Science.gov

Sample records for application bla medical

  1. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  2. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  3. Outbreak of Infection with Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying blaIMP-8 in a University Medical Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2001-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with the transferable carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases, which include IMP- and VIM-type enzymes, remain extremely rare. To investigate whether IMP- or VIM-producing K. pneumoniae isolates had spread at a university medical center in Taiwan, a total of 3,458 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae consecutively collected in 1999 and 2000 were tested by the agar diffusion method, colony hybridization, PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. A total of 40 isolates (1.2%), or 17 nonrepetitive isolates, from 16 patients were found to carry blaIMP-8, a metallo-β-lactamase gene recently identified from a K. pneumoniae strain in Taiwan. Carriage of blaVIM or other blaIMP genes was detected in none of the remaining isolates. Of the 17 nonrepetitive blaIMP-8-positive isolates, 15 isolates (88.2%) appeared susceptible to imipenem (MICs, ≤4 μg/ml) and meropenem (MICs, ≤1 μg/ml), indicating the difficulty in detecting blaIMP-8 in K. pneumoniae by routine susceptibility tests; 14 isolates (82.4%) produced SHV-12 as well; and 14 isolates (82.4%) were also resistant to fluoroquinolones. The organisms caused wound infections in eight patients and bloodstream infections in three patients. They were not directly associated with the death of nine patients. Before the recovery of the blaIMP-8-positive isolates, all 16 patients had undergone various surgical procedures, and 15 patients had been admitted to the surgical intensive care unit, suggesting a nosocomial outbreak. Two major patterns were observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for 14 of the 17 nonrepetitive isolates, indicating that the clonal spread was mainly responsible for the outbreak. PMID:11724857

  4. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    The recent progress in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic-resonance imaging (nmr or mri), computer tomography (CT with X-rays), and positron-emission tomography (PET scanning using short-lived radioactive nuclei) has been impressive. Two areas where diagnostic tools lacked behind have been tomography of the blood vessels of the brain and of the bronchi.

  5. Medical applications of holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bally, Gert

    1991-11-01

    From the various capabilities of holography for image processing and measuring purposes, holographic interferometric techniques have found more extended application in biological and medical research. Due to their special properties the different methods of holographic interferometry are applied to characteristic fields of biomedical investigations where--similar to nondestructive testing--vibration and deformation analysis is of interest. Features of holographic interferometry, such as the possibility of noncontactive, three-dimensional investigations with a large field-of-depth, are used with advantage. The main applications can be found in basic research e.g., in audiology, dentistry, opthalmology, and experimental orthopedics. Because of the great number of investigations and the variety of medical domains in which these investigations were performed this survey is confined to some characteristic examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review on biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and utilization were not mentioned. As demonstrated by selected examples, the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare--like biomedical research. The term ''Star Wars Medicine'', which becomes an increasingly popular expression for laser applications (including holography) in medicine, characterizes the consequences of this development.

  6. Medical Professionals and Smartphone Applications.

    PubMed

    Arunagiri, Varun; Parimala, M; Ragumani, P; Anbalagan, Kothai

    2017-06-01

    Ever since the advent of Smartphones, Smartphone applications (SAs) are revolutionizing the contemporary medicine. Smartphone application which was created in view of swift communications among the general public has now intruded the medical fraternity. But the ethics for using these applications to transfer patients' medical records through SA is bewildering among the medical professionals (MPs).

  7. Introduction to Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Ashley J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    The first two parts of this book describe various theories associated with light propagation in tissue and the resulting response. If coherence or polarization information is not needed, we assume that the transport equation governs the optical interaction of light with tissue and the heat conduction equation provides the basis for estimating the thermal response of tissue to laser radiation. In part III of this book, the theory for optical and thermal interactions of laser light with tissue are used to analyze medical applications. In particular, the concepts of parts I and II

  8. Laser Ablation for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    Medical applications of laser are measurement, laser surgery, in-situ monitoring, and processing of medical devices. In this paper, author briefly reviews the trends of medical applications, describes some new applications, and then discuss about the future trends and problems of medical applications. At present, the domestic market of laser equipment for medical applications is nearly 1/10 of that for industrial applications, which has registered significant growth continuously. Laser surgery as a minimum invasive surgery under arthroscope is expected to decrease the pain of patients. Precise processing such as cutting and welding is suitable for manufacturing medical devices. Pulsed laser deposition has been successfully applied to the thin film coating. The corneal refractive surgery by ArF excimer laser has been widely accepted for its highly safe operation. Laser ablation for retinal implant in the visual prosthesis is one of the promising applications of laser ablation in medicine. New applications with femtosecond laser are expected in the near future.

  9. Function impairing mutations in blaZ and blaR genes of penicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tasara, T; Cernela, N; Stephan, R

    2013-06-01

    Molecular based approaches have gained increasing importance in routine mastitis diagnostics for typing and antibiotic resistance testing of Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 78 S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk 10 of them harbored blaZ, blaI and blaR genes. Although 5 strains were phenotypically resistant to penicillin, the other 5 (all belonging the clonal complex 8) were penicillin susceptible. PCR amplification confirmed the presence of the blaZ, blaR and blaI genes in all 5 strains. Sequencing of these genes uncovered a 29 base deletion within the blaZ gene in all these strains that causes a translational frame shift, which is predicted to induce abrogation of BlaZ expression. Additionally single nucleotide insertions and deletions were detected in blaR of 3 strains. These insertions cause translation reading frame shifts and premature stop codons that are predicted to induce expression of truncated BlaR proteins. Using the genetically altered blaZ genes detected as targets, a real-time PCR system for detecting CC8 associated blaZ positive S. aureus strains that still remain susceptible to penicillin was developed. Such strains are part of detection challenges that must be considered in routine application of genotypic resistance testing of bovine mastitis S. aureus.

  10. Occurrence of co-existing bla VIM-2 and bla NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Deepjyoti; Dhar, Debadatta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Sharma, Gauri Dutt; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2016-05-06

    bla VIM-2 harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported worldwide and considered as the most prevalent metallo-β-lactamase after NDM which are found horizontally transferable and mostly associated with integron gene cassettes. The present study investigates the genetic background, transmission dynamics as well as stability of bla VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa harbor bla NDM-1 as well which were collected from October 2012 to September 2013. Two P. aeruginosa strains harboring bla VIM-2 along with bla NDM-1 were isolated from Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India. Genetic environment of these resistance determinants was determined and transferability was checked by transformation and conjugation assay which was further confirmed by Southern hybridization. Replicon typing was performed to determine the incompatibility group of the resistant plasmid and their stability was checked by serial passage method. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined and their clonal relatedness was checked by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. bla VIM-2 was found to be horizontally transferable through an Inc F type plasmid of approximately 30 kb in size. bla VIM-2 was found to be associated with integron gene cassette and was flanked by two different types of cassette arrays. Both the isolates were co-harboring bla NDM-1 which was carried within Inc N type of plasmid with an approximate 24 kb in size and associated with ISAba125 in their upstream region. Reduced susceptibility rate as well as high MIC range was observed in case of wild strains and transformants carrying bla VIM-2 and bla NDM-1. The detection of this co-existence of multiple carbapenem resistance genes in this part of world is worrisome and further investigation is required in order to trace the source and to initiate proper treatment option.

  11. Birthdates of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L; Sokol, Robert J.; Kruger, Michael L.; Yargeau, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    We determined if the "relative age" effect, wherein older students in an age cohort in early grades do better academically, extends to birthdates of applicants to medical schools, and if birthdates are related to the success of their applications. We examined birthdays of applicants from Michigan to Wayne State University's School of…

  12. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter "linac"); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laserbased acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  13. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter “linac”); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laser-based acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  14. First description of bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48), bla(OXA-181) producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in Romania.

    PubMed

    Székely, Edit; Damjanova, Ivelina; Jánvári, Laura; Vas, Krisztina E; Molnár, Szabolcs; Bilca, Doina V; Lőrinczi, Lilla K; Tóth, Akos

    2013-12-01

    We report the first isolation and characterization of several Enterobacteriaceae strains harboring bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48) and/or bla(OXA-181) genes in a Romanian emergency teaching hospital. Between January 2010 and September 2012 nine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were identified. The bla(NDM-1) gene was present in two Enterobacter cloacae strains, an Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. One of these K. pneumoniae strains also harbored the bla(OXA-181) gene. Three other K. pneumoniae strains and one Serratia marcescens carried bla(OXA-48).

  15. Medical applications of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Waracki, Mateusz; Bugaj, Bartosz; Pypno, Damian; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-10-29

    Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  16. Rapid and simple identification of carbapenemase genes, bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups, in Gram-negative bacilli by in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Srisrattakarn, Arpasiri; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Charoensri, Nicha; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Saenjamla, Pimjai; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Daduang, Jureerut; Chanawong, Aroonwadee

    2017-07-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates by carbapenemase production are being reported globally with increasing frequency, leading to limited therapeutic options. We therefore developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (LAMP-HNB) for rapid confirmation of bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups. Sixty-two Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. isolates carrying various carbapenemase genes (28 bla NDM-1, 9 bla IMP-14a, 2 bla IMP-48, 1 bla IMP-1, 1 bla IMP-4, 1 bla IMP-9, 1 bla IMP-15, 4 bla VIM-2, 1 bla VIM-1, 1 bla IMP-14a & bla VIM-2, 7 bla KPC-2, 3 bla OXA-48 and 3 bla OXA-181) and 37 non-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates as confirmed by the PCR methods were included. Bacterial DNA was extracted by a simple boiling method. The LAMP-HNB method for each target gene was carried out using a set of six primers under isothermal condition at 65 °C in an ordinary water bath within 60 min and visual measurement of reaction by the change from violet to sky blue. This method had high efficiency (100% sensitivity and specificity) for identifying the bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups compared with the PCR method. The HNB is easy to prepare, inexpensive and provides reliable results. Therefore, this method could be used as a confirmatory carbapenemase test in routine laboratory or for epidemiological purposes.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica and Photorhabdus asymbiotica β-lactamases BlaA are exported by the twin-arginine translocation pathway.

    PubMed

    Schriefer, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Schmid, Franz X; Schmid, Annika; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In general, β-lactamases of medically important Gram-negative bacteria are Sec-dependently translocated into the periplasm. In contrast, β-lactamases of Mycobacteria spp. (BlaC, BlaS) and the Gram-negative environmental bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (L2) and Xanthomonas campestris (Bla(XCC-1)) have been reported to be secreted by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system. Yersinia enterocolitica carries 2 distinct β-lactamase genes (blaA and blaB) encoding BlaA(Ye) and the AmpC-like β-lactamase BlaB, respectively. By using the software PRED-TAT for prediction and discrimination of Sec from Tat signal peptides, we identified a functional Tat signal sequence for Yersinia BlaA(Ye). The Tat-dependent translocation of BlaA(Ye) could be clearly demonstrated by using a Y. enterocolitica tatC-mutant and cell fractionation. Moreover, we could demonstrate a unique unusual temperature-dependent activity profile of BlaA(Ye) ranging from 15 to 60 °C and a high 'melting temperature' (T(M)=44.3°) in comparison to the related Sec-dependent β-lactamase TEM-1 (20-50°C, T(M)=34.9 °C). Strikingly, the blaA gene of Y. enterocolitica is present in diverse environmental Yersinia spp. and a blaA homolog gene could be identified in the closely related Photorhabdus asymbiotica (BlaA(Pa); 69% identity to BlaA(Ye)). For BlaA(Pa) of P. asymbiotica, we could also demonstrate Tat-dependent secretion. These results suggest that Yersinia BlaA-related β-lactamases may be the prototype of a large Tat-dependent β-lactamase family, which originated from environmental bacteria.

  18. Potential medical applications of TAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahy, J. Ben; Kaucic, Robert; Kim, Yongmin

    1986-01-01

    In cooperation with scientists in the University of Washington Medical School, a microcomputer-based image processing system for quantitative microscopy, called DMD1 (Digital Microdensitometer 1) was constructed. In order to make DMD1 transportable to different hosts and image processors, we have been investigating the possibility of rewriting the lower level portions of DMD1 software using Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) libraries and subsystems. If successful, we hope to produce a newer version of DMD1, called DMD2, running on an IBM PC/AT under the SCO XENIX System 5 operating system, using any of seven target image processors available in our laboratory. Following this implementation, copies of the system will be transferred to other laboratories with biomedical imaging applications. By integrating those applications into DMD2, we hope to eventually expand our system into a low-cost general purpose biomedical imaging workstation. This workstation will be useful not only as a self-contained instrument for clinical or research applications, but also as part of a large scale Digital Imaging Network and Picture Archiving and Communication System, (DIN/PACS). Widespread application of these TAE-based image processing and analysis systems should facilitate software exchange and scientific cooperation not only within the medical community, but between the medical and remote sensing communities as well.

  19. Co-Carriage of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Hospital Infections from India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Deepjyoti; Dhar Chanda, Debadatta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Chakravarty, Atanu; Sharma, Gauri Dutt; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Global spread of KPC poses to be a serious threat complicating treatment options in hospital settings. The present study investigates the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of India. The study isolates were collected from different wards and clinics of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India, from 2012-2013. The presence of blaKPC was confirmed by genotypic characterization followed by sequencing. Cloning of the blaKPC-2 gene was performed and the genetic environment of this gene was characterized as well. Transferability of the resistance gene was determined by transformation assay and Southern hybridization. Additionally, restriction mapping was also carried out. Two isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to harbor blaKPC-2, were resistant towards aminoglycosides, quinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination. In both the isolates, the resistance determinant was associated with class 1 integron and horizontally transferable. Both the isolates were co-harboring blaNDM-1. The first detection of this integron mediated blaKPC-2 coexisting with blaNDM-1 in P. aeruginosa from India is worrisome, and further investigation is required to track the gene cassette mediated blaKPC-2 in terms of infection control and to prevent the spread of this gene in hospitals as well as in the community.

  20. Escherichia coli of sequence type 3835 carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Yang, Ping; Xie, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2015-07-21

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 μg/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and belonged to ST3835. bla NDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (bla CMY-42) and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12). bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. bla CMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and bla CTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). bla CMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of bla CMY-42 was due to the transposition of ISEcp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of bla NDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of bla NDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China.

  1. Biochemical characterization of beta-lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Materon, Isabel C; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer beta-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities.

  2. Biochemical Characterization of β-Lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Materon, Isabel C.; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M.; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer β-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities. PMID:12760895

  3. Rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cancan; Zheng, Fen; Rui, Yongyu

    2014-12-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes. Six oligonucleotides, including outer, inner, and loop primers, were designed for eight distinct regions in each target gene. Two qualitative criteria were used to evaluate LAMP reactions: visual inspection of color change and real-time detection of fluorescence change. The lower detection limit was 10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction for real-time detection and 100 CFU per reaction for visual inspection for each gene. Two hundred twenty-two carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (including 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 Acinetobacter sp., and 22 Enterobacteriaceae) were tested by LAMP assay. At the same time, these isolates were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. In these clinical isolates, the results of 11 strains with blaNDM, 11 strains with blaKPC, 11 strains with blaVIM, and 2 strains with blaIMP obtained using LAMP assays were concordant with conventional PCR. The LAMP method reported here may be a useful and powerful tool for rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria.

