialized yet. However, CNTs for biomedical application, i.e., CNTs conjugated to siRNA for cancer therapy, or CNTs for imaging of colorectal cancer and many other products may enter clinical trials in the next years. Concerns related to the toxicity of CNTs must be overcome in order to have these products commercialized in a near future. This article reviews emerging biomedical applications of CNTs, specifically for therapy. It also deals with challenges associated with possible medical applications of CNTs, such as their not fully understood toxicological profile in the human body.

  18. Wide Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing β-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene in Colombia▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Ten blaKPC-2-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded blaAmpC and blaOXA-50 genes and the acquired blaKPC-2 gene. In most cases, the blaKPC-2 genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing blaKPC-2 are disseminating in Colombia. PMID:21844315

  19. Wide dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Ten bla(KPC-2)-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded bla(AmpC) and bla(OXA-50) genes and the acquired bla(KPC-2) gene. In most cases, the bla(KPC-2) genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing bla(KPC-2) are disseminating in Colombia.

  20. Medical applications of model-based dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Antoni; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Ruminski, Jacek; Hryciuk, Marcin; Renkielska, Alicja; Grudzinski, Jacek; Siebert, Janusz; Jagielak, Dariusz; Rogowski, Jan; Roszak, Krzysztof; Stojek, Wojciech

    2001-03-01

    The proposal to use active thermography in medical diagnostics is promising in some applications concerning investigation of directly accessible parts of the human body. The combination of dynamic thermograms with thermal models of investigated structures gives attractive possibility to make internal structure reconstruction basing on different thermal properties of biological tissues. Measurements of temperature distribution synchronized with external light excitation allow registration of dynamic changes of local temperature dependent on heat exchange conditions. Preliminary results of active thermography applications in medicine are discussed. For skin and under- skin tissues an equivalent thermal model may be determined. For the assumed model its effective parameters may be reconstructed basing on the results of transient thermal processes. For known thermal diffusivity and conductivity of specific tissues the local thickness of a two or three layer structure may be calculated. Results of some medical cases as well as reference data of in vivo study on animals are presented. The method was also applied to evaluate the state of the human heart during the open chest cardio-surgical interventions. Reference studies of evoked heart infarct in pigs are referred, too. We see the proposed new in medical applications technique as a promising diagnostic tool. It is a fully non-invasive, clean, handy, fast and affordable method giving not only qualitative view of investigated surfaces but also an objective quantitative measurement result, accurate enough for many applications including fast screening of affected tissues.

  1. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  2. Impact of high tuition on medical school applicants and enrollees.

    PubMed

    Ayers, W R; Stangert, A C; Dennis, M J; Henry, J B

    1981-10-01

    As direct federal support of medical education has been reduced, tuition at U.S. medical schools has increased. Concern has been expressed over a decline in the socioeconomic diversity and the academic qualifications of the applicants. Experience gained at Georgetown University School of Medicine, the medical school with the highest tuition in the United States, indicates that the academic and nonacademic characteristics of the entering class have remained stable over a seven-year period despite a fourfold increase in tuition. Virtually all (98 percent) enrolled students currently receive some form of financial aid, mostly in the form of federally insured loans or federal scholarships with a service commitment. Maintenance of socioeconomic diversity depends on the continued availability of federally supported student loans and scholarships.

  3. Smartphones and Medical Applications in the Emergency Department Daily Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshir, Amirhosein; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Sheikh, Hojjat; Vahedi, Motahar; Momeni, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Medical applications help physicians to make more rapid and evidence based decisions that may provide better patient care. This study aimed to determine the extent to which smart phones and medical applications are integrated in the emergency department daily practice. Method: In a cross sectional study, a modified standard questionnaire (Payne et al.) consisting of demographic data and information regarding quality and quantity of smartphone and medical app utilization was sent to emergency-medicine residents and interns twice (two weeks apart), in January 2015. The questionnaire was put online using open access "Web-form Module" and the address of the web page was e-mailed along with a cover letter explaining the survey. Finally, responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS 22 software. Results: 65 cases participated (response rate 86%). The mean age of interns and residents were 25.03 ± 1.13 and 30.27 ± 4.68 years, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between interns and residents in owning a smartphone (p = 0.5). Android was more popular than IOS (67.7% against 25.8%) and the most popular medical apps were Medscape and UpToDate, respectively. 38 (61.3%) of the respondents were using their apps more than once a day and mostly for drug information. English (83.9%), Persian (12.9%), and other languages (3.2%) were preferred languages for designing a medical software among the participants, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of present study showed that smartphones are very popular among Iranian interns and residents in emergency department and a substantial number of them own a smartphone and are using medical apps regularly in their clinical practice. PMID:28286821

  4. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results:K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China.

  5. Occurrence of blaNDM-1 & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Balvinder; Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Sandhu, Harkiran Kaur; Appannanavar, Suma B.; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases is increasingly being reported worldwide. This study was conducted to know the occurrence of important carbapenem resistance encoding genes in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) causing complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI), and to look at the genetic diversity of these isolates. Methods: The study was carried out on 166 consecutive carbapenem resistant uropathogens (CRU) isolated from cases with CUTI during 2008 and 2012. Carbapenemase production was characterized phenotypically and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, and blaNDM-1. BOX- PCR was done on 80 randomly selected isolates for molecular typing. Results: The blaVIM gene was present in 34 (43.6%), blaIMP in five (6.4%) and none of the isolates from 2008 had blaNDM-1 or blaKPC genes. Among the isolates from 2012, blaNDM-1 gene was present in 47 (53.4%), blaVIM in 19 (24.4%), blaIMP in one (1.1%) and none had blaKPC. There were nine isolates during the two years which had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases; while 66 did not have any of the genes tested. Of the 80 isolates subjected to BOX-PCR, 58 could be used for analysis and showed, presence of multiple clusters of carbapenem resistant isolates and absence of a single dominant clone. Interpretation & conclusions: The blaNDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The blaKPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time. PMID:26458351

  6. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results: K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China. PMID:28210248

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla NDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-09-01

    Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla NDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ≥8 μg/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of bla NDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B.

  8. Extending Medical Center Computer Application to Rural Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredson, Douglas K.

    1983-01-01

    A paper entitled “A COMPUTER DATA BASE FOR CLINICIANS, MANAGERS AND RESEARCHERS,” presented during the 1981 SCAMC, described the Salt Lake VA Medical Center computer system. Since that time, two Rural Health Clinics each about 150 miles from Salt Lake City were established by the SL VAMC to reduce traveling distances and improve services for Veterans. Although many existing computer applications were available with no modifications, additional software was needed to support unique needs of the clinics. The Rural Health package of software was designed to gather and store demographic and clinical information on each Veteran, determine the types of services provided, track services over time, monitor services provided by local hospitals and clinical laboratories which are paid for by the VA, determine total clinic costs, etc. These computer applications may be of interest to Medical Centers with separate clinics or outreach programs and individuals or groups in private practice with programs similar to the VA Rural Health Clinics.

  9. Hyaluronan, a truly "youthful" polysaccharide. Its medical applications.

    PubMed

    Robert, L

    2015-02-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a ubiquitous linear polysaccharide endowed with some exceptional physicochemical properties such as strong hydration and viscoelasticity that depend on the size of the molecule. It plays a variety of important physiological roles in tissue hydration and mechanical protection, for example in the umbilical cord, skin and most other tissues. Since its large scale preparation and the invention by E.A. Balazs of the preparation of its non-inflammatory fraction (NIF-NaHA), there have been several important medical and cosmetic applications, most notably of viscosurgery for eye operation, intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis and also for wrinkle filling on the face, as well as for drug administration. Its concentration in tissues is decreasing with age, source of loss of function and structure of tissues. The purpose of this review is to present a succinct overview of the essential properties of hyaluronan and its medical and esthetic applications.

  10. Worldwide diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Truong, HaVy; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wisell, Karin T; Carmeli, Yehuda; Gales, Ana C; Venezia, Shiri Navon; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniaeisolates that produce carbapenemases (KPCs) are rapidly disseminating worldwide. To determine their genetic background, we investigated 16 blaKPC-2-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates from 5 countries. The isolates were multidrug resistant, possessed the blaKPC-2 gene, and differed by additional Beta-lactamase content. They harbored a naturally chromosome-encoded bla gene (blaSHV-1 [12.5%], blaSHV-11 [68.7%], or blaOKP-AVB [18.8%]) and several acquired and plasmid-encoded genes (blaTEM-1 [81.3%], blaCTX-M-2 [31.3%], blaCTX-M-12 [12.5%], blaCTX-M-15 [18.7%], and blaOXA-9 [37.5%]). The blaKPC-2 gene was always associated with 1 of the Tn4401 isoforms (a, b, or c). Tn4401 was inserted on different-sized plasmids that belonged to different incompatibility groups. Several blaKPC-containing K. pneumoniae clones were found: 9 different pulsotypes with 1 major (sequence type 258) and 7 minor distinct allelic profiles. Different clones harboring different plasmids but having identical genetic structure, Tn4401, could be at the origin of the worldwide spread of this emerging resistance gene.

  11. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  12. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  13. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  14. Evidence-based Mobile Medical Applications in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Drincic, Andjela; Prahalad, Priya; Greenwood, Deborah; Klonoff, David C

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews mobile medical applications that are commercially available in the United States or European Union (EU) and are (1) associated with published data of clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature during the past 5 years, (2) cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, or (3) a recipient of a CE (Conformité Européenne) mark by the EU. Many of these applications have been shown to positively affect outcomes in the short term, but long-term studies are needed. Until more data are available, consumers and professionals can consider guidance based on FDA/CE status.

  15. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated...

  16. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E; Rohrbaugh, John W; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  17. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  18. 76 FR 55068 - Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop... FR 50231). The document announced a public workshop entitled ``Mobile ] Medical Applications...

  19. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  20. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  1. Properties and medical applications of shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Bîzdoacă, N; Mîndrilă, I; Vasilescu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    One of the most known intelligent material is nitinol, which offers many functional advantages over conventional implantable alloys. Applications of SMA to the biomedical field have been successful because of their functional qualities, enhancing both the possibility and the execution of less invasive surgeries. The biocompatibility of these alloys is one of their most important features. Different applications exploit the shape memory effect (one-way or two-way) and the super elasticity, so that they can be employed in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications, as well as in the manufacture of new surgical tools. Therefore, one can say that smart materials, especially SMA, are becoming noticeable in the biomedical field. Super elastic NiTi has become a material of strategic importance as it allows to overcome a wide range of technical and design issues relating to the miniaturization of medical devices and the increasing trend for less invasive and therefore less traumatic procedures. This paper will consider just why the main properties of shape memory alloys hold so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection of current applications.

  2. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices.

  3. The attenuation of cockroach allergy by DNA vaccine encoding cockroach allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Yuan, Jingdong; Zhou, Yixuan; Yang, Jun; James, Alan W; Nair, Usha; Shu, Xiji; Liu, Wei; Kanangat, Siva; Yoo, Tai June

    2012-01-01

    Bla g 2 is one of the most potent cockroach allergens. No effective treatment or vaccination strategies are yet available. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of Bla g 2 DNA vaccination in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. C57/BL6 mice were given Bla g 2 DNA vaccine prior to sensitization with recombinant Bla g 2 (rBla g 2) antigens, followed by nebulized rBla g 2 challenge. Bla g 2 vaccine could express at both transcriptional and translational levels in mammalian cells. Moreover, Bla g 2 vaccine significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell infiltrate and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and markedly decreased allergen-induced inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and Bla g 2-specific IgE in serum upon challenge with rBla g 2. Importantly, Bla g 2 vaccine could induce the production of antigen-specific IFN-γ and downregulated Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Thus, DNA vaccination showed protective efficacy against a clinically relevant allergen, Bla g 2.

  4. User Interface Design in Medical Distributed Web Applications.

    PubMed

    Serban, Alexandru; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Mada, Leonard; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2016-01-01

    User interfaces are important to facilitate easy learning and operating with an IT application especially in the medical world. An easy to use interface has to be simple and to customize the user needs and mode of operation. The technology in the background is an important tool to accomplish this. The present work aims to creating a web interface using specific technology (HTML table design combined with CSS3) to provide an optimized responsive interface for a complex web application. In the first phase, the current icMED web medical application layout is analyzed, and its structure is designed using specific tools, on source files. In the second phase, a new graphic adaptable interface to different mobile terminals is proposed, (using HTML table design (TD) and CSS3 method) that uses no source files, just lines of code for layout design, improving the interaction in terms of speed and simplicity. For a complex medical software application a new prototype layout was designed and developed using HTML tables. The method uses a CSS code with only CSS classes applied to one or multiple HTML table elements, instead of CSS styles that can be applied to just one DIV tag at once. The technique has the advantage of a simplified CSS code, and a better adaptability to different media resolutions compared to DIV-CSS style method. The presented work is a proof that adaptive web interfaces can be developed just using and combining different types of design methods and technologies, using HTML table design, resulting in a simpler to learn and use interface, suitable for healthcare services.

  5. Transition of blaOXA-58-like to blaOXA-23-like in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in Southern China: An 8-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiyuan; He, Yi; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yuemei; Wu, Jinsong; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals has been increasing worldwide. This study aims to investigate the carbapenemase genes and the clonal relatedness among A. baumannii clinical isolates in a Chinese hospital. Methods Carbapenemase genes and the upstream locations of insertion sequences were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Results A total of 231 nonduplicate carbapenemase gene-harboring A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Shenzhen People’s Hospital, were investigated between 2002 and 2009. blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-40-like, and ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like were identified in 119, 107, 1, and 4 isolates, respectively. IS1008-ΔISAba3, ISAba3, and ISAba1 were detected upstream of the blaOXA-58-like gene in 69, 35, and 3 isolates, respectively. All blaOXA-23-like genes but one had an upstream insertion of ISAba1. blaOXA-58-like was the most common carbapenemase gene in A.baumannii before 2008, thereafter blaOXA-23-like became rapidly prevalent and replaced blaOXA-58-like in 2009. The majority of blaOXA-58-like-carrying isolates showed lower level of resistance to imipenem and meropenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml), compared with the majority of blaOXA-23-like-carrying isolates (MICs, 16 μg/ml to 64 μg/ml for both imipenem and meropenem). All 231 blaOXA carbapenemase gene-harboring isolates belonged to 14 PFGE types (A–N), and three dominant clones A, J, and H accounted for 43.3%, 42.0%, and 8.2% of the tested isolates, respectively. Clone A (sequence type ST92/ST208) with blaOXA-58-like was the most prevalent before 2008. Clone H (ST229) with blaOXA-23-like became striking between 2007 and 2008. Clone J (ST381) with blaOXA-23-like rapidly spread and replaced clones A and H in 2009. Conclusion This study is the first to

  6. Infrared laser-based sensing in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Markus W.; Bartlome, Richard; Gianella, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Laser-spectroscopic applications in medicine increase in importance. We present two medical applications of laser-based analyses of trace gases. The analysis of exhaled breath concerns the determination of the D/H isotope ratio after intake of a small amount of heavy water. The D/H isotope ratio can be used to deduce the total body water weight and lays the foundation for many other laser-based clinical applications. An elevated D/H ratio could be monitored in breath samples up to 30 days after ingestion of only 5 ml of D2O. A second example concerns the analysis of surgical smoke produced in minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery with electroknives. The quantitative determination of harmless and hazardous compounds down to the ppm level is demonstrated. A specific example is the presence of sevoflurane at concentrations of 80 to 300 ppm, an anesthetic, which to our knowledge is measured for the first time in an abdominal cavity.

  7. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  8. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  9. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  10. Similarities and differences of hyperbaric oxygen and medical ozone applications.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Mehmet; Akay, Coskun; Oter, Sukru; Ay, Hakan; Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2011-11-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is based on the principle of having the patient breath 100% oxygen in an environment above atmospheric pressure. Ozone (O(3)) is a colourless gas with a specific odour and consists of three oxygen atoms. The classical scientific understanding is that the world has become a place suitable for life for aerobic organisms with the increasing oxygen in the atmosphere billions of years ago. The formation of ozone after oxygen has then protected aerobic creatures from harmful rays. We now use these two gases for treatment purposes. It is noteworthy that the oxygen and ozone molecules that are formed by the same atom in different numbers are used for similar medical indications. We will try to emphasize the similarities and differences of HBO and medical ozone applications in this article.

  11. Recent application of quantification II in Japanese medical research.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Kudo, A

    1979-01-01

    Hayashi's Quantification II is a method of multivariate discrimination analysis to manipulate attribute data as predictor variables. It is very useful in the medical research field for estimation, diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of epidemiological factors, and other problems based on multiplicity of attribute data. In Japan, this method is so well known that most of the computer program packages include the Hayashi Quantification, but it seems to be yet unfamiliar with the method for researchers outside Japan. In view of this situation, we introduced 19 selected articles of recent applications of the Quantification II in Japanese medical research. In reviewing these papers, special mention is made to clarify how the researchers were satisfied with findings provided by the method. At the same time, some recommendations are made about terminology and program packages. Also a brief discussion of the background of the quantification methods is given with special reference to the Behaviormetric Society of Japan. PMID:540587

  12. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  13. Medical Applications Of CO2 Laser Fiber Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    In 1978, Hughes Laboratories reported development of fiber optics that were capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. These fibers are now being tested for medical applications. Wide ranging medical investigation with CO2 lasers has occurred during the twelve years since the first observations of laser hemostasis. Specialists in ophthalmology, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, maxillo-facial/plastic surgery, dermatology, and oncology among others, have explored its use. In principle, all these specialists use CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 microns to thermally destroy diseased tissues. As such, CO2 lasers compare and compete with electrosurgical devices. The fundamental difference between these modalities lies in how they generate heat in treated tissue.

  14. Nuclear Data for Medical Applications - Recent Developments and Future Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. L.; Capote, R.

    2014-06-01

    Cancer treatment represents a major economic and medical issue because of the extensive incidence of the disease worldwide, with a particularly large rate of increase to be found in developing countries. Over the previous twenty years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has dedicated a series of investigations towards identifying and quantifying the production routes and decay characteristics of radioisotopes judged to be of existing and emerging importance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Both the recommendations formulated during the course of these technical debates and the results of recently completed and on-going IAEA coordinated research projects are focused towards the successful evolution of improvements in nuclear data for medical applications throughout the early 21st century.

  15. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  16. ``Low Power Wireless Technologies: An Approach to Medical Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellido O., Francisco J.; González R., Miguel; Moreno M., Antonio; de La Cruz F, José Luis

    Wireless communication supposed a great both -quantitative and qualitative, jump in the management of the information, allowing the access and interchange of it without the need of a physical cable connection. The wireless transmission of voice and information has remained in constant evolution, arising new standards like BluetoothTM, WibreeTM or ZigbeeTM developed under the IEEE 802.15 norm. These newest wireless technologies are oriented to systems of communication of short-medium distance and optimized for a low cost and minor consume, becoming recognized as a flexible and reliable medium for data communications across a broad range of applications due to the potential that the wireless networks presents to operate in demanding environments providing clear advantages in cost, size, power, flexibility, and distributed intelligence. About the medical applications, the remote health or telecare (also called eHealth) is getting a bigger place into the manufacturers and medical companies, in order to incorporate products for assisted living and remote monitoring of health parameteres. At this point, the IEEE 1073, Personal Health Devices Working Group, stablish the framework for these kind of applications. Particularly, the 1073.3.X describes the physical and transport layers, where the new ultra low power short range wireless technologies can play a big role, providing solutions that allow the design of products which are particularly appropriate for monitor people’s health with interoperability requirements.

  17. Smartphone Application for Mechanical Quality Assurance of Medical Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwiyoung; Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Suk; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-03-20

    Mechanical quality assurance (QA) of medical linear accelerators consists of time consuming and human-error prone procedures. We developed a smartphone-application system for mechanical QA. The system consists of two smartphones; one attached to the gantry to obtain real-time information on mechanical parameters of medical linear accelerator, and the other to display the real-time information by bluetoothing the former. Motion sensors embedded in the smartphone were used to measure gantry and collimator rotations. Images taken by a high-resolution camera of the smartphone were processed to evaluate accuracies of jaw-positioning, cross-hair centering, and source-to-surface distance (SSD). The application was developed using Android software development kit and OpenCV library. Accuracy and precision of the system were validated against an optical rotation stage and digital calipers, prior to routine QA measurements of five medical linear accelerators. The system accuracy and precision to measure angles and lengths were determined to be 0.05 ± 0.05° and 0.25 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The mean absolute errors (MAE) in QA measurements of gantry and collimator rotation were 0.05 ± 0.04° and 0.05 ± 0.04°, respectively. The MAE in QA measurements of light field was 0.39 ± 0.36 mm. The MAEs in QA measurements of crosshair centering and SSD were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm and 0.41 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. In conclusion, most of routine mechanical QA items could be performed by using the smartphone-application system within improved precision and time-frame, while eliminating potential human errors from the conventional manual method.

  18. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the blaOXA-72 gene in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge Lm; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region.

  19. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the bla OXA-72 gene in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge LM; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region. PMID:27653364

  20. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Hines, J W

    1996-01-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  1. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, John W.

    1996-02-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  2. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  3. The Clinical Application of Hydrogen as a Medical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Iida, Atsuyoshi; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Knaup, Emily; Naito, Hiromichi; Nishiyama, Chihiro; Yamakawa, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Kohei; Terado, Michihisa; Sato, Keiji; Ugawa, Toyomu; Nakao, Atsunori

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that molecular hydrogen is a particularyl effective treatment for various disease models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury; as a result, research on hydrogen has progressed rapidly. Hydrogen has been shown to be effective not only through intake as a gas, but also as a liquid medication taken orally, intravenously, or locally. Hydrogen's effectiveness is thus multifaceted. Herein we review the recent research on hydrogen-rich water, and we examine the possibilities for its clinical application. Now that hydrogen is in the limelight as a gaseous signaling molecule due to its potential ability to inhibit oxidative stress signaling, new research developments are highly anticipated.

  4. Solid State Radiation Dosimeters for Space and Medical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the development of two radiation monitors (RADMON's) for use in detecting total radiation dose and high-energy particles. These radiation detectors are chip-size devices fabricated in 1.2 micrometer CMOS and have flown in space on both experimental and commercial spacecraft. They have been used to characterize protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, particles from the Sun, and protons used for medical therapy. Having proven useful in a variety of applications, the detector is now being readied for commercialization.

  5. Detectors based on silicon photomultiplier arrays for medical imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Llosa, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J. F.; Stankova, V.; Solaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have experienced a fast development and are now employed in different research fields. The availability of 2D arrays that provide information of the interaction position in the detector has had a high interest for medical imaging. Continuous crystals combined with segmented photodetectors can provide higher efficiency than pixellated crystals and very high spatial resolution. The IRIS group at IFIC is working on the development of detector heads based on continuous crystals coupled to SiPM arrays for different applications, including a small animal PET scanner in collaboration with the Univ. of Pisa and INFN Pisa, and a Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (authors)

  6. Detection of blaIMP4 and blaNDM1 harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a university hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hamzan, Nurul Izzati; Yean, Chan Yean; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (bla KPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians. PMID:25765342

  7. Printable thermoelectric devices and conductive patterns for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungmin; Kim, Hyunjung; Chen, Linfeng; Choi, Sang H.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    Remote point-of-care is expected to revolutionize the modern medical practice, and many efforts have been made for the development of wireless health monitoring systems for continuously detecting the physiological signals of patients. To make the remote point-of-care generally accepted and widely used, it is necessary to develop cost-effective and durable wireless health monitoring systems. Printing technique will be helpful for the fabrication of high-quality and low-cost medical devices and systems because it allows high-resolution and high-speed fabrication, low material consumption and nano-sized patterning on both flexible and rigid substrates. Furthermore, application of thermoelectric generators can replace conventional batteries as the power sources for wireless health monitoring systems because thermoelectric generators can convert the wasted heat or the heat from nature into electricity which is required for the operation of the wireless health monitoring systems. In this research, we propose the concept of printable thermoelectric devices and conductive patterns for the realization of more portable and cost-effective medical devices. To print thermoelectric generators and conductive patterns on substrates, printing inks with special characteristics should be developed. For the development of thermoelectric inks, nano-structured thermoelectric materials are synthesized and characterized; and for the development of conductive inks, two kinds of surface treated carbon nanotubes are used as active materials.

  8. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-01-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  9. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  10. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-12-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Light, Visible and Invisible and its Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newing, Angela

    2000-09-01

    This book is based on various lectures given by Professor Newing over the last few years covering the centenaries of the discovery of x-rays, radioactivity, the electron and radium. It is a splendid follow-up read after studying the more formal presentations in A-level textbooks. The theory of each technique is touched on and the reader is provided with a full list of references for deeper analysis. Intermittently within the text are paragraphs of historical and developmental details, illustrated by contemporary drawings and photographs. These passages, which appear in a different typeface, add greatly to the enjoyment of the book, but could be skipped by an impatient reader seeking to gain an appropriate review knowledge of the subject of medical radiation physics. The areas of physiological measurement and medical engineering are not covered, neither is medical computing. Chapters discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of x-rays. Different methods of scanning are outlined and the appropriateness of techniques brought up-to-date. Treatment with ionizing radiations is expanded to touch on electron radiotherapy, neutron therapy and brachytherapy. Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are considered in the section on treatments using non-ionizing radiations. The story starts with evidence from the ancient worlds of Egypt and Greece, accelerating through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the many treatments around today. The laser is shown to be a versatile and exact tool, available in a complete range of wavelengths for different surgical uses. The scientific principles and current applications of nuclear medicine, ultrasound and MRI are described. For each type of procedure, the author includes comments on advantages, disadvantages and operational safety. Dosimetry and quality assurance are touched upon. The book reflects Professor Newing's enthusiasm for her role as a medical physicist both as practitioner and teacher. To any students studying

  12. Interactions between cyclodextrins and cellular components: Towards greener medical applications?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the field of host–guest chemistry, some of the most widely used hosts are probably cyclodextrins (CDs). As CDs are able to increase the water solubility of numerous drugs by inclusion into their hydrophobic cavity, they have been widespread used to develop numerous pharmaceutical formulations. Nevertheless, CDs are also able to interact with endogenous substances that originate from an organism, tissue or cell. These interactions can be useful for a vast array of topics including cholesterol manipulation, treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, control of pathogens, etc. In addition, the use of natural CDs offers the great advantage of avoiding or reducing the use of common petroleum-sourced drugs. In this paper, the general features and applications of CDs have been reviewed as well as their interactions with isolated biomolecules leading to the formation of inclusion or exclusion complexes. Finally, some potential medical applications are highlighted throughout several examples. PMID:28144335

  13. Novel light diffusing fiber for use in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klubben, W. Spencer; Logunov, Stephan L.; Fewkes, Edward J.; Mooney, Jeff; Then, Paul M.; Wigley, Peter G.; Schreiber, Horst; Matias, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Cynthia J.; Ocampo, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-based cylindrical light diffusers are often used in photodynamic therapy to illuminate a luminal organ, such as the esophagus. The diffusers are often made of plastic and suffer from short diffusion lengths and low transmission efficiencies over a broad spectrum. We have developed FibranceTM, a glass-based fiber optic cylindrical diffuser which can illuminate a fiber from 0.5 cm to 10 meters over a broad wavelength range. With these longer illumination lengths, a variety of other medical applications are possible beyond photodynamic therapy. We present a number of applications for Fibrance ranging from in situ controllable illumination for Photodynamic Therapy to light guided anatomy highlighting for minimally invasive surgery to mitigating hospital acquired infections and more.

  14. Poly(hydroxy alkanoate)s in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Luef, K. P.; Stelzer, F.; Wiesbrock, F.

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the usage of poly(hydroxy alkanoate)s in medical and sanitary applications. Depending on the monomers incorporated into the polymers and copolymers, this class of polymers exhibits a broad range of (thermo-)plastic properties, enabling their processing by, e.g., solution casting or melt extrusion. In this review, strategies for the polymer analogous modification of these materials and their surfaces are highlighted and correlated with the potential applications of the corresponding materials and blends. While the commercial availability of purified PHAs is addressed in brief, special focus is put on the (bio-)degradability of these polymers and ways to influence the degradation mechanism and/or the duration of degradation. PMID:28239227

  15. A compact automated radionuclide separation system for nuclear medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, A. H.; Horwitz, E. P.; Hines, J. J.; Young, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    The purification of radionuclides for medical applications presents unique challenges; most notably the needs for chemical purity, radionuclidic purity, and reliable production. To address these considerations, a new generator technology and instrument have been developed to permit the rapid chromatographic purification of clinically useful quantities of radionuclides for use in diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine. The device comprises a separations module containing miniature chromatographic columns, a computer controller with driver software, and the fluid delivery components. This instrument is well suited for use in radionuclide generators as separations can typically be performed in <5 min with overall decontamination factors of >106. Chromatographic experiments targeting application in a 212Bi generator have demonstrated the usefulness of the Automated Radionuclide Separator as a low-pressure chromatography system.

  16. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well.

  17. Organic transistors with high thermal stability for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuribara, Kazunori; Wang, He; Uchiyama, Naoya; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zschieschang, Ute; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel; Klauk, Hagen; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Someya, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The excellent mechanical flexibility of organic electronic devices is expected to open up a range of new application opportunities in electronics, such as flexible displays, robotic sensors, and biological and medical electronic applications. However, one of the major remaining issues for organic devices is their instability, especially their thermal instability, because low melting temperatures and large thermal expansion coefficients of organic materials cause thermal degradation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of flexible thin-film transistors with excellent thermal stability and their viability for biomedical sterilization processes. The organic thin-film transistors comprise a high-mobility organic semiconductor, dinaphtho[2,3-b:2‧,3‧-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, and thin gate dielectrics comprising a 2-nm-thick self-assembled monolayer and a 4-nm-thick aluminium oxide layer. The transistors exhibit a mobility of 1.2 cm2 V-1s-1 within a 2 V operation and are stable even after exposure to conditions typically used for medical sterilization.

  18. Wideband optical detector of ultrasound for medical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-05-11

    Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions.

  19. Nanowire-Based Sensors for Biological and Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongjie; Lee, Suwon; Koo, Kyo; Kim, Keekyoung

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles have already led to breakthroughs in the field of biological and medical sensors. The quantum size effects of the nanomaterials and their similarity in size to natural and synthetic nanomaterials are anticipated to improve sensor sensitivity dramatically. Nanowires are considered as key nanomaterials because of their electrical controllability for accurate measurement, and chemical-friendly surface for various sensing applications. This review covers the working principles and fabrication of silicon nanowire sensors. Furthermore, we review their applications for the detection of viruses, biomarkers, and DNA, as well as for drug discovery. Advances in the performance and functionality of nanowire sensors are also surveyed to highlight recent progress in this area. These advances include the improvements in reusability, sensitivity in high ionic strength solvent, long-term stability, and self-powering. Overall, with the advantages of ultra-sensitivity and the ease of fabrication, it is expected that nanowires will contribute significantly to the development of biological and medical sensors in the immediate future.

  20. Advanced Medical Technology Capacity Building and the Medical Mentoring Event: A Unique Application of SOF Counterinsurgency Medical Engagement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Dan; Tate, Charmaine; Wey, Pierre-Francois; Batjom, Emmanuel; Nicholas, Thomas A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) is a military commander?s tool developed during the Vietnam War to gain access to and positively influence an indigenous population through the provision of direct medical care provided by military medical personnel, particularly in Counter Insurgency Operations (COIN). An alternative to MEDCAPs is the medical seminar (MEDSEM). The MEDSEM uses a Commander?s military medical assets to share culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population in order to create a sustainable training resource for the local population?s health system. At the heart of the MEDSEM is the ?train the trainer? concept whereby medical information is passed to indigenous trainers who then pass that information to an indigenous population. The MEDSEM achieves the Commander?s objectives of increasing access and influence with the population through a medical training venue rather than direct patient care. Previous MEDSEMS conducted in Afghanistan by military forces focused on improvement of rural healthcare through creation of Village Health Care Workers. This model can also be used to engage host nation (HN) medical personnel and improve medical treatment capabilities in population centers. The authors describe a modification of the MEDSEM, a Medical Mentorship (MM), conducted in November 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan, at the Afghan National Army (ANA) National Medical Hospital. This training was designed to improve intubation skills in Afghan National Army Hospitals by ANA medical providers, leave residual training capability, and build relationships within the institution that not only assist the institution, but can also be leveraged to foster Commanders? objectives, such as health and reconstruction initiatives and medical partnering for indigenous corps and medical forces described below. Methods We, the authors, developed a culturally appropriate endotracheal intubation training package including a Dari and

  1. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  2. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  3. Identifying ionic interactions within a membrane using BLaTM, a genetic tool to measure homo- and heterotypic transmembrane helix-helix interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schanzenbach, Christoph; Schmidt, Fabian C.; Breckner, Patrick; Teese, Mark G.; Langosch, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of integral membrane protein complexes is frequently supported by transmembrane domain (TMD) interactions. Here, we present the BLaTM assay that measures homotypic as well as heterotypic TMD-TMD interactions in a bacterial membrane. The system is based on complementation of β-lactamase fragments genetically fused to interacting TMDs, which confers ampicillin resistance to expressing cells. We validated BLaTM by showing that the assay faithfully reports known sequence-specific interactions of both types. In a practical application, we used BLaTM to screen a focussed combinatorial library for heterotypic interactions driven by electrostatic forces. The results reveal novel patterns of ionizable amino acids within the isolated TMD pairs. Those patterns indicate that formation of heterotypic TMD pairs is most efficiently supported by closely spaced ionizable residues of opposite charge. In addition, TMD heteromerization can apparently be driven by hydrogen bonding between basic or between acidic residues. PMID:28266525

  4. Regulation of the beta-lactamase BlaL of Streptomyces cacaoi: the product of the blaB regulatory gene is an internal membrane-bound protein.

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, J; Joris, B; Van Beeumen, J; Brasseur, R; Dusart, J

    1995-01-01

    The beta-lactamase-encoding gene blaL, cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi in Streptomyces lividans, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. This regulation has been shown to depend on the products of two open reading frames, ORF1 (blaA) and ORF2 (blaB) [Lenzini, Magdalena, Fraipont, Joris, Matagne and Dusart (1992) Mol. Gen. Genet. 235, 41-48]. BlaA belongs to the LysR family of transcription activators, whereas BlaB shares some features with the penicillin-recognizing proteins. BlaB has now been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for antibody preparation. Immunoblotting of cell-fractionated materials from S. cacaoi showed that BlaB is attached to the internal face of the cytoplasmic membrane. It could not be released by high salt concentrations or EDTA, but only by protease treatment. Under the assay conditions, BlaB did not act as a penicillin-binding protein, a beta-lactamase, a D-amino-peptidase or a target in a phosphorylation step. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7575447

  5. Rapid and simultaneous detection of genes encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Scott A; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil; Patel, Robin

    2013-04-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min.

  6. Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Genes Encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Scott A.; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min. PMID:23345290

  7. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring blaKPC-3 and blaVIM-2 from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Bottoni, Carlo; Grimaldi, Alessandro; Segatore, Bernardetta; Celenza, Giuseppe; Mariani, Maurizio; Bellio, Pierangelo; Frascaria, Patrizia; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2013-02-01

    The frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae is increasing in Italian hospitals and poses an emerging threat to the management of infections in hospitalized patients. In this study, we report a detailed molecular characterization of a K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP1/11 isolate from the decubitus ulcer of a hospitalized patient with a serious infection. K. pneumoniae KP1/11 produces KPC-3 and VIM-2 β-lactamases. The bla(KPC-3) gene is harbored in a large plasmid in a complex structure of Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401a. The chromosomal DNA of K. pneumoniae harbored also 2 class 1 integrons with different variable regions: 1) orfD-aacA8; 2) aacA29-bla(VIM-2).

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli blaSHV genes in a Chinese teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Guangjian; Li, Ailing; Zong, Li; Dong, Zhaoguang; Lu, Junwan; Zhang, Kaibo; Cheng, Cong; Chang, Qingli; Wu, Xiuying; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Xianneng; Ding, Li; Zheng, Haixiao; Yu, Junping; Ying, Jun; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Peizhen; Li, Kewei; Wu, Songquan; Bao, Qiyu; Wang, Junrong

    2017-02-05

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly reside in human intestine and most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes cause serious food poisoning. This study identified and molecularly characterized blaSHV genes from 490 E. coli strains with multi-drug resistance in a hospital population. PCR and molecular cloning and southern blot were performed to assess functions and localizations of this resistant E. coli gene and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was utilized to demonstrate the clonal relatedness of the positive E. coli strains. The data showed that 4 of these 490 E. coli strains (4/499, 0.8%) carried blaSHV genes that included EC D2485 (blaSHV-5), EC D2487 (blaSHV-5), EC D2684 (blaSHV-11) and EC D2616 (blaSHV-195, a novel blaSHV). Analysis of blaSHV open-reading frame showed that blaSHV-5 had a high hydrolysis activity to the broad-spectrum penicillin (ampicillin or piperacillin), ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam. blaSHV-195 and blaSHV-11 had similar resistant characteristics with high hydrolysis activities to ampicillin and piperacillin, but low activities to cephalosporins. Moreover, the two blaSHV-5 genes were located on a transferable plasmid (23kb), whereas the other two blaSHV variants (blaSHV-11 and blaSHV-195) seemed to be located in the chromosomal material. Both EC D2485 and EC D2487 clones isolated in 2010 had the same DNA finger printing profile and they might be the siblings of clonal dissemination. The data from the current study suggest that the novel blaSHV and clonal dissemination may be developed, although blaSHV genes were infrequently identified in this hospital population. The results of the work demonstrate the necessity for molecular surveillance in tracking blaSHV-producing strains in large teaching hospital settings and emphasize the need for epidemiological monitoring.

  9. Public Use of Mobile Medical Applications: A Case Study on Cloud-Based Medical Service of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen-Luan; Yan, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The use of smart mobile devices has been getting increasingly popular. The focus of this study is an attempt to explore the development of mobile medical App by medical centers and regional hospitals of Taiwan and the function of the App for comparison. The results show indicated that many hospitals developed Apps for the public for mobile medical service, of which 26 medical centers (100%) and 72 regional hospitals (84.7%) availed appointment making service via Apps. The result indicated variance at significant level (p < 0.01). There are 23 medical centers (88.5%) and 74 regional hospitals (87.1%) availed Apps for checking service progress. The result indicated insignificant variance level (p > 0.01). We can see that mobile medical service is gradually emerging as a vital issue. Yet, this is a new domain in medical service. With the mushrooming of medical applications in smart mobile devices, the medical service system is expected to be installed in these devices to enhance interactive mode of operation and inquiry services, such as medication and inquiries into physical examination results. By then, people can learn the status of their health with this system.

  10. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  11. Operational and design aspects of accelerators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Seidel, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Originally, the typical particle accelerators as well as their associated beam transport equipment were designed for particle and nuclear physics research and applications in isotope production. In the past few decades, such accelerators and related equipment have also been applied for medical use. This can be in the original physics laboratory environment, but for the past 20 years also in hospital-based or purely clinical environments for particle therapy. The most important specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational, and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the technical requirements, safety aspects, and required reliability of the accelerated beam differ substantially from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. It will be shown that this difference has significant implications on the safety and interlock systems. The operation of such a medical facility should be possible by nonaccelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). The organization and role of the control and interlock systems can be considered as being the most crucially important issue, and therefore a special, dedicated design is absolutely necessary in a facility providing particle therapy.

  12. Positron scattering measurements for application to medical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James

    2015-09-01

    While the use of positrons in medical imaging is now well established, there is still much to learn regarding the transport of positrons through the body, and the subsequent damage induced. Current models of dosimetry use only a crude approximation of the collision physics involved, and at low energies misrepresent the thermalisation process to a considerable degree. Recently, collaborative work has commenced to attempt to refine these models, incorporating a better representation of the underlying physics and trying to gain a better understanding of the damage done after the emission of a positron from a medical radioisotope. This problem is being attacked from several different angles, with new models being developed based upon established techniques in plasma and swarm physics. For all these models, a realistic representation of the collision processes of positrons with relevant molecular species is required. At the Australian National University, we have undertaken a program of measurements of positron scattering from a range of molecules that are important in biological systems, with a focus on analogs to DNA. This talk will present measurements of positron scattering from a range of these molecules, as well as describing the experimental techniques employed to make such measurements. Targets have been measured that are both liquid and solid at room temperature, and new approaches have been developed to get absolute cross section data. The application of the data to various models of positron thermalisation will also be described.

  13. Can We Trust Computational Modeling for Medical Applications?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Nelson, Emily; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Operations in extreme environments such as spaceflight pose human health risks that are currently not well understood and potentially unanticipated. In addition, there are limited clinical and research data to inform development and implementation of therapeutics for these unique health risks. In this light, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is leveraging biomedical computational models and simulations (M&S) to help inform, predict, assess and mitigate spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. To ensure that these M&S can be applied with confidence to the space environment, it is imperative to incorporate a rigorous verification, validation and credibility assessment (VV&C) processes to ensure that the computational tools are sufficiently reliable to answer questions within their intended use domain. In this presentation, we will discuss how NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) have successfully adapted NASA's Standard for Models and Simulations, NASA-STD-7009 (7009) to achieve this goal. These VV&C methods are also being leveraged by organization such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to establish new M&S VV&C standards and guidelines for healthcare applications. Similarly, we hope to provide some insight to the greater aerospace medicine community on how to develop and implement M&S with sufficient confidence to augment medical research and operations.

  14. Biomimetic adhesive materials containing cyanoacryl group for medical application.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sueng Hwan; Sohn, Jeong Sun

    2014-10-17

    For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  15. [Design and application of medical knowledge model on SAGE].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Bin-fei; Ye, Feng; Lv, Xu-dong

    2009-01-01

    As an methodology for promoting the quality and efficiency of health care, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have gained much improvement. The knowledge base (KB) plays an important role in DSS. For CDSSs, the construction of KB means modeling the medical knowledge based on a suitable model. This study analyzes the SAGE model, then implements it on knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and improves the SAGE to enhance its expression ability. The model is constructed as the KB in CDSS, and be applied in hospital. The evaluation result of CDSS reveals that the SAGE model should be useful in clinical application. Finally, this study propounds some points yet to be improved in the SAGE.

  16. Functionalized DNA materials for sensing and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Army has strong interests in nanoscale architectures that enable enhanced extraction and controllable multiplication of the THz/IR regime spectral signatures associated with specific bio-molecular targets. Emerging DNAbased nano-assemblies (i.e., either materials or structural devices) will be discussed that realize novel sensing paradigms through the incorporation of organic and/or biological molecules such that they effect highly predictable and controllable changes into the electro-optical properties of the resulting superstructures. Results will be given to illustrate the utility of functionalized DNA materials in biological (and chemical) sensing, and to demonstrate how the basic science can be leveraged to study and develop synthetic antibodies, reporters and vaccines for future medical applications.

  17. IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 from German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Un, Sunjin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Kim, Chung-ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-09-01

    Bla g 6, a German cockroach allergen, shows homology to muscle protein troponin C. It contains four calcium-binding domains at amino acid (aa) residues 20-30, 56-67, 96-107, and 132-143, and its immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity is dependent upon calcium ion level. However, the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 have not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze the IgE binding epitopes from the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. The full-length of three Bla g 6 isoallergens (Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301) and five peptide fragments (P1: aa 1-111, P2: aa 1-95, P3: aa 33-111, P4: aa 80-151, and P5: aa 33-151) of Bla g 6.0101 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on 24 patients' sera that adjusted the final concentration 10 mM of CaCl(2) to determine the IgE activities of Bla g 6. Eight sera (33.3%), 9 sera (37.5%), and 11 sera (45.8%) showed IgE reactivity to Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301, respectively. Among the sera from the positive IgE reactivity, three patients' sera were selected and the IgE reactivity was measured by ELISA with the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. Based on IgE responses, one patient's serum exhibited the strongest IgE reactivity. We assumed that the aa between 96-151 residues, including the calcium binding domains III and IV, would be important for IgE binding. These results may provide information that will yield safe diagnostic methods and immunotherapeutics.

  18. Quantifying Nonspecific TEM β-Lactamase (blaTEM) Genes in a Wastewater Stream▿

    PubMed Central

    Lachmayr, Karen L.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Ford, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    To control the antibiotic resistance epidemic, it is necessary to understand the distribution of genetic material encoding antibiotic resistance in the environment and how anthropogenic inputs, such as wastewater, affect this distribution. Approximately two-thirds of antibiotics administered to humans are β-lactams, for which the predominant bacterial resistance mechanism is hydrolysis by β-lactamases. Of the β-lactamases, the TEM family is of overriding significance with regard to diversity, prevalence, and distribution. This paper describes the design of DNA probes universal for all known TEM β-lactamase genes and the application of a quantitative PCR assay (also known as Taqman) to quantify these genes in environmental samples. The primer set was used to study whether sewage, both treated and untreated, contributes to the spread of these genes in receiving waters. It was found that while modern sewage treatment technologies reduce the concentrations of these antibiotic resistance genes, the ratio of blaTEM genes to 16S rRNA genes increases with treatment, suggesting that bacteria harboring blaTEM are more likely to survive the treatment process. Thus, β-lactamase genes are being introduced into the environment in significantly higher concentrations than occur naturally, creating reservoirs of increased resistance potential. PMID:18997031

  19. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  20. Detection of blaPER-1 & blaOxa10 among imipenem resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients hospitalized in Shiraz Burn Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Amir; Bazargani, Abdollah; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important Gram negative opportunistic bacteria which causes infection among burn patients. Resistance to the antibiotics in this group of bacteria is increased due to the activity of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) genes. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of two genes (blaPER-1 & blaOxa10) related β-lactamase genes among imipenem resistance clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: From May 2010 to March 2011, 270 P. aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized burned patients’ wounds in Shiraz Burn Hospital, were tested for Imipenem resistance by disk diffusion method. Presence of ESBLs exo-enzyme, blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 genes were also evaluated in the resistant isolate. Results: 210 (77.7%) of 270 P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem. blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 were detected among 168 (80.0%) of imipenem resistant isolates. Furthermore, 160 (76.2%) of them had blaOxa10 gene and 84 (40.0%) of them had blaPER-1 while 63 (30.0%) resistant isolates contained both genes simultaneously. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 genes in hospitalized burn patients in south west of Iran. Therefore, it’s highly recommended to perform such tests routinely to evaluate the resistance pattern in order to better antibiotic selection in the burned patients. PMID:26644867

  1. Genetic properties of blaCTX-M and blaPER β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Nakhaei; Beidokhti, Mehrdad Hashemi; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Ghahraman, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): blaCTX-M and blaPER are two genes that encode class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and can be responsible for therapeutic problems. This study was carried out to evaluate the molecular properties of these genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction digestion and sequencing. Materials and Methods: During six months, starting from January 2012, one hundred clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected from urinary samples. The ESBL-producing isolates were detected by phenotypic confirmation test. After plasmid extraction, blaPER and blaCTX-M genes were detected using PCR by specific primers. The blaCTX-M PCR products were digested with Taq1, and two of the blaCTX-M genes were sequenced. Results: Phenotypic tests showed that 27 (27%) isolates were ESBL producers with the highest frequency for Klebsiella pneumoniae (47.4%) and Escherichia coli (17.9%). Twenty six (26%) of Enterobacteriaceae isolates harbored the blaCTX-M gene, and none of them had blaPER. The restriction analysis of PCR products showed that all blaCTX-M amplified products had the same patterns. Both sequenced bacteria were CTX-M-15 type ESBL carriers. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the blaCTX-M-15 gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolates for the first time in Mashhad, Iran. High degrees of associated resistance to co-trimoxazole and gentamicin were found in ESBL producers. Therefore, an integrated and regular management of antibiotic prescription need to be trained in our society. PMID:24967067

  2. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  3. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting.