  4. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  5. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  6. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-08-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic X-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of X-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotheraphy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatc needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  7. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  8. Mobile Applications to Improve Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Haase, Jamie; Farris, Karen B; Dorsch, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Background and Introduction: Mobile applications are useful tools to improve medication adherence. As developers continue to improve the features of existing mobile applications, pharmacists should be aware of the current features that are available to patients. There are limited studies available that discuss which applications have the most desirable features. The aim of this study was to compare available mobile applications and identify ideal application features used to improve medication adherence. As of September 5, 2014, the search terms "medication adherence" and "medication reminder" generated a total of 225 hits. Ideal application features were used to create an Application Score Card to identify applications with the highest number of ideal features. We identified 30 applications that were written in English, medication related, last updated in 2014, and did not meet any exclusion criteria. The top five applications RxNetwork, Mango Health, MyMeds, C3HealthLink, and HuCare are discussed in detail. There are numerous studies looking at medication adherence. However, current literature regarding mobile applications to improve medication adherence is lacking. This article will provide pharmacists with a brief overview of the available mobile applications and features that could be used to improve patient adherence to medications. Existing mobile applications to improve medication adherence have ideal features that could help patients take medication as prescribed. Once further research is performed to establish their efficacy, pharmacists could begin to recommend mobile applications to their patients.

  9. Rapid discrimination of blaIMP-1, blaIMP-6, and blaIMP-34 using a multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Shizuo; Ohge, Hiroki; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Stealth-type carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to almost all β-lactams except imipenem is emerging in Japan. This resistance is mediated by specific variants of the metallo-β-lactamases (blaIMP-6 or blaIMP-34) that differs by one amino acid from the common variant blaIMP-1. We developed an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR assay enabling rapid, sequence independent, identification of these variants.

  10. [Distribution of blaOXA genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakkı; Aşık, Gülşah; Karakeçe, Engin; Oksüz, Lütfiye; Yağcı, Server; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Atasoy, Ali Rıza; Koçoğlu, Esra; Gül, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Köksal Çakırlar, Fatma; Seyrek, Adnan; Berktaş, Mustafa; Gültepe, Bilge; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the most important agent of nosocomial infections within the Acinetobacter genus. This gram-negative coccobacillus is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics used in antimicrobial therapy, and capable of developing resistance including carbapenems. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) kit for OXA subgroups in A.baumannii, and to investigate the distribution of OXA subgroups in A.baumannii strains isolated from geographically different regions of Turkey. A total of 834 A.baumannii clinical isolates collected from different state and university medical centers in 13 provinces (Afyonkarahisar, Ankara, Bolu, Elazig, Erzurum, Isparta, Istanbul, Kahramanmaras, Konya, Sakarya, Van) between 2008-2011, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and automated systems [Vitek2 (bioMerieux, ABD) and Phoenix (BD Diagnostic, MD)]. The susceptibility profiles of the isolates were studied with automated systems and standard disc diffusion method. All samples were subjected to qPCR to detect blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. A conventional PCR method was also used to detect blaOXA-24-like gene. The resistance rates observed during the study period were as follows: 96.8% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 86.8% for ciprofloxacin, 74.7% for gentamicin, 71.7% for amikacin, 73.5% for cefaperozone-sulbactam, 72.1% for imipenem and 73% for meropenem. Six hundred and two (72.2 %) isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Colistin was found to be the most effective antibiotic against A.baumannii isolates with 100% susceptibility rate. All isolates were positive for blaOXA-51-like, however blaOXA-24-like gene could not be demonstrated in any isolate. Total positivity rates of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes were found as 53.7% and 12.5%, respectively, while these rates were 74.4% and 17.3% in carbapenem-resistant isolates

  11. Polycapillary optics for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. A.; Petruccelli, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Polycapillary optics can be designed for a wide variety of x-ray applications, including x-ray fluorescence for non-destructive materials analysis and diffraction applications such as protein crystallography. Of particular interest are medical applications, including the removal of Compton scattering with the resultant improvement in contrast and resolution in mammography, the production of monochromatic parallel beams for high-contrast imaging in clinical settings and the localization of radioactive tracers. A recent development is the use of polycapillary optics to improve beam coherence for x-ray phase imaging. Conventional radiographic techniques depend on attenuation, which provides only low contrast between soft tissues. Phase imaging can yield significantly higher contrast but requires spatially coherent beams. Conventional sources small enough to produce high coherence are necessarily low power, requiring long exposures. Polycapillary optics employed to create a small secondary source from high power sources have been shown to yield strong phase effects. Polycapillary optics can also be combined with other x-ray optics. A combination of a toroidally bent crystal with a polycapillary optic has been shown to produce enhanced resolution in a magnified image. Another x-ray imaging technique which does not rely on the small attenuation contrast is the capture of coherently scattered radiation, for which polycapillary optics could be used as angular filters to collect the beam, resulting in a map of tissue or material type.

  12. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    PubMed

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of carbapenemase genes (bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Jèssica; Royo, Elena; Balcázar, José Luis; Borrego, Carles M

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have developed real-time PCR assays using SYBR Green chemistry to detect all known alleles of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like carbapenemase genes in water, sediment, and biofilm samples collected from hospital and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and rivers receiving chronic WWTP discharges. The amplification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48 DNA was linear over 7 log dilutions (R (2) between 0.995 and 0.997) and showing efficiencies ranging from 92.6% to 100.3%. The analytical sensitivity indicated that the reaction for bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes was able to detect 35, 16, and 19 copy numbers per assay, respectively. The three carbapenemase genes were detected in hospital effluents, whereas only the bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in biofilm and sediment samples collected from wastewater-impacted rivers. The detection of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in different matrices suggests that carbapenem-resistant bacteria occur in both planktonic and benthic habitats thus expanding the range of resistance reservoirs for last-resort antibiotics. We believe that these real-time PCR assays would be a powerful tool for the rapid detection and quantification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in complex environmental samples.

  14. MEMS for medical technology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisk, Thomas; Roxhed, Niclas; Stemme, Göran

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an in-depth description of two recent projects at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) which utilize MEMS and microsystem technology for realization of components intended for specific applications in medical technology and diagnostic instrumentation. By novel use of the DRIE fabrication technology we have developed side-opened out-of-plane silicon microneedles intended for use in transdermal drug delivery applications. The side opening reduces clogging probability during penetration into the skin and increases the up-take area of the liquid in the tissue. These microneedles offer about 200µm deep and pain-free skin penetration. We have been able to combine the microneedle chip with an electrically and heat controlled liquid actuator device where expandable microspheres are used to push doses of drug liquids into the skin. The entire unit is made of low cost materials in the form of a square one cm-sized patch. Finally, the design, fabrication and evaluation of an integrated miniaturized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based "electronic nose" microsystem for detection of narcotics is described. The work integrates a novel environment-to-chip sample interface with the sensor element. The choice of multifunctional materials and the geometric features of a four-component microsystem allow a functional integration of a QCM crystal, electrical contacts, fluidic contacts and a sample interface in a single system with minimal assembly effort, a potential for low-cost manufacturing, and a few orders of magnitude reduced in system size (12*12*4 mm 3) and weight compared to commercially available instruments. The sensor chip was successfully used it for the detection of 200 ng of narcotics sample.

  15. Medical applications of shape memory polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory polymers are described here and major advantages in some applications are identified over other medical materials such as shape memory alloys (SMA). A number of medical applications are anticipated for shape memory polymers. Some simple applications are already utilized in medical world, others are in examination process. Lately, several important applications are being considered for CHEM foams for self-deployable vascular and coronary devices. One of these potential applications, the endovascular treatment of aneurysm was experimentally investigated with encouraging results and is described in this paper as well.

  16. Medical applications of shape memory polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory polymers are described here and major advantages in some applications are identified over other medical materials such as shape memory alloys (SMA). A number of medical applications are anticipated for shape memory polymers. Some simple applications are already utilized in medical world, others are in examination process. Lately, several important applications are being considered for CHEM foams for self-deployable vascular and coronary devices. One of these potential applications, the endovascular treatment of aneurysm was experimentally investigated with encouraging results and is described in this paper as well.

  17. Tissue localization and regulation by juvenile hormone of human allergen Bla g 4 from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Gore, J C; Redding, K O; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D; Schal, C

    2005-01-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), produces several potent protein aeroallergens, including Bla g 4, a approximately 20 kDa lipocalin. RT-PCR, Northern analyses and in situ hybridization showed that Bla g 4 is expressed only in the adult male reproductive system. Western blotting and ELISA with rBla g 4 antiserum detected immunoreactivity in the utricles and the conglobate gland, but not in other tissues of the male reproductive system. The Bla g 4 protein content of males increased from adult emergence to day 14, but during copulation Bla g 4 was depleted in the male and transferred to the female within the spermatophore. Topical application of juvenile hormone III stimulated Bla g 4 production by both conglobate gland and utricles.

  18. Medical applications of artificial olfactometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor); Kelso, David M. (Inventor); Munoz, Beth C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for detecting the presence of an analyte indicative of various medical conditions, including halitosis, periodontal disease and other diseases are also disclosed.

  19. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435

  20. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  1. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase genes, bla IMP-1, bla VIM-2 and bla SPM-1 in imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Rahimzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    Carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious cause of nosocomial infections. The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) genes. 236 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from teaching hospitals of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences during a period of 9 months in 2012. These strains were identified using conventional microbiological tests. The susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics were assessed using disk diffusion test. The IMP-EDTA combination disk phenotypic test was performed for detection of MBL producing strains. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect MBL genes, bla IMP-1, bla VIM-2 and bla SPM-1 in imipenem resistant strains. Out of 236 examined isolates, 122 isolates (51.4%) were resistant to imipenem. The IMP-EDTA combination test showed that among 122 imipenem resistant strains, 110 strains (90%) were phenotipically MBL producers. Additionally, the results of PCR method showed that 2 strains (1.6%) and 67strains (55%) of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates contained bla VIM-2 and bla IMP-1 genes respectively. No SPM-1gene was found in the examined samples. Resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem due to MBL enzymes is increasing in Ahavaz. Because of clinical significance of this kind of resistance, rapid detection of MBL producing strains and followed by appropriate treatment is necessary to prevent the spreading of these organisms.

  2. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  3. Radioactive nuclei for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrzębski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The radioisotopes used for labeling the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are contemporaneously produced using neutrons in reactors and light charged particles from accelerators (cyclotrons). After the presentation of both methods the commercially available cyclotrons are reviewed. Some examples of the most popular medical radioisotopes are given. The new Radiopharmaceuticals Production and Research Centre at the University of Warsaw is presented.

  4. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  5. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1) were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%), followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST), the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and the extraordinary

  7. [Standards in Medical Informatics: Fundamentals and Applications].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon

    2013-09-01

    The use of computers in medical practice has enabled novel forms of communication to be developed in health care. The optimization of communication processes is achieved through the use of standards to harmonize the exchange of information and provide a common language for all those involved. This article describes the concept of a standard applied to medical informatics and its importance in the development of various applications, such as computational representation of medical knowledge, disease classification and coding systems, medical literature searches and integration of biological and clinical sciences.

  8. Medical Applications of Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Lasers are finding many applications in medicine and biology. While most laser use focuses on the heat generation of the laser beam interacting with tissue, spectroscopic aspects play a more dominating part in a number of emerging applications. Tumour-seeking agents, such as hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), in combination with laser radiation provide new possibilities for cancer tumour detection and treatment. The fluorescence emission from tissue irradiated with UV light can be used for tumour localization. Natural tissue fluorescence as well as fluorescence due to injected HPD can be utilized. Results from studies on animals and from clinical applications are reported. The use of fluorescence for identifying atherosclerotic plaque in human vessels is illustrated. Spectroscopic analysis of the laser-induced plasma obtained when a high-power, pulsed laser beam interacts with tissue is also discussed with applications to plaque removal and laser fragmentation of kidney- and gall-stones.

  9. Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Microtech provided positive feedback about the manufacturability of the machine-printed electrode pattern. Drive System Shells were electrode with...the novel three-electrode drive scheme developed for this application was investigated for large-scale manufacturability . Figure 3 shows the prototype...life, and may be of value in some applications. Aging data for UVC Plasma-shells manufactured at the start of Phase I are shown in Figure 4 where

  10. Silica Materials for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vallet-Regí, María; Balas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The two main applications of silica-based materials in medicine and biotechnology, i.e. for bone-repairing devices and for drug delivery systems, are presented and discussed. The influence of the structure and chemical composition in the final characteristics and properties of every silica-based material is also shown as a function of the both applications presented. The adequate combination of the synthesis techniques, template systems and additives leads to the development of materials that merge the bioactive behavior with the drug carrier ability. These systems could be excellent candidates as materials for the development of devices for tissue engineering. PMID:19662110

  11. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, O. A.; Faieza, A. A.; Syakirah, K.

    2013-06-01

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  12. Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    the transceiver. The Plasma-shells have superior life, and may be of value in some applications. Aging data for UVC Plasma-shells manufactured at the...future single-board transceiver modules. 5 Two complete systems have been integrated into bread box sized enclosure with a small commercially...Solar Blind Filter Additional Solar blind filter manufacturers were identified in order to determine the best possible solution. Existing filters are

  13. Medical diagnostic applications and sources.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, T A

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which ultrasound is used in medical diagnosis are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the ultrasound source (probe) and implications for acoustic exposure. A brief discussion of the choice of optimum frequency for various target depths is followed by a description of the general features of diagnostic ultrasound probes, including endo-probes. The different modes of diagnostic scanning are then discussed in turn: A-mode, M-mode, B-mode, three-dimensional (3D) and 4D scanning, continuous wave (CW) Doppler, pulse-wave spectral Doppler and Doppler imaging. Under the general heading of B-mode imaging, there are individual descriptions of the principles of chirps and binary codes, B-flow, tissue harmonic imaging and ultrasound contrast agent-specific techniques. Techniques for improving image quality within the constraints of real-time operation are discussed, including write zoom, parallel beam forming, spatial compounding and multiple zone transmission focusing, along with methods for reducing slice thickness. At the end of each section there is a summarising comment on the basic features of the acoustic output and its consequences for patient safety.

  14. Recent developments in photodetection for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosá, Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    The use of the most advanced technology in medical imaging results in the development of high performance detectors that can significantly improve the performance of the medical devices employed in hospitals. Scintillator crystals coupled to photodetectors remain to be essential detectors in terms of performance and cost for medical imaging applications in different imaging modalities. Recent advances in photodetectors result in an increase of the performance of the medical scanners. Solid state detectors can provide substantial performance improvement, but are more complex to integrate into clinical detectors due mainly to their higher cost. Solid state photodetectors (APDs, SiPMs) have made new detector concepts possible and have led to improvements in different imaging modalities. Recent advances in detectors for medical imaging are revised.

  15. Medical applications for pharmacists using mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Aungst, Timothy Dy

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices (eg, smartphones, tablet computers) have become ubiquitous and subsequently there has been a growth in mobile applications (apps). Concurrently, mobile devices have been integrated into health care practice due to the availability and quality of medical apps. These mobile medical apps offer increased access to clinical references and point-of-care tools. However, there has been little identification of mobile medical apps suitable for the practice of pharmacy. To address the shortage of recommendations of mobile medical apps for pharmacists in daily practice. Mobile medical apps were identified via the iTunes and Google Play Stores via the "Medical" app categories and key word searches (eg, drug information, medical calculators). In addition, reviews provided by professional mobile medical app review websites were used to identify apps. Mobile medical apps were included if they had been updated in the previous 3 months, were available in the US, used evidence-based information or literature support, had dedicated app support, and demonstrated stability. Exclusion criteria included apps that were not available in English, had advertisement bias, used nonreferenced sources, were available only via an institution-only subscription, and were web-based portals. Twenty-seven mobile apps were identified and reviewed that involved general pharmacy practice, including apps that involved drug references, clinical references, medical calculators, laboratory references, news and continuing medical education, and productivity. Mobile medical apps have a variety of features that are beneficial to pharmacy practice. Individual clinicians should consider several characteristics of these apps to determine which are suitable to incorporate into their daily practice.