  4. Predominance of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates carrying blaIMP and blaVIM metallo-β-lactamases in a major hospital in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toval, Francisco; Guzmán-Marte, Anel; Madriz, Vivian; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; García, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the molecular basis of the resistance to carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from a tertiary-level health facility in San José, Costa Rica. A total of 198 non-duplicated isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. The production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), the presence of MBL encoding genes (blaIMP, blaVIM and blaGIM-1) and the occurrence of these genes within class 1 integrons were investigated. In addition, an ERIC2 PCR fingerprinting method was used to elucidate the distribution of the detected MBL genes within the strain collection. Of the 198 isolates tested, 125 (63.1 %) were categorized as carbapenem-resistant. The majority (88.8 %) of the carbapemen-resistant isolates also showed resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Among the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 102 (81.6 %) showed MBL activity. Strikingly, both blaIMP and blaVIM genes were simultaneously detected in most (94.1 %) of the 102 MBL producers. Five carbapenem-resistant MBL producers were positive only for blaIMP genes. Almost 70 % of the isolates examined harboured the intI1 gene, accompanied by the sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 136 (99 %) and 122 (89 %) isolates, respectively. The majority (94.4 %) of the carbapenem-resistant isolates carried the intI1 gene, in contrast to 26 % of the carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Ninety-three out of 96 (96.9 %) isolates carrying both blaIMP and blaVIM genes also harboured the intI1, sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes. Gene cassettes from carbapenem-susceptible and MBL-negative carbapenem-resistant isolates encoded aminoglycoside-resistance enzymes (aadA2, aadA4 and aadA6) as well as orfD and qacF genes. RAPD analysis distributed 126 of the isolates in 29 clusters. Eighty of the 90 blaIMP (+) blaVIM (+) isolates were sorted into 16

  5. Liposomal Encapsulation Enzymes: From Medical Applications to Kinetic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jahadi, M; Khosravi-Darani, K

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes and nanoliposomes as small vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayer (entrapping one or more hydrophilic or lipophilic components) have recently found several potential applications in medicine and food industry. These vesicles may protect the core materials from moisture, heat and other extreme conditions. They may also provide controlled release of various bioactive agents, including food ingredients at the right place and time. Potential applications of enzyme-loaded liposomes are in the medical or biomedical field, particularly for the enzymereplacement therapy, as well as cheese industry for production of functional foods with improved health beneficial impacts on the consumer. Encapsulation process has a recondite impact on enzymes. In fact, liposome preparation techniques may alter the pH and temperature optima, affinity of the enzyme to substrate (Km), and maximum rate of reaction (Vmax). In addition, in this paper, the impact of process variables on the kinetic characteristics of enzymes encapsulated in liposomes was investigated. Also, the effects of enzyme entrapment in liposomes, prepared by different methods, on the catalytic efficiency of enzyme, as well as its kinetic properties and stability compared to native (free) enzymes has been reviewed.

  6. Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C. L.

    2013-02-05

    Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

  7. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  8. Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia patients have to recognize the information on both eyes equally when they gaze at the display with parallax and perceive the stereo depth of the content. Participants in this interactive training engage actively with the image. As a result, they are able to revive their binocular visual function while playing a game. Through the training, the observers became able to recognize the amount of parallax correctly. In addition, the training level can be changed according to the eyesight difference between a right eye and a left eye. As a result, we ascertained that practical application of the II method for strabismus or amblyopia patients would be possible.

  9. 76 FR 50231 - Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... would be similar to an infusion pump stand, which is currently classified as a class I device because it supports the intended use of an infusion pump (class II medical device). A mobile medical app that...

  10. Emergence of blaNDM-7–Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Moussounda, Mesmin; Diene, Seydina M.; Dos Santos, Sandra; Goudeau, Alain; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa remain rare and assess mostly blaOXA-48–producing isolates from Mediterranean countries and South Africa. We identified blaNDM-7–producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon in 2016. The isolates contained blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids that were unusual and similar to the one described in a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae SZ04 isolate from China. PMID:28098536

  11. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    PubMed

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  12. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A.; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C.; Klinzing, David C.; Daroy, Maria Luisa G.; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1. PMID:27032000

  13. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of bla(KPC), bla(NDM) and/or bla(VIM), and bla(OXA)-48 from Perirectal Swabs.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna F; Fahle, Gary A; Kemp, Margaret A; Jassem, Agatha N; Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all bla(KPC)), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (C(T)) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in C(T) values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU bla(KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, C(T) values for bla(KPC) were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, C(T) values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 C(T) values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a C(T) cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, C(T) values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management.

  14. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after...

  15. [The Feasibility Study on the Application of Global Medical Device Nomenclature(GMDN)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjuan; Zheng, Jian; Li, Jun; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Chunqing; Li, Jingli

    2015-09-01

    The article has analyzed the policy co-ordination, Industry coverage and technical experience of the global medical device nomenclature (GMDN) to our country, argued the feasibility on the application of GMDN in our medical device administration system, provided some reference on building the naming system of medical device in our country.

  16. [The Analysis on Application of Global Medical Device Nomenclature(GMDN)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2015-07-01

    The article has reviewed the administration technical structure and global application of the global medical device nomenclature(GMDN), analyzed the coordination between GMDN and the industry status of medical device in our country, put forward some suggestions on the applicaition of GMDN, provided some reference on raising the management level of medical device in our country.

  17. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, Colorado (Beacon Medical Services). The negative determination was issued on June...

  18. Decline in Medical-School Applications Seen Damaging Quality of Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1988-01-01

    Factors related to the decline in applications for medical school include costs of medical education, student's desire to begin earning money quickly, publicity about the high cost of malpractice insurance and the increasingly bureaucratic nature of the medical professions, and the perception that there is a continuing overabundance of doctors.…

  19. The application of Aronson's taxonomy to medication errors in nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Medication administration is a frequent nursing activity that is prone to error. In this study of 318 self-reported medication incidents (including near misses), very few resulted in patient harm-7% required intervention or prolonged hospitalization or caused temporary harm. Aronson's classification system provided an excellent framework for analysis of the incidents with a close connection between the type of error and the change strategy to minimize medication incidents. Taking a behavioral approach to medication error classification has provided helpful strategies for nurses such as nurse-call cards on patient lockers when patients are absent and checking of medication sign-off by outgoing and incoming staff at handover.

  20. Mapping medical careers: Questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, KV; McManus, IC

    2004-01-01

    Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional) typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Methods Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry), in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032) or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973) and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437). Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL) on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Results Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. Conclusions There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic), Hospital Medicine (Investigative), Psychiatry (Artistic), Public Health (Social), Administrative Medicine (Enterprising), and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional). The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be used as the basis

  1. A Flexible Model for Correlated Medical Costs, with Application to Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines is used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike Information Criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method. PMID:26403805

  2. A flexible model for correlated medical costs, with application to medical expenditure panel survey data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A

    2016-03-15

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines are used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike information criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method.

  3. Mobilizing Your Medications: An Automated Medication Reminder Application for Mobile Phones and Hypertension Medication Adherence in a High-Risk Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir; Jacobus-Kantor, Laura; Marshall, Lorraine; Ritchie, Clark; Kaplinski, Michelle; Khurana, Parvinder S.; Katz, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension frequently accompanies diabetes mellitus, worsening prognosis and complicating medical care for patients. Low medication adherence with multiple medications is a major factor in the inadequate achievement of blood pressure treatment goals. Widespread access to mobile phones offers a new opportunity to communicate with patients and enhance disease self-management. Methods We recruited 50 high-risk urban patients with hypertension, who are using at least two prescription medications for hypertension, into an open-label trial using medication reminder software on a mobile phone. Medication adherence was assessed by review of pharmacy refill rates before, during, and after availability of the medication reminder software (pre-activation, activation, and post-activation phase, respectively). Results Forty-eight patients completed the study. All subjects were insured by Medicaid, 96% were African-American, and the majority had diabetes mellitus. The proportion of days covered for each study phase was as follows: pre-activation phase = 0.54, activation phase = 0.58, and post-activation phase = 0.46. A significant difference was found between the activation and post-activation phases (p = .001). The increase in measured adherence between the pre-activation and activation phases approached significance (p =.057). Forty-six patients completed the pre- and post-Morisky medication adherence survey. The median score rose from 2.0 at baseline to 3.0 at study completion (p <.001). Average blood pressure and level of control during study period improved significantly after initiation of the study and remained improved from baseline through the course of the study. The 48 subjects who completed the study reported a high level of satisfaction with the medication reminder application at the final study visit. Conclusions A mobile-phone-based automated medication reminder system shows promise in improving medication adherence and blood pressure in high

  4. Laser heating of dielectric particles for medical and biological applications

    PubMed Central

    Tribelsky, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of a spherical dielectric particle embedded in a liquid. The discussed range of the problem parameters is typical for medical and biological applications. We focus on the case, when the heat diffusivity in the particle is of the same order of magnitude as that in the fluid. We perform quantitative analysis of the heat transfer equation based on interplay of four characteristic scales of the problem, namely the particle radius, the characteristic depth of light absorption in the material of the particle and the two heat diffusion lengths: in the particle and in the embedding liquid. A new quantitative characteristic of the laser action, that is the cooling time, describing the temporal scale of the cooling down of the particle after the laser pulse is over, is introduced and discussed. Simple analytical formulas for the temperature rise in the center of the particle and at its surface as well as for the cooling time are obtained. We show that at the appropriate choice of the problem parameters the cooling time may be by many orders of magnitude larger the laser pulse duration. It makes possible to minimize the undesirable damage of healthy tissues owing to the finite size of the laser beam and scattering of the laser radiation, simultaneously keeping the total hyperthermia period large enough to kill the pathogenic cells. An example of application of the developed approach to optimization of the therapeutic effect at the laser heating of particles for cancer therapy is presented. PMID:27446706

  5. Medical visualization based on VRML technology and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Lu, Qiang; Sheng, Rongbing; Liu, Yafeng

    2003-07-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three dimensional visualization objects in biomedical images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3-D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we held the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. So in this system we use the 3-D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3-D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm, using OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulate voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3-D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3-D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed. With the help of OCT and MPE scanning image system, applying these techniques to the visualization of rabbit brain, constructing data sets of hierarchical subdivisions of the cerebral information, we can establish a virtual environment on the World Wide Web for the rabbit brain research from its gross anatomy to its tissue and cellular levels of detail, providng graphical modeling and information management of both the outer and the inner space of the rabbit brain.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Medication Adherence Application with Communication for Seniors in Independent Living Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Johnson, Reid A.; Chaudhry, Beenish; Reeves, Kimberly G.; Willaert, Patty; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a pressing concern among seniors, leading to a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. While mobile applications provide a viable medium for medication management, their utility can be limited without tackling the specific needs of seniors and facilitating the active involvement of care providers. To address these limitations, we are developing a tablet-based application designed specifically for seniors to track their medications and a web portal for their care providers to track medication adherence. In collaboration with a local Aging in Place program, we conducted a three-month study with sixteen participants from an independent living facility. Our study found that the application helped participants to effectively track their medications and improved their sense of wellbeing. Our findings highlight the importance of catering to the needs of seniors and of involving care providers in this process, with specific recommendations for the development of future medication management applications. PMID:28269843

  7. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals.

  8. Diversity, evolution and medical applications of insect antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Muhammed, Maged

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families. Furthermore, we highlight the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model in high-throughput screening methods to identify AMPs with efficacy against human pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumanii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We also discuss the potential medical applications of AMPs, including their use as alternatives for conventional antibiotics in ectopic therapies, their combined use with antibiotics to restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and their use as templates for the rational design of peptidomimetic drugs that overcome the disadvantages of therapeutic peptides. The article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides’. PMID:27160593

  9. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  10. Noncontact laser fiber delivery system for endoscopic medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Nikolay A.; Griffin, Stephen E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to design and to investigate laser fiber delivery system for treatment of obstructed human internal tubular organs using endoscopic techniques. This system eliminates the main disadvantages of both applied contact and non-contact probes, namely surface contamination with concomitant hydrothermal probe deterioration and large beam divergence with poor energy density, respectively. Proposed silica or sapphire probes produce quasi-collimated beam with specific outside diameter and power distribution. To provide comparative analysis of laser delivery systems' optical properties with non-contact endoscopic probes 'steady beam distance' (SBD) and 'steady beam ratio' (SBR) coefficients are proposed. The calculation results are presented in the form of the plots of the SBR - coefficients and SBDs for a 2.0 mm specific outside beam diameter versus laser wavelength, delivery fiber core diameter and its numerical aperture for both probe material. Additionally, the cross power distributions along the SBD were studied. Results obtained could provide a useful tool to designers of non-contact fiber delivery systems intended for a variety of medical applications, including endoscopic surgery with cw or pulse laser tissue irradiation, skin de-epithelialization, laser-induced fluorescence and photodynamic therapy.

  11. Low Energy Laser Biostimulation: New Prospects For Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castel, John C.; Abergel, R. Patrick; Willner, Robert E.; Baumann, James G.

    1987-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of light-energy is not a new concept to the modern world. Documented applications from ancient times tell of the therapeutic effects of ordinary sun-light to treat such common ailments as painful body joints, wounds, compound fractures and tetanus. The discovery of laser light in the 1960's, opened up new prospects for the medical use of light. Laser light differs from other forms of electromagnetic spectrum in that a single wavelength rather than a spectrum of wavelengths is emitted. Since the early 1970's, low-energy laser radiation has been reported to enhance wound healing rates, reduce edema, and relieve musculoskeletal pain. There is no detectable thermal effect of this laser on the tissue being treated. The effects are considered to occur as a result of photochemical, non thermal effects of the laser beam. Photons are absorbed by the tissue being treated and, in turn, produce positive therapeutic effects such as reduction of pain and edema. Pre-clinical and clinical evaluations are, presently, underway to document the safety and efficacy of low energy laser therapy, which represents a significant advance in the non-invasive treatment of pain.

  12. A Pilot Matching Program for Applicants to Five California Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Jochen; Pops, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    The 1989 California Medical School Matching Program pilot study illustrated that the technical aspects of a matching program for medical school applicants can be successful, paralleling the current admission process to a reasonable degree. The process is designed to solve the problem of multiple acceptance within an applicant pool. (Author/MSE)

  13. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1977-01-01

    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  14. [Development and application of a medical device maintenance information platform based on BS architecture].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenglin; Zhang, Xutian; Wang, Guohong; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-03-01

    Based on specified demands on medical devices maintenance for clinical engineers and Browser/Server architecture technology, a medical device maintenance information platform was developed, which implemented the following modules such as repair, preventive maintenance, accessories management, training, document, system management and regional cooperation. The characteristics of this system were summarized and application in increase of repair efficiency, improvement of preventive maintenance and cost control was introduced. The application of this platform increases medical device maintenance service level.

  15. blaNDM-1 Carriage on IncR Plasmid in Enterobacteriaceae Strains.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Erika; Gužvinec, Marija; Butić, Iva; Krešić, Sanja; Crnek, Sandra Šestan; Tambić, Arjana; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Mazzariol, Annarita

    2016-03-01

    Four NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains (three Klebsiella pneumoniae and one Citrobacter koseri) were isolated between 2009 and 2011 through a nationwide surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia to study the molecular genetic background of blaNDM and the responsible plasmid types. Phenotypically, the clinical strains proved to be multidrug resistant. All strains remained susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. The clinical strains harbored variable antibiotic resistance determinants, notably, blaNDM-1, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-12, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-9, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-4, qnrB1, and aac(6')Ib-cr in different combinations. Two K. pneumoniae belonged to sequence type ST15 and one strain to ST16. As for the plasmid types, C. koseri and one of the ST15 K. pneumoniae carried IncR, and the second ST15 K. pneumoniae carried IncR and colE. The K. pneumoniae ST16 strain hosted A/C and colE plasmids. The blaNDM-1 gene was detected on conjugative high-molecular-weight plasmids, namely, A/C and IncR types. It is noteworthy that this is the first description of K. pneumoniae ST16 expressing NDM-1 in Europe. Remarkably, our study underscores the importance of the IncR plasmid as a reservoir of multidrug resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the IncR plasmid carrying blaNDM-1 in C. koseri is reported for the first time.

  16. Connectivity, security, and performance of an NGI testbed for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Fan, Yu; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Zhang, Hong; Hwang, Kyungtae; Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Cao, Fei

    2000-05-01

    Tele-medical imaging applications require low cost, and high- speed backbone wide area networks (WAN) to carry large amount of imaging data for rapid turn around interpretation. Current low cost commercially available WAN is too slow for medical imaging applications, while high speed WAN is too costly. Internet2 or Next Generation Internet (NGI) emerges as a good candidate for tele-medical imaging applications because of its high speed and low cost. This paper describes the beginning of a three-year project on exploring the possibility of using NGI for medical imaging applications. Connectivity of a private ATM to the Internet2 is first discussed, followed by methods of preserving data integrity in the public networks. Two medical imaging applications in telemammography and interactive teaching of breast imaging are presented. A preliminary plan on methods of evaluating the performance of the NGI is followed.

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from a New York City Hospital Belonging to Sequence Type 258 and Carrying blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-4.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Mills, Janet C; Jones, Ronald N; Soave, Rosemary; Jenkins, Stephen G; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2016-01-04

    Among 69 of 139 (49.6%) carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae carrying blaKPC, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae was also positive for blaVIM. The isolate belonged to sequence type 258 (ST258) and carried blaKPC-2 on a copy of Tn4401a and blaVIM-4 on a class 1 integron. Genes were located on distinct plasmids belonging to Inc types A/C and FII. Elevated expression of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC (acrA, 15.3 times) and reduced expression of outer membrane protein genes ompK35 and ompK37 (0.16 and 0.081 times, respectively) associated with various amino acid alterations on OmpK37 were observed. The presence of two carbapenemases in ST258 K. pneumoniae is of great concern due to the ability of this organism to widely disseminate.

  18. The establishment of a duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid and simultaneous detection of blaNDM and blaKPC genes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fen; Sun, Jingjing; Cheng, Cancan; Rui, Yongyu

    2013-10-22

    The latest threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria corresponds to the emergence of carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers. Rapid molecular detection is essential to limit their spread. In this study, a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that was specific for the detection of blaNDM and blaKPC with the same limit of detection of ten plasmid copies was developed. The assay was linear over eight log dilutions for blaNDM (R2 = 0.971; slope, -3.273) and blaKPC (R2 = 0.992; slope, -2.997) with efficiencies of 102% and 115%, respectively. The assay was validated with 157 clinical isolates and showed 100% concordance with conventional PCR. The excellent performance of the duplex PCR assay makes it a powerful tool for surveillance of the carbapenemases NDM and KPC.

  19. Emergence of Escherichia coli Sequence Type ST131 Carrying both the blaGES-5 and blaCTX-M-15 Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juwon; Hong, Seong Geun; Bae, Il Kwon; Kang, Ji Roung; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Wookeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli clinical isolate BD07372 of sequence type ST131 recovered from a bed sore specimen exhibited high-level resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime but exhibited susceptibility to imipenem and meropenem. The isolate harbored two β-lactamase genes, the blaCTX-M-15 gene carried by an ∼250-kbp plasmid carrying the FIA and FIC replicons and the blaGES-5 gene carried by a class 1 integron in the chromosome. PMID:21444709

  20. Occurrence of blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M and mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Well Water in rural China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pan; Bi, Zhenwang; Nilsson, Maud; Zheng, Beiwen; Berglund, Björn; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Börjesson, Stefan; Li, Xuewen; Chen, Baoli; Yin, Hong; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2017-01-23

    We report on co-existence of mcr-1 and blaCTX-M in multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli belonging to the ST10 complex, isolated from well water in rural China. Raoultella ornithinolytica with blaKPC-2 was also detected in the well water from the same area. This study shows that genes coding for resistance to last resort antibiotics are present in wells in rural China, indicating a potential source for antibiotic resistance.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas sp. Strain Carrying blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2 Carbapenemase Genes from Hospital Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiyi; Wu, Wenjing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain WCHP16 recovered from hospital sewage in West China Hospital, Chengdu, China was found to carry two carbapenemase genes blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2. Here, we report its 5.7-Mb draft genome sequence, comprising 141 contigs and an average 59.53% G+C content. The genome contained 5,504 coding sequences and 67 tRNA genes. PMID:27795238

  2. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  3. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type class A carbapenemase genes on novel chromosomal integrative elements and plasmids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Davidson, Ross; Delport, Johannes A; Fuller, Jeff; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Levett, Paul; Roscoe, Diane L; Willey, Barbara M; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-02-21

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species, however blaNMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwiggii Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A (n=10), IMI-1 (n=5), and IMI-9 (n=2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements, EcloIMEXs, located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, blaIMI-5 and blaIMI-6, were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A/IMI-type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  5. β-Lactam Resistance Genes: Characterization, Epidemiology, and First Detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry in Brazil-Brazil Ministry of Agriculture's Pathogen Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Fernanda Marques; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Oliveira, Vinicius Gomes Sales; Gaspari, Marcus Vinicius; Dos Santos, Amaury; de Freitas, Josinete Barros; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread in nature; however, human infections occur mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, specially poultry and eggs. In Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) oversees food production in general, with the goal of preventing transmission of pathogens through the food chain. In 2004, MAPA initiated a program to monitor and control levels of Salmonella in poultry during slaughter. This study analyzes isolates from MAPA's program for β-lactam resistance and the resistance genes involved, as well as the geographic distributions of potentially clonal populations of resistant isolates within Brazil. Initially, 1,939 Salmonella spp. isolated between 2004 and 2011 were examined. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and 100 isolates resistant or intermediate to ampicillin and ceftriaxone were screened initially for the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPSA, blaCMY-1, and blaCMY-2 genes. There were 55 isolates whose resistance genes were not identified by this panel and these isolates are the subject of this report. These 55 isolates were differentiated into 31 distinct ribogroups, with multiple β-lactam resistance genes, including AmpC blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaCTX-M-14. Isolates carrying variants of blaCTX-M were identified in three geographic regions. Salmonella carrying particular genetic variants of blaCTX-M and belonging to the same ribogroup were identified from multiple poultry slaughtering facilities. In some instances, these presumptive clonal-related isolates were from facilities over 300 miles apart, indicating potential clonal spread between two geographic regions. This is the first report of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella in Brazil.

  6. Dose Tracker Application for Monitoring Crew Medication Usage, Symptoms, and Adverse Effects During Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia; Smith, LaRona

    2015-01-01

    Medication usage records can be used as a relatively nonintrusive means of monitoring health. This has been attempted previously through crew medical records, but these records are incomplete from the perspective of a research pharmacologist. During the shuttle era, NASA operations did not include routine questioning of crewmembers about their medication use until after missions were complete. The (long!) questionnaire was on paper. Asking crewmembers to recall medication use from weeks before questioning made getting complete and accurate information virtually impossible. This study will document medication usage of crewmembers before and during their missions. It will capture previously unrecorded data regarding medication use during spaceflight, including side effect qualities, frequencies and severities. The research-oriented data will be collected for research purposes, separate from medical records. Dose Tracker employs an iOS application (app) for fast & easy collection of medication usage data from crewmember participants during their missions.

  7. The Korean research & development program on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Song; Kim, Sung June; Chung, Bong Hyun; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Seon Hee

    2007-01-01

    Non or minimally invasive approaches for medical applications are very important for the alleviation of patient complaints. The miniaturization of medical devices using micro & nano technologies might be one of the possible solutions. Several national research and development (R&D) programs have been launched by the Korean government to further the development of biological & medical micro/nano devices in this country. This paper gives an overview of the current status of national R&D programs which are related to the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)/Nano technology in biological and medical applications and discusses the main activities of each program.

  8. Legal medicine: assessing mental capacity and writing medical reports for deputy applications

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui Min; Goh, Lee Gan; Thirumoorthy, T

    2017-01-01

    Medical reports are required to support court applications to appoint a deputy to make decisions on behalf of a person who has lost mental capacity. The doctor writing such a medical report needs to be able to systematically assess the mental capacity of the person in question, in order to gather the necessary evidence for the court to make a decision. If the medical report is not adequate, the application will be rejected and the appointment of the deputy delayed. This article sets out best practices for performing the assessment and writing the medical report, common errors, and issues of concern. PMID:27752705

  9. [Mobile phone-computer wireless interactive graphics transmission technology and its medical application].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Liu, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Application of clinical digital medical imaging has raised many tough issues to tackle, such as data storage, management, and information sharing. Here we investigated a mobile phone based medical image management system which is capable of achieving personal medical imaging information storage, management and comprehensive health information analysis. The technologies related to the management system spanning the wireless transmission technology, the technical capabilities of phone in mobile health care and management of mobile medical database were discussed. Taking medical infrared images transmission between phone and computer as an example, the working principle of the present system was demonstrated.

  10. Keeping Up with Healthcare Trends: IcHeart as a Medication Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2016-11-01

    According to the US governments, more than 125,000 people die each year due to failure to manage their medications, leading to approximately USD100 billion in preventable costs to healthcare systems. The core failure in medication management is attributed by patients failing to adhere their medication regimens, whether by accident, negligence, or intentional. Recognizing the importants of vigilant monitoring in medication management, this paper is set to review the latest android-based healthcare trends and propose a new mobile medication reminder application called IcHeart.

  11. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  12. Introduction to smart card technology and initial medical application.

    PubMed

    Quick, G

    1994-10-01

    Smart card technology is the name applied to the use of a plastic card with an embedded computer chip. Recent development of smart card software has allowed storage and retrieval of medical information, affording the opportunity to provide a standardized, portable, accessible medical record for use in prehospital and emergency department patient encounters. We describe the smart card concept and its initial deployment in a section of a large Midwestern urban area.

  13. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito

  14. Telelearning standards and their application in medical education.

    PubMed

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikolaj

    2004-01-01

    Medial education, both on the graduate and postgraduate levels, has become a real challenge nowadays. The volume of information in medical sciences grows so rapidly that many health professionals experience essential problems in keeping track of the state of the art in this domain. e-learning offers important advantages to medical education continuation due to its universal availability and opportunity for implementation of flexible patterns of training. An important trace of medical education is developing practical skills. Some examples of standardization efforts include: the CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology (WSLT), the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC), Education Network Australia (EdNA) and PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in European Society (PROMETEUS). Sun Microsystems' support (Sun ONE, iPlanetTM ) for many of the above-mentioned standards is described as well. Development of a medical digital video library with recordings of invasive procedures incorporating additional information and commentary may improve the efficiency of the training process in interventional medicine. A digital video library enabling access to videos of interventional procedures performed in the area of thoracic medicine may be a valuable element for developing practical skills. The library has been filled with video resources recorded at the Department of Interventional Pulmonology; it enhances training options for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons. The main focus was put on demonstration of bronchofiberoscopic and videothoracoscopic procedures. The opportunity to browse video recordings of procedures performed in the specific field also considerably enhances the options for training in other medical specialties. In the era of growing health consumer awareness, patients are also perceived as the target audience for medical digital libraries. As a case study of Computer-Based Training systems, the Medical Digital Video Library is

  15. [Application of advanced engineering technologies to medical and rehabilitation fields].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Masakatsu

    2012-07-01

    The words "Japan syndrome" can now be heard increasingly through the media. Facing the approach of an elderly-dominated society, Robot Technology(RT)is expected to play an important role in Japan's medical, rehabilitation, and daily support fields. The industrial robot, which has already spread through the world with a great success in certain isolated environments by doing the work which is specialized for the thing with the hard known characteristic. By comparison, in the medical and rehabilitation fields, environments always change intricately, and individual characteristics differ from person to person. Furthermore, there are many times when a robot will be asked to directly interact with people. Moreover, the relation between a robot and a person turns into a relation which should involve contact flexibly according to a situation, and also turns into a relation which should avoid contact. In our group, we have so far developed practical rehabilitation and medical robots which can respond to difficulties such as environmental change and individual specificity. In developing rehabilitation robots, it is especially important to consider intuitive operability and individual differences. In addition, in developing medical robots, it is important to replace the experimental knowledge of surgeons to the mechanical quantitative properties. In this article, we introduce some practical examples of rehabilitation and medical robots interweaving several detailed technologies we have so far developed.

  16. IncH-Type Plasmid Harboring blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, and qnrB4 Genes Recovered from Animal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Andreas; Nordmann, Patrice; Bonnin, Rémy A.; Millemann, Yves; Eikmeyer, Felix G.; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The whole sequence of plasmid pENVA carrying the extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-15 was determined. It was identified from a series of clonally related Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 274 strains recovered from companion animals. This plasmid was 253,984 bp in size and harbored, in addition to blaCTX-M-15, a large array of genes encoding resistance to many antibiotic molecules, including β-lactams (blaTEM-1, blaDHA-1), aminoglycosides (aacA2, aadA1), tetracycline (tetA), quinolones (qnrB4), trimethoprim (dfrA15), and sulfonamides (two copies of sul1). In addition, genes encoding resistance to mercury, tellurium, nickel, and quaternary compounds were identified. It also carried genes encoding DNA damage protection and mutagenesis repair and a locus for a CRISPR system, which corresponds to an immune system involved in protection against bacteriophages and plasmids. Comparative analysis of the plasmid scaffold showed that it possessed a structure similar to that of only a single plasmid, which was pNDM-MAR encoding the carbapenemase NDM-1 and identified from human K. pneumoniae isolates. Both plasmids possessed two replicons, namely, those of IncFIB-like and IncHIB-like plasmids, which were significantly different from those previously characterized. The blaCTX-M-15 gene, together with the other antibiotic resistance genes, was part of a large module likely acquired through a transposition process. We characterized here a new plasmid type carrying the blaCTX-M-15 gene identified in a K. pneumoniae isolate of animal origin. The extent to which this plasmid type may spread efficiently and possibly further enhance the dissemination of blaCTX-M-15 among animal and human isolates remains to be determined. PMID:24752252

  17. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aamir; Köhler, Gottfried; Knapp, Martin; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Puchinger, Martin; Edetsberger, Michael

    2009-11-26

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19941643

  19. Complete sequence of a conjugative incn plasmid harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Doi, Yohei

    2014-11-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

  20. Complete Sequence of a Conjugative IncN Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. PMID:25182636

  1. Simple fractal method of assessment of histological images for application in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We propose new method of assessment of histological images for medical diagnostics. 2-D image is preprocessed to form 1-D landscapes or 1-D signature of the image contour and then their complexity is analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method. The method may have broad medical application, from choosing implant materials to differentiation between benign masses and malignant breast tumors. PMID:21134258

  2. 78 FR 31563 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements AGENCY: Health... XXVI of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of... on core medical services, including antiretroviral drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS...

  3. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lesa R; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-07-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. Accession numbers: The atomic coordinates and the structure factors have been deposited to the Protein Data Band under accession codes: 4N7C for native Bla g 4 and 4N7D for the Se-Met Bla g 4 structure.

  4. [Application of the myringoscope and myringophotography in forensice medical identification].

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Tian, X

    1997-01-01

    In analysis of tympanitio membrane injury, we have compared conventional otoscope with myringoscope and found that the myringoscope has an advantage over the conventional otoscope. The myringoscope can show the whole tympanitic membrane, the positions, shapes and characteristics of tympanitic membrane injuries more clearly. The pictures of myringophotography could be preserved and offered to court as an important forensic medical evidence.

  5. The prospects of medical application of metal-based nanoparticles and nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chekman, I S; Ulberg, Z R; Gorchakova, N O; Nebesna, T Yu; Gruzina, T G; Priskoka, A O; Doroshenko, A M; Simonov, P V

    2011-01-01

    Current studies, dedicated to metallic (gold, silver, iron, and copper) nanomaterials are reviewed in this paper. This metals own unique physical and chemical properties which determine their application. The medical application of metallic nanomaterials includes therapy and prophylaxis of diseases, development of new drugs and improvement of conventional ones, nanodiagnostics. Nevertheless some aspects concerning the introduction of the nanometals into medical practice need further profound research.

  6. Plasmid carriage of bla NDM-1 in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lim S; Toleman, Mark A; Weeks, Janis L; Howe, Robin A; Walsh, Timothy R; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan K

    2014-07-01

    NDM-1 probably emerged in Acinetobacter species prior to its dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae, and NDM-1-like enzymes are increasingly reported in Acinetobacter species. Here, we report on the genetic context of blaNDM-1 in the earliest known NDM-1-producing organisms, clinical isolates of Acinetobacter from India in 2005. These strains harbor blaNDM-1 plasmids of different sizes. The gene is associated with the remnants of the Tn125 transposon normally associated with blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter spp. The transposon has been disrupted by the IS26 insertion and subsequent movement events.

  7. Molecular characterization of newly emerged blaKPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Ngan, Grace; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T P; Teo, Jeanette

    2012-02-01

    In Asia, bla(KPC) detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four bla(KPC-2)-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). bla(KPC-2) was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Newly Emerged blaKPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Grace; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T. P.; Teo, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    In Asia, blaKPC detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four blaKPC-2-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). blaKPC-2 was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates. PMID:22116160

  9. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains carrying the bla(OxA-23) and the bla(GES-11) genes in a neonatology center in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Charfi-Kessis, Karama; Mansour, Wejdene; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Mastouri, Maha; Nordmann, Patrice; Aouni, Mahjoub; Poirel, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant and difficult-to-treat Acinetobacter baumannii may be responsible for nosocomial infections. The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) of the GES type possessing a carbapenemase activity has been increasingly reported worldwide in A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms of two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered in a neonatology center in the center-east of Tunisia. Two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates were recovered. The first isolate co-harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene and the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene. Analyses of the genetic location indicated that the blaGES-11 gene was plasmid located (Gr6). However, the blaOxA-23 gene was located on the chromosome. The second strain had only the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene, which was plasmid located. This study showed the first description of the GES-type β-lactamase in A. baumannii in Tunisia.

  10. A Multimodal Database for a Home Remote Medical Care Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medjahed, Hamid; Istrate, Dan; Boudy, Jerome; Steenkeste, François; Baldinger, Jean-Louis; Dorizzi, Bernadette

    The home remote monitoring systems aim to make a protective contribution to the well being of individuals (patients, elderly persons) requiring moderate amounts of support for independent living spaces, and improving their everyday life. Existing researches of these systems suffer from lack of experimental data and a standard medical database intended for their validation and improvement. This paper presents a multi-sensors environment for acquiring and recording a multimodal medical database, which includes physiological data (cardiac frequency, activity or agitation, posture, fall), environment sounds and localization data. It provides graphical interface functions to manage, process and index these data. The paper focuses on the system implementation, its usage and it points out possibilities for future work.

  11. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  12. Micro fibre optic flow checker for the medical analysis application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danping

    2007-01-01

    Two micro fibre optic flow checkers are presented in this paper. They are used for a medical analysis to control a solvent flow up to 1microl/min resolution. A fibre optic sensor as well as a hydraulic system are the principle components of these flow checkers. This paper describes the principle and the experiment setup. It gives the linearity, the repeatability and the stability results.

  13. Application of Telemedicine System to Prehospital Medical Control

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Suck Ju; Kwon, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although ambulance-based telemedicine has been reported to be safe and feasible, its clinical usefulness has not been well documented, and different prehospital management systems would yield different results. The authors evaluated the feasibility and usefulness of telemedicine-assisted direct medical control in the Korean emergency medical service system. Methods Twenty ambulances in the Busan area were equipped with a telemedicine system. Three-lead electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and pulse oximetry data from the patient and audiovisual input from the scene were transferred to a server. Consulting physicians used desktop computers and the internet to connect to the server. Both requesting emergency medical service (EMS) providers and consulting physicians were asked to fill out report forms and submit them for analysis. Results In the 41 cases in which telemedicine equipment was used, cellular phones were concomitantly used in 28 cases (68.35%) to compensate for the poor audio quality provided by the equipment. The EMS providers rated the video transmission quality with a 4-point average score (interquartile range [IQR] 2-5) on a 5-point scale, and they rated the biosignal transmission quality as 4 (IQR 3-5). The consulting physicians rated the video quality as 4 (IQR 2.5-4) and the biosignal quality as 4 (IQR 3-4). The physicians' ratings for usefulness for making diagnosis or treatment decisions did not differ significantly in relation to the method of communication used. Conclusions Our study did not find any significant advantage of implementing telemedicine over the use of voice calls in delivering on-line medical control. More user-friendly, smaller devices with clear advantages over voice communication would be required before telemedicine can be successfully implemented in prehospital patient care. PMID:26279957

  14. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  15. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future.

  16. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  17. Immobilized liquid layers: A new approach to anti-adhesion surfaces for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Sotiri, Irini; Overton, Jonathan C; Waterhouse, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Surface fouling and undesired adhesion are nearly ubiquitous problems in the medical field, complicating everything from surgeries to routine daily care of patients. Recently, the concept of immobilized liquid (IL) interfaces has been gaining attention as a highly versatile new approach to antifouling, with a wide variety of promising applications in medicine. Here, we review the general concepts behind IL layers and discuss the fabrication strategies on medically relevant materials developed so far. We also summarize the most important findings to date on applications of potential interest to the medical community, including the use of these surfaces as anti-thrombogenic and anti-bacterial materials, anti-adhesive textiles, high-performance coatings for optics, and as unique platforms for diagnostics. Although the full potential and pitfalls of IL layers in medicine are just beginning to be explored, we believe that this approach to anti-adhesive surfaces will prove broadly useful for medical applications in the future. PMID:27022136

  18. The Effect of Undergraduate GPA Selectivity Adjustment on Pre-interview Ranking of Rural Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gregory Eastham; Blue, Amy Victoria; Basco, William Thomas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all U.S. medical schools adjust applicants' GPAs based on the selectivity of applicants' undergraduate institutions. Analysis of data from 2,033 in-state applicants to the Medical University of South Carolina, 1996-99, found that this practice did not adversely affect the number of rural applicants offered admission interviews. (SV)

  19. Ethics and the comprehensive application of epistemology in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Tannirandorn, Yuen; Uerpairojkit, Boonchai; Thamkhantho, Manopchai; Pruksapong, Chumsak; Kanjanapitak, Aurchart; Phupong, Vorapong

    2005-12-01

    Our simple definition of ethics is good thought, speak and action. Epistemology means the hypothesis of facts about thought, speech and action. Medical practice is all means of medicine. Medicine classifies people into normal and abnormal. The abnormal are the sick. They loose some organs or those normal looking organs are dysfunctional. They are social problems, some can be treated, and some do not get the appropriate care. The problems of society of normal people are overeating and obesity, abortion, drug abuse, promiscuity, torture, terrorism, disobeying rules and order, corruption, brain-washing and unethical advertisements, etc. On the other hand, the social problems of the abnormal are down, deafness, blindness, dumb, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and cancer, etc. An example of the social-doctor problem is the mal distribution of doctors in rural areas. It was reported by the ministry of public health that the ratio of doctor to population to be 1:800 in Bangkok and 1:5, 700 in some rural areas in the north eastern part of Thailand. The doctors, themselves, are at a high grade of worker and intelligent quotient. They know all the problem and, at the same time, create problems, both, faster than the general population can do. It affects good and bad in the society. In the past, present and the foreseeable future the medical students get their studies in the western style. Their medical schools are situated in big cities. These schools are old and famous. They learn their medical procedure in a big hospital of more than 400 beds in the inpatient department wards. Their instructors and professors are highly qualified, are middle class people and well accepted in the society. Their families are lovely and warm. Their children study in the first class schools in town. The medical students feel very happy and appreciate seeing their professors in television routinely at prime time. In conclusion, their professors are an example of role model

  20. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  1. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms (Extended Abstract).

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Eugene Y; Hatcliff, John

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals.

  2. Assessment of MEMS energy harvester for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek

    2015-05-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of the energy harvesting principle for the development of an autonomous power supply unit for a new generation of biomedical devices, e.g. artificial cochlear implants. Requirements for the harvester are set based on a research of power demands of state-of-the-art medical devices. Feasible methods of the energy conversion are then reviewed, and a simulation model of the generic energy harvester is developed. Acceleration in the head area of the user is measured and used as an input excitation for the model. Possible course of the follow-up research is outlined based on simulation and measurement results.

  3. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Medical Models--Applications in Rhinology.

    PubMed

    Raos, Pero; Klapan, Ivica; Galeta, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we are introducing guidelines and suggestions for use of 3D image processing SW in head pathology diagnostic and procedures for obtaining physical medical model by additive manufacturing/rapid prototyping techniques, bearing in mind the improvement of surgery performance, its maximum security and faster postoperative recovery of patients. This approach has been verified in two case reports. In the treatment we used intelligent classifier-schemes for abnormal patterns using computer-based system for 3D-virtual and endoscopic assistance in rhinology, with appropriate visualization of anatomy and pathology within the nose, paranasal sinuses, and scull base area.

  5. Medical and molecular biological application in the FELI

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, E.; Ogino, S.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-12-31

    Some of the user`s rooms of the FELI have been equipped for medical and molecular biological research. Main subjects are immunological reaction and cell fusion induced by IR FEL. We are beginning to do the preliminary irradiation experiments. The cultured T lymphocytes (Molt-4, human) are irradiated to FEL at wavelength 6.3{mu}m with the power density approximate 500mW/mm{sup 2} for 10 minutes, in the culture media (RPMI-1640) including 10% fetal bovine serum. Swelling and consequent collapse of the cells can be observed, probably due to abrasion of the cell membranes.

  6. Application of an Electronic Medical Record in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic Medical Records (EMR) have been emerging over the past decade. Today, they are replacing the paper chart in clinics throughout the nation. Approximately three years ago, the NASA-JSC Flight Medicine Clinic initiated an assessment of the EMRs available on the market. This assessment included comparing these products with the particular scope of practice at JSC. In 1998, the Logician EMR from Medicalogic was selected for the JSC Flight Medicine Clinic. This presentation reviews the process of selection and implementation of the EMR into the unique practice of aerospace medicine at JSC.

  7. Spread and exchange of bla NDM-1 in hospitalized neonates: role of mobilizable genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Mitra, S; Chattopadhyay, P; Som, T; Mukherjee, S; Basu, S

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the mobilizable elements associated with bla NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from septicaemic neonates at a NICU in India, during December, 2008-2011. An attempt was also made to understand whether there was a pattern in the temporal acquisition of bla NDM-1 within the unit. Transferability of carbapenem resistance was tested by conjugation and transformation. Plasmid types and addiction systems were analysed. The genetic background of bla NDM-1 and association with class 1 integron were evaluated by PCR mapping. RFLP was carried out to discriminate plasmids of same incompatibility group. Transfer of carbapenem resistance was successful in 13/15 cases. bla NDM-1 was associated with different plasmid scaffolds (IncFII, IncL/M, IncN, IncR, IncHIB-M/FIB-M), IncF type being the prevalent one. Addiction systems ccdAB and hok/sok were associated with transferable plasmids. Genetic structures surrounding bla NDM-1 showed its association with at least a remnant of ISAba125 at its 5'-end. The spread of NDM-1 was not related to class 1 integron which possessed resistance determinants against trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA1, dfrA5), streptomycin (aadA2, aacA4), and rifampicin (arr-3). RFLP showed that three isolates possessed the same FII/FIIs plasmid; two of these three isolates were from a single neonate, implying interspecies transfer of bla NDM-1. The predominance of FII plasmids and ISAba125 along with bla NDM-1 was noted, but no specific pattern in the temporal acquisition of mobile genetic elements could be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to inform the in-vivo interspecies plasmid transfer event of bla NDM-1 in a neonate.

  8. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  9. 77 FR 13967 - Notice of Intent To Discontinue Use of Paper Applications for Airman Medical Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 67 Notice of Intent To Discontinue Use of Paper Applications... discontinue use of the paper version of FAA Form 8500-8, the application form used to apply for FAA medical... into a much more efficient and seamless process, thereby rendering the paper process both redundant...

  10. 38 CFR 17.74 - Standards applicable to medical foster homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nursing home facilities in the area based on the veteran's changing care needs and local availability of...) General. A medical foster home must: (1) Meet all applicable state and local regulations, including.... Hearths and protective devices must meet all applicable state and local fire codes. (l) Portable...

  11. 38 CFR 17.74 - Standards applicable to medical foster homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nursing home facilities in the area based on the veteran's changing care needs and local availability of...) General. A medical foster home must: (1) Meet all applicable state and local regulations, including.... Hearths and protective devices must meet all applicable state and local fire codes. (l) Portable...

  12. Factors Affecting Applicants' Acceptance or Decline of Offers to Enroll in a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave-Hogg, Doreen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A University of Toronto (Canada) study of medical school applicants accepting (n=784) and declining (n=255) admission identified influential factors. Some (living cost, location) cannot be affected by the institution. The institution has limited control of others (faculty size, school environment) but can influence applicant perceptions. One…

  13. Genre Analysis of Personal Statements: Analysis of Moves in Application Essays to Medical and Dental Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…

  14. Development of tunable Fabry-Perot spectral camera and light source for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaarre, M.; Kivi, S.; Panouillot, P. E.; Saari, H.; Mäkynen, J.; Sorri, I.; Juuti, M.

    2013-05-01

    VTT has developed a fast, tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter component and applied it in making small, lightweight spectral cameras and light sources. One application field where this novel technology is now tested is medical field. A demonstrator has been made to test the applicability of FP based spectral filtering in the imaging of retina in visible light wavelength area.

  15. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. 515.25 Section 515.25 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.25 Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking...

  16. Evaluation of LAMP assay using phenotypic tests and conventional PCR for detection of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes among carbapenem-resistant clinical Gram-negative isolates.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Rachana; Vanjari, Lavanya; Ede, Nagapriyanka; Gungi, Akhila; Soory, Amarendranath; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2013-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant pathogens cause infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and cost-effective detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in comparison with conventional PCR and existing phenotypic methods. A total of 60 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates [Escherichia coli (15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22), Acinetobacter baumannii (23)] were screened for the presence of carbapenemases (bla(KPC) and bla(NDM-1)) using phenotypic methods such as the modified Hodge test (MHT) and combined disc test (CDT) and molecular methods such as conventional PCR and LAMP assay. In all, 47/60 isolates (78.3%) were MHT positive while 48 isolates were positive by CDT [46.6% positive with EDTA, 30% with 3' aminophenylboronic acid (APB) plus EDTA and 1.6% with APB alone]. Isolates showing CDT positivity with EDTA or APB contained bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes, respectively. bla(NDM-1) was present as a lone gene in 28 isolates (46.7%) and present together with the bla(KPC) gene in 19 isolates (31.7%). Only one E. coli isolate had a lone bla(KPC) gene. The LAMP assay detected either or both bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes in four isolates that were missed by conventional PCR. Neither gene could be detected in 12 (20%) isolates. The LAMP assay has greater sensitivity, specificity and rapidity compared to the phenotypic methods and PCR for the detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC). With a turnaround time of only 2-3 h, the LAMP assay can be considered a point-of-care assay.

  17. Evaluating User Perceptions of Mobile Medication Management Applications With Older Adults: A Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication nonadherence has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals with chronic disease. Several mobile medication management applications are available to help users track, remember, and read about their medication therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the usability and usefulness of existing medication management applications for older adults. Methods We recruited 35 participants aged 50 and over to participate in a 2-hour usability session. The average age ranged from 52-78 years (mean 67 years) and 71% (25/35) of participants were female. Each participant was provided with an iPad loaded with four medication management applications: MyMedRec, DrugHub, Pillboxie, and PocketPharmacist. These applications were evaluated using the 10 item System Usability Scale (SUS) and visual analog scale. An investigator-moderated 30-minute discussion followed, and was recorded. We used a grounded theory (GT) approach to analyze qualitative data. Results When assessing mobile medication management applications, participants struggled to think of a need for the applications in their own lives. Many were satisfied with their current management system and proposed future use only if cognition and health declined. Most participants felt capable of using the applications after a period of time and training, but were frustrated by their initial experiences with the applications. The early experiences of participants highlighted the benefits of linear navigation and clear wording (eg, “undo” vs “cancel”) when designing for older users. While there was no order effect, participants attributed their poor performance to the order in which they tried the applications. They also described being a part of a technology generation that did not encounter the computer until adulthood. Of the four applications, PocketPharmacist was found to be the least usable with a score of 42/100 (P<.0001) though it offered a drug interaction

  18. User experience integrated life-style cloud-based medical application.

    PubMed

    Serban, Alexandru; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2015-01-01

    Having a modern application capable to automatically collect and process data from users, based on information and lifestyle answers is one of current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to integrate user experience design (UXD) in a cloud-based medical application to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. The process consists of collecting traditional and new data from patients and users using online questionnaires. A questionnaire dynamically asks questions about the user's current diet and lifestyle. After the user will introduce the data, the application will formulate a presumptive nutritional plan and will suggest different medical recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, and calculates a risk factor for diseases. This software application, by design and usability will be an efficient tool dedicated for fitness, nutrition and health professionals.

  19. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Pitout, Johann D.D.; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A.; Motyl, Mary R.; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade. PMID:27767006

  20. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yasufumi; Pitout, Johann D D; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A; Motyl, Mary R; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade.

  1. Reactivity of German cockroach allergen, Bla g 2, peptide fragments to IgE antibodies in patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeseok; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Shin, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Myung-hee; Gantulaga, Darambazar; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    Bla g 2 is a cockroach allergen of great importance. This study was conducted to identify IgE-binding epitope(s) of Bla g 2 using the recombinant protein technique. Approximately 50% of tested sera showed IgE reactivity to Pichia-expressed Bla g 2 (PrBla g 2) and E. coli-expressed Bla g 2 (ErBla g 2). Only 5.3% of serum samples showed stronger reactivity to PrBla g 2 than ErBla g 2, indicating that serum was reactive to conformational or carbohydrate epitopes. The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 2 were produced in E. coli. All fragments showed IgE-binding activity to the cockroach-allergy patients' sera. Specifically, peptide fragments of amino acid residue 1-75 and 146-225 appeared to be important for IgE-binding. The information about the IgE-binding epitope of Bla g 2 can aid in the diagnosis and treatment for cockroach allergies.