  16. Medical applications of shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Witold; Metcalfe, Annick; Hayashi, Shunichi; Yahia, L'Hocine; Raymond, Jean

    2007-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are lightweight, have a high strain/shape recovery ability, are easy to process, and required properties can be tailored for variety of applications. Recently a number of medical applications have been considered and investigated, especially for polyurethane-based SMP. SMP materials were found to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-mutagenic. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) can be tailored for shape restoration/self-deployment of clinical devices when inserted in the human body. Newly developed SMP foams, together with cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) processing, further broaden their potential biomedical applications. Polyurethane-based SMP are described here and major advantages are identified over other medical materials. Some SMP applications are already used in a clinical setting, whereas others are still in development. Lately, several important applications are being considered for CHEM foams as self-deployable vascular and coronary devices. One example is the endovascular treatment of aneurysms.

  17. Carbon nanostructures for orthopedic medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Lijuan; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-09-01

    Carbon nanostructures (including carbon nanofibers, nanostructured diamond, fullerene materials and so forth) possess extraordinary physiochemical, mechanical and electrical properties attractive to bioengineers and medical researchers. In the past decade, numerous developments towards the fabrication and biological studies of carbon nanostructures have provided opportunities to improve orthopedic applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review on carbon nanostructure advances in orthopedic research. Orthopedic medical device applications of carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers and nanostructured diamond (including particulate nanodiamond and nanocrystalline diamond coatings) are emphasized here along with other carbon nanostructures that have promising potential. In addition, widely used fabrication techniques for producing carbon nanostructures in both the laboratory and in industry are briefly introduced. In conclusion, carbon nanostructures have demonstrated tremendous promise for orthopedic medical device applications to date, and although some safety, reliability and durability issues related to the manufacturing and implantation of carbon nanomaterials remain, their future is bright.

  18. Glass microspheres for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in <1 week, without causing any detectable joint damage. The combination of dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres and EDTA chelation therapy provides an unique "tool" for the medical community, which can deliver a large dose (>100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass

  19. Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biological and Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising material for biological and medical applications, owning to its relatively inexpensive and large-scale synthesis, unique structure, and superior optical properties. However, most biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and bio-imaging, are dependent upon the precise control of the surfaces, and can be significantly affected by the type, distribution and stability of chemical funtionalisations of the nanodiamond surface. In this paper, recent studies on nanodiamonds and their biomedical applications by conjugating with different chemicals are reviewed, while highlighting the critical importance of surface chemical states for various applications.

  20. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  1. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-05-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  2. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  3. Medically related activities of application team program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Application team methodology identifies and specifies problems in technology transfer programs to biomedical areas through direct contact with users of aerospace technology. The availability of reengineering sources increases impact of the program on the medical community and results in broad scale application of some bioinstrumentation systems. Examples are given that include devices adapted to the rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders, power sources for artificial organs, and automated monitoring and detection equipment in clinical medicine.

  4. Regulatory frameworks for mobile medical applications.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    A mobile application (app) is a software program that runs on mobile communication devices such as a smartphone. The concept of a mobile medical app has gained popularity and diffusion but its reference regulatory context has raised discussion and concerns. Theoretically, a mobile app can be developed and uploaded easily by any person or entity. Thus, if an app can have some effects on the health of the users, it is mandatory to identify its reference regulatory context and the applicable prescriptions.

  5. Theory development and application in medical education.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, Anna T; Eva, Kevin W; Colliver, Jerry A

    2013-01-01

    The role and status of theory is by no means a new topic in medical education. Yet summarizing where we have been and where we are going with respect to theory development and application is difficult because our community has not yet fully elucidated what constitutes medical education theory. In this article, we explore the idea of conceptualizing theory as an effect on scholarly dialogue among medical educators. We describe theory-enabled conversation as argumentation, which frames inquiry, permits the evaluation of evidence, and enables the acquisition of community understanding that has utility beyond investigators' local circumstances. We present ideas for assessing argumentation quality and suggest approaches to increasing the frequency and quality of argumentation in the exchange among diverse medical education scholars.

  6. New Medical Applications Of Metal Vapor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; McIntosh, Alexander I.

    1989-06-01

    The first medical application for metal vapor lasers has been granted marketing approval by the FDA. This represents a major milestone for this technology. Metalaser Technologies recently received this approval for its Vasculase unit in the treatment of vascular lesions such as port wine stains, facial telangiectasia and strawberry hemangiomas.

  7. Prevalence of blaNDM, blaPER, blaVEB, blaIMP, and blaVIM Genes among Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Two Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Fatemeh; Noori, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein; Karimi, Abdollah; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Alimehr, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of blaNDM, blaPER, blaVEB, blaIMP, and blaVIM type genes among A. baumannii isolates from hospitalized patients in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. The frequency of MBL (metallo-beta-lactamase) and ESBL (extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase) producers was evaluated by CDDT. The β-lactamases genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Results. The resistance of A. baumannii isolates against tested antibiotics was as follows: 103 (95.4%) to ceftazidime, 108 (100%) to cefotaxime, 105 (95.7%) to cefepime, 99 (91.7%) to imipenem, 99 (91.7%) to meropenem, 87 (80.6%) to amikacin, 105 (97.2%) to piperacillin, 100 (92.6%) to ciprofloxacin, 103 (95.4%) to piperacillin/tazobactam, 44 (40.7%) to gentamicin, 106 (98.1%) to ampicillin/sulbactam, 106 (98.1%) to co-trimoxazole, 87 (80.6%) to tetracycline, and 1 (1.8%) to colistin. Using combined disk diffusion test, 91 (84.2%) and 86 (86.86%) were ESBL and MBL producers, respectively. The prevalence of blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, blaIMP-1, and blaVIM-1 genes was 71 (78.03%), 36 (39.5%), 3 (3.48%), and 15 (17.44%), respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs-producing A. baumannii strains detected in this study is a major concern and highlights the need of infection control measures. PMID:25133013

  8. Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe the results of a molecular epidemiological survey of 15 carbapenemase-encoding genes from a recent collection of clinical isolates. The most salient findings revealed that (i) 60% of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes, (ii) the blaDIM-1 gene that has only been reported in...

  9. Measuring emotional intelligence of medical school applicants.

    PubMed

    Carrothers, R M; Gregory, S W; Gallagher, T J

    2000-05-01

    To discuss the development, pilot testing, and analysis of a 34-item semantic differential instrument for measuring medical school applicants' emotional intelligence (the EI instrument). The authors analyzed data from the admission interviews of 147 1997 applicants to a six-year BS/MD program that is composed of three consortium universities. They compared the applicants' scores on traditional admission criteria (e.g., GPA and traditional interview assessments) with their scores on the EI instrument (which comprised five dimensions of emotional intelligence), breaking the data out by consortium university (each of which has its own educational ethos) and gender. They assessed the EI instrument's reliability and validity for assessing noncognitive personal and interpersonal qualities of medical school applicants. The five dimensions of emotional intelligence (maturity, compassion, morality, sociability, and calm disposition) indicated fair to excellent internal consistency: reliability coefficients were .66 to .95. Emotional intelligence as measured by the instrument was related to both being female and matriculating at the consortium university that has an educational ethos that values the social sciences and humanities. Based on this pilot study, the 34-item EI instrument demonstrates the ability to measure attributes that indicate desirable personal and interpersonal skills in medical school applicants.

  10. Microwave generator for scientific and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Ciupa, R.; Neamtu, C.

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays power microwave radiation is widely used in medical applications as hyperthermia, diathermy or ablation and for scientific applications such as plasma generation, digestion, or as a catalyst in green chemistry. Nevertheless, designing a suitably adapted microwave generator that meets both the scientific and the more restrictive medical criteria remains a difficult task. We present here a simplified approach in designing such a microwave generator, according to the IEC60601 medical standard. The generator, based on a continuous wave (CW) magnetron, is coupled via a TE10 waveguide to feed either a hyperthermia applicator or a reactor chamber. Microwave interactions with the probe (or the tissue) depend strongly on the magnetron's power supply parameters and the impedance match of the entire microwave circuit. Any unmatched elements (magnetron to waveguide, waveguide to applicator, applicator to patient) give rise to a large voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) which loads the generator with a surplus energy, converted to heat. Extra heating of the magnetron will deteriorate the amplitude of the generated microwave power field. We show here that, by using a proprietary patented temperature sensor sheet, we were able to detect and improve the impedance matching of the microwave circuit.

  11. Co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ramoul, Abir; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane; Amiri, Sabrina; Dekhil, Mazouz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in an Algerian hospital. A total of 43 imipenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 were identified using API 20NE and were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and Etest methods. Carbapenemase activity was detected using microbiological tests and PCR. Genetic transfer of the blaNDM-1 gene was performed by conjugation using sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as recipient strain. Clonal relationships were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using partial sequences of the csuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 43 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (>32μg/mL). The strains harboured blaOXA-23, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-58 and/or blaOXA-24 genes. Co-existence of blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 was detected in two isolates and one isolate, respectively. NDM-1 plasmid transfer to E. coli J53 was successful only for one of the three strains harbouring both blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58. The phylogenetic tree obtained from concatenation of the partial sequences of csuE and blaOXA-51 showed that there was no genetic relationship between the isolates and the blaNDM-1 resistance gene. Here we report for the first time the co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 along with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in recent clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Northeast Algeria. These findings re-emphasise the dissemination and rapid spread of blaNDM-1 carbapenemase genes in multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii isolates in Algeria.

  12. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  13. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-07-15

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  14. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes.

  15. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. PMID:25808341

  16. Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing bla IMP-1 and bla VIM-1 in Qazvin and Alborz educational hospitals, Iran.

    PubMed

    Peymani, Amir; Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Mohammadi Ghanbarlou, Mahdi; Najafipour, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent opportunistic pathogen in health care associated infections that is highly resistant to the majority of β-lactams. The aims of this study were to access the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of P. aeruginosa isolated from educational hospitals of Qazvin and Alborz provinces, to determine the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among carbapenem non-susceptible isolates by combined disk (CD) method, and to detect the bla IMP, bla VIM, bla SIM, bla GIM, bla SPM and bla NDM-1-MBL genes. In this cross-sectional study, 300 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different clinical specimens in two provinces of Qazvin and Alborz hospitals, Iran. After identification of isolates by standard laboratory methods, antimicrobial susceptibility was done against 17 antibiotics according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guideline. CD method was carried out for detection of MBLs and the presence of bla IMP, bla VIM, bla SIM, bla GIM, bla NDM-1 and bla SPM-genes was further assessed by PCR and sequencing methods. In this study, 107 (35.66%) isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem and/or meropenem among those 56 (52.3%) isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producer. Twenty-four of 56 (42.85%) MBL-positive isolates were confirmed to be positive for MBL-encoding genes in which 14 (25%) and 10 (17.85%) isolates carried bla IMP-1 and bla VIM-1 genes either alone or in combination. Three (5.35%) isolates carried bla IMP and bla VIM genes, simultaneously. Considering the moderate prevalence and clinical importance of MBL-producing isolates, rapid identification and use of appropriate infection control (IC) measures are necessary to prevent further spread of infections by these resistant organisms.

  17. [Additive Manufacturing and Its Medical Applications].

    PubMed

    Song, Zewen; Wang, Guohui; Gao, Qin; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of technologies based on the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Characterized by its direct manufacturing and rapidity, it has been regarded by the Economist Journal as one of the key techniques which will trigger the third industry reformation. The present article, beginning with a brief introduction of the history of AM and the process of its major technologies, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages and medical applications of the technique.

  18. Nuclear data calculation methods for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.; Lunev, V.P.; Masterov, V.S.; Kurenkov, N.V.; Kulikov, E.V.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron deficient radionuclides play an important role in medicine, where they are used for diagnostic with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET). Using some reactions connected with the producing most widely used radioisotopes {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99}Tc as example we calculated reaction cross sections and discuss the possibilities of the models and codes and recent progress in the methods to predict nuclear data for medical and other applications in medium energy region.

  19. Application of Light Sources to Medical Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizojiri, Takafumi; Kimura, Makoto

    The purpose of this paper is to show application of light sources to medical field. It is described the process of light sources development applied to photodynamic therapy; PDT or photodynamic diagnosis; PDD. Actually, as a successful experience, we show the verification results obtained by primary and clinical experiments using metal halide lamp which emitted spectra is optimized to absorbed wavelength of photosensitizer for PDT.

  20. Application of superconductivity to medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, D.E.; Tripp, J.H.; Zanzucchi, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This communication discusses a development in medical diagnostics, made possible by the application of a SQUID magnetic susceptometer to in vivo measurement of the iron stored in human tissue. Some new results are reported which indicate that a carefully designed susceptometer can provide the clinician with a useful non-invasive measure of excess iron in the human liver. Extension of this technique to other important iron storage problems is discussed.

  1. The regulation of mobile medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali Kemal; Martinez-Hurtado, J L; da Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando; Simsekler, M C Emre; Akram, Muhammad Safwan; Lowe, Christopher R

    2014-03-07

    The rapidly expanding number of mobile medical applications have the potential to transform the patient-healthcare provider relationship by improving the turnaround time and reducing costs. In September 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance to regulate these applications and protect consumers by minimising the risks associated with their unintended use. This guidance distinguishes between the subset of mobile medical apps which may be subject to regulation and those that are not. The marketing claims of the application determine the intent. Areas of concern include compliance with regular updates of the operating systems and of the mobile medical apps themselves. In this article, we explain the essence of this FDA guidance by providing examples and evaluating the impact on academia, industry and other key stakeholders, such as patients and clinicians. Our assessment indicates that awareness and incorporation of the guidelines into product development can hasten the commercialisation and market entry process. Furthermore, potential obstacles have been discussed and directions for future development suggested.

  2. The transferability of blaOXA-23 gene in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruno Silvester; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ismail, Muhammad A; Shibl, Atef M; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Forbes, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have been increasingly reported worldwide including Saudi Arabia and Egypt. We examined 64, non-repetitive, Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected in 2013 and 2014 from four different medical centres (two from Saudi Arabia and two from Egypt). All the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. The intI1 harbouring blaGES-11 and aac-6'-1b was detected in 19% (n=12) of the isolates. ISAba1 over-expression of blaADC gene was observed in 65% (n=42) of isolates. Of all the isolates 19% (n=12) had ISAba1 upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene, 69% (n=44) carried the blaOXA-23 gene within the Tn2006 structure, 8% (n=5) had blaOXA-24-like gene and 9% (n=6) harboured either blaVIM-2 or blaNDM-1 gene. Eighty nine percent (n=57) of isolates were resistant to imipenem and had an MIC of ≥8mg/L. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed the presence of 23 different PFGE. Three PFGE types were very widespread, ST236 (CC104) (PFGE type 1, n=15), ST208 (CC92) (PFGE type 2, n=10), ST884 (CC unassigned) (PFGE type 3, n=7) in and across all four medical centres. The blaOXA-23 gene was found to be present on a 60kb transferable plasmid in both PFGE type 1 and 2 but was absent in PFGE type 3. This is the first study to report on the emergence of ST236 in Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and spread of distinct carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clones belonging to ST884, ST945 and ST1096 in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Attitudes of Medical Graduate and Undergraduate Students toward the Learning and Application of Medical Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that the teaching of medical statistics needs to be improved, yet areas for priority are unclear as medical students' learning and application of statistics at different levels is not well known. Our goal is to assess the attitudes of medical students toward the learning and application of medical statistics, and discover their…

  4. Attitudes of Medical Graduate and Undergraduate Students toward the Learning and Application of Medical Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that the teaching of medical statistics needs to be improved, yet areas for priority are unclear as medical students' learning and application of statistics at different levels is not well known. Our goal is to assess the attitudes of medical students toward the learning and application of medical statistics, and discover their…

  5. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  6. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4. PMID:27877527

  7. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4.

  8. Ultrafast laser pulses for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Serbin, Jesper; Bauer, Thorsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Welling, Herbert; Mueller, Wiebke; Schwab, Burkard; Singh, Ajoy I.; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2002-04-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a promising tool for micromachining and extremely precise ablation of all kinds of materials. Due to the low energy threshold, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the bu micrometers range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: in ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of cornael flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs- laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosklerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  9. Nanoporous membranes for medical and biological applications

    PubMed Central

    Adiga, Shashishekar P; Jin, Chunmin; Curtiss, Larry A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic nanoporous materials have numerous potential biological and medical applications that involve sorting, sensing, isolating and releasing biological molecules. Nanoporous systems engineered to mimic natural filtration systems are actively being developed for use in smart implantable drug delivery systems, bioartificial organs, and other novel nano-enabled medical devices. Recent advances in nanoscience have made it possible to precisely control the morphology as well as physical and chemical properties of the pores in nanoporous materials that make them increasingly attractive for regulating and sensing transport at the molecular level. In this work, an overview of nanoporous membranes for biomedical applications is given. Various in vivo and in vitro membrane applications, including biosensing, biosorting, immunoisolation and drug delivery, are presented. Different types of nanoporous materials and their fabrication techniques are discussed with an emphasis on membranes with ordered pores. Desirable properties of membranes used in implantable devices, including biocompatibility and antibiofouling behavior, are discussed. The use of surface modification techniques to improve the function of nanoporous membranes is reviewed. Despite the extensive research carried out in fabrication, characterization, and modeling of nanoporous materials, there are still several challenges that must be overcome in order to create synthetic nanoporous systems that behave similarly to their biological counterparts. PMID:20049818

  10. Medical laser application: translation into the clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Hennig, Georg; Brittenham, Gary M.; Rühm, Adrian; Lilge, Lothar

    2015-06-01

    Medical laser applications based on widespread research and development is a very dynamic and increasingly popular field from an ecological as well as an economic point of view. Conferences and personal communication are necessary to identify specific requests and potential unmet needs in this multi- and interdisciplinary discipline. Precise gathering of all information on innovative, new, or renewed techniques is necessary to design medical devices for introduction into clinical applications and finally to become established for routine treatment or diagnosis. Five examples of successfully addressed clinical requests are described to show the long-term endurance in developing light-based innovative clinical concepts and devices. Starting from laboratory medicine, a noninvasive approach to detect signals related to iron deficiency is shown. Based upon photosensitization, fluorescence-guided resection had been discovered, opening the door for photodynamic approaches for the treatment of brain cancer. Thermal laser application in the nasal cavity obtained clinical acceptance by the introduction of new laser wavelengths in clinical consciousness. Varicose veins can be treated by innovative endoluminal treatment methods, thus reducing side effects and saving time. Techniques and developments are presented with potential for diagnosis and treatment to improve the clinical situation for the benefit of the patient.

  11. Nanosilver: a nanoproduct in medical application.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Schluesener, H J

    2008-01-04

    Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine. However, only few nanoproducts are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nanosilver particles are generally smaller than 100nm and contain 20-15,000 silver atoms. At nanoscale, silver exhibits remarkably unusual physical, chemical and biological properties. Due to its strong antibacterial activity, nanosilver coatings are used on various textiles but as well as coatings on certain implants. Further, nanosilver is used for treatment of wounds and burns or as a contraceptive and marketed as a water disinfectant and room spray. Thus, use of nanosilver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications and due to increasing exposure toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. In sharp contrast to the attention paid to new applications of nanosilver, few studies provide only scant insights into the interaction of nanosilver particle with the human body after entering via different portals. Biodistribution, organ accumulation, degradation, possible adverse effects and toxicity are only slowly recognized and this review is focusing on major questions associated with the increased medical use of nanosilver and related nanomaterials.

  12. Optical parametric oscillators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Lawrie A. W.; Golding, Paul S.; King, Terence A.

    1996-04-01

    In recent years optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have undergone a renaissance largely due to the discovery of new nonlinear materials capable of wide continuous tuning ranges spanning from the UV to the near-infrared spectral regions. To date, however, OPOs have not been exploited in the medical field despite their advantages over the dye laser in terms of tuning range and solid state structure. We consider the development of an OPO based on barium borate (BBO) which can be tailored to suit applications in medicine. Converting the maximum number of pump photons to tunable signal and idler photons is of great importance to secure high-fluence radiation necessary for many treatments. With this in mind, we report on an all- solid-state system using BBO which has been optimized by computer modeling with the potential of delivering amplification factors of typically up to 20 over a continuous tuning range of 700 nm to 1000 nm. As an example of its biomedical application, we describe the selective excitation of biomolecules and chromophores for cell destruction using malachite green isothiocyanate labelled bacteria. The potential for development is reviewed towards other medical applications such as diagnostic sensing and phototherapy.

  13. Laser safety aspects for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Shimon

    2003-12-01

    Most applications of lasers in medicine are based on the producing of a controlled thermal damage into a preferably tissue location. Laser safety deals with non controlled damage (thermal or other) that could be randomly produced into a non preferable tissue locations. This kind of damage is not allowed and the laser safety material is designed to provide the user with a knowledge and with sufficient safety instructions and means to prevent such damage. Following the laser safety instructions is especially important for the medical applications because in these applications the laser beam is brought in a close proximity to the patient's body and non-desired damage can be easily produced. Most medical lasers are classified as Class 4 laser products, the highest hazard class. Direct laser beam of class 4 is capable to produce skin burns and to ignite flammable materials, and even its scattered beam may produce severe eye damage. The paper presents the nature of the skin and eye damage for different spectral range, and the state of the art rules in preventing such damage. The safety means that should be implemented in, and around, the laser clinique and in the laser surgery room will also be highlighted.

  14. Fibers and materials of medical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, L. I.

    1993-01-01

    Efferent sorption methods of organism detoxication (by medical trend) are presented. Recently, specialists have shown their keen interest in the problem of treating exogenous and endogenous intoxications. This was stipulated by the growing production and accumulation of chemical products for industrial, agricultural, and domestic needs. To solve this problem the industrial production of carbon fibrous adsorbents was developed and implemented at NII Chimvolokno in St. Petersburg. A description of the carbon fibers is given. Also, application of modern composite materials for manufacturing compression-distraction apparatus used for setting fractured bones is described.

  15. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the practice of medicine (does not include medical research). (2) Commodities or software are... Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  16. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given.

  17. Optical polymers for laser medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanova, Nina G.; Kasarova, Stefka N.; Nikolov, Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    In medicine, optical polymers are used not only in ophthalmology but in many laser surgical, diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The application in lens design is determined by their refractive and dispersive properties in the considered spectral region. We have used different measuring techniques to obtain precise refractometric data in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Dispersive, thermal and other important optical characteristics of polymers have been studied. Design of a plastic achromatic objective, used in a surgical stereo-microscope at 1064 nm laser wavelength, is accomplished. Geometrical and wavefront aberrations are calculated. Another example of application of polymers is the designed all-mirror apochromatic micro-lens, intended for superluminescent diode fiber coupling in medical systems.

  18. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  19. Prevalence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bora, Arijit; Hazarika, Naba Kumar; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi N; Sarma, Jayanta Biswa; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. A total of 270 E. coli and 219 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered during the period between August 2009 and July 2010. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Screening and phenotypic confirmatory test for ESBL production were performed using standard disc diffusion methods. Each of the initial ESBL screening test isolate was investigated for the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gene-specific primers. Phenotypic confirmatory test able to detect ESBL production in 73.58% of E. coli and 67.24% of K. pneumoniae. However, PCR amplification showed the presence of one or more ESBL genes in each of the initial ESBL screening positive isolate. Among three ESBL genotypes, the most prevalent genotype was found to be blaCTX-M in E. coli (88.67%) and blaTEM in K. pneumoniae (77.58%) ESBL producing isolates. Majority of ESBL producing isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. This study constituted a primer report on high prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae and denotes the need of more extensive studies on these antibiotic genes to determine the magnitude of the problem of antibiotic resistance exiting in this locality.

  20. Data and knowledge in medical distributed applications.

    PubMed

    Serban, Alexandru; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2014-01-01

    Building a clinical decision support system (CDSS) capable to collect process and diagnose data from the patients automatically, based on information, symptoms and investigations is one of the current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to design a cloud-based CDSS to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. It presents the design of a cloud-based application system using a medical based approach, which covers different diseases to diagnosis, differentiated on most important pathologies. Using online questionnaires, traditional and new data will be collected from patients. After data input, the application will formulate a presumptive diagnosis and will direct patients to the correspondent department. A questionnaire will dynamically ask questions about the interface, and functionality improvements. Based on the answers, the functionality of the system and the user interface will be improved considering the real needs expressed by the end-users. The cloud-based CDSS, as a useful tool for patients, physicians and healthcare providers involves the computer support in the diagnosis of different pathologies and an accurate automatic differential diagnostic system.

  1. Applications of digital photogrammetry to medical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, H. L.

    Photogrammetric measurement for the diagnosis and treatment of human conditions and for bio-medical research is a form of close-range photogrammetry with its own distinctive challenges and constraints. Reports of fully digital systems are somewhat limited so far, being restricted primarily to face and body measurement and to motion recording, but clear patterns are apparent in the approaches being adopted. The effectiveness of photogrammetric measurement in gait analyses and some other body measurements involving targets, has stimulated commercial development of a number of comprehensive digital systems. They are characterised by the use of multiple cameras, LED or reflective targets, fast image processing based on target detection, links to other recording systems, and by the provision of comprehensive medical information. Surface shape measurements by state-of-the-art photogrammetric systems have been aimed primarily at the face, back and torso. But in contrast to target-based measurement systems, they are characterised not by commercial systems, but by individually tailored hardware and software systems based on low-cost, low-resolution cameras, the casting of a texturising light pattern, image processing to detect features within the pattern, and area-based rather than feature-based matching methods for automated stereoscopic correlation. In common with motion measurement, effective and informative output is crucial for these applications. Medical photogrammetry does not end with these applications, but distinctive trends in the use of digital methodology are not apparent among other measurement tasks. On the other hand, digital image processing has contributed usefully to optical measurement techniques which are not strictly photogrammetric but which are useful for external measurement on the human body.

  2. A swordless knight: epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the blaKPC-negative sequence type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae clone.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Paikin, Svetlana; Sterlin, Yelena; Glick, Josef; Edgar, Rotem; Aronov, Rima; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2012-10-01

    In June 2010, a bla(KPC)-negative, ertapenem-resistant ST-258 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from a patient in the Laniado Medical Center (LMC). Our aims were (i) to describe its molecular characteristics and resistance mechanisms and (ii) to assess whether the bla(KPC)-negative ST-258 K. pneumoniae clone spreads as efficiently as its KPC-producing isogenic strain. In a prospective study, surveillance of all ertapenem-resistant, carbapenemase-negative K. pneumoniae (ERCNKP) isolates was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 at LMC (314 beds) and from July 2008 to December 2010 at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (TASMC) (1,200 beds). Molecular typing was done by arbitrarily primed PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 8 of 42 (19%) ERCNKP isolates in LMC and 1 of 32 (3.1%) in TASMC belonged to the ST-258 clone. These strains carried the bla(CTX-M-2) or the bla(CTX-M-25) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene. Sequencing of the ompK genes showed a frameshift mutation in the ompK35 gene. The fate of the bla(KPC)-carrying plasmid, pKpQIL, was determined by S1 analysis and by PCR of the Tn4401 transposon, repA, and the truncated bla(OXA-9). Plasmid analysis of the ERCNKP ST-258 isolates showed variability in plasmid composition and absence of the Tn4401 transposon and the pKpQIL plasmid. In addition, the ST-258 clone was identified in 35/35 (100%) of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates but in none of 62 ertapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates collected in the two centers. Our results suggest that ERCNKP ST-258 evolved by loss of the bla(KPC)-carrying plasmid pKpQIL. ERCNKP ST-258 appears to have low epidemic potential.

  3. Complete Sequencing of Plasmids Containing blaOXA-163 and blaOXA-48 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Peirano, Gisele; Sebra, Robert; Lynch, Tarah; Anson, Luke; Kasarskis, Andrew; Motyl, Mary R; Crook, Derrick W; Pitout, Johann D

    2016-11-01

    OXA-48-like enzymes have emerged as important extended-spectrum β-lactamases/carbapenemases in Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131). We report the structures of the first fully sequenced blaOXA-163 plasmid and of two other blaOXA-48 plasmids in this lineage. blaOXA-163 was located on a 71-kb IncN plasmid with other resistance genes. blaOXA-48 was present on IncL/M plasmids, genetically similar to other blaOXA-48 plasmid sequences, and consistent with interspecies/interlineage spread. The presence of blaOXA-48-like genes on epidemic plasmids in ST131 is of concern. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the blaOXA-436- and blaNDM-1-Harboring Shewanella putrefaciens SA70 Isolate.

    PubMed

    Potter, Robert F; D'Souza, Alaric W; Wallace, Meghan A; Shupe, Angela; Patel, Sanket; Gul, Danish; Kwon, Jennie H; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, C A; Dantas, Gautam

    2017-07-20

    We sequenced a carbapenem-resistant Shewanella putrefaciens isolate cultured from the sink handle of a Pakistan hospital room. Assembly annotation indicates that the isolate has a chromosomal blaOXA-436 carbapenemase and a plasmid-borne blaNDM-1 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Shewanella species harboring blaNDM. Copyright © 2017 Potter et al.

  5. US biosimilar pathway unlikely to be used: developers will opt for a traditional BLA filing.

    PubMed

    Wiatr, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    In March 2010, the US passed the healthcare reform bill, including The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, which established an abbreviated Biologic License Application (aBLA) pathway for the approval of biosimilars. The aBLA pathway may never be used. At the "Business of Biosimilars" meeting in Boston in September, developers of both innovator and generic biologics as well as representatives from the scientific, regulatory, and legal communities noted that, because of unclear requirements for clinical data and the need for public disclosure of proprietary data, manufacturers of generic biologics are unlikely to take advantage of the aBLA process, opting instead for a standard Biologic License Application (BLA). The implications of an unusable biosimilars pathway in the US dampen our already soft outlook for biosimilars. Companies will still develop follow-on biologics, but approved compounds will behave as new branded drugs. Biosimilars in the US are therefore not likely to lead to aggressive pricing, but will more likely mirror current situations where several similar biologics are available. For example, the interferon (IFN) β-1a products Avonex® and Rebif®, and Betaseron® (IFN β-1b) have all enjoyed >10% price increases for the last several years in spite of their clinical similarities. inThought reiterates its outlook for generic erosion of a typical biologic that projects a loss of revenue of 30% over 5 years compared to the 90% revenue loss for a typical branded small molecule.

  6. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A. K.; Rai, N. K.; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A. K.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Rai, Pramod K.

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail.