  2. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  3. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  4. Pulsed-Electron-Beam Processing of Materials for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, N. N.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Teresov, A. D.; Denisova, Yu. A.; Petrikova, E. A.

    2014-02-01

    The data on investigation of sample materials used for fabrication of medical implants (stainless steel 316L, and VT1-0 and CoCrMo (Wironit) alloys) are reported, which were subjected to surface treatment with the pulsed electron beam having the following parameters: pulse duration - 20-200 μs, energy density per pulse - 8-20 J/cm2, number of pulses - 1-5, and pulse repetition frequency - 0.3-1 Hz. A significant structure rearrangement is revealed, which is followed by changes in the modified surface layer properties of these materials. The surface roughness is found to decrease, while the corrosion resistance is improved; slight changes are also observed in the modified layer microhardness compared to the initial state.

  5. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  6. Silver nanoparticles: mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Sukumaran; Poulose, Eldho K.

    2012-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver which are in the range of 1 and 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles have unique properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, as well as in devices that are used in several medical procedures. The major methods used for silver nanoparticle synthesis are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with the chemical and physical methods is that the synthesis is expensive and can also have toxic substances absorbed onto them. To overcome this, the biological method provides a feasible alternative. The major biological systems involved in this are bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts. The major applications of silver nanoparticles in the medical field include diagnostic applications and therapeutic applications. In most of the therapeutic applications, it is the antimicrobial property that is being majorly explored, though the anti-inflammatory property has its fair share of applications. Though silver nanoparticles are rampantly used in many medical procedures and devices as well as in various biological fields, they have their drawbacks due to nanotoxicity. This review provides a comprehensive view on the mechanism of action, production, applications in the medical field, and the health and environmental concerns that are allegedly caused due to these nanoparticles. The focus is on effective and efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles while exploring their various prospective applications besides trying to understand the current scenario in the debates on the toxicity concerns these nanoparticles pose.

  7. Aptamer-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Medical Applications: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zeyu; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2012-01-01

    With advances in aptamer selection technologies and nanomedicine, aptamer-functionalized nanoparticles are being explored as promising platforms for targeted therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In this Perspective, we outline recent progress in this field, as exemplified by Bamrungsap et al. in this issue of ACS Nano. Furthermore, we highlight the challenges and opportunities in translating current proof-of-concept designs into in vivo applications, with emphasis on the intrinsic properties of aptamers and their interplay with nanoparticles. With continuous efforts, we expect aptamer-functionalized nanoparticles to advance from preclinical into clinical development for further evaluation. PMID:22574989

  8. An evaluation on CT image acquisition method for medical VR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seong-wook; Ko, Junho; Yoo, Yon-sik; Kim, Yoonsang

    2017-02-01

    Recent medical virtual reality (VR) applications to minimize re-operations are being studied for improvements in surgical efficiency and reduction of operation error. The CT image acquisition method considering three-dimensional (3D) modeling for medical VR applications is important, because the realistic model is required for the actual human organ. However, the research for medical VR applications has focused on 3D modeling techniques and utilized 3D models. In addition, research on a CT image acquisition method considering 3D modeling has never been reported. The conventional CT image acquisition method involves scanning a limited area of the lesion for the diagnosis of doctors once or twice. However, the medical VR application is required to acquire the CT image considering patients' various postures and a wider area than the lesion. A wider area than the lesion is required because of the necessary process of comparing bilateral sides for dyskinesia diagnosis of the shoulder, pelvis, and leg. Moreover, patients' various postures are required due to the different effects on the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, in this paper, we perform a comparative experiment on the acquired CT images considering image area (unilateral/bilateral) and patients' postures (neutral/abducted). CT images are acquired from 10 patients for the experiments, and the acquired CT images are evaluated based on the length per pixel and the morphological deviation. Finally, by comparing the experiment results, we evaluate the CT image acquisition method for medical VR applications.

  9. Grid-based medical image workflow and archiving for research and enterprise PACS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Dixit, Manasee; Chen, Vincent; Chervenak, Ann; Nelson, Marvin D.; Kesselmann, Carl

    2006-03-01

    PACS provides a consistent model to communicate and to store images with recent additions to fault tolerance and disaster reliability. However PACS still lacks fine granulated user based authentication and authorization, flexible data distribution, and semantic associations between images and their embedded information. These are critical components for future Enterprise operations in dynamic medical research and health care environments. Here we introduce a flexible Grid based model of a PACS in order to add these methods and to describe its implementation in the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Grid. The combination of existing standards for medical images, DICOM, and the abstraction to files and meta catalog information in the Grid domain provides new flexibility beyond traditional PACS design. We conclude that Grid technology demonstrates a reliable and efficient distributed informatics infrastructure which is well applicable to medical informatics as described in this work. Grid technology will provide new opportunities for PACS deployment and subsequently new medical image applications.

  10. Field-testing the new DECtalk PC system for medical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, R. R.; Smillov, A.; Li, B.

    1992-01-01

    Synthesized human speech has now reached a new level of performance. With the introduction of DEC's new DECtalk PC, the small system developer will have a very powerful tool for creative design. It has been our privilege to be involved in the beta-testing of this new device and to add a medical dictionary which covers a wide range of medical terminology. With the inherent board level understanding of speech synthesis and the medical dictionary, it is now possible to provide full digital speech output for all medical files and terms. The application of these tools will cover a wide range of options for the future and allow a new dimension in dealing with the complex user interface experienced in medical practice.

  11. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  12. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  13. Genome editing: progress and challenges for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Dana

    2016-11-15

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas platform for genome editing has greatly simplified the process of making targeted genetic modifications. Applications of genome editing are expected to have a substantial impact on human therapies through the development of better animal models, new target discovery, and direct therapeutic intervention.

  14. [Evaluation of medical diagnostic tests: application of Bayes theorem, ROC-curve and Kappa-test] .

    PubMed

    Lugosi, L; Molnár, I

    2000-07-30

    With the technical improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of the medical diagnostic tests the principles and methods of statistical analysis of the tests are in developing too. The technical development of the diagnostic tests and the exact statistical evaluation of the data will improve the reliability and effectiveness of the decisions for medical interventions. Application, statistical evaluation and interpretation of the Bayes theorem, ROC curve and Kappa test are presented.

  15. Proteomic approaches in biological and medical sciences: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, P; Souchelnytskyi, S

    2008-09-01

    After the first introduction of the concept of "proteome" more than 10 years ago, large-scale studies of protein expression, localization, activities and interactions have gained an exponential increase of interest, leading to extensive research and technology development. Proteomics is expansively applied in many areas, ranging from basic research, various disease and malignant tumors diagnostic and biomarker discovery to therapeutic applications. Several proteomics approaches have been developed for protein separation and identification, and for the characterization of protein function and structure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry have become the most used proteomics methods. These techniques are also under constant development. This review provides an overview of the main techniques and their combinations, used in proteomics. The emphasis is made on description of advantages and disadvantages of each technique, to navigate in selection of the best application for solving a specific problem.

  16. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering. PMID:25170330

  17. Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Eugene; Akindinov, Alexander; Breitenmoser, Marco; Buono, Stefano; Charbon, Edoardo; Niclass, Cristiano; Desforges, Iris; Rocca, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) have been used for photon counting since the 1960s, but only in the recent decade multi-pixel structures based on SPAD—arrays and silicon photomultipliers have been developed. These devices are finding more and more applications in many fields, where detection of light at the level of a single photon is needed. Due to their exclusive properties (fast response, low operating voltage, single photon sensitivity at room temperature, extremely high gain, stability, compactness, robustness and low price), such sensors are successfully replacing traditional vacuum photomultipliers in many devices. The paper briefly describes the state of the art and suggests some new applications in biology and medicine.

  18. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatemadi, Ali; Daraee, Hadis; Karimkhanloo, Hamzeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Abasi, Mozhgan; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-08-01

    Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering.

  19. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-15

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  20. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  1. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  2. Application of artificial neural network in medical geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fajčíková, K; Stehlíková, B; Cvečková, V; Rapant, S

    2017-03-28

    For the evaluation of various adverse health effects of chemical elements occurring in the environment on humans, the comparison and linking of geochemical data (chemical composition of groundwater, soils, and dusts) with data on health status of population (so-called health indicators) play a key role. Geochemical and health data are predominantly nonlinear, and the use of standard statistical methods can lead to wrong conclusions. For linking such data, we find appropriate the use method of artificial neural networks (ANNs) which enable to eliminate data inhomogeneity and also potential data errors. Through method of ANNs, we are able to determine the order of influence of chemical elements on health indicators as well as to define limit values for the influential elements at which the health status of population is the most favourable (i.e. the lowest mortality, the highest life expectancy). For determination of dependence between the groundwater contents of chemical elements and health indicators, we recommend to create 200 ANNs. In further calculations performed for identification of order of influence of chemical elements as well as definition of limit values, we propose to work with median or mean values from calculated 200 ANNs. The ANN represents an appropriate method to be used for environmental and health data analysis in medical geochemistry.

  3. Quality driven wireless video transmission for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Mazzotti, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine is currently a reality, requiring also the transmission of medical video sequences over often unreliable links. The contrasting requirements of almost lossless compression and low available bandwidth have to be tackled in this case. On one side compression techniques need to be conservative, in order to avoid removing perceptively important information; on the other side error resilience and correction should be provided, with the constraint of a limited bandwidth. An approach based on quality driven, network aware, joint source and channel coding is described in this paper. The approach has been developed in the framework of the IST PHOENIX project (www.ist phoenix.org), focusing on wireless multimedia transmission over IP networks. After a description of the considered cross-layer approach and of the information to be exchanged among the system component blocks, the techniques considered for this information exchange and the concept of "JSCC/D controllers" are introduced. The implementation of the demonstrator realized is then described.

  4. CVD diamonds as thermoluminescent detectors for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Marczewska, B; Olko, P; Nesladek, M; Waligórski, M P R; Kerremans, Y

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is believed to be a promising material for medical dosimetry due to its tissue equivalence, mechanical and radiation hardness, and lack of solubility in water or in disinfecting agents. A number of diamond samples, obtained under different growth conditions at Limburg University, using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique, was tested as thermoluminescence dosemeters. Their TL glow curve, TL response after doses of gamma rays, fading, and so on were studied at dose levels and for radiation modalities typical for radiotherapy. The investigated CVD diamonds displayed sensitivity comparable with that of MTS-N (Li:Mg,Ti) detectors, signal stability (reproducibility after several readouts) below 10% (1 SD) and no fading was found four days after irradiation. A dedicated CVD diamond plate was grown, cut into 20 detector chips (3 x 3 x 0.5 mm) and used for measuring the dose-depth distribution at different depths in a water phantom, for 60Co and six MV X ray radiotherapy beams. Due to the sensitivity of diamond to ambient light, it was difficult to achieve reproducibility comparable with that of standard LiF detectors.

  5. Consumer perceptions of medical information sources: an application of multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Bunn, M D

    1993-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling is widely used in marketing research to characterize the perceived relationships among a set of consumer products. The technique is also well suited to study a number of issues that are of interest to health care marketers. This paper explains multidimensional scaling and provides an illustrative example of a health care application. In the research study reported here, the perceptions of various sources of medical information give important insights to a health care organization that is designing a new medical information service for consumers. Other potential applications of the technique for health care marketing are also explored.

  6. Designing protein-based biomaterials for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gagner, Jennifer E; Kim, Wookhyun; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials produced by nature have been honed through billions of years, evolving exquisitely precise structure-function relationships that scientists strive to emulate. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated extensive investigations to determine how changes in even a single peptide within a protein sequence can produce biomaterials with unique thermal, mechanical and biological properties. Elastin, a naturally occurring protein polymer, serves as a model protein to determine the relationship between specific structural elements and desirable material characteristics. The modular, repetitive nature of the protein facilitates the formation of well-defined secondary structures with the ability to self-assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, many opportunities exist to incorporate other protein-based motifs and inorganic materials into recombinant protein-based materials, extending the range and usefulness of these materials in potential biomedical applications. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) can be assembled into 3-D architectures with precise control over payload encapsulation, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as unique functionalization opportunities through both genetic and enzymatic means. An overview of current protein-based materials, their properties and uses in biomedicine will be provided, with a focus on the advantages of ELPs. Applications of these biomaterials as imaging and therapeutic delivery agents will be discussed. Finally, broader implications and future directions of these materials as diagnostic and therapeutic systems will be explored.

  7. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  8. Designing Protein-Based Biomaterials for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gagner, Jennifer E.; Kim, Wookhyun; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials produced by nature have been honed through billions of years, evolving exquisitely precise structure-function relationships that scientists strive to emulate. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated extensive investigations to determine how changes in even a single peptide within a protein sequence can produce biomaterials with unique thermal, mechanical and biological properties. Elastin, a naturally occurring protein polymer, serves as a model protein to determine the relationship between specific structural elements and desirable material characteristics. The modular, repetitive nature of the protein facilitates the formation of well-defined secondary structures with the ability to self-assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, many opportunities exist to incorporate other protein-based motifs and inorganic materials into recombinant protein-based materials, extending the range and usefulness of these materials in potential biomedical applications. Elastin-like polypeptides can be assembled into 3D architectures with precise control over payload encapsulation, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as unique functionalization opportunities through both genetic and enzymatic means. An overview of current protein-based materials, their properties and uses in biomedicine will be provided, with a focus on the advantages of elastin-like polypeptides. Applications of these biomaterials as imaging and therapeutic delivery agents will be discussed. Finally, broader implications and future directions of these materials as diagnostic and therapeutic systems will be explored. PMID:24121196

  9. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products. PMID:27293463

  10. Advances in wearable technology and its medical applications.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of monitoring individuals in the home and community settings was introduced more than 50 years ago, when Holter monitoring was proposed (in the late 1940s) and later adopted (in the 1960s) as a clinical tool. However, technologies to fully enable such vision were lacking and only sporadic and rather obtrusive monitoring techniques were available for several decades. Over the past decade, we have witnessed a great deal of progress in the field of wearable sensors and systems. Advances in this field have finally provided the tools to implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. These technologies provide the tools to achieve early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are focused on the development of systems enabling clinical applications. The current focus on developing and deploying wearable systems targeting specific clinical applications has the potential of leading to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years.

  11. A comparison of applicant and matriculant trends, and rising costs of medical education in United States medical schools and at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Elam, Carol L; Scott, Kimberly L; Gilbert, Linda A; Hartmann, Beth A

    2003-05-01

    This paper addresses fluctuations in the applicant and matriculant pools both across United States medical schools and at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UKCOM) for 1992-2002. It also presents data regarding the increasing costs of a medical education. Over the past decade, both nationally and at the UKCOM, there has been an over-all reduction in the number of applicants to medical school. In this changing applicant pool, the percentage of female matriculants has increased both nationally and at the UKCOM. However, the number of underrepresented minorities applying to and matriculating in the US and at the UKCOM has dropped since the mid-1990s. Although the applicant pool has decreased in size over the time period examined, the academic quality of applicants as measured by the undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test scores has increased both nationally and at UKCOM. Costs of a medical education have risen over time, as has the debt burden of medical school graduates due to increasing undergraduate debt, consumer debt, and medical school tuition. Potential causes for and implication of these changing trends are discussed.

  12. Synthesis and engineering of polymeric latex particles for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangyup

    Latex particles with well-defined colloidal and surface characteristics have received increasing attention due to their useful applications in many areas, especially as solid phase supports in numerous biological applications such as immunoassay, DNA diagnostic, cell separation, and drug delivery carrier. Hemodialysis membrane using these particles would be another potential application for the advanced separation treatment for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is desirable to remove middle molecular weight proteins with minimal removal of other proteins such as albumin. Thus, it is necessary to understand the fundamental interactions between the particles and blood proteins to maximize the performance of these membranes. This improvement will have significant economic and health impact. The objective of this study is to synthesize polymeric latex particles of specific functionality to achieve the desired selective separation of target proteins from the human blood. Semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization was used to prepare monodisperse polystyrene seed particles ranging from 126+/-7.5 to 216+/-5.3 nm in size, which are then enlarged by about 800nm. Surfactant amount played a key role in controlling the latex particle size. Negatively charged latex particles with a different hydrophobicity were prepared by introduction of a sodium persulfate initiator and hydrophilic acrylic acid monomer. The prepared polymeric particles include bare polystyrene (PS) particles, less hydrophobic PS core and PMMA shell particles, and more hydrophilic PS core and PMMA-co-PAA shell latex particles with a 370nm mean diameter. SEM, light scattering, and zeta potential measurements were used to characterize particle size and surface properties. Adsorption isotherms of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and beta2-microglobulin (beta2M), on latex particles were obtained as a function of pH and ionic strength using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay method. The

  13. Medical applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Hori, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    An innovative approach for producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma. The technique has been applied in a wide variety of fields ranging from the micro-fabrication of electric devices to the treatment of disease. Although non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been shown to be clinically beneficial for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this review, we describe the current progress in plasma medicine, with a particular emphasis on plasma-activated medium (PAM), which is a solution that is irradiated with a plasma and has broadened the applications of plasmas in medicine. PMID:28163379

  14. Medical applications and bioeffects of extracorporeal shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delius, M.

    1994-09-01

    Lithotripter shock waves are pressure pulses of microsecond duration with peak pressures of 35 120 MPa followed by a tensile wave. They are an established treatment modality for kidney and gallstone disease. Further applications are pancreatic and salivary stones, as well as delayed fracture healing. The latter are either on their way to become established treatments or are currently under investigation. Shock waves generate tissue damage as a side effect which has been extensively investigated in the kidney, the liver, and the gallbladder. The primary adverse effects are local destruction of blood vessels, bleedings, and formation of blood clots in vessels. Investigations on the mechanism of shock wave action revealed that lithotripters generate cavitation both in vitro and in vivo. An increase in tissue damage at higher pulse administration rates, and also at shock wave application with concomitant gas bubble injection suggested that cavitation is a major mechanism of tissue damage. Disturbances of the heart rhythm and excitation of nerves are further biological effects of shock waves; both are probably also mediated by cavitation. On the cellular level, shock waves induce damage to cell organelles; its extent is related to their energy density. They also cause a transient increase in membrane permeability which does not lead to cell death. Administered either alone or in combination with drugs, shock waves have been shown to delay the growth of small animal tumors and even induce tumor remissions. While the role of cavitation in biological effects is widely accepted, the mechanism of stone fragmentation by shock waves is still controversial. Cavitation is detected around the stone and hyperbaric pressure suppresses fragmentation; yet major cracks are formed early before cavitation bubble collapse is observed. The latter has been regarded as evidence for a direct shock wave effect.

  15. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, Jürgen; Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection. PMID:28323840

  16. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, Jürgen; Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.

  17. First report of the bla(OXA-58) gene in a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Deuseli Quaresma de; Santos, Kátia Regina Netto Dos; Pereira, Eliezer Menezes; Schuenck, Ricardo Pinto; Mendonça-Souza, Cláudia Rezende Vieira de; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona de

    2011-05-01

    Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among nonfermentative Gram-negative isolates. This study aimed to report the detection of bla(OXA-58) gene in multiresistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from inpatients in a public hospital. Polymerase chain reaction tests were performed to detect the bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and bla(OXA-51-like) genes. The bla(OXA-58) and bla(OXA-23) genes were detected in one and three isolates, respectively. Sequencing of the bla(OXA-58-like) amplicon revealed 100% identity with the A. baumannii bla(OXA-58) gene listed in the GenBank database. This is the first report of an OXA-58-producing A. baumannii isolate in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Complete sequences of two plasmids in a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella oxytoca isolate from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Wen; Wang, Jann-Tay; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liao, Tsai-Lien; Lai, Jui-Fen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chen, Ying-Tsong; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-08-01

    Genetic determinants of a bla(NDM-1)-positive, multidrug-resistant bacterial isolate that caused active infection was investigated by DNA sequencing. Two plasmids, pKOX_NDM1 and pKOX-R1, were identified for the Klebsiella oxytoca strain E718. Sequence annotation revealed a bla(NDM-1) gene in pKOX_NDM1 and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers (bla(CTX-M-3) and blaSHV-12) and a wide array of resistance genes in pKOX-R1. These findings highlight the difficulty in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and the potential danger of emerging resistant enterobacteria.

  19. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination.

  20. Incorporation of web-based applications and online resources in undergraduate medical education in the Irish Republic. Can new changes be incorporated in the current medical curriculum?

    PubMed Central

    Dhatt, Karanvir Singh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim: Significant change has been happening in the introduction of technology in medical teaching all over the world. We aim to determine if the undergraduate medical students and teachers are open to incorporating changes in the current medical curriculum or if there is a need for the same in the Republic of Ireland. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 202 participants of whom 152 were medical students and 50 medical professionals (teachers and hospital doctors) were carried out involving three different medical universities namely; University College Cork (UCC), University College Dublin (UCD), and National University of Ireland in Galway (NUIG). Participants were requested to answer a series of 15 questions designed incorporating various fields of technology necessary for the study. The data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to determine statistical significance. Results: The participants overall had a positive attitude toward the utility of modern technology and web-based applications in current medical curriculum. Ninety-one percent of the participants preferred the introduction of modern technology into medical education and 7% were against the idea and a further 2% of them remained undecided. Conclusion: There seems to be a “technology gap” in the current undergraduate medical curriculum in Ireland. A large-scale study involving more participants from all the medical schools in Ireland is recommended. We believe, changes can be brought into the current medical teaching and learning to make the process more fruitful and successful. PMID:25097432

  1. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xiaodong; Bao, Jing; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-03-01

    Medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging is one of the most important domains of modern medical imaging technology. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system has the potential of higher SNR and deeper penetration depth than conventional pulse-echo imaging system, it also improves the image quality, and enhances the sensitivity of feeble signal, furthermore, proper coded excitation is beneficial to received spectrum of Doppler signal. Firstly, this paper analyzes the application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system abstractly, showing the advantage and bright future of coded excitation technology, then introduces the principle and the theory of coded excitation. Secondly, we compare some coded serials (including Chirp and fake Chirp signal, Barker codes, Golay's complementary serial, M-sequence, etc). Considering Mainlobe Width, Range Sidelobe Level, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and sensitivity of Doppler signal, we choose Barker codes as coded serial. At last, we design the coded excitation circuit. The result in B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurement coincided with our expectation, which incarnated the advantage of application of coded excitation technology in Digital Medical Ultrasonic Doppler Endoscope Imaging System.

  2. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  3. Development of 3D in vitro technology for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-10-08

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering.

  4. A perspective on high-frequency ultrasound for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Aristizába, Orlando; Silverman, Ronald H.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >15 MHz) is a rapidly developing field. HFU is currently used and investigated for ophthalmologic, dermatologic, intravascular, and small-animal imaging. HFU offers a non-invasive means to investigate tissue at the microscopic level with resolutions often better than 100 μm. However, fine resolution is only obtained over the limited depth-of-field (˜1 mm) of single-element spherically-focused transducers typically used for HFU applications. Another limitation is penetration depth because most biological tissues have large attenuation at high frequencies. In this study, two 5-element annular arrays with center frequencies of 17 and 34 MHz were fabricated and methods were developed to obtain images with increased penetration depth and depth-of-field. These methods were used in ophthalmologic and small-animal imaging studies. Improved blood sensitivity was obtained when a phantom mimicking a vitreous hemorrhage was imaged. Central-nervous systems of 12.5-day-old mouse embryos were imaged in utero and in three dimensions for the first time.

  5. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Macaskill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research. PMID:27618122

  6. Development of 3D in Vitro Technology for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. PMID:25299693

  7. Bioinspired polymer vesicles and membranes for biological and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Palivan, Cornelia G; Goers, Roland; Najer, Adrian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Car, Anja; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-01-21

    Biological membranes play an essential role in living organisms by providing stable and functional compartments, preserving cell architecture, whilst supporting signalling and selective transport that are mediated by a variety of proteins embedded in the membrane. However, mimicking cell membranes - to be applied in artificial systems - is very challenging because of the vast complexity of biological structures. In this respect a highly promising strategy to designing multifunctional hybrid materials/systems is to combine biological molecules with polymer membranes or to design membranes with intrinsic stimuli-responsive properties. Here we present supramolecular polymer assemblies resulting from self-assembly of mostly amphiphilic copolymers either as 3D compartments (polymersomes, PICsomes, peptosomes), or as planar membranes (free-standing films, solid-supported membranes, membrane-mimetic brushes). In a bioinspired strategy, such synthetic assemblies decorated with biomolecules by insertion/encapsulation/attachment, serve for development of multifunctional systems. In addition, when the assemblies are stimuli-responsive, their architecture and properties change in the presence of stimuli, and release a cargo or allow "on demand" a specific in situ reaction. Relevant examples are included for an overview of bioinspired polymer compartments with nanometre sizes and membranes as candidates in applications ranging from drug delivery systems, up to artificial organelles, or active surfaces. Both the advantages of using polymer supramolecular assemblies and their present limitations are included to serve as a basis for future improvements.

  8. Carbon nanotubes buckypaper radiation studies for medical physics applications.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid; Jurewicz, Izabela; Abuhadi, Nouf; Dalton, Alan; Bradley, D A

    2016-11-01

    Graphite ion chambers and semiconductor diode detectors have been used to make measurements in phantoms but these active devices represent a clear disadvantage when considered for in vivo dosimetry. In such circumstance, dosimeters with atomic number similar to human tissue are needed. Carbon nanotubes have properties that potentially meet the demand, requiring low voltage in active devices and an atomic number similar to adipose tissue. In this study, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) buckypaper has been used to measure the beta particle dose deposited from a strontium-90 source, the medium displaying thermoluminescence at potentially useful sensitivity. As an example, the samples show a clear response for a dose of 2Gy. This finding suggests that carbon nanotubes can be used as a passive dosimeter specifically for the high levels of radiation exposures used in radiation therapy. Furthermore, the finding points towards further potential applications such as for space radiation measurements, not least because the medium satisfies a demand for light but strong materials of minimal capacitance.

  9. Medical Applications of Leukocyte Surface Molecules—the CD molecules

    PubMed Central

    Zola, Heddy

    2006-01-01

    Leukocytes are the cells of the immune system and are centrally involved in defense against infection, in autoimmune disease, allergy, inflammation, and in organ graft rejection. Lymphomas and leukemias are malignancies of leukocytes, and the immune system is almost certainly involved in most other cancers. Each leukocyte expresses a selection of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids which mediate its interaction with antigen, with other components of the immune system, and with other tissues. It is therefore not surprising that the leukocyte surface molecules (CD molecules) have provided targets for diagnosis and therapy. Among the “celebrities” are CD20, a target for lymphoma therapeutic antibodies which earns $2 billion annually (and makes a significant difference to lymphoma patients), and CD4, the molecule used by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as an entry portal into cells of the immune system. This short review provides a background to the CD molecules and antibodies against them, and summarizes research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications of antibodies against these molecules. PMID:17380197

  10. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations.

    PubMed

    Macaskill, Ann

    2016-09-07

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research.

  11. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  12. Nano forsterite biocomposites for medical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Furtos, Gabriel; Naghiu, Marieta-Adriana; Declercq, Heidi; Gorea, Maria; Prejmerean, Cristina; Pana, Ovidiu; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain and to investigate nano forsterite and nano forsterite biocomposites for biomedical application. New self-curing forsterite biocomposites were obtained by mixing nano forsterite powder (5, 15, 30, 50, 70 wt %) with 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. The new nano forsterite biocomposites were investigated for mechanical properties: compressive strength (CS) (143-147.12 MPa), compressive modulus (CM) (1.67-2.75 GPa), diametral tensile strength (DTS) (27.33-31.55 MPa), flexural strength (FS) (59.47-83.20 MPa) and flexural modulus (FM) (2.05-8.60 GPa). Increases of CS, DTS, FS with increasing amount of forsterite were observed up to 50 wt %. The highest CM and FM values were registered for 70 wt % and a direct correlation between the forsterite volume fraction (%) was observed. SEM micrographs revealed the morphology of surface of fractured biocomposites after CS test. XPS indicated that these biocomposites promoted the hydroxyapatite formation on their surface immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). AFM images showed that the growth of the hydroxyapatite layer occurs with a preferred orientation on the surface of forsterite biocomposites after immersion in SBF. Incorporation of nano forsterite in the polymer matrix (bis-GMA/TEGDMA) did show osteoblast adhesion and proliferation was improved on nano forsterite biocomposites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1290-1301, 2016.

  13. Wavelet-based regularization for robust microwave imaging in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Scapaticci, Rosa; Kosmas, Panagiotis; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Microwave imaging (MWI) is an emerging tool for medical diagnostics, potentially offering unique advantages such as the capability of providing quantitative images of the inspected tissues. This involves, however, solving a challenging nonlinear and ill-posed electromagnetic inverse scattering problem. This paper presents a robust method for quantitative MWI in medical applications where very little, if any, a priori information on the imaging scenario is available. This is accomplished by employing a distorted Born iterative method and a regularization by projection technique, which reconstructs the tissue parameters using a wavelet basis expansion to represent the unknown contrast. This approach is suited for any microwave medical imaging application where the requirement for increased resolution dictates the use of higher frequency data and, consequently, a robust regularization strategy. To demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach, this paper presents reconstructions of highly heterogeneous anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms in a canonical 2-D configuration.

  14. Medical image compression using cubic spline interpolation for low bit-rate telemedicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Trieu-Kien; Chen, Shi-Huang

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, a new medical image compression algorithm using cubic spline interpolation (CSI) is presented for telemedicine applications. The CSI is developed in order to subsample image data with minimal distortion and to achieve image compression. It has been shown in literatures that the CSI can be combined with the JPEG or JPEG2000 algorithm to develop a modified JPEG or JPEG2000 codec, which obtains a higher compression ratio and a better quality of reconstructed image than the standard JPEG and JPEG2000 codecs. This paper further makes use of the modified JPEG codec to medical image compression. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can increase 25~30% compression ratio of original JPEG medical data compression system with similar visual quality. This system can reduce the loading of telecommunication networks and is quite suitable for low bit-rate telemedicine applications.

  15. What Features of Smartphone Medication Applications Are Patients with Chronic Diseases and Caregivers Looking for?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yisi; Wang, Liuyu; Chang, Polun; Lamb, Karen V; Cui, Yanyan; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We explored the desired features of medication applications for patients with chronic disease and their caregivers with a questionnaire survey, 50 from patients and 50 from their caregivers. Although the majority of people (75%) are willing to use medication apps, the actual usage rate is quite low (11%). Worrying about privacy of personal information seems to be the main reason of not using applications. The overall score desired for use was 3.29 ± 1.02 (out of 5). Searching medications and diseases and assistance with making doctors' appointments are the most wanted categories. Online shopping for drugs and delivery were the least desired items. The main concerns for people who do not want certain features include: they are not useful, worrying about buying counterfeit drugs and reliability of content. Compared with patients, caregivers seems to be more concerned on nutrition tips for chronic illness, fall detection, and privacy protection (P < 0.05 for all).

  16. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. Objectives In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Methods Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae. All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC (blaCMY and blaDHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Results A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). blaTEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound blaTEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae. blaSHV and Sul1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaAMPC, blaCMY, blaDHA, blaOXA-1, and blaOXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Hempelmann, R.; Caltun, O. F.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  18. CMOS Hybrid Pixel Detectors for Scientific, Industrial and Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broennimann, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Crystallography is the principal technique for determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution and uses advantageously the high intensity of 3rd generation synchrotron X-ray sources . Macromolecular crystallography experiments benefit from excellent beamline equipment, recent software advances and modern X-ray detectors. However, the latter do not take full advantage of the brightness of modern synchrotron sources. CMOS Hybrid pixel array detectors, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, meet these requirements. X-rays are recorded in single photon counting mode and data thus are stored digitally at the earliest possible stage. This architecture leads to several advantages over current detectors: No detector noise is added to the signal. Readout time is reduced to a few milliseconds. The counting rates are matched to beam intensities at protein crystallography beamlines at 3rd generation synchrotrons. The detector is not sensitive to X-rays during readout; therefore no mechanical shutter is required. The detector has a very sharp point spread function (PSF) of one pixel, which allows better resolution of adjacent reflections. Low energy X-rays can be suppressed by the comparator At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland the first and largest array based on this technology was constructed: The Pilatus 6M detector. The detector covers an area of 43.1 x 44.8 cm2 , has 6 million pixels and is read out noise free in 3.7 ms. Since June 2007 the detector is in routine operation at the beamline 6S of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The company DETCRIS Ltd, has licensed the technology from PSI and is commercially offering the PILATUS detectors. Examples of the wide application range of the detectors will be shown.

  19. Medical Geography: a Promising Field of Application for Geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, P

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socio-economic, behavioral or demographic factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. It presents, however, several methodological challenges that arise from the fact that data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e. population size). This paper presents an overview of recent developments in the field of health geostatistics, with an emphasis on three main steps in the analysis of areal health data: estimation of the underlying disease risk, detection of areas with significantly higher risk, and analysis of relationships with putative risk factors. The analysis is illustrated using age-adjusted cervix cancer mortality rates recorded over the 1970-1994 period for 118 counties of four states in the Western USA. Poisson kriging allows the filtering of noisy mortality rates computed from small population sizes, enhancing the correlation with two putative explanatory variables: percentage of habitants living below the federally defined poverty line, and percentage of Hispanic females. Area-to-point kriging formulation creates continuous maps of mortality risk, reducing the visual bias associated with the interpretation of choropleth maps. Stochastic simulation is used to generate realizations of cancer mortality maps, which allows one to quantify numerically how the uncertainty about the spatial distribution of health outcomes translates into uncertainty about the location of clusters of high values or the correlation with covariates. Last, geographically-weighted regression highlights the non-stationarity in the explanatory power of covariates: the higher mortality values along the coast are better explained by the two covariates than the lower risk recorded in Utah.

  20. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Caltun, O. F.; Hempelmann, R.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  2. Coating of gold nanoparticles for medical application: UV-VIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Ramírez, Nayem Amtanus Chequer; Funes Oliva, Luis Enrique; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro; Bernal Alvarado, Jesús; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo; Núñez, Anita Rosa Elvira

    2014-11-01

    The use of nanostructured materials has gained strength in recent years in the biomedical area; new applications such as the detection of components in living cells have been used in pharmaceutical area, specifically to study the interaction of various antitumor drugs in living tissues, the detection of genes that are closely related to some type of cancer, as well as the detections of protein biomarkers for diseases also have been studied in various research laboratories around of the world. In this work, we characterize the variation of the absorbance of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with different concentration of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. We use GNPS of 60 nm of the trademark-TED PELLA, the BSA protein trademark of Sigma Aldrich and based on that proposed protocol by Chithrani et al., 2009 with purposes to obtain an alternative model to determine the optimal stability of the nanoparticles coated with the protein. The colloidal solutions were prepared with BSA at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% M/V), and were centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 90 minutes (centrifuge Model Z383K) and a constant temperature of 25 °C. All the spectra sets were obtained within the range from 400 to 700 nm using an UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific Model 51118650). The results showed a R2 of 0.99 for an exponential curve correlation between the concentration of BSA, and the absorbance measured. We found at higher concentrations of BSA, there is a decrease in the intensity of the absorption spectra in the plasmon resonance. This preliminary model obtained can be used in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles with different proteins of biomedical interest in future experiments and support for functionalization of GNPs with specific membrane markers.

  3. Hard X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging for Medical Applications - Physicist's Dream or Radiologist's Mainstream?

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya. I.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Paganin, D. M.

    2007-03-30

    We briefly review currently practiced methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging and consider some of their relative features, especially in regard to applicability to clinical medical studies. Various related technological issues and promising future areas of development are also briefly discussed.

  4. 38 CFR 17.74 - Standards applicable to medical foster homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nursing home facilities in the area based on the veteran's changing care needs and local availability of...) General. A medical foster home must: (1) Meet all applicable state and local regulations, including... security measures and with the written approval of: (1) The responsible VA clinician; and (2) The VA...

  5. 76 FR 43689 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  6. Research on application for integer wavelet transform for lossless compression of medical image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zude; Li, Quan; Long, Quan

    2003-09-01

    This paper proposes an approach based on using lifting scheme to construct integer wavelet transform whose purpose is to realize the lossless compression of images. Then researches on application of medical image, software simulation of corresponding algorithm and experiment result are presented in this paper. Experiment shows that this method could improve the compression ration and resolution.

  7. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  8. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  9. New York's Statewide Approach to Increase the Number of Minority Applicants to Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frank; Flowers, Jacqueline Caraway

    1990-01-01

    The Associated Medical Schools of New York consortium has established a multifaceted, statewide effort aimed at increasing the pool of qualified minority applicants. The programs include academic enrichment for precollege and college students, recruitment conferences, and a program to attract minority students to residency training in New York.…

  10. First identification of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua-Shin; Chen, Te-Li; Chen, Isaac Chun-Jen; Huang, Mu-Shun; Wang, Fu-Der; Fung, Chang-Phone; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2010-11-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is a novel type of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL). Enterobacteriaceae carrying this NDM-1 encoding gene, bla(NDM-1), have been identified worldwide. Bacteria carrying bla(NDM-1) are not only resistant to carbapenem, but also highly resistant to many classes of antibiotics, which indicate the importance of prompt identification of these bacteria and implementation of strict infection control measures to prevent their transmission. Here, we report the first identification and management of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla(NDM-1) in Taiwan, who returned from New Delhi where he had been hospitalized for a gun-shot injury.

  11. Initial Assessment of the Molecular Epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Laura J.; Wright, Meredith S.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Motoa, Gabriel; Hujer, Kristine M.; Villegas, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    We report complete genome sequences of four blaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. The blaNDM-1 genes were located on 193-kb Inc FIA, 178-kb Inc A/C2, and 47-kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that these isolates belong to sequence type 10 (ST10) (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid in E. coli contained a novel complex transposon (Tn125 and Tn5393 with three copies of blaNDM-1) and a recombination “hot spot” for the acquisition of new resistance determinants. PMID:27067339

  12. Initial Assessment of the Molecular Epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Laura J; Wright, Meredith S; De La Cadena, Elsa; Motoa, Gabriel; Hujer, Kristine M; Villegas, Maria V; Adams, Mark D; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    We report complete genome sequences of four blaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. The blaNDM-1 genes were located on 193-kb Inc FIA, 178-kb Inc A/C2, and 47-kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that these isolates belong to sequence type 10 (ST10) (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid in E. coli contained a novel complex transposon (Tn125 and Tn5393 with three copies of blaNDM-1) and a recombination "hot spot" for the acquisition of new resistance determinants.

  13. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  14. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection and classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (bla KPC) variants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, José R; Endimiani, Andrea; Rosenthal, Marnie E; Zhao, Yanan; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2011-02-01

    Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (bla(KPC)) have been reported, with KPC-2 (bla(KPC-2)) and KPC-3 (bla(KPC-3)) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of bla(KPC) variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described bla(KPC) variants (bla(KPC-2) to bla(KPC-11)). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each bla(KPC) variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with bla(KPC-3) and bla(KPC-2) identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel bla(KPC) variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments.

  15. IgE-binding epitope analysis of Bla g 5, the German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung-Jin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chung-Ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-05-01

    Cockroach infestations have been linked with allergic diseases such as asthma in humans. Bla g 5, sigma class glutathione S-transferase (GST), is the major cockroach allergen which has the highest IgE response value of all cockroach allergens. Although several cockroach allergens have been identified and cloned, information regarding their B ell and T cell IgE-binding epitopes is limited. In order to analyze the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 5, full-length and five peptide fragments (A, 1-100 amino acid residue; B, 91-200; Ba, 1-125; Bb, 1-150; Bc, 1-175) were expressed. Twelve (37.5%) of 32 sera from cockroach-sensitized subjects showed positive IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 5 (rBla g 5). Six strong positive sera were selected for the epitope study. Recombinant proteins not containing 176-200 amino acid residues were unable to react to sera from cockroach sensitized individuals, suggesting that this region contains the IgE-binding epitope. Despite strong IgE reactivity to rBla g 5, the pooled serum from 5 cockroach-sensitized patients did not show IgE reactivity to all synthetic peptides consisting of 15 residues covering 161-200 amino acids. These results suggest the possibility that Bla g 5 may have a conformational epitope in the C-terminal region. GST is the important target for the development of vaccines and drugs against allergic diseases because of high cross-reactivity among insect species. This study will aid recombinant allergen research for immunotherapy of cockroach allergens and other insect allergens.

  16. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Myles B.C.; Schulten, Veronique; Oseroff, Carla; Paul, Sinu; Dullanty, Laura M.; Frazier, April; Belles, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Visness, Cynthia; Bacharier, Leonard; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Busse, Paula; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The allergenicity of several German cockroach (Bla-g) antigens at the level of IgE responses is well established. However less is known about the specificity of CD4+ TH responses, and whether differences exist in associated magnitude or cytokine profiles as a function of disease severity. Methods Proteomic and transcriptomic techniques have been employed to identify novel antigens recognized by allergen-specific T cells. To characterize different TH functionalities of allergen-specific T cells, ELISPOT assays with sets of overlapping peptides covering the sequences of known allergens and novel antigens were employed to measure release of IL-5, IFNγ, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-21. Results Using these techniques, we characterized TH responses in a cohort of adult Bla-g sensitized subjects, either with (n=55) or without (n=17) asthma, and non-sensitized controls (n=20). T cell responses were detected for ten known Bla-g allergens and an additional ten novel Bla-g antigens; representing in total a 5-fold increase in the number of antigens demonstrated to be targeted by allergen-specific T cells. Responses of sensitized individuals regardless of asthma status were predominantly TH2, but higher in patients with diagnosed asthma. In asthmatic subjects Bla-g 5, 9 and 11 were immunodominant while, in contrast, non-asthmatic sensitized subjects responded mostly to Bla-g 5, 4, and the novel antigen NBGA5. Conclusions Asthmatic and non-asthmatic cockroach sensitized individuals exhibit similar TH2 polarized responses. Compared to non-asthmatics, however, asthmatic individuals have responses of higher magnitude and different allergen specificity. PMID:26414909

  17. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  18. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Böhlen, T.T.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.P.W.; Fassò, A.; Ortega, P.G.; Mairani, A.; Sala, P.R.; Smirnov, G.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2014-06-15

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  19. Patient-specific modelling of pulmonary airflow using GPU cluster for the application in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Miki, T; Wang, X; Aoki, T; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T; Takase, K; Yamaguchi, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel patient-specific method of modelling pulmonary airflow using graphics processing unit (GPU) computation that can be applied in medical practice. To overcome the barriers imposed by computation speed, installation price and footprint to the application of computational fluid dynamics, we focused on GPU computation and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The GPU computation and LBM are compatible due to the characteristics of the GPU. As the optimisation of data access is essential for the performance of the GPU computation, we developed an adaptive meshing method, in which an airway model is covered by isotropic subdomains consisting of a uniform Cartesian mesh. We found that 4(3) size subdomains gave the best performance. The code was also tested on a small GPU cluster to confirm its performance and applicability, as the price and footprint are reasonable for medical applications.

  20. Effectiveness, tolerability and practical application of the newer generation anti-obesity medications

    PubMed Central

    MacDaniels, Jeffrey S.; Schwartz, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of five newer anti-obesity medications to guide clinical decision making, examining bupropion–naltrexone combination, liraglutide, lorcaserin, orlistat, and phentermine–topiramate combination. Methods: A brief literature review and internet search for high-powered, randomized and placebo-controlled drug trials was conducted. Drug trial information was established for five currently approved anti-obesity medications. Secondarily, a statistical comparison of medications through Number Needed to Treat (NNT) and Number Needed to Harm (NNH) analyses were attempted as a way to provide a clinical analysis across these varied medications. Finally, a commentary about clinical application is issued for each agent accounting for typical side-effects, serious side-effects, mechanism of action and ease of use. Results: All five agents are currently approved oral medications to lower weight. The NNT range was 3–12, and NNH range was 4–17. The agent with the best NNT is phentermine–topiramate combination (NNT=3) and the agent with the best NNH is bupropion–naltrexone combination (NNH=17). Conclusion: When considering each patient’s clinical presentation, knowledge of each drug’s mechanism of action, side-effect profile, efficacy, and NNT and NNH values can help in selecting an anti-obesity medication to augment his or her weight loss efforts. PMID:27114740

  1. Canadian Applicants to Medical Schools in Canada for 1965-66

    PubMed Central

    Fish, D. G.; Clarke, G. G.

    1966-01-01

    An examination of applicants to Canadian medical schools for 1965-66 revealed that 4660 applications were received by the 12 schools for approximately 900 places available; 2852 of these were from Canadians, but because many applicants applied to more than one school, these 2852 applications represented only 1767 individuals. Evaluations made by the schools concerning the acceptability of these applicants showed that only 36 persons rated as “acceptable” by one or more schools failed to gain admission to any Canadian school for 1965-66. Furthermore, 66 “marginal” applicants were accepted, as were 130 multiple applicants who were rated as “acceptable” by one school but “marginal” and/or “unacceptable” by one or more other schools. Of the 464 multiple applicants, only 40% received the same evaluation from all schools to which they applied. If those multiple applicants who were rated as acceptable by all schools to which they applied are added to single applicants rated as acceptable, the pool of these clearly acceptable candidates (40% of all Canadian applicants) is sufficient only to fill 78% of places available. It was thus concluded that it is erroneous to speak of a surplus of well-qualified Canadian applicants at the present time. PMID:5908424

  2. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems.

  3. New Small Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Renata; Andrade, Leonardo Neves; Chandler, Michael; Varani, Alessandro de Mello; Darini, Ana Lúcia Costa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 244 from Brazil. The blaKPC-2 gene was detected in a new small plasmid, pBH6. Complete sequencing revealed that pBH6 was 3,652 bp long and included the Tn3 resolvase and Tn3 inverted repeat (IR), a partial copy of ISKpn6, and a putative ori region but no rep genes. pBH6 replicated stably into Escherichia coli strain DH10B and P. aeruginosa strain PAO.

  4. Partial excision of blaKPC from Tn4401 in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, José R; Jacobs, Michael R; Levi, Michael H; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2012-03-01

    We describe a novel Tn4401 variant (Tn4401d) in epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST258, from which a partial bla(KPC) fragment has been excised along with ISKpn7 and a partial tnpA fragment. Nested-PCR experiments confirmed that this region can be removed from distinct Tn4401 isoforms in both K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. This study highlights that the region surrounding bla(KPC) is undergoing recombination and that Tn4401 itself is heterogeneous and highly plastic.

  5. Formation and Development of the Pre-Professional Training System of Foreign Medical Applicants in Ukraine (Historical and Educational Aspect)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proskurkina, Iana

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of foreign applicants looking forward to getting education in Ukrainian medical universities makes us find the ways how to improve and make effective the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants for further education. The article deals with the issues of the history of formation and development of the…

  6. Usability Evaluation of An Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR) Application

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J.; Iribarren, S.; Kapsandoy, S.; Perri, S.; Staggers, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Electronic medication administration records (eMARs) have been widely used in recent years. However, formal usability evaluations are not yet available for these vendor applications, especially from the perspective of nurses, the largest group of eMAR users. Objective To conduct a formal usability evaluation of an implemented eMAR. Methods Four evaluators examined a commercial vendor eMAR using heuristic evaluation techniques. The evaluators defined seven tasks typical of eMAR use and independently evaluated the application. Consensus techniques were used to obtain 100% agreement of identified usability problems and severity ratings. Findings were reviewed with 5 clinical staff nurses and the Director of Clinical Informatics who verified findings with a small group of clinical nurses. Results Evaluators found 60 usability problems categorized into 233 heuristic violations. Match, Error, and Visibility heuristics were the most frequently violated. Administer Medication and Order and Modify Medications tasks had the highest number of heuristic violations and usability problems rated as major or catastrophic. Conclusion The high number of usability problems could impact the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of nurses’ medication administration activities and may include concerns about patient safety. Usability is a joint responsibility between sites and vendors. We offer a call to action for usability evaluations at all sites and eMAR application redesign as necessary to improve the user experience and promote patient safety. PMID:23616871

  7. [The Application of the Fault Tree Analysis Method in Medical Equipment Maintenance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the traditional fault tree analysis method is presented, detailed instructions for its application characteristics in medical instrument maintenance is made. It is made significant changes when the traditional fault tree analysis method is introduced into the medical instrument maintenance: gave up the logic symbolic, logic analysis and calculation, gave up its complicated programs, and only keep its image and practical fault tree diagram, and the fault tree diagram there are also differences: the fault tree is no longer a logical tree but the thinking tree in troubleshooting, the definition of the fault tree's nodes is different, the composition of the fault tree's branches is also different.