  7. Rapid and simultaneous detection of blaKPC and blaNDM by use of multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Michael; Kwak, Yoon I; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil; McGann, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of carbapenem nonsusceptibility among clinically important species is of global concern. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying carbapenem nonsusceptibility is critical for epidemiological investigations. In this report, we describe a real-time PCR-based assay capable of simultaneously detecting blaKPC and blaNDM, two of the most important carbapenemases, directly from culture in less than 90 min. The assay was validated with blaKPC- and blaNDM-carrying clinical isolates and demonstrated 100% concordance with the Carba NP test.

  8. Citrobacter freundii carrying blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1: characterization by whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Espedido, Björn; Feng, Yu; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-07-28

    A carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii strain WCHCF65 was recovered from hospital sewage and was characterized by genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. The strain carried nine genes encoding β-lactamases including two carbapenemase genes, blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2. blaNDM-1 was carried on an IncX3 plasmid, which was identical to a plasmid found in a local Escherichia coli, suggesting interspecies horizontal transfer. blaKPC-2 was bracketed by two copies of insertion sequence ISKpn19, which could form a composite transposon with the potential to mobilize blaKPC-2, on a new type of plasmid. The coexistence of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 conferred higher levels of resistance to carbapenems compared with blaNDM-1 or blaKPC-2 alone. The coexistence of these carbapenemase genes, on two different plasmids, in one strain may allow new genetic platforms to be generated to mediate their spread.

  9. Clinical Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baylyi Strain Coharboring blaSIM-1 and blaOXA-23 from China ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhihui; Du, Xiaoxing; Wang, Li; Yang, Qing; Fu, Yiqi; Yu, Yunsong

    2011-01-01

    blaSIM-1 and blaOXA-23 were codetected in clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baylyi strain NB09A30. Both of carbapenemase genes were located on a large plasmid (ca. 360 kb). blaSIM-1 was found as a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron identical to that determined in Acinetobacter sp. isolates from South Korea. The genetic structure of blaOXA-23 in NB09A30 was different from that in the prevalent Acinetobacter baumannii of clonal complex 92 (CC92) from the same hospital. PMID:21876057

  10. Characterization of a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 476 carrying both bla KPC-2 and bla IMP-4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cao, W; Zhu, X; Chen, Z; Li, L; Zhang, B; Wang, B; Tian, L; Wang, F; Liu, C; Sun, Z

    2012-08-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has recently spread rapidly throughout China. In this study, we characterized a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolate that produced both KPC-2 and IMP-4 type carbapenemases. A clinical isolate of K. pneumoniae, resistant to both meropenem and imipenem, was recovered from a urine sample. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and Etest (bioMérieux, France). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for gene type analysis. bla (KPC) and the encoding genes of ESBLs and plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced. Plasmids were analyzed by transformation, enzyme restriction and Southern blot. PCR analysis revealed that the isolate was simultaneously carrying bla (KPC-2), bla (IMP-4), bla (TEM-1), and bla (OKP-B) genes. MLST assigned the isolate to a novel sequence type, ST476. bla (KPC-2)-harbouring plasmids of the isolate and comparative strains had similar EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps, while IMP-4-harbouring plasmids had variable HindIII restriction maps. Coexistence of bla (KPC-2) and bla (IMP-4) was probably due to bla (IMP-4)-harbouring plasmid transmission into KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae (ST476). The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses both therapeutic and infection control problems.

  11. Collaborative social and medical service application.

    PubMed

    Petermann, C A; Buffone, G J; Bobroff, R B; Moore, D M; Dargahi, R; Moreau, D R; Gilson, H S; Li, Y; Fowler, J; Beck, J R

    1995-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine has five Teen Health Clinics (THC) dispersed throughout Harris county. The population served by the clinics includes inner-city adolescent boys and girls 19 years of age and under. Patients receive services such as family planning, sexually transmitted disease screening and treatment, perinatal care, counseling, and support services. Adolescents may receive services at any one of the clinics at no cost to the adolescent or their dependents. Given the geographical distribution of the clinics and the reliance on paper-based records, client services cannot be provided efficiently or expeditiously. According to the statistics developed by Clinic staff, ineffective coordination of service needs and client schedules undermine the follow-up needed for effective care. For example, a counselor will often need to balance a school schedule, clinic visits, well baby follow-up, and the Best Friends Program for a new mother. In addition, the lack of ready access to patient information impairs the ability of clinical and social service staff to provide continuity of care. In fact, some cases of client dropout are attributable to these difficulties. We have developed the Collaborative Social and Medical Service Application (CSMSA) to facilitate the provision of social and medical services to this population. The CSMSA is a domain-specific application based on a robust infrastructure known as the Ambulatory Services Architecture (ASA). This system is designed to support integrated social and ambulatory care. The ASA is a Baylor developed application framework and architecture for the computerization of the patient medical record in the ambulatory care setting. The working environment for the CSMSA user is an integrated desktop which provides an operating environment for both third-party applications and the CSMSA, as well as a fundamental set of services. The integrated desktop services include a mechanism for object organization or grouping, a facility

  12. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  13. Successful fiber sensor for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Brett A.

    1993-05-01

    The use of fiber optics in communications and data transmission applications has become wide spread in the last decade. At the same time fiber optic sensors have not gained wide commercial acceptance even though many are known and indeed numerous U.S. and foreign patents have been granted. Camino Laboratories a small medical device concern has successfully marketed a fiber optic pressure monitoring system and become a leader in the area of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. Some curiosity about the company and its products has been expressed. This presentation will briefly give a background of the company, an explanation of the product, an account of the transfer from concept to volume manufacture and a word on limiting drawbacks of an intensity modulating fiber optic sensor.

  14. Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingzheng; You, Jane

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group), a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color. PMID:23737824

  15. Applications of medical intelligence in remote monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vassányi, István; Kozmann, György; Bánhalmi, András; Végsö, Balázs; Kósa, István; Dulai, Tibor; Tarjányi, Zsolt; Tuboly, Gergely; Cserti, Péter; Pintér, Balázs

    2011-01-01

    Prevention and rehabilitation efficiency can greatly benefit from the application of intelligent, 24 hour tele-diagnostics and tele-care information systems. Tele-monitoring also supports a new level of medical supervision over the patient's lifestyle. In this paper we briefly present the architecture and development phase results of the Alpha remote monitoring system. The novelty of the system is the unified and flexible processing of various signals retrieved from modern, unobtrusive devices in an efficient signal abstraction framework. The signals include PIR motion sensors that record patient movement in the home, physiological signals and also patient responses in various tests performed on the GUI of the central home unit. We have developed and tested the prototype system with promising results.

  16. 78 FR 29390 - Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Medical Technologies (SHINE) filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pursuant to...

  17. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  18. Emergence of blaKPC carbapenemase genes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Sally R; Ginn, Andrew N; Wiklendt, Agnieszka M; Ellem, Justin; Wong, Jenny S J; Ingram, Paul; Guy, Stephen; Garner, Sarah; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2015-02-01

    blaKPC genes encoding resistance to carbapenems are increasingly widely reported and are now endemic in parts of several countries, but only one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate carrying blaKPC-2 had previously been reported in Australia, in 2010. Here we characterised this isolate, six additional K. pneumoniae and one Escherichia coli carrying blaKPC and another K. pneumoniae lacking blaKPC, all isolated in Australia in 2012. Seven K. pneumoniae belonged to clonal complex (CC) 292, associated with blaKPC in several countries. Five with blaKPC-2 plus the isolate lacking a blaKPC gene were sequence type 258 (ST258) and the seventh was the closely related ST512 with blaKPC-3. The eighth K. pneumoniae isolate, novel ST1048, and the E. coli (ST131) also carried blaKPC-2. blaKPC genes were associated with the most common Tn4401a variant, which gives the highest levels of expression, in all isolates. The ST258 isolates appeared to share a similar set of plasmids, with IncFIIK, IncX3 and ColE-type plasmids identified in most isolates. All K. pneumoniae isolates had a characteristic insertion in the ompK35 gene resulting in a frameshift and early termination, but only the ST512 isolate had a GlyAsp insertion in loop 3 of OmpK36 that may contribute to increased resistance. The clinical epidemiology of blaKPC emergence in Australia thus appears to reflect the global dominance of K. pneumoniae CC292 (and perhaps E. coli ST131). Some, but not all, patients carrying these isolates had previously been hospitalised outside Australia, suggesting multiple discrete importation events of closely related strains, as well as undetected nosocomial spread.

  19. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant for...

  20. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant for...

  1. Potential applications of medical and non-medical robots for neurosurgical applications.

    PubMed

    Alric, Matthieu; Chapelle, Frédéric; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Gogu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the state-of-the-art in medical robotic systems used for different surgical applications, and to position and evaluate their concepts according to the design requirements of an innovative, robotized neurosurgical system, capable of performing tumor ablation or electrode positioning. A few other non-medical systems, which have interesting concepts, will also be discussed. The overall aim is to determine the robotic concept (structure, actuation, etc.) most applicable to specific tasks in neurosurgery. The first section of the article describes the requirements of the task and each important aspect is expressed by an evaluation criterion. Then, 59 systems are described, according to the fields of medical applications and the robotic concepts. An evaluation of the different systems is conducted, based on the five most significant criteria. However, the main characteristic assessed is the deployment capability of the system i.e. extension and retraction. The final section presents an overview of concepts transferable to neurosurgical applications. Continuum concepts, such as "elephant trunks", seem to be the most adapted solutions, utilizing pneumatic and/or spring and/or cable actuations. Pneumatics offer deployment forces and cables can control and guide the deployment. The design of a new neurosurgical device should take into account these observations as a base.

  2. [Research on medical data mining and its applications].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanzhen; Wang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    With the development of computer technology, medical data has developed from traditional paper pattern into electronic mode, which could effectively promote the medical development. This paper at first presents the status and characteristics of medical data mining. Then, it discusses the critical method of medical data mining in classification, clustering and prediction, respectively. The paper focuses on the application and assessment of five algorithms which are designed for medical data mining, including decision tree, cluster analysis, association rule, intelligent algorithm and the mix algorithm. Finally, this paper outlooks the data mining application in medical domain.

  3. Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Saldua, Meagan A.; Bixler, Joel N.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in fiber optic technology and miniaturized optics and mechanics have propelled confocal endomicroscopy into the clinical realm. This high resolution, non-invasive imaging technology provides the ability to microscopically evaluate cellular and sub-cellular features in tissue in vivo by optical sectioning. Because many cancers originate in epithelial tissues accessible by endoscopes, confocal endomicroscopy has been explored to detect regions of possible neoplasia at an earlier stage by imaging morphological features in vivo that are significant in histopathologic evaluation. This technique allows real-time assessment of tissue which may improve diagnostic yield by guiding biopsy. Research and development continues to reduce the overall size of the imaging probe, increase the image acquisition speed, and improve resolution and field of view of confocal endomicroscopes. Technical advances will continue to enable application to less accessible organs and more complex systems in the body. Lateral and axial resolutions down to 0.5 μm and 3 μm, respectively, field of view as large as 800×450 μm, and objective lens and total probe outer diameters down to 350 μm and 1.25 mm, respectively, have been achieved. We provide a review of the historical developments of confocal imaging in vivo, the evolution of endomicroscope instrumentation, and the medical applications of confocal endomicroscopy. PMID:21994069

  4. Shape memory alloys for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Planell, J A

    1998-01-01

    The shape memory alloys exhibit a number of remarkable properties, which open new possibilities in engineering and more specifically in biomedical engineering. The most important alloy used in biomedical applications is NiTi. This alloy combines the characteristics of the shape memory effect and superelasticity with excellent corrosion resistance, wear characteristics, mechanical properties and a good biocompatibility. These properties make it an ideal biological engineering material, especially in orthopaedic surgery and orthodontics. In this work the basis of the memory effect lies in the fact that the materials exhibiting such a property undergo a thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In order to understand even the most elementary engineering aspects of the shape memory effect it is necessary to review some basic principles of the formation and the characteristics of the martensitic phase. The different properties of shape memory, superelasticity, two-way shape memory, rubber-like behaviour and a high damping capacity are reviewed. Some applications proposed in recent years are described and classified according to different medical fields.

  5. [Identification and expression of blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-24].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zi-Zhong; Zhu, De-Mei; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Ying-Yuan

    2004-09-02

    To identify the ESBL gene and the prevalence in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from Huashan Hospital, Shanghai. Isolates were confirmed as an ESBL producing strain by double-disk synergy test and NCCLS Confirmatory Test. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by standard agar dilution procedure on Mueller-Hinton agar. To determine whether the resistance was transferable, the conjugation experiment was performed; plasmids were isolated from clinical isolates and transcojugants. The partial bla(gene) of ESBL producing isolates and their transcojugants were detected by PCR using universal primers for TEM, SHV, CTX-M-1group, Toho-1group, CTX-M-13group respectively. The entire bla(CTX-M-13) group were amplified by PCR using the primers outside the Open Reading Frame (ORF) of CTX-M-13group beta-lactamases; the PCR products of entire bla(CTX-M-13)group were cloned into vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into the recipient strain for expression; the PCR products were also directly sequenced and analyzed; the clinical isolates of ESBL producers were detected by PFGE. ESBL producers were resistant to most beta-lactams and non-beta-lactams. Most transconjugants were obtained at frequency of 10(-4) approximately 10(-5) and resistance to non-beta-lactams was cotransferred with the ESBL activity to the transconjugant. A plasmid of about > 23.1 kb was obtained from each tansconjugant by plasmid extraction. Partial gene amplification products of CTX-M-13 group gene were obtained from isolates and their transconjugants. The bla(CTX-M-13)group from 4 transconjugants were identified as bla(CTX-M-14), and other six were bla(CTX-M-24); those ESBLs were mediated by plasmids (> 23.1 kb); the transformants producing CTX-M-14 or CTX-M-24 were resistant to most beta-lactams, which were much more resistant to cefotaxime than to ceftazidine; PFGE patterns of those isolates were different. clinical isolate of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella

  6. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  7. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  8. Characterization of the blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes and the novel blaKPC-15 gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongguo; Hou, Wei; Chen, Jiayu; Mou, Yonghua; Yang, Linjun; Yang, Liqin; Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Meiyun

    2014-07-01

    Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenem were analysed by PCR, PFGE, gene mapping, plasmid conjugation and Southern blot hybridization using a blaKPC probe. In addition to the frequently reported blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes, a novel blaKPC-15 gene was identified in one of the isolates. The results of plasmid analysis and Southern blot hybridization revealed that the three blaKPC genes were located on transferable plasmids exhibiting three different patterns. The patterns A, B and C were observed in the genetic makeup of each individual plasmid, and all three structures contained ISKpn6-like and ISKpn8 transposons. The results of the gene mapping and hybridization experiments performed with the blaKPC probe demonstrated that the plasmids harboured the three genes at approximately the 85.0, 54.0 and 73.0 kb positions. The study concluded that carbapenem resistance in the three isolates was primarily due to the production of carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase.

  9. [blaTEM, blaSHV y blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacterias isolated from patients with hospital-acquired infections].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Militza; Rodríguez, Eliosmar; Antón, Karen; Silva, Suyin; Navarro, Jhonilys; Lastra, Loriannys; Salazar, Elsa; Alonso, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to identify the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates, collected between September and November 2005. In addition to third-generation cephalosporin resistance, the isolates also showed resistance to chloramphenicol (59.2%), amikacin (37.0%) and gentamicin (40.7%), and demonstrated sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem. Nine strains were capable of transferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance, as well as the production of ESBL. In the clinical isolates, the genes blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected, being more prevalent the types blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-5 blaSHV-5-2a and blaCTX-M-1; while in the trans-conjugated only blaTEM-1, blaSHV-5 y blaSHV-5-2awere found. In total, seven types of genes were identified, five of which were codifying genes for ESBL-type enzymes. This demonstrates that in the hospital center, resistance to third-generation cephalosporin is mediated by several enzymes.

  10. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  11. Medical applications of digital image morphing.

    PubMed

    Penska, Keith; Folio, Les; Bunger, Rolf

    2007-09-01

    The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and/or failure of the physiological healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus, several sequential x-rays obtained throughout orthopedic surgical procedures and the healing process were morphed together representing a time-lapsed video of the healing process. The end result is a video that demonstrates the healing process in an animation that radiologists envision and report to other clinicians. For the brown recluse spider bite, a seemingly benign skin lesion transforms into a wide gaping necrotic wound with dramatic appearance within days. This novel technique is not presented for readily apparent clinical advantage, rather, it may have more immediate application in providing treatment options to referring providers and/or patients, as well as educational value of healing or disease progression over time. Image morphing is one of those innovations that is just starting to come into its own. Morphing is an image processing technology that transforms one image into another by generating a series of intermediate synthetic images. It is the same process that Hollywood uses to turn people into animals in movies, for example. The ability to perform morphing, once restricted to high-end graphics workstations, is now widely available for desktop computers. The authors describe how a series of radiographic images were morphed into a short movie clip using readily available software and an average laptop. The resultant video showed the healing process of an open comminuted humerus fracture that helped demonstrate how amazingly the human body heals in a case presentation in a time-lapse fashion.

  12. 75 FR 29403 - Special Issuance of Airman Medical Certificates to Applicants Being Treated With Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... With Certain Antidepressant Medications; Re-Opening of Comment Period AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airmen medical certificates to applicants using certain antidepressant medication. The comment period is... Medical Certificates to Applicants Being Treated With Certain Antidepressant Medications.'' The FAA...

  13. Nanotechnology on duty in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kubik, T; Bogunia-Kubik, K; Sugisaka, M

    2005-02-01

    At the beginning of 21(st) century, fifty years after discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double helix structure, scientific world is faced with a great progress in many disciplines of biological research, especially in the field of molecular biology and operating on nucleid acid molecules. Many molecular biology techniques have been implemented successfully in biology, biotechnology, medical science, diagnostics, and many more. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted in improving old and designing new laboratory devices for PCR amplification and analysis of amplified DNA fragments. In parallel to these efforts, the nature of DNA molecules and their construction have attracted many researchers. In addition, some studies concerning mimicking living systems, as well as developing and constructing artificial nanodevices, such as biomolecular sensors and artificial cells, have been conducted. This review is focused on the potential of nanotechnology in health care and medicine, including the development of nanoparticles for diagnostic and screening purposes, the manufacture of unique drug delivery systems, antisense and gene therapy applications and the enablement of tissue engineering, including the future of nanorobot construction.

  14. The application of Linear Cryptanalysis to Medical Information Security.

    PubMed

    Yunguang, Wang; Dong, Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the key issues of medical information security and is intended to spark discussion and generate comments for improvement. First we produce four definitions and one lemma of linear cryptanalysis about medical information, and then accordingly come to four important application of linear cryptanalysis to medical information security.

  15. Misrepresentation of Research Citations among Medical School Faculty Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goe, Leon C.; Herrera, Adriana M.; Mower, William R.

    1998-01-01

    A review of 250 faculty applicant bibliographies in 1995 from eight medical institutions representing six medical specialties investigated the legitimacy of each journal, abstract, and book citation, finding 56 misrepresented citations among 2149 verified articles, distributed among 39 applicants. Most were discrepancies in authorship order, and…

  16. Novel β-Lactamase blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae.

    PubMed

    Andreis, Sabrina N; Perreten, Vincent; Schwendener, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S. arlettae. Furthermore, a GenBank search revealed more unique potential β-lactamases in Staphylococcus species. IMPORTANCE Penicillins are an important group of antibiotics used to treat various types of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. So far, the blaZ gene was the only known β-lactamase gene in staphylococci. However, other putative β-lactamases were identified, and one of them was shown to be a novel functional β-lactamase encoded by blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae, further limiting treatment options.

  17. Novel β-Lactamase blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Sabrina N.; Schwendener, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S. arlettae. Furthermore, a GenBank search revealed more unique potential β-lactamases in Staphylococcus species. IMPORTANCE Penicillins are an important group of antibiotics used to treat various types of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. So far, the blaZ gene was the only known β-lactamase gene in staphylococci. However, other putative β-lactamases were identified, and one of them was shown to be a novel functional β-lactamase encoded by blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae, further limiting treatment options. PMID:28497118

  18. Application of Diffraction Enhanced Imaging to Medical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    to mammography and other areas of medical imaging . Prof. Chapman is a co-developer of the technique and intends to determine the applicability of... medical imaging . This award has allowed Prof. Chapman to: 1) explore the potential application of Diffraction Enhanced Imaging to mammography, 2...cancer research, and medical imaging , 4) explore the possibility of developing a dedicated imaging program at the Advanced Photon Source, with the

  19. Direct detection of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles by multiplex-touchdown PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, M-Y; Geng, J-L; Chen, Y-J; Song, Y; Sun, M; Liu, H-Z; Hu, C-J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and ESBL(Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase)-producing bacteria are the most important resistant pathogens in sepsis. In this study, a new multiplex-touchdown PCR method (MT-PCR) was developed to detect rapidly and simultaneously the presence of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles. The technique showed a sensitivity of 10(3 ) CFU ml(-1) for mecA detection and of 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) for other genes, and 100% specificity in the detection of all genes. All genes were detected in the spiked blood culture bottles artificially contaminated with reference strains. Three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), two methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) and 32 ESBL-producing bacteria, were isolated from the clinical blood culture specimens in 48 h by standard microbiological procedures. The corresponding genes were detected directly in the three MRSA, two MRSE and 29 ESBL-producing bacteria from the clinical blood culture specimens in 4 h by MT-PCR assay. None of the blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in three other bottles with ESBL-producing bacteria because of other ESBL genotypes in the pathogens. Likewise, all bottles proven negative by culture remained negative by PCR. The proposed method was rapid, sensitive and specific, and was able to directly detect the genes of MRS and ESBL-producing bacteria from the blood culture bottles. Many studies on the development of PCR for the detection of resistance genes have already been published, including multiplex PCR methods. However, cross-amplification reactions can be a major concern in multiplex PCR methods. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific multiplex-touchdown PCR assay for simultaneous detection of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles, cross-amplification was absent and false-positive results were not obtained. © 2016 The

  20. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii Harboring bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1) and bla(OXA-23) genes by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyung Sun; Lee, Jae Myun; Yoon, Sang Sun; Yong, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A rapid and sensitive test to detect CRPA and CRAB is required for appropriate antibiotic treatment. We optimized a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect the presence of bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23), which are critical components for carbapenem resistance. Two sets of primers, inner and outer primers, were manually designed as previously described. The LAMP buffer was optimized (at 2mM MgSO₄) by testing different concentrations of MgSO₄. The optimal reaction temperature and incubation time were determined by using a gradient thermocycler. Then, the optimized bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23) LAMP reactions were evaluated by using 120 P. aeruginosa and 99 A. baumannii clinical isolates. Only one strain of the 100 CRPA isolates harbored bla(IMP-1), whereas none of them harbored bla(VIM-2). These results indicate that the acquisition of bla(VIM-2) or bla(IMP-1) may not play a major role in carbapenem resistance in Korea. Fifty two strains of the 75 CRAB isolates contained bla(OXA-23), but none contained bla(VIM-2) and bla(IMP-1) alleles. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of LAMP for the diagnosis of CRPA and CRAB.

  1. Handheld Computer Application for Medical Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a prototype system that can provide reliable communications in the event of a medical disaster. The system uses redundant wireless protocols on handheld computers to deploy medical personnel, and to facilitate communication between ancillary treatment sites and a command center. PMID:17238551

  2. pRMH760, a precursor of A/C₂ plasmids carrying blaCMY and blaNDM genes.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of plasmids in the repA/C2 group carrying genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins (bla(CMY)) or to carbapenems (bla(NDM)) and cephalosporins (bla(CMY)), the sequence of plasmid pRMH760 that lacks the β-lactamase genes was determined and compared to all available A/C2 plasmid sequences. pRMH760 is 170.6 kb and carries several antibiotic resistance genes in a 45.1 kb complex transposon structure located upstream of the rhs gene. In plasmid pR148, the closest relative of pRMH760, the antibiotic resistance island is in the same position but the resistance genes differ. pRMH760 also contains a deletion in the rhs gene. Sequenced A/C2 plasmids containing bla(CMY) or bla(CMY) and bla(NDM) have backbones closely related to the pRMH760/pR148 backbone, and they include resistance islands in the same location, indicating that they arose from a plasmid related to pRMH760/pR148. However, the gene content of this resistance island differs in each case, and the island family was designated ARI-A. The bla(NDM) gene is within ARI-A. The ISEcp1-bla(CMY) fragment is located elsewhere and is always in the same location, consistent with a single acquisition event. Plasmids containing only bla(CMY) carry a second resistance island, designated ARI-B, which includes the sul2 gene and a variable set of further resistance genes. Nine A/C2 plasmids that were not of this type (type 1) were found to have a similar backbone that can be simply distinguished by the presence of two exchanged regions and two insertions. Antibiotic resistance islands in type 2 plasmids are in different locations and have different structures.

  3. MEMS/Nanotechnology Integration for Bio-Medical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    MEMS / Nanotechnology Integration for Bio-Medical Applications Klaus Schadow Schadow Technology 2896 Calle Heraldo San Clemente, CA 92673 E...mail: schadowkc@cox.net The integration of MEMS and nanotechnologies has resulted in new capabilities for environmental monitoring and bio-nano...applications, to identify chemical RTO-EN-AVT-129bis 9 - 1 Schadow, K. (2007) MEMS / Nanotechnology Integration for Bio-Medical Applications

  4. Social marketing: application to medical education.

    PubMed

    David, S P; Greer, D S

    2001-01-16

    Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated.

  5. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible

  6. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  7. ISCR2, Another Vehicle for blaVEB Gene Acquisition▿

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, Laurent; Mugnier, Pauline D.; Toleman, Mark A.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Rapoport, Melina J.; Petroni, Alejandro; Nordmann, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaVEB-1, identified worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is associated with either class 1 integrons or repeated elements. We report here the first association of blaVEB-1a with the insertion sequence ISCR2 in six Acinetobacter species isolates recovered from Argentina. That genetic structure was likely at the origin of the mobilization of this ESBL gene. PMID:19704129

  8. Application of Stereo-Imaging Technology to Medical Field

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. Methods We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Results Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. Conclusions The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices. PMID:23115737

  9. Application of stereo-imaging technology to medical field.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-09-01

    There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices.

  10. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the ISAba1-bla OXA-23,51 and ISAba1-bla ADC-7 genes in Monteria, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pedro; Mattar, Salim

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/bla OXA-23, ISAba1/bla OXA-51 and ISAba1/bla ADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2-7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried bla OXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the bla ADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1/ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Characteristics of Various blaPER Genes in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lianyan; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Fangfang; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    We describe the genetic characteristics and possible transmission mechanism of blaPER in 25 clinical Gram-negative bacilli in Shanghai. blaPER, including blaPER-1, blaPER-3, and blaPER-4, was located chromosomally or in different plasmids. Tn1213 harboring blaPER-1 was first identified in two Proteus mirabilis isolates in China. The other blaPER variants were preceded by an ISCR1 element inside the complex class 1 integron associated with IS26, Tn21, Tn1696, and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element. PMID:27067315

  12. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant for reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance, during his or her lifetime, and within 5 years after the date... physical examination may be required. Applications for reinstatement submitted after expiration of the...

  13. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant for reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance, during his or her lifetime, and within 5 years after the date... physical examination may be required. Applications for reinstatement submitted after expiration of the...

  14. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant for reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance, during his or her lifetime, and within 5 years after the date... physical examination may be required. Applications for reinstatement submitted after expiration of the...

  15. Solid state dye laser for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldag, Henry R.

    1994-06-01

    The development of solid state dye lasers could lead to a major breakthrough in the cost and compactness of a medical device. Advantages include: elimination of the flow system for the gain medium; ease with which to implement wavelength agility or the replacement of a degraded rod or sheet; and toxicity and flammability become a non-issue. Dye lasers have played a role in cardiology, dermatology, and urology. Of these cardiology is of interest to Palomar. The Palomar Model 3010 flashlamp-pumped dye laser medical device was used during phase 1 FDA clinical trials to break-up blood clots that cause heart attacks, a process known as coronary laser thrombolysis. It is the objective of this research and development effort to produce solid matrix lasers that will replace liquid dye lasers in these medical specialties.

  16. Using CASIP to Assess Aptitudes of Medical Students and of Applicants to Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Anbar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the use of CASIP, an authoring language for CAI materials with unrestricted natural language input, to produce brief tests that assess in an objective and standardized manner a variety of aptitudes in medical students, residents or applicants to medical school. These aptitudes include decisiveness, methodical thinking, ethical values, crisis management ability, persistence, combativeness, and ease of frustration.

  17. Application of data mining to medical risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Yokoyama, Shigeki

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an application of data mining to medical risk management, where data mining techniques were applied to detection, analysis and evaluation of risks potentially existing in clinical environments. We applied this technique to the following two medical domains: risk aversion of nurse incidents and infection control. The results show that data mining methods were effective to detection and aversion of risk factors.

  18. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  19. Capillary waveguide optrodes for Medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieslinger, Dietmar; Weigl, Bernhard H.; Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1997-01-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. The capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Different optical setups have been investigated and compared regarding its waveguiding properties.

  20. Medical technology management: from planning to application.

    PubMed

    David, Y; Jahnke, E

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively manage their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for optimizing costs of ownership of all equipment. Clinical engineers can identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They can review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with cost accounting analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. Cost accounting analysis is a multivariate function that includes determining the amount, based upon a strategic plan and financial resources, of funding to be allocated annually for medical equipment acquisition and replacement. Often this function works closely with clinical engineering to establish equipment useful life and prioritization of acquisition, upgrade, and replacement of inventory within budget confines and without conducting time consuming, individual financial capital project evaluations.

  1. [Current problems of information technologies application for forces medical service].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Korneenkov, A A; Bogomolov, V D; Borisov, D N; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-06-01

    The modern information technologies are the key factors for the upgrading of forces medical service. The aim of this article is the analysis of prospective information technologies application for the upgrading of forces medical service. The authors suggested 3 concepts of information support of Russian military health care on the basis of data about information technologies application in the foreign armed forces, analysis of the regulatory background, prospects of military-medical service and gathered experience of specialists. These three concepts are: development of united telecommunication network of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation medical service, working out and implementation of standard medical information systems for medical units and establishments, monitoring the military personnel health state and military medical service resources. It is noted that on the assumption of sufficient centralized financing and industrial implementation of the military medical service prospective information technologies, by the year 2020 the united information space of the military medical service will be created and the target information support effectiveness will be achieved.

  2. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  3. Development of new scintillators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, Paul

    2016-02-01

    For a long time the discovery of new scintillators has been more serendipitous than driven by a deep understanding of the mechanisms at the origin of the scintillation process. This situation has dramatically changed since the 1990's with an increased demand for scintillators of better performance for large particle physics experiments as well as for medical imaging. It is now possible to design a scintillator for a specific purpose. The bandgap can be adjusted, the traps energy levels and their concentration can be finely tuned and their influence can be damped or on the contrary enhanced by specific doping for an optimization of the performance of the scintillator. Several examples are given in this paper of such crystal engineering attempts to improve the performance of crystal scintillators used in medical imaging devices. An attention is also given to spectacular progress in crystal production technologies, which open new perspectives for large scale and cost effective crystal production with consistent quality.