  8. Methods of Rapid Microbiological Assay and Their Application to Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

     There are several rapid microbiological methods becoming available that have useful applications in pharmaceutical and medical devices. They are ATP bioluminescence, fluorescent labeling, electrical resistance, and nucleic acid probes. In choosing to employ rapid methods, the microbiologist should examine their prospective performances against the specific requirements for that sector. Some methods may require expensive equipment and offer full automation, and others represent only a small investment. The regulatory view of these methods is changing and they still officially have not been approved in medical and pharmaceutical area, but it will still be up to the microbiologist to demonstrate that the method chosen is fit for the purpose intended.

  9. An Overview of Recent Application of Medical Infrared Thermography in Sports Medicine in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian; Ammer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (MIT) is used for analyzing physiological functions related to skin temperature. Technological advances have made MIT a reliable medical measurement tool. This paper provides an overview of MIT’s technical requirements and usefulness in sports medicine, with a special focus on overuse and traumatic knee injuries. Case studies are used to illustrate the clinical applicability and limitations of MIT. It is concluded that MIT is a non-invasive, non-radiating, low cost detection tool which should be applied for pre-scanning athletes in sports medicine. PMID:22399901

  10. iPhones, iPads, and medical applications for antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Goff, Debra A

    2012-07-01

    One of the most important antimicrobial stewardship activities of the infectious diseases pharmacist and physician is to provide education and clinical information about antimicrobials to health care professionals and patients; however, clinician training and continuing education in appropriate antimicrobial use in the United States are highly variable and nonstandardized. The iPhone, iPad, and the availability of more than 12,000 medical applications (referred to as "apps") allow stewardship programs the ability to integrate novel technology with point-of-care education. This article reviews medical apps for antimicrobial stewardship programs to use on the iPhone or iPad.

  11. Understanding federal medical device statutes and their application to various penile prostheses.

    PubMed

    Morton, W J

    1995-06-01

    Medical devices have become an important component of our professional armamentarium. This paper exposes the practitioner to the Food and Drug Administration and its control over medical devices. Specifically, the 1976 amendment to the Food and Drug Administration Acts is described, along with the subsequent federal laws. Because of all the new technology available, physicians should be aware of the applicable laws and regulations. In addition, a review of the penile prosthesis includes its history and evolution, as well as the entire product line available for use. Attention is directed to the problems that have arisen from malfunctioning components.

  12. Clinical Performance of a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Detection of Certain blaKPC-Containing Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Drake, Steven K; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Frank, Karen M; Dekker, John P; Lau, Anna F

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of blaKPC-containing organisms can significantly impact infection control and clinical practices, as well as therapeutic choices. Current molecular and phenotypic methods to detect these organisms, however, require additional testing beyond routine organism identification. In this study, we evaluated the clinical performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to detect pKpQIL_p019 (p019)-an ∼11,109-Da protein associated with certain blaKPC-containing plasmids that was previously shown to successfully track a clonal outbreak of blaKPC-pKpQIL-Klebsiella pneumoniae in a proof-of-principle study (A. F. Lau, H. Wang, R. A. Weingarten, S. K. Drake, A. F. Suffredini, M. K. Garfield, Y. Chen, M. Gucek, J. H. Youn, F. Stock, H. Tso, J. DeLeo, J. J. Cimino, K. M. Frank, and J. P. Dekker, J Clin Microbiol 52:2804-2812, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00694-14). PCR for the p019 gene was used as the reference method. Here, blind analysis of 140 characterized Enterobacteriaceae isolates using two protein extraction methods (plate extraction and tube extraction) and two peak detection methods (manual and automated) showed sensitivities and specificities ranging from 96% to 100% and from 95% to 100%, respectively (2,520 spectra analyzed). Feasible laboratory implementation methods (plate extraction and automated analysis) demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity. All p019-positive isolates (n = 26) contained blaKPC and were carbapenem resistant. Retrospective analysis of an additional 720 clinical Enterobacteriaceae spectra found an ∼11,109-Da signal in nine spectra (1.3%), including seven from p019-containing, carbapenem-resistant isolates (positive predictive value [PPV], 78%). Instrument tuning had a significant effect on assay sensitivity, highlighting important factors that must be considered as MALDI-TOF MS moves into applications beyond microbial identification. Using a large blind

  13. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

  14. Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  15. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Jian-Feng; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-09-01

    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence. A bla(NDM-1)-positive C. freundii with high resistance to carbapenems was separated from a clinical patient suffering from a urinary tract infection. S1 nuclease-based plasmid analysis followed by Southern blot hybridization, a conjugation experiment and electrotransformation confirmed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a plasmid. High-throughput sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmid (pCFNDM-CN) showed that it was a 54 kb IncX-type plasmid and contained a backbone region and a variable region with two β-lactamase genes (bla(NDM-1) and bla(SHV-12)). The NDM-1 composite transposon in the variable region was surrounded by IS26 and IS5-truncated ISAba125, and shared a high sequence similarity to the bla(NDM-1) surrounding structure in Acinetobacter spp. Our research suggested that the NDM-1 composite transposon might play an essential role in mobilization of the bla(NDM-1) gene from Acinetobacter spp. to Enterobacteriaceae.

  16. Genomic Characteristics of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Australia and Their blaNDM Genetic Contexts.

    PubMed

    Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L; Kennedy, Karina; Ingram, Paul R; Bursle, Evan; Sidjabat, Hanna E

    2015-10-19

    blaNDM has been reported in different Enterobacteriaceae species and on numerous plasmid replicon types (Inc). Plasmid replicon typing, in combination with genomic characteristics of the bacterial host (e.g., sequence typing), is used to infer the spread of antimicrobial resistance determinants between genetically unrelated bacterial hosts. The genetic context of blaNDM is heterogeneous. In this study, we genomically characterized 12 NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Australia between 2012 and 2014: Escherichia coli (n = 6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2) and Providencia rettgeri (n = 1). We describe their blaNDM genetic contexts within Tn125, providing insights into the acquisition of blaNDM into Enterobacteriaceae. IncFII-type (n = 7) and IncX3 (n = 4) plasmids were the most common plasmid types found. The IncHI1B (n = 1) plasmid was also identified. Five different blaNDM genetic contexts were identified, indicating four particular plasmids with specific blaNDM genetic contexts (NGCs), three of which were IncFII plasmids (FII-A to -C). Of note, the blaNDM genetic context of P. rettgeri was not conjugative. Epidemiological links between our NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were established by their acquisition of these five particular plasmid types. The combination of different molecular and genetic characterization methods allowed us to provide insight into the spread of plasmids transmitting blaNDM.

  17. Draft genome sequence of an Acinetobacter genomic species 3 strain harboring a bla(NDM-1) gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Cui, Yujun; Pu, Fei; Jiang, Guoqin; Zhao, Xiangna; Yuan, Yanting; Zhao, Wei; Li, Dongfang; Liu, Hui; Li, Yin; Liang, Ting; Xu, Li; Wang, Yan; Song, Qing; Yang, Jiyong; Liang, Long; Yang, Ruifu; Han, Li; Song, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of one Acinetobacter genomic species 3 strain, D499, which harbors the bla(NDM-1) gene. The total length of the assembled genome is 4,103,824 bp, and 3,896 coding sequences (CDSs) were predicted within the genome. A previously unreported bla(NDM-1)-bearing plasmid was identified in this strain.

  18. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  19. Increased Waterborne blaNDM-1 Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Seasonal Human Pilgrimages to the Upper Ganges River

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg–1)) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1)), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor’s wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  20. Soyprotein fibers with high strength and water stability for potential medical applications.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2009-01-01

    Fibers with mechanical properties and water stability suitable for tissue engineering have been developed from soyproteins. Proteins are biocompatible and biodegradable and are preferred over synthetic polymers for medical applications. Although plant proteins are abundant and inexpensive and can be made into various types of scaffolds, very few attempts have been made to understand the suitability of using plant proteins for medical applications, especially as fibrous substrates for tissue engineering. So far, it has not been able to obtain good quality soyprotein fibers without using toxic crosslinking agents or blending soyprotein with synthetic polymers. In this research, we have developed 100% soyprotein fibers with good strength and water stability without using any external crosslinking agents. The soyprotein fibers have better wet strength than collagen fibers and are conducive to the attachment, growth, and proliferation of mouse fibroblasts. Fibers are better substrates than films for growth and orientation of cells and are therefore preferable for tissue engineering applications. Soyprotein fibers show good potential to be novel biomaterials with properties suitable for tissue engineering and other medical applications.

  1. Recent development of radiation measurement instrument for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Sueki; Ohmori, Koichi; Mito, Yoshio; Tanoue, Toshiya; Yano, Shigeki; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Kanda, Shigenobu

    2001-02-01

    Recently, computer imaging technology has developed very high-quality image and fast processing time. X-rays have been used for many purposes such as medical diagnosis and analyzing the structure of industrial materials. However, as X-rays are hazardous to the human body, it is desirable to reduce its exposed dose to a minimum. For this purpose, it is necessary to use a semiconductor radiation detector with a high efficiency for X-rays. We have developed photon-counting CdTe array detector system for medical and industrial use. The bone densitometer for Dual Energy X-ray Absorptometry (DEXA) has been developed to make diagnosis of osteoporosis, and it is developed to analyze a material element for industrial use. Recently, we have developed a monochromatic X-ray CT using a 256 ch CdTe array detector. We found that the array detector systems are very useful for medical and industrial applications.

  2. First Indian report of IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in Escherichia coli from bloodstream infection: potential for rapid dissemination.

    PubMed

    Devanga Ragupathi, N K; Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, D P; Gajendiran, R; Daniel, J L K; Walia, K; Veeraraghavan, B

    2017-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 is only infrequently observed. Self-transmissible plasmids carrying the blaNDM gene increase the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in developing countries. This study investigates the whole genome sequence of a blaNDM-7-positive Escherichia coli. The isolate was an extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer by combined disc diffusion test and carbapenemase producer by CarbaNP method. Sequencing results revealed the isolate as E. coli ST-167 with IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in addition to blaTEM-1 and blaCMY-42 genes. The identification of IncX3-blaNDM-7 combination is the first report in India where blaNDM-7 is known to cause higher resistance to carbapenems compared to its variants.

  3. Characterization of an anti-Bla g 1 scFv: epitope mapping and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Ankney, John A; Glesner, Jill; Khurana, Taruna; Edwards, Lori L; Pedersen, Lars C; Perera, Lalith; Slater, Jay E; Pomés, Anna; London, Robert E

    2014-06-01

    Bla g 1 is a major allergen from Blatella germanica and one of the primary allergens used to assess cockroach allergen exposure. The epitope of an anti-Bla g 1 scFv was mapped in order to better understand cross reactivity with other group 1 cockroach allergens and patient IgE epitopes. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of the scFv. The scFv epitope on Bla g 1 was located by alanine scanning site-directed mutagenesis and ELISA. Twenty-six rBla g 1-GST alanine mutants were evaluated for variations in binding to the scFv compared to the wild type allergen. Six mutants showed a significant difference in scFv binding affinity. These mutations clustered to form a discontinuous epitope mainly comprising two helices of Bla g 1. The allergen-scFv complex was modeled based on the results, and the epitope region was found to have low sequence similarity with Per a 1, especially among the residues identified as functionally important for the scFv binding to Bla g 1. Indeed, the scFv failed to bind Per a 1 in American cockroach extract. The scFv was unable to inhibit the binding of IgE antibodies from a highly cockroach allergic patient to Bla g 1. Based on the surface area of Bla g 1 occluded by the scFv, putative regions of patient IgE-Bla g 1 interactions can be inferred. This scFv could be best utilized as a capture antibody in an IgE detection ELISA, or to differentiate Bla g 1 from Per a 1 in environmental exposure assays.

  4. E-SAP: efficient-strong authentication protocol for healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN) can sense humans' physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals' hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients' medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1) a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard) professional authentication; (2) mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4) establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5) professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost). Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  5. The application of use case modeling in designing medical imaging information systems.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Farzi, Jebraeil; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Goodini, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The essay at hand is aimed at examining the application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing information systems to support Medical Imaging services. Methods. The application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing health information systems was examined using electronic databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) resources and the characteristics of the modeling system and its effect on the development and design of the health information systems were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the subject indicated that Provident modeling of health information systems should provide for quick access to many health data resources in a way that patients' data can be used in order to expand distant services and comprehensive Medical Imaging advices. Also these experiences show that progress in the infrastructure development stages through gradual and repeated evolution process of user requirements is stronger and this can lead to a decline in the cycle of requirements engineering process in the design of Medical Imaging information systems. Conclusion. Use case modeling approach can be effective in directing the problems of health and Medical Imaging information systems towards understanding, focusing on the start and analysis, better planning, repetition, and control.

  6. The Application of Use Case Modeling in Designing Medical Imaging Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Reza; Farzi, Jebraeil; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Goodini, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The essay at hand is aimed at examining the application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing information systems to support Medical Imaging services. Methods. The application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing health information systems was examined using electronic databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) resources and the characteristics of the modeling system and its effect on the development and design of the health information systems were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the subject indicated that Provident modeling of health information systems should provide for quick access to many health data resources in a way that patients' data can be used in order to expand distant services and comprehensive Medical Imaging advices. Also these experiences show that progress in the infrastructure development stages through gradual and repeated evolution process of user requirements is stronger and this can lead to a decline in the cycle of requirements engineering process in the design of Medical Imaging information systems. Conclusion. Use case modeling approach can be effective in directing the problems of health and Medical Imaging information systems towards understanding, focusing on the start and analysis, better planning, repetition, and control. PMID:24967283

  7. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  8. Content-based medical image retrieval: a survey of applications to multidimensional and multimodality data.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashnil; Kim, Jinman; Cai, Weidong; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2013-12-01

    Medical imaging is fundamental to modern healthcare, and its widespread use has resulted in the creation of image databases, as well as picture archiving and communication systems. These repositories now contain images from a diverse range of modalities, multidimensional (three-dimensional or time-varying) images, as well as co-aligned multimodality images. These image collections offer the opportunity for evidence-based diagnosis, teaching, and research; for these applications, there is a requirement for appropriate methods to search the collections for images that have characteristics similar to the case(s) of interest. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is an image search technique that complements the conventional text-based retrieval of images by using visual features, such as color, texture, and shape, as search criteria. Medical CBIR is an established field of study that is beginning to realize promise when applied to multidimensional and multimodality medical data. In this paper, we present a review of state-of-the-art medical CBIR approaches in five main categories: two-dimensional image retrieval, retrieval of images with three or more dimensions, the use of nonimage data to enhance the retrieval, multimodality image retrieval, and retrieval from diverse datasets. We use these categories as a framework for discussing the state of the art, focusing on the characteristics and modalities of the information used during medical image retrieval.

  9. Admission Control Over Internet of Vehicles Attached With Medical Sensors for Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Di; Labeau, Fabrice; Yao, Yuanzhe; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Tang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Wireless technologies and vehicle-mounted or wearable medical sensors are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, a critical issue of using wireless communications under a healthcare scenario rests at the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency transmission. A high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors, and in such a scenario, a few users who are not transmitting emergency data could be required to reduce their transmit power or even temporarily disconnect from the network in order to guarantee the normal operation of medical sensors as well as the transmission of emergency data. In this paper, we propose a joint power and admission control algorithm to schedule the users' transmission of medical data. The objective of this algorithm is to minimize the number of users who are forced to disconnect from the network while keeping the EMI on medical sensors at an acceptable level. We show that a fixed point of proposed algorithm always exists, and at the fixed point, our proposed algorithm can minimize the number of low-priority users who are required to disconnect from the network. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  10. Application of telemedicine in a pain clinic: the changing face of medical practice.

    PubMed

    Burton, R; Boedeker, B

    2000-12-01

    Telemedicine systems aim to provide quality health care services to persons whose access is otherwise restricted by geography and environment. The military medical department has a unique mission to provide all medical care for the battlefields and peacekeeping missions anywhere in the world. In addition, the medical department has to ensure the health of all soldiers, family members, and retirees during peacetime. Hospital closures coupled with a decreased number of military physicians have left many health care beneficiaries without readily available specialty care. They face long waiting lists or incur high out-of-pocket expenses in order to see medical specialists. As a result of the establishment of a virtual Telepain clinic, 56,400 miles were saved in patient and clinician travel. Use of technologies in the emerging field of telemedicine has lead to the creation of numerous military and civilian medical applications such as virtual dermatology, virtual psychiatry, virtual cardiology, virtual nuclear medicine/radiology, virtual pharmacology, and in future, virtual dentistry and ophthalmology.

  11. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K; Bakic, P

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  12. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  13. Real-time detection of blaKPC in clinical samples and surveillance specimens.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Kathy A; Santiano, Kristine; Broekman, Ronit; Krafft, Catherine A; Voss, Barbara; Wang, Vivien; Hacek, Donna M; Usacheva, Elena A; Thomson, Richard B; Kaul, Karen L; Peterson, Lance R

    2011-09-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed targeting the bla(KPC) responsible for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-mediated carbapenem resistance and was validated for testing colonies or enrichment broth cultures. The assay accurately detects KPC-containing strains with high analytical specificity and sensitivity.

  14. Developing image-based electronic patient records for collaborative medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Jianyong; Yong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiaomeng; Yu, Fenghai; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Lian, Ping; Sun, Kun; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    We developed a Web-based system to interactively display image-based electronic patient records (EPR) for intranet and Internet collaborative medical applications. The system consists of four major components: EPR DICOM gateway (EPR-GW), Image-based EPR repository server (EPR-Server), Web Server and EPR DICOM viewer (EPR-Viewer). We have successfully used this system two times for the teleconsultation on Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Shanghai Xinhua Hospital and Shanghai Infection Hospital. During the consultation, both the physicians in infection control area and the experts outside the control area could interactively study, manipulate and navigate the EPR of the SARS patients to make more precise diagnosis on images with this system assisting. This presentation gave a new approach to create and manage image-based EPR from actual patient records, and also presented a way to use Web technology and DICOM standard to build an open architecture for collaborative medical applications.

  15. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  16. Volume visualization: a technical overview with a focus on medical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2011-08-01

    With the increasing availability of high-resolution isotropic three- or four-dimensional medical datasets from sources such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, volumetric image visualization techniques have increased in importance. Over the past two decades, a number of new algorithms and improvements have been developed for practical clinical image display. More recently, further efficiencies have been attained by designing and implementing volume-rendering algorithms on graphics processing units (GPUs). In this paper, we review volumetric image visualization pipelines, algorithms, and medical applications. We also illustrate our algorithm implementation and evaluation results, and address the advantages and drawbacks of each algorithm in terms of image quality and efficiency. Within the outlined literature review, we have integrated our research results relating to new visualization, classification, enhancement, and multimodal data dynamic rendering. Finally, we illustrate issues related to modern GPU working pipelines, and their applications in volume visualization domain.

  17. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  18. [Application of automatic identification technology to monitor the entire process of medical management].

    PubMed

    Chen, Minya; Men, Yi

    2010-05-01

    With the development of the hospital information technology management, to improve the clinic service quality and reduce medical errors, automatic identification technology has been widely used in health care areas. This technology has been used in our hospital for patient identification, sample identification, drug identification and equipment identification. Combined with wireless networks, mobile terminals and middleware etc., making the whole process of clinic service closed-loop system. This application improves efficiency, reduces mistakes and puts whole clinical service management process under control.

  19. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  20. Provisioning of medical quality of services for HSDPA and mobile WiMAX in healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Istepanian, Robert H; Philip, Nada Y

    2009-01-01

    Mobile healthcare, or m-health, is an evolutionary concept that provides both mobility and an 'always connected' healthcare functionality. The development of this concept depends on how best the available bandwidth in (HSDPA/HSUPA) and emerging (Mobile WiMAX) networks can be correlated with the relevant medical quality of services issues. In this paper we address and discuss some of these issues and challenges. We also provide an example of a bandwidth demanding application to verify such provision mechanisms.

  1. Novel multi-beam X-ray source for vacuum electronics enabled medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neculaes, V. Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    For almost 100 of years, commercial medical X-ray applications have relied heavily on X-ray tube architectures based on the vacuum electronics design developed by William Coolidge at the beginning of the twentieth century. Typically, the Coolidge design employs one hot tungsten filament as the electron source; the output of the tube is one X-ray beam. This X-ray source architecture is the state of the art in today's commercial medical imaging applications, such as Computed Tomography. Recently, GE Global Research has demonstrated the most dramatic extension of the Coolidge vacuum tube design for Computed Tomography (CT) in almost a century: a multi-beam X-ray source containing thirty two cathodes emitting up to 1000 mA, in a cathode grounded - anode at potential architecture (anode up to 140 kV). This talk will present the challenges of the X-ray multi-beam vacuum source design - space charge electron gun design, beam focusing to compression ratios needed in CT medical imaging applications (image resolution is critically dependent on how well the electron beam is focused in vacuum X-ray tubes), electron emitter choice to fit the aggressive beam current requirements, novel electronics for beam control and focusing, high voltage and vacuum solutions, as well as vacuum chamber design to sustain the considerable G forces typically encountered on a CT gantry (an X-ray vacuum tube typically rotates on the CT gantry at less than 0.5 s per revolution). Consideration will be given to various electron emitter technologies available for this application - tungsten emitters, dispenser cathodes and carbon nano tubes (CNT) - and their tradeoffs. The medical benefits potentially enabled by this unique vacuum multi-beam X-ray source are: X-ray dose reduction, reduction of image artifacts and improved image resolution. This work was funded in part by NIH grant R01EB006837.

  2. MCNP6 Simulation of Reactions of Interest to FRIB, Medical, and Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashnik, Stepan G.

    The latest production-version of the Los Alamos Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code MCNP6 has been used to simulate a variety of particle-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions of academic and applied interest to research subjects at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), medical isotope production, space-radiation shielding, cosmic-ray propagation, and accelerator applications, including several reactions induced by radioactive isotopes, analyzing production of both stable and radioactive residual nuclei. Here, we discuss examples of validation and verification of MCNP6 by comparing with recent neutron spectra measured at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan; spectra of light fragments from several reactions measured recently at GANIL, France; INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy; COSY of the Jülich Research Center, Germany; and cross sections of products from several reactions measured lately at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany; ITEP, Moscow, Russia; and, LANSCE, LANL, Los Alamos, U.S.A. As a rule, MCNP6 provides quite good predictions for most of the reactions we analyzed so far, allowing us to conclude that it can be used as a reliable and useful simulation tool for various applications for FRIB, medical, and space applications involving stable and radioactive isotopes.

  3. Validation and verification of MCNP6 as a new simulation tool useful for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2011-01-06

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX has been Validated and Verified (V&V) against different experimental data and results by other codes relevant to medical applications. In the present work, we V&V MCNP6 using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.02 and LAQGSM03.03. We found that MCNP6 describes well data of interest for medical applications measured on both thin and thick targets and agrees very well with similar results obtained with other codes; MCNP6 may be a very useful tool for medical applications We plan to make MCNP6 available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge in the middle of 2011 but we are allowed to provide it to friendly US Beta-users outside LANL already now.

  4. Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations on GPU for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Bert, Julien; Perez-Ponce, Hector; El Bitar, Ziad; Jan, Sébastien; Boursier, Yannick; Vintache, Damien; Bonissent, Alain; Morel, Christian; Brasse, David; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2013-08-21

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) plays a key role in medical applications, especially for emission tomography and radiotherapy. However MCS is also associated with long calculation times that prevent its use in routine clinical practice. Recently, graphics processing units (GPU) became in many domains a low cost alternative for the acquisition of high computational power. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient framework for the implementation of MCS on GPU architectures. Geant4 was chosen as the MCS engine given the large variety of physics processes available for targeting different medical imaging and radiotherapy applications. In addition, Geant4 is the MCS engine behind GATE which is actually the most popular medical applications' simulation platform. We propose the definition of a global strategy and associated structures for such a GPU based simulation implementation. Different photon and electron physics effects are resolved on the fly directly on GPU without any approximations with respect to Geant4. Validations have shown equivalence in the underlying photon and electron physics processes between the Geant4 and the GPU codes with a speedup factor of 80-90. More clinically realistic simulations in emission and transmission imaging led to acceleration factors of 400-800 respectively compared to corresponding GATE simulations.