  4. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.

  5. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Akio; SORA, Shigeo; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; HARADA, Kanako; SUGITA, Naohiko; SAITO, Nobuhito; MITSUISHI, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care. PMID:27464471

  6. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2016-10-15

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  7. Optical properties of plastic materials for medical vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanova, N. G.; Kasarova, S. N.; Nikolov, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    Several types of optical polymer materials suitable for ophthalmic or medical vision applications have been studied. We have measured refractive indices of studied plastics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Important optical characteristics as Abbe numbers, dispersion coefficients and curves, principal and relative partial dispersion have been evaluated. Calculated refractometric data at many laser emission wavelengths used for medical surgery, therapy and diagnostics is included. As an example of a medical vision application of plastics, optical design of a micro-triplet for use in disposable endoscopes is presented.

  8. Rapid and direct real-time detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Kohner, Peggy C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K; Patel, Robin

    2013-11-01

    We assessed the performance of a duplex real-time PCR assay for bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) performed directly (D-PCR) on perianal and perirectal swabs and stool. Spiked specimens and 126 clinical surveillance swabs (comprising a sensitivity panel of 46 perirectal double swabs previously determined to be culture positive for bla(KPC)-PCR-positive Enterobacteriaceae and a specificity panel of 80 perianal swabs from patients at risk of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [CPE] colonization) were studied. For the surveillance swabs, D-PCR was compared to PCR after broth enrichment (BE-PCR) and two culture-based methods: the HardyCHROM ESBL agar (HC-A) and the CDC screening (CDC-A) methods. PCR was performed on morphologically distinct colonies that were isolated by culture. All of the initial PCR testing was done without extraction using a simple lysis procedure. The analytical sensitivities of D-PCR for bla(KPC) were 9 CFU/μl (for swabs) and 90 CFU/μl (for stool), and for bla(NDM), it was 1.9 CFU/μl (for both swabs and stool). In the clinical sensitivity panel, D-PCR and BE-PCR were initially positive for bla(KPC) in 41/46 (89.1%) and 43/46 (93.5%) swabs, respectively. The swabs that were initially negative by D-PCR (n = 5) and BE-PCR (n = 3) were visibly stool soiled; all swabs were bla(KPC) positive upon repeat testing after lysate extraction. The CDC-A and HC-A yielded bla(KPC)-positive Enterobacteriaceae from 36/46 (78.3%) and 35/46 (76.1%) swabs, respectively (sensitivities of D-PCR/BE-PCR postextraction of soiled specimens versus HC-A, P = 0.0009, and versus CDC-A, P = 0.0016). All swabs in the specificity panel were negative for CPE by all four methods. D-PCR allows for the timely detection of bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) carriage with excellent sensitivity when specimens visibly soiled with stool undergo preparatory extraction.

  9. Rapid and Direct Real-Time Detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from Surveillance Samples

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the performance of a duplex real-time PCR assay for blaKPC and blaNDM performed directly (D-PCR) on perianal and perirectal swabs and stool. Spiked specimens and 126 clinical surveillance swabs (comprising a sensitivity panel of 46 perirectal double swabs previously determined to be culture positive for blaKPC-PCR-positive Enterobacteriaceae and a specificity panel of 80 perianal swabs from patients at risk of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [CPE] colonization) were studied. For the surveillance swabs, D-PCR was compared to PCR after broth enrichment (BE-PCR) and two culture-based methods: the HardyCHROM ESBL agar (HC-A) and the CDC screening (CDC-A) methods. PCR was performed on morphologically distinct colonies that were isolated by culture. All of the initial PCR testing was done without extraction using a simple lysis procedure. The analytical sensitivities of D-PCR for blaKPC were 9 CFU/μl (for swabs) and 90 CFU/μl (for stool), and for blaNDM, it was 1.9 CFU/μl (for both swabs and stool). In the clinical sensitivity panel, D-PCR and BE-PCR were initially positive for blaKPC in 41/46 (89.1%) and 43/46 (93.5%) swabs, respectively. The swabs that were initially negative by D-PCR (n = 5) and BE-PCR (n = 3) were visibly stool soiled; all swabs were blaKPC positive upon repeat testing after lysate extraction. The CDC-A and HC-A yielded blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae from 36/46 (78.3%) and 35/46 (76.1%) swabs, respectively (sensitivities of D-PCR/BE-PCR postextraction of soiled specimens versus HC-A, P = 0.0009, and versus CDC-A, P = 0.0016). All swabs in the specificity panel were negative for CPE by all four methods. D-PCR allows for the timely detection of blaKPC and blaNDM carriage with excellent sensitivity when specimens visibly soiled with stool undergo preparatory extraction. PMID:23966498

  10. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  11. [Application of HIS Hospital Management System in Medical Equipment].

    PubMed

    Li, Yucheng

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the effect of HIS hospital management system in medical equipment. From April 2012 to 2013 in our hospital 5 100 sets of medical equipment as the control group, another 2013 in our hospital from April 2014 may 100 sets of medical equipment as the study group, comparative analysis of two groups of medical equipment scrap rate, usage, maintenance score and the score of benefit etc. Control group and taken to hospital information system, his research group equipment scrap rate, there was a significant difference, the research group of equipment maintenance score and efficiency scores were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05), the study group of equipment maintenance score and efficiency scores were higher than those of the control group. HIS hospital management system for medical equipment management has positive clinical application value, can effectively improve the use of medical equipment, it is worth to draw and promote.

  12. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  13. Learning and Career Specialty Preferences of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Terry D.; Witzke, Donald B.; Elam, Carol L.; Cheever, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined relationships among medical school applicants' preferred approaches to learning, methods of instruction, and specialty areas (n=912). Based on confidential responses to a progressive series of paired comparisons, applicants' preferences for lecture (L), self-study (SS), group discussion (GD), and computers (C) were…

  14. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  15. Learning and Career Specialty Preferences of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Terry D.; Witzke, Donald B.; Elam, Carol L.; Cheever, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined relationships among medical school applicants' preferred approaches to learning, methods of instruction, and specialty areas (n=912). Based on confidential responses to a progressive series of paired comparisons, applicants' preferences for lecture (L), self-study (SS), group discussion (GD), and computers (C) were…

  16. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  17. CAVASS: a framework for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George; Udupa, Jayaram; Odhner, Dewey

    2009-10-01

    Computer Aided Visualization and Analysis Software System (CAVASS) is an open-source software system that is being developed by the Medical Image Processing Group (MIPG) at the University of Pennsylvania. CAVASS is freely available, open source, integrated with popular toolkits, and runs on Windows, Unix, Linux, and Mac OS. It includes extremely efficient of the most commonly used image display, manipulation, and processing operations. Parallel implementations of computationally demanding tasks such as deformable registration are provided as well using the inexpensive COW (Cluster of Workstations) model. CAVASS also seamlessly integrates and interfaces with ITK and provides a graphical user interface for ITK as well. CAVASS can easily interface with a PACS by directly reading and writing medical images in the industry standard DICOM format and can also input and output other common image formats as well. We describe the key features, general software architecture, interface with ITK, parallel architecture, and the CAVASS build and test environment. New stereo rendering capabilities are described as well.

  18. Application of computerized adaptive testing in medical education.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2009-06-01

    Application of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in medical education is still spare in the high stakes examination or in the school-based examination. In the medical school in Belgium, CAT was used for an assessment tool in general practice as pilot test was reported. In Hallym University, CAT has been introduced in the evaluation of the students' performance as in-course general evaluation test and parasitology test. Another examples of application of CAT for high stakes examination are Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination - Part 1 in Canada and National Council Licensure EXamination - Registered Nurse in USA. CAT has some merits such as accurate estimation of the ability parameters of the examinees and the shorter period of examination. To apply the CAT in medical education more actively, medical teachers should have an interest in the modern measurement theories such as item response theory and technologies. It is still uncertain if CAT may be prosperous in the medical education as a tool for the measurement of the examinees' ability. However, we should prepare the era of application of CAT in high stakes examination such as medical licensing examination.

  19. Development of NO Generator for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namihira, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Okamoto, Kazufumi

    Since NO was identified as effective in treatments involving endothelium-derived relaxing factor in 1987, inhalation of NO (iNO) has been widely used in the medical treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury, high blood pressure, and other related illnesses. Current iNO systems usually include a gas cylinder of N2 with a high concentration of NO. This system has an inherent risk of generating nitric dioxide (NO2) if leaked NO mixes with air. NO2 is thought to be toxic to the lungs. Therefore, a system that does not include storage of NO is very desirable for administering iNO. In this paper, Prototype of On-site NO generator, which includes a discharge reactor, a NO2-NO catalyst, a charcoal and a particle filter, is developed for animal experiments.

  20. Requirements for dry hard copy in medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Langhe, Dirk; De Clerck, Marc; Tytgat, Bart; McLain, Jim; Defieuw, Geert; Verdonck, Emiel

    1996-03-01

    Today, dry process and color printers are more and more common in medical applications. The main applications for these printers are in ultrasound, nuclear medicine, medical imaging workstations and endoscopy. Each of these disciplines has its specific application requirements. Image quality and other considerations with regard to medical applications are discussed. Although the emphasis in medical imaging lies within grayscale imaging, the increased use of techniques such as doppler imaging, power doppler in ultrasound and image processing with workstations, intensify the need for high quality color output on hardcopy. For the radiology department, hardcopy must be of diagnostic quality and suitable for light box viewing. The different criteria to meet these requirements such as resolution, noise, density and physical properties are discussed. Also a short description of the implementation in the Agfa DRYSTAR 2000TM printer and its consumables will be explained. The achieved quality level will be supported by measurements. Starting from specific image processing for grayscale imaging (such as Look Up Tables) and specific imaging processing for color imaging, a new dedicated image processing method for medical dry hard copy will be presented. Both optimal grayscale imaging and color imaging combined are needed in ultrasound. In relation to this item, some non resolved issues will be explained. As a conclusion, a brief presentation of a hospital application test, validating the system for diagnostic purposes is given.

  1. Wide dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Ten bla(KPC-2)-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded bla(AmpC) and bla(OXA-50) genes and the acquired bla(KPC-2) gene. In most cases, the bla(KPC-2) genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing bla(KPC-2) are disseminating in Colombia.

  2. Wide Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing β-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene in Colombia▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Ten blaKPC-2-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded blaAmpC and blaOXA-50 genes and the acquired blaKPC-2 gene. In most cases, the blaKPC-2 genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing blaKPC-2 are disseminating in Colombia. PMID:21844315

  3. Nanomedicine: application of nanobiotechnology in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Jain, K K

    2008-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanobiotechnologies to medicine. This article starts with the basics of nanobiotechnology, followed by its applications in molecular diagnostics, nanodiagnostics, and improvements in the discovery, design and delivery of drugs, including nanopharmaceuticals. It will improve biological therapies such as vaccination, cell therapy and gene therapy. Nanobiotechnology forms the basis of many new devices being developed for medicine and surgery such as nanorobots. It has applications in practically every branch of medicine and examples are presented of those concerning cancer (nanooncology), neurological disorders (nanoneurology), cardiovascular disorders (nanocardiology), diseases of bones and joints (nanoorthopedics), diseases of the eye (nanoophthalmology), and infectious diseases. Safety issues of in vivo use of nanomaterials are also discussed. Nanobiotechnology will facilitate the integration of diagnostics with therapeutics and facilitate the development of personalized medicine, i.e. prescription of specific therapeutics best suited for an individual. Many of the developments have already started and within a decade a definite impact will be felt in the practice of medicine. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels. PMID:27877320

  5. Occurrence of blaNDM-1 & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Balvinder; Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Sandhu, Harkiran Kaur; Appannanavar, Suma B.; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases is increasingly being reported worldwide. This study was conducted to know the occurrence of important carbapenem resistance encoding genes in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) causing complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI), and to look at the genetic diversity of these isolates. Methods: The study was carried out on 166 consecutive carbapenem resistant uropathogens (CRU) isolated from cases with CUTI during 2008 and 2012. Carbapenemase production was characterized phenotypically and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, and blaNDM-1. BOX- PCR was done on 80 randomly selected isolates for molecular typing. Results: The blaVIM gene was present in 34 (43.6%), blaIMP in five (6.4%) and none of the isolates from 2008 had blaNDM-1 or blaKPC genes. Among the isolates from 2012, blaNDM-1 gene was present in 47 (53.4%), blaVIM in 19 (24.4%), blaIMP in one (1.1%) and none had blaKPC. There were nine isolates during the two years which had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases; while 66 did not have any of the genes tested. Of the 80 isolates subjected to BOX-PCR, 58 could be used for analysis and showed, presence of multiple clusters of carbapenem resistant isolates and absence of a single dominant clone. Interpretation & conclusions: The blaNDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The blaKPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time. PMID:26458351

  6. Occurrence of blaNDM-₁ & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Balvinder; Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Sandhu, Harkiran Kaur; Appannanavar, Suma B; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases is increasingly being reported worldwide. This study was conducted to know the occurrence of important carbapenem resistance encoding genes in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) causing complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI), and to look at the genetic diversity of these isolates. The study was carried out on 166 consecutive carbapenem resistant uropathogens (CRU) isolated from cases with CUTI during 2008 and 2012. Carbapenemase production was characterized phenotypically and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect bla VIM , bla IMP , bla KPC , and bla NDM-1 . BOX- PCR was done on 80 randomly selected isolates for molecular typing. The bla VIM gene was present in 34 (43.6%), bla IMP in five (6.4%) and none of the isolates from 2008 had bla NDM-1 or bla KPC genes. Among the isolates from 2012, bla NDM-1 gene was present in 47 (53.4%), bla VIM in 19 (24.4%), bla IMP in one (1.1%) and none had bla KPC . There were nine isolates during the two years which had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases; while 66 did not have any of the genes tested. Of the 80 isolates subjected to BOX-PCR, 58 could be used for analysis and showed, presence of multiple clusters of carbapenem resistant isolates and absence of a single dominant clone. The bla NDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The bla KPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time.

  7. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results:K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China.

  8. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results: K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China. PMID:28210248

  9. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  10. Wireless power transmission for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Josh; Song, Kyo D.; Yang, Sang Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Park, Yeonjoon; Choi, Sang H.

    2009-03-01

    We studied the wireless power transmission capabilities of microwave through human skin-tissue. Microwave transmission through simulated human skins was tested with rectenna array as a power receiver located under the simulated human skin tissue. Most of transplanted medical devices and sensors require power to operate autonomously but currently by imbedded battery. Wireless power transmission alleviates the needs of imbedded power source and hard-wire power network. We used human skin-like materials, such as various polyurethanes and pork skin, under X-band microwave exposure. Transmission rate through various polyurethanes under the threshold limit value (TLV) and dielectric constant was measured in this experiment. It is also critical to measure specific absorption rates (SAR) of polyurethanes and transmission rates through polyurethanes as well as pork skin. This paper presents power transmission rates under varying thickness of polyurethanes, and effectiveness and efficiency of rectennas under the TLV of microwave power. In addition, we will discuss milimeter wave thermograph and hazards the absorption characteristics of human skin under 8-13 GHz using the results of polyurethanes and pork skin.