  5. [Application Status of Evaluation Methodology of Electronic Medical Record: Evaluation of Bibliometric Analysis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Jialin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yong; Huang, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide a reference and theoretical guidance of the evaluation of electronic medical record (EMR) and establishment of evaluation system in China, we applied a bibliometric analysis to assess the application of methodologies used at home and abroad, as well as to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of them. We systematically searched international medical databases of Ovid-MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, EI, EMBASE, PubMed, IEEE, and China's medical databases of CBM and CNKI between Jan. 1997 and Dec. 2012. We also reviewed the reference lists of articles for relevant articles. We selected some qualified papers according to the pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria, and did information extraction and analysis to the papers. Eventually, 1 736 papers were obtained from online database and other 16 articles from manual retrieval. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were retrieved and assessed. In the evaluation of EMR, US counted for 54.28% in the leading place, and Canada and Japan stood side by side and ranked second with 8.58%, respectively. For the application of evaluation methodology, Information System Success Model, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Innovation Diffusion Model and Cost-Benefit Access Model were widely applied with 25%, 20%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively. In this paper, we summarize our study on the application of methodologies of EMR evaluation, which can provide a reference to EMR evaluation in China.

  6. Design of user interface in medical imaging: lessons of 3-D application definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannin, Pierre; Mevel, G.; Gandon, Yves; Cordonnier, Emmanuel

    1992-05-01

    Modern dedicated image processing workstations and even general purpose computers offer enhanced user interface capabilities. Hardware management of the user interface allows a fast, easy, and powerful dialogue between man and machine. The application design must take into account these new possibilities in order to make optimal use of the hardware. Physicians are special users in that they need to customize their working environment to carry out specific tasks. Specific medical applications in the area of 3-D display and multimodality imaging need to accommodate a sequential organization of the physician's tasks, access to the various tools (image processing features, 3-D display, environment configuration, etc. ...) and the powerful dedicated workstations the physician may require. This paper sets out a number of general rules applicable to user interface design and defines the specific features of medical imaging brought into play in the definition of the environment we have developed for medical imaging user interface design. Examples in 2-D and 3-D display mode are presented.

  7. Application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies for medical waste treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Ding, Qiong; Yang, Xiaoling; Peng, Zhengyou; Xu, Diandou; Feng, Qinzhong

    2013-12-01

    By the end of 2012, there were 272 modern, high-standard, centralized medical waste disposal facilities operating in various cities in China. Among these facilities nearly 50% are non-incineration treatment facilities, including the technologies of high temperature steam, chemical disinfection and microwave. Each of the non-incineration technologies has its advantages and disadvantages, and any single technology cannot offer a panacea because of the complexity of medical waste disposal. Although non-incineration treatment of medical waste can avoid the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, it is still necessary to decide how to best meet the local waste management needs while minimizing the impact on the environment and public health. There is still a long way to go to establish the sustainable application and management mode of non-incineration technologies. Based on the analysis of typical non-incineration process, pollutant release, and the current tendency for technology application and development at home and abroad, this article recommends the application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies as the best available techniques and best environmental practices in China.

  8. An introduction to future truly wearable medical devices--from application to ASIC.

    PubMed

    Casson, Alexander J; Logesparan, Lojini; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This talk will provide an introduction to the "Towards future truly wearable medical devices: from application to ASIC" mini-symposium. For user comfort and acceptance long term physiological sensors must be discrete, comfortable and easy to use. These requirements place stringent limits on all aspects of the system design: from the overall application aim, to power generation issues, to low power electronic design techniques. For successful devices design issues in all of these areas must be solved simultaneously. The work here presents an overview and introduction to these topics.

  9. Guanidinium chloride denaturation of the dimeric Bacillus licheniformis BlaI repressor highlights an independent domain unfolding pathway

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis 749/I BlaI repressor is a prokaryotic regulator that, in the absence of a β-lactam antibiotic, prevents the transcription of the blaP gene, which encodes the BlaP β-lactamase. The BlaI repressor is composed of two structural domains. The 82-residue NTD (N-terminal domain) is a DNA-binding domain, and the CTD (C-terminal domain) containing the next 46 residues is a dimerization domain. Recent studies have shown the existence of the monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric forms of BlaI in solution. In the present study, we analyse the equilibrium unfolding of BlaI in the presence of GdmCl (guanidinium chloride) using different techniques: intrinsic and ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-l-sulphonic acid) fluorescence, far- and near-UV CD spectroscopy, cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the intact NTD and CTD were purified after proteolysis of BlaI by papain, and their unfolding by GdmCl was also studied. GdmCl-induced equilibrium unfolding was shown to be fully reversible for BlaI and for the two isolated fragments. The results demonstrate that the NTD and CTD of BlaI fold/unfold independently in a four-step process, with no significant co-operative interactions between them. During the first step, the unfolding of the BlaI CTD occurs, followed in the second step by the formation of an ‘ANS-bound’ intermediate state. Cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments suggest that the dissociation of the dimer into two partially unfolded monomers takes place in the third step. Finally, the unfolding of the BlaI NTD occurs at a GdmCl concentration of approx. 4 M. In summary, it is shown that the BlaI CTD is structured, more flexible and less stable than the NTD upon GdmCl denaturation. These results contribute to the characterization of the BlaI dimerization domain (i.e. CTD) involved in the induction process. PMID:15285720

  10. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Lin-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Lugovtsov, Andrei; Priezzhev, Alexander; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2016-07-12

    Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds' safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood's physiological conditions.

  11. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Lin-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Lugovtsov, Andrei; Priezzhev, Alexander; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds’ safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood’s physiological conditions. PMID:27420044

  12. Genetic structures at the origin of acquisition of the beta-lactamase bla KPC gene.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Cuzon, Gaelle; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Genetic structures surrounding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing Ambler class A bla KPC gene were characterized in several KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from the United States, Colombia, and Greece. The bla KPC genes were associated in all cases with transposon-related structures. In the K. pneumoniae YC isolate from the United States, the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene was located on a novel Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. Tn4401 was 10 kb in size, was delimited by two 39-bp imperfect inverted repeat sequences, and harbored, in addition to the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene, a transposase gene, a resolvase gene, and two novel insertion sequences, ISKpn6 and ISKpn7. Tn4401 has been identified in all isolates. However, two isoforms of this transposon were found: Tn4401a was found in K. pneumoniae YC and K. pneumoniae GR from the United States and Greece, respectively, and differed by a 100-bp deletion, located just upstream of the bla KPC-2 gene, compared to the sequence of Tn4401b, which was found in the Colombian isolates. In all isolates tested, Tn4401 was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication, the signature of a recent transposition event, and was inserted in different open reading frames located on plasmids that varied in size and nature. Tn4401 is likely at the origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC mobilization to plasmids and its further insertion into various-sized plasmids identified in nonclonally related K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates.

  13. ISAba825 controls the expression of the chromosomal bla(OXA-51-like) and the plasmid borne bla(OXA-58) gene in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the USA.

    PubMed

    Lopes, B S; Al-Hassan, L; Amyes, S G B

    2012-11-01

    Four non-repetitive, clonally related (ST114), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in the USA were examined to understand the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance including screening for the presence of an insertion sequence upstream of the bla(OXA-51-like) gene, which could be involved in the control and expression of the antibiotic-resistance gene. We observed that the main mechanisms of carbapenem resistance were the result of the over-expression of the bla(OXA-58-like) and the bla(OXA-65) gene, both of which had the presence of ISAba825 upstream of the genes. The importance of this element was shown by isolating plasmid-cured isogenic strains that had lost the plasmid with the ISAba825-bla(OXA-58-like) genes but during that same process also lost the chromosomal ISAba825 element present upstream of the bla(OXA-65) gene. A 16-fold decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration of imipenem and an eight-fold decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration of meropenem were seen in the isogenic strains that lost the plasmid. The study presents the first report of ISAba825 simultaneously governing the bla(OXA-65) gene and the bla(OXA-58-like) gene expression and also highlights the importance of this element in carbapenem-sensitive isogenic strains, which were once carbapenem resistant.

  14. A collaborative institutional model for integrating computer applications in the medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C P; Oxford, G S; Juliano, E L

    1991-01-01

    The introduction and promotion of information technology in an established medical curriculum with existing academic and technical support structures poses a number of challenges. The UNC School of Medicine has developed the Taskforce on Educational Applications in Medicine (TEAM), to coordinate this effort. TEAM works as a confederation of existing research and support units with interests in computers and education, along with a core of interested faculty with curricular responsibilities. Constituent units of the TEAM confederation include the medical center library, medical television studios, basic science teaching laboratories, educational development office, microcomputer and network support groups, academic affairs administration, and a subset of course directors and teaching faculty. Among our efforts have been the establishment of (1) a mini-grant program to support faculty initiated development and implementation of computer applications in the curriculum, (2) a symposium series with visiting speakers to acquaint faculty with current developments in medical informatics and related curricular efforts at other institution, (3) 20 computer workstations located in the multipurpose teaching labs where first and second year students do much of their academic work, (4) a demonstration center for evaluation of courseware and technologically advanced delivery systems. The student workstations provide convenient access to electronic mail, University schedules and calendars, the CoSy computer conferencing system, and several software applications integral to their courses in pathology, histology, microbiology, biochemistry, and neurobiology. The progress achieved toward the primary goal has modestly exceeded our initial expectations, while the collegiality and interest expressed toward TEAM activities in the local environment stand as empirical measures of the success of the concept.

  15. Colistin-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 654 with blaNDM-1 Arrives in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mataseje, L. F.; Peirano, G.; Church, D. L.; Conly, J.; Mulvey, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes 3 different blaNDM-1 genetic platforms in 3 different species obtained from the same patient who was directly transferred to an institution in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, following a prolonged hospital stay in India. The blaNDM-1 in the Escherichia coli isolate was located on a 176-kb IncA/C plasmid contained within an ISCR1 region. The blaNDM-1 in the Providencia rettgeri isolate was located on a 117-kb IncT plasmid contained within Tn3000, while the blaNDM-1 in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was located on the chromosome within an ISCR3 region. This report highlights the plasticity of the genetic regions and environments associated with blaNDM-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. aeruginosa with blaNDM-1 identified in North America and the first report of blaOXA-181 in P. rettgeri. The P. aeruginosa isolate belonged to the international high-risk sequence type 654 clone and was nonsusceptible to colistin. This case emphasizes the need for the use of appropriate infection prevention and control measures and vigilant screening for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in patients with a history of travel to areas of endemicity, such as the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26824951

  16. Molecular Characterization by Using Next-Generation Sequencing of Plasmids Containing blaNDM-7 in Enterobacteriaceae from Calgary, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L.; Peirano, G.; Lynch, T.; Chavda, K. D.; Gregson, D. B.; Church, D. L.; Conly, J.; Kreiswirth, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 are relatively uncommon and had previously been described in Europe, India, the United States, and Japan. This study describes the characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae [n = 2], Escherichia coli [n = 2], Serratia marcescens [n = 1], and Enterobacter hormaechei [n = 1] isolates) with blaNDM-7 obtained from 4 patients from Calgary, Canada, from 2013 to 2014. The 46,161-bp IncX3 plasmids with blaNDM-7 are highly similar to other blaNDM-harboring IncX3 plasmids and, interestingly, showed identical structures within the different isolates. This finding may indicate horizontal transmission within our health region, or it may indicate contact with individuals from areas of endemicity within the hospital setting. Patients infected or colonized with bacteria containing blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids generate infection control challenges. Epidemiological and molecular studies are required to better understand the dynamics of transmission, the risk factors, and the reservoirs for bacteria harboring blaNDM-7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. marcescens and E. hormaechei with blaNDM-7. PMID:26643346

  17. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. Material/Methods A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. Results No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. Conclusions COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. PMID:27752035

  18. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  19. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-10-14

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. RESULTS No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. CONCLUSIONS COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy.

  20. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K.; Sartor, Anna L.; Williamson, Deborah A.; Forde, Brian M.; Beatson, Scott A.; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. PMID:27114281

  1. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Wailan, Alexander M; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K; Sartor, Anna L; Williamson, Deborah A; Forde, Brian M; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Partridge, Sally R

    2016-07-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family.

  2. High Prevalence of BlaCTX-M Group Genes in Aeromonas dhakensis Isolated from Aquaculture Fish Species in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    YI, Seung-Won; CHUNG, Tae-Ho; JOH, Seong-Joon; PARK, Chul; PARK, Byoung-Yong; SHIN, Gee-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, blaTEM, blaOXA-B and blaCTX-M. In the results, the blaTEM-1 gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored blaOXA gene. In the case of blaCTX-M gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the blaCTX-M positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for blaCTX-M genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including blaCTX-M-33 from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health. PMID:25649940

  3. High prevalence of blaCTX-M group genes in Aeromonas dhakensis isolated from aquaculture fish species in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; Chung, Tae-Ho; Joh, Seong-Joon; Park, Chul; Park, Byoung-Yong; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B) and bla(CTX-M). In the results, the bla(TEM-1) gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored bla(OXA) gene. In the case of bla(CTX-M) gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the bla(CTX-M) positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for bla(CTX-M) genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including bla(CTX-M-33) from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health.

  4. Medical application of fuzzy logic: fuzzy patient state in arterial hypertension analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinowska, Aleksandra; Duckstein, Lucien

    1993-12-01

    A few existing applications of fuzzy logic in medicine are briefly described and some potential applications are reviewed. The problem of classification of patient states and medical decision making is discussed more in detail and illustrated by the example of a fuzzy rule based model developed to elicit, analyze and reproduce the opinions of multiple medical experts in the case of arterial hypertension. The goal was to reproduce the average coded answers using an adequate fuzzy procedure, here a fuzzy rule. State categories and the initial set of experimental parameters were defined according to medical practice. The fuzzy set membership functions were then assessed for each parameter in each category and a small subset of representative and pertinent parameters selected for each question. The data were split into two sets of 50 patient files each, the calibration set and the validation set. Two evaluation criteria were used: the sum of squared deviations and the sum of deviations. Fuzzy rules were then sought that reproduced the target, which was the average coded answer. Only one fuzzy rule `and' appeared to be necessary to describe the patient state in a continuous way and to approach the target as closely as the majority of experts.

  5. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY 0 IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) oAnnual Report Terry L. Erwin July...APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE Annual Report INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO July 1981 to June 1982 MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS

  6. Interspecies Transfer of blaIMP-4 in a Patient with Prolonged Colonization by IMP-4-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Heney, Claire; George, Narelle M.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Paterson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    A patient was colonized by IMP-4-producing Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli strains for 7 months. IMP-4-producing E. cloacae strains were first and last isolated at day 33 and at 8 months after admission, respectively. IMP-4-producing E. coli strains were first and last isolated at days 88 and 181 after admission, respectively. The E. cloacae and E. coli isolates shared identical genetic features in terms of blaIMP-4, blaTEM-1, qnrB2, aacA4, HI2 plasmids, and ISCR1. This study shows the first prolonged colonization with in vivo interspecies transfer of blaIMP-4. PMID:25056334

  7. Characterization of blaCMY plasmids and their possible role in source attribution of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections.

    PubMed

    Folster, Jason P; Tolar, Beth; Pecic, Gary; Sheehan, Deborah; Rickert, Regan; Hise, Kelley; Zhao, Shaohua; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; McDermott, Patrick; Whichard, Jean M

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, identifying the source of these infections can be difficult. This is especially true for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, which is found in diverse agricultural niches. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are one of the primary treatment choices for complicated Salmonella infections. In Salmonella, ESC resistance in the United States is mainly mediated by blaCMY genes carried on various plasmids. In this study, we examined whether the characterization of blaCMY plasmids, along with additional information, can help us identify potential sources of infection by Salmonella, and used serotype Typhimurium as a model. In the United States, monitoring of retail meat, food animals, and ill persons for antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella is conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. In 2008, 70 isolates (70/581; 12.0%) (34 isolates from retail meat, 23 food animal, and 13 human) were resistant to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for blaCMY and 59/70 (84.3%) of these genes were plasmid encoded. PCR-based replicon typing identified 42/59 (71.2%) IncI1-blaCMY plasmids and 17/59 (28.8%) IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from chickens or chicken products with blaCMY plasmids primarily had IncI1-blaCMY plasmids (37/40; 92.5%), while all isolates from cattle had IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from humans had either IncA/C- blaCMY (n=8/12; [66.7%]) or IncI1- blaCMY (n=4/12 [33.3%]) plasmids. All of the IncI1-blaCMY plasmids were ST12 or were closely related to ST12. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (AST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were also compared and differences were identified between isolate sources. When the source of a Typhimurium outbreak or sporadic illness is unknown, characterizing the outbreak isolate's blaCMY plasmids, AST, and PFGE patterns may help identify it.

  8. Functional characterization of Tn4401, a Tn3-based transposon involved in blaKPC gene mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    The carbapenemase gene bla(KPC), which is rapidly spreading worldwide, is located on a Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. In a transposition-conjugation assay, Tn4401 was able to mobilize bla(KPC-2) gene at a frequency of 4.4 × 10(-6)/recipient cell. A 5-bp target site duplication was evidenced upon each insertion without target site specificity. This study demonstrated that Tn4401 is an active transposon capable of mobilizing bla(KPC) genes at high frequency.

  9. First occurrence of blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from a clinical sample in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Gusatti, Carolina; Bertholdo, Lauren Martins; Otton, Letícia Muner; Marchetti, Desirée Padilha; Ferreira, Alessandra Einsfeld; Corção, Gertrudes

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii from clinical origin carrying the blaOXA-58 gene in Brazil. The isolate included in this study was from a patient during an outbreak in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2007. It was resistant to most of the beta-lactams tested, it has also the blaOXA-65 gene and the ISAbal sequence located upstream to both blaOXA genes detected and it has a MIC of imipenem of 64 μg/mL. PMID:24031824

  10. A novel classification and online platform for planning and documentation of medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Jukka; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Vehviläinen, Juho; Björkstrand, Roy; Salmi, Mika; Huotilainen, Eero; Kontio, Risto; Rouse, Stephen; Gibson, Ian; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2014-12-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are widely used in industrial settings and now increasingly also in several areas of medicine. Various techniques and numerous types of materials are used for these applications. There is a clear need to unify and harmonize the patterns of their use worldwide. We present a 5-class system to aid planning of these applications and related scientific work as well as communication between various actors involved in this field. An online, matrix-based platform and a database were developed for planning and documentation of various solutions. This platform will help the medical community to structurally develop both research innovations and clinical applications of additive manufacturing. The online platform can be accessed through http://www.medicalam.info.

  11. Metal nanoparticles (other than gold or silver) prepared using plant extracts for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasca, Roxana-Diana; Santa, Szabolcs; Racz, Levente Zsolt; Racz, Csaba Pal

    2016-12-01

    There are many modalities to prepare metal nanoparticles, but the reducing of the metal ions with plant extracts is one of the most promising because it is considerate less toxic for the environment, suitable for the use of those nanoparticles in vivo and not very expensive. Various metal ions have been already studied such as: cobalt, copper, iron, platinum, palladium, zinc, indium, manganese and mercury and the number of plant extracts used is continuously increasing. The prepared systems were characterized afterwards with a great number of methods of investigation: both spectroscopic (especially UV-Vis spectroscopy) and microscopic (in principal, electron microscopy-TEM) methods. The applications of the metal nanoparticles obtained are diverse and not completely known, but the medical applications of such nanoparticles occupy a central place, due to their nontoxic components, but some diverse industrial applications do not have to be forgotten.

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy for medical applications: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu

    2016-04-01

    The near-infrared radiation (NIR) window, also known as the "optical window" or "therapeutic window", is the range of wavelengths that has the maximum depth of penetration in tissue. Indeed, because NIR is minimally absorbed by water and hemoglobin, spectra readings can be easily collected from the body surface. Recent reports have shown the potential of NIR spectroscopy in various medical applications, including functional analysis of the brain and other tissues, as well as an analytical tool for diagnosing diseases. The broad applicability of NIR spectroscopy facilitates the diagnosis and therapy of diseases as well as elucidating their pathophysiology. This review introduces recent advances and describes new studies in NIR to demonstrate potential clinical applications of NIR spectroscopy.

  13. 77 FR 46033 - Medical University of South Carolina, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c) of the Educational, Scientific...: Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer.... Applicant: University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer:...

  14. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Roger J.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Brigmon, Robin L.; Pellin, Michael J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of a nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Neither the 20 nm nor the 100 nm TiO2-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exhibited statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for “smart” drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  15. Nuclear Data for Medical Applications – Recent Developments and Future Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L.; Capote, R.

    2014-06-15

    Cancer treatment represents a major economic and medical issue because of the extensive incidence of the disease worldwide, with a particularly large rate of increase to be found in developing countries. Over the previous twenty years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has dedicated a series of investigations towards identifying and quantifying the production routes and decay characteristics of radioisotopes judged to be of existing and emerging importance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Both the recommendations formulated during the course of these technical debates and the results of recently completed and on-going IAEA coordinated research projects are focused towards the successful evolution of improvements in nuclear data for medical applications throughout the early 21{sup st} century.

  16. An innovative calibration based integral photography rendering algorithm for medical application and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guowen; Zhang, Xinran; Fan, Zhencheng; Liao, Hongen

    2015-01-01

    Autostereoscopic has long been proposed to fulfill medical display in image-guided surgery and clinical education to provide more intuitive position information of clinical interest zone thus improving surgery safety and accuracy. As one category of flexible autostereoscopic 3D display, computer generated integral photography (CGIP) has been studied in medical application by many researches for its convenience and cost-efficiency. However, IP still suffers from inaccurate light field reconstruction, which limits its practicality in surgery. In this paper, we propose and apply a flexible fish-eye model based micro lens array (MLA) distortion calibration method and pre-distorted retracing rendering algorithm to render elemental image array (EIA) of CGIP. Furthermore, we also evaluate light field of the proposed algorithm in depth cue, and signal noise ratio of IP images by phantom experiment.

  17. Integration of medical applications: the 'mediator service' of the SynEx platform.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Sauquet, D; Zapletal, E; Lemaitre, D; Degoulet, P

    2000-09-01

    Interoperability is a key issue and a long-term domain of research for distributed healthcare information systems. The SynEx European project provides open and standard integration platform for both new and legacy medical applications. It aims to provide access to hospital information services, patient records, and to medical knowledge, in a seamless way, hiding the distribution aspects and the heterogeneity of the underlying systems. In this study, we describe the SynEx 'mediator service', a software engineering component, that is used to facilitate the development of mediators between any pair of SynEx components and to manage the corresponding interchange messages. Both a C++ library and a Java package of a generic mediator model are provided with several ready-to-use specialisations for well-defined use. The use of the XML technology as a powerful data interchange format and as an efficient data structure converter is proposed and discussed.

  18. New tools: potential medical applications of data from new and old environmental satellites.

    PubMed

    Huh, O K; Malone, J B

    2001-04-27

    The last 40 years, beginning with the first TIROS (television infrared observational satellite) launched on 1 April 1960, has seen an explosion of earth environmental satellite systems and their capabilities. They can provide measurements in globe encircling arrays or small select areas, with increasing resolutions, and new capabilities. Concurrently there are expanding numbers of existing and emerging infectious diseases, many distributed according to areal patterns of physical conditions at the earth's surface. For these reasons, the medical and remote sensing communities can beneficially collaborate with the objective of making needed progress in public health activities by exploiting the advances of the national and international space programs. Major improvements in applicability of remotely sensed data are becoming possible with increases in the four kinds of resolution: spatial, temporal, radiometric and spectral, scheduled over the next few years. Much collaborative research will be necessary before data from these systems are fully exploited by the medical community.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of TIO{sub 2} thin films on nanoporous alumina templates : medical applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Pellin, M. J.; Elam, J.W.; Energy Systems; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; SRL

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of a nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Neither the 20 nm nor the 100 nm TiO{sub 2}-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exhibited statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  20. Advances in medical robotic systems with specific applications in surgery--a review.

    PubMed

    Najarian, S; Fallahnezhad, M; Afshari, E

    2011-01-01

    Although robotics was started as a form of entertainment, it gradually became used in different branches of science. Medicine, particularly in the operating room, has been influenced significantly by this field. Robotic technologies have offered valuable enhancements to medical or surgical processes through improved precision, stability and dexterity. In this paper we review different robotics and computer-assisted systems developed with medical and surgical applications. We cover early and recently developed systems in different branches of surgery. In addition to the united operational systems, we provide a review of miniature robotic, diagnostic and sensory systems developed to assist or collaborate with a main operator system. At the end of the paper, a discussion is given with the aim of summarizing the proposed points and predicting the future of robotics in medicine.