  11. Energy sources and their development for application in medical devices.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Phee, Louis Soo Jay

    2010-09-01

    Electronic medical devices have become an indispensable part of modern healthcare. Currently, a wide variety of electronic medical devices are being used to monitor physiological parameters of the body, perform therapy and supplement or even entirely replace complex biological functions. Cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter-defibrillators and cochlear implants are a few examples of such medical devices. Proper functionality of these devices relies heavily on the continuous supply of a sufficient amount of electricity to them. In this sense, a reliable, safe and convenient method for the provision of energy is very crucial. Various approaches have been developed to fulfil the divergent and challenging energy requirements of medical devices. In this article, we present a brief overview of the energy requirements of medical devices and review the existing and emerging energy sources for application in these devices, particularly wearable and implantable devices.

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla NDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-09-01

    Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla NDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ≥8 μg/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of bla NDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B.

  13. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema

    Tijana Rajh

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  14. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangpeng; Li, Qingtao; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm MQ

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver particles (NSPs), are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs’ biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed. PMID:24876773

  15. Service-oriented architecture for grid-enabling medical applications.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Anca; Kootstra, René; van Leeuwen, Jasper; Obbink, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Grid technologies have the potential to enable healthcare organizations to efficiently use powerful tools, applications and resources, many of which were so far inaccessible to them. This paper introduces a service-oriented architecture meant to Grid-enable several classes of computationally intensive medical applications for improved performance and cost-effective access to resources. We apply this architecture to fiber tracking [1,2], a computationally intensive medical application suited for parallelization through decomposition, and carry out experiments with various sets of parameters, in realistic environments and with standard network solutions. Furthermore, we deploy and assess our solution in a hospital environment, at the Amsterdam Medical Center, as part of our cooperation in the Dutch VL-e project. Our results show that parallelization and Grid execution may bring significant performance improvements and that the overhead introduced by making use of remote, distributed resources is relatively small.

  16. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Tijana Rajh

    2009-10-14

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  17. Present and future medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Moscovici, Misu

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-20th century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan – as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan – in capsules and oral care products). Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment, or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well-suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral) characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a broad future ahead

  18. Present and future medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Misu

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-20th century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan - as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan - in capsules and oral care products). Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment, or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well-suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral) characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a broad future ahead.

  19. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Erli, Hans J; Marx, Rudolf; Paar, Othmar; Niethard, Fritz U; Weber, Michael; Wirtz, Dieter C

    2003-01-01

    Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties) usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m). This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body. PMID:14561228

  20. Worldwide diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Truong, HaVy; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wisell, Karin T; Carmeli, Yehuda; Gales, Ana C; Venezia, Shiri Navon; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniaeisolates that produce carbapenemases (KPCs) are rapidly disseminating worldwide. To determine their genetic background, we investigated 16 blaKPC-2-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates from 5 countries. The isolates were multidrug resistant, possessed the blaKPC-2 gene, and differed by additional Beta-lactamase content. They harbored a naturally chromosome-encoded bla gene (blaSHV-1 [12.5%], blaSHV-11 [68.7%], or blaOKP-AVB [18.8%]) and several acquired and plasmid-encoded genes (blaTEM-1 [81.3%], blaCTX-M-2 [31.3%], blaCTX-M-12 [12.5%], blaCTX-M-15 [18.7%], and blaOXA-9 [37.5%]). The blaKPC-2 gene was always associated with 1 of the Tn4401 isoforms (a, b, or c). Tn4401 was inserted on different-sized plasmids that belonged to different incompatibility groups. Several blaKPC-containing K. pneumoniae clones were found: 9 different pulsotypes with 1 major (sequence type 258) and 7 minor distinct allelic profiles. Different clones harboring different plasmids but having identical genetic structure, Tn4401, could be at the origin of the worldwide spread of this emerging resistance gene.

  1. Micro- and nanoparticles--medical applications.

    PubMed

    Jătariu, Anca; Peptu, Cătălina; Popa, M; Indrei, Anca

    2009-01-01

    It is a long-standing need of the pharmaceutical industry, physicians, and patients to improve pharmaceutical formulations by establishing simpler, less expensive preparations and treatments, while reducing toxicity. This need can be met with the know-how of drug delivery science that has already made advance developments in improved delivery of injectibles, oral formulations, drug device implants, as well as topical and transdermal delivery formulations, especially in the case of drug delivery to the brain, an untouchable region by traditional drug delivery systems. The reason behind the failure of conventional delivery systems in reaching the brain is the blood brain barrier (BBB) composed of tight tissues making it impervious to outside agents. Nanotechnology has the potential to address and resolve this challenge and make brain a reachable target for drug delivery systems, by combining unique elements of size, surface activity and charge of nanostructures. Micro and nanoparticles have opened up unexpected ways in diagnostics and therapeutics in medicine. The previous treatment strategies in the fields of autoimmune diseases and cancer involved non-targeted treatment options with extensive "collateral damage." Nanodelivery of drugs is predicted to reduce this collateral damage, extend the drug's availability and effectiveness at the site, and reduce toxicity and cost with a high pay-off load. In this review we present the role of micro and nanoparticles in drug delivery and some applications in the health care fields.

  2. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  3. Nanoporous hard carbon membranes for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Roger J; Jin, Chunming; Menegazzo, Nicola; Mizaikoff, Boris; Gerhardt, Rosario A; Andara, Melanie; Agarwal, Arvind; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Current blood glucose sensors have proven to be inadequate for long term in vivo applications; membrane biofouling and inflammation play significant roles in sensor instability. An ideal biosensor membrane material must prevent protein adsorption and promote integration of the sensor with the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, biosensor membranes must be sufficiently thin and porous in order to allow the sensor to rapidly respond to fluctuations in analyte concentration. In this study, the use of diamondlike carbon-coated anodized aluminum oxide as a potential biosensor membrane is discussed. Diamondlike carbon films and diamondlike carbon-coated anodized aluminum oxide nanoporous membranes were examined using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and platelet rich plasma testing. The diamondlike carbon-coated anodized aluminum oxide membranes remained free from protein adsorption during in vitro platelet rich plasma testing. We anticipate that this novel membrane could find use in immunoisolation devices, pacemakers, kidney dialysis membranes, microdialysis systems, and other devices facing biocompatibility issues that limit in vivo function.

  4. Medical applications studies at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.; Lang, C.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Negoita, F.; Zamfir, V.

    2011-05-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in (γ, γ) photoexcitation reactions or (γ, xn+yp) photonuclear reactions for the examples of 195mPt,117mSn and 44Ti with high flux [(1013 - 1015)γ/s], small beam diameter and small energy band width (ΔE/E ~ 10-3 - 10-4) γ beams. In order to realize an optimum γ-focal spot, a refractive γ-lens consisting of a stack of many concave micro-lenses will be used. It allows for the production of a high specific activity and the use of enriched isotopes. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow γ beam, the energy deposition in the target can be reduced by using a stack of thin target wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton electrons and e+e- pairs. The well-defined initial excitation energy of the compound nucleus leads to a small number of reaction channels and enables new combinations of target isotope and final radioisotope. The narrow-bandwidth γ excitation may make use of collective resonances in γ-width, leading to increased cross sections. (γ, γ) isomer production via specially selected γ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. The produced isotopes will open the way for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes. For example 195mPt could be used to verify the patient's response to chemotherapy with platinum compounds before a complete treatment is performed. In targeted radionuclide therapy the short-range Auger and conversion electrons of 195mPt and 117mSn enable a very local treatment. The generator 44Ti allows for a PET with an additional γ-quantum (γ-PET), resulting in a reduced dose or better spatial resolution.

  5. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  6. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  7. High illuminance light-emitting diode headlight for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ui-Hyung; Jung, Jae-hun; Park, Seung Hyun; Lee, Gye Seon; Ju, Young-Gu

    2010-11-01

    High brightness light emitting diodes have been used to develop high illuminance headlight for medical applications. It provides various advantages such as high illuminance, long life time, reduced infra red light, extended operation time with battery and light weight. A 3 W LED was employed to achieve the high performance medical headlight. The optical design includes two lenses for high energy transmission and high illuminance. The LED headlight shows 42,000 lux with spot diameter of 80 mm at the distance of 300 mm. For comparison purpose, 5 W LED was also used to obtain the high illuminance headlight. However, the large divergence angle and large spot size of the 5 W LED limits the illuminance to 31,000 lux with increased burden on heat dissipation. The thermal images of the heat sinks indicate that the temperature of the headlight using a 3 W LED is below 50 degree C, which is suitable for medical applications.

  8. Time-of-flight spectroscopy for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinski, Jerzy

    2004-08-01

    The paper presents benefits of optical time-of-flight spectroscopy for medical applications. It also presents the principles of measurement and describes how the basic optical properties of tissue can be estimated from measured data. The potential of time-of-flight spectroscopy is demonstrated, based on measurements conducted for highly scattering materials, such as paper samples, technological liquids from paper mills and aqueous milk solutions. Picosecond semiconductor pulse lasers and fast light detectors (a streak camera and an avalanche photodiode working in Geiger mode) were used. Obtained results show that it is possible to construct a new type of optic fiber sensors for medical applications. The chief advantage of the sensors is their ability to perform measurements in difficult to reach places (e.g. inside human body). Moreover, it is expected that fiber optic sensors based on time-of-flight spectroscopy will significantly reduce the costs of medical diagnosis.

  9. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  10. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  11. [Applications of polylactide and its copolymers in medical device fields].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefei; Pang, Xiubing; Wu, Kan

    2014-07-01

    Polylactide and its copolymers are a kind of biomedical material andhave been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This paper briefly introduces its applications in surgical suture, orthopedics, plastic surgery, ophthalmology and other medical device fields, and also analyzes its development in our country.

  12. Uncertainties in the Selection of Applicants for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about admissions to medical school are based on assessments of the applicants' cognitive achievements and non-cognitive traits. Admission criteria are expected to be fair, transparent, evidence-based and legally defensible. However, unlike cognitive criteria, which are highly reliable and moderately valid, the reliability and validity of…

  13. Study on the medical application of silver material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min; Li, Shan

    2008-12-01

    There are several ways to kill the bacterium and treat the wound by use of silver material. The silver material also is a kind of sedative to keep people calm, especially for children. Because the bacterium resistance to the action of drug, the medical application of silver material should be paid attention to.

  14. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  17. Space and Medical Applications of the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perl, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Geant4 is a toolkit to simulate the passage of particles through matter. While Geant4 was developed for High Energy Physics (HEP), applications now include Nuclear, Medical and Space Physics. Medical applications have been increasing rapidly due to the overall growth of Monte Carlo in Medical Physics and the unique qualities of Geant4 as an all-particle code able to handle complex geometry, motion and fields with the flexibility of modern programming and an open free source code. Work has included characterizing beams and sources, treatment planning and imaging. The all-particle nature of Geant4 has made it popular for the newest modes of radiation treatment: Proton and Particle therapy. Geant4 has been used by ESA, NASA and JAXA to study radiation effects to spacecraft and personnel. The flexibility of Geant4 has enabled teams to incorporate it into their own applications (SPENVIS MULASSIS space environment from QinetiQ and ESA, RADSAFE simulation from Vanderbilt University and NASA). We provide an overview of applications and discuss how Geant4 has responded to specific challenges of moving from HEP to Medical and Space Physics, including recent work to extend Geant4's energy range to low dose radiobiology.

  18. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  19. Miniature pin-type lithium batteries for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Mikito; Saraswat, Ashok; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Yumoto, Hiroyuki; Skinlo, David M.; Takeya, Kaname; Tsukamoto, Hisashi

    Miniature pin-type batteries featuring lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry and lithium/CF x chemistry have been developed for implantable medical applications. The characteristics of these batteries include hermeticity, small volume, and high power. Optimizing the jellyroll configuration and battery electrode design allows small volumes and high power.

  20. Clinical simulators: applications and implications for rural medical education.

    PubMed

    Ypinazar, V A; Margolis, S A

    2006-01-01

    Medical education has undergone significant changes globally. Calls for the revitalisation of centuries old pathways of learning have resulted in innovative medical curricula. Didactic modes of teaching which involved the learning of copious amounts of facts have given way to curricula that focus on the horizontal and vertical integration of basic and clinical sciences. Increasing concern for patient care and safety has led to a 'gap' between the needs of medical students to acquire necessary psychomotor skills and the safety and wellbeing of the patient. This has resulted in alternate teaching methods that include non-patient based training for the acquisition of clinical skills. The use of computerised, full-sized human simulators provides medical students with the necessary psychomotor and clinical reasoning skills in a realistic learning environment, while remaining risk free to patients. These clinical simulators are powerful learning tools that have applications at all levels of medical education across multiple disciplines, emphasising the multidisciplinary approach required in many medical situations. This article reviews the literature on medical simulation and provides the contextual basis for the establishment of a Clinical Simulation Learning Centre (CSLC) in a rural clinical school in Australia. The educational program, as well as the design, layout and equipment of the CSLC are described, as well as implications for rural practitioners. The CSLC has been a major capital investment in a relatively under-resourced part of regional Australia and has provided opportunities for ongoing education across a range of healthcare professionals in the community.

  1. Integrated medication management in mHealth applications.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Hubert; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Kastner, Peter; Schreier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Continuous medication monitoring is essential for successful management of heart failure patients. Experiences with the recently established heart failure network HerzMobil Tirol show that medication monitoring limited to heart failure specific drugs could be insufficient, in particular for general practitioners. Additionally, some patients are confused about monitoring only part of their prescribed drugs. Sometimes medication will be changed without informing the responsible physician. As part of the upcoming Austrian electronic health record system ELGA, the eMedication system will collect prescription and dispensing data of drugs and these data will be accessible to authorized healthcare professionals on an inter-institutional level. Therefore, we propose two concepts on integrated medication management in mHealth applications that integrate ELGA eMedication and closed-loop mHealth-based telemonitoring. As a next step, we will implement these concepts and analyze--in a feasibility study--usability and practicability as well as legal aspects with respect to automatic data transfer from the ELGA eMedication service.

  2. Advanced Imaging and Robotics Technologies for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamune, Ken; Hong, Jaesung

    2011-10-01

    Due to the importance of surgery in the medical field, a large amount of research has been conducted in this area. Imaging and robotics technologies provide surgeons with the advanced eye and hand to perform their surgeries in a safer and more accurate manner. Recently medical images have been utilized in the operating room as well as in the diagnostic stage. If the image to patient registration is done with sufficient accuracy, medical images can be used as "a map" for guidance to the target lesion. However, the accuracy and reliability of the surgical navigation system should be sufficiently verified before applying it to the patient. Along with the development of medical imaging, various medical robots have also been developed. In particular, surgical robots have been researched in order to reach the goal of minimal invasiveness. The most important factors to consider are determining the demand, the strategy for their use in operating procedures, and how it aids patients. In addition to the above considerations, medical doctors and researchers should always think from the patient's point of view. In this article, the latest medical imaging and robotic technologies focusing on surgical applications are reviewed based upon the factors described in the above.

  3. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L. )

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland, OR, Houston, TX, and Galveston, TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulation of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  4. The attenuation of cockroach allergy by DNA vaccine encoding cockroach allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Yuan, Jingdong; Zhou, Yixuan; Yang, Jun; James, Alan W; Nair, Usha; Shu, Xiji; Liu, Wei; Kanangat, Siva; Yoo, Tai June

    2012-01-01

    Bla g 2 is one of the most potent cockroach allergens. No effective treatment or vaccination strategies are yet available. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of Bla g 2 DNA vaccination in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. C57/BL6 mice were given Bla g 2 DNA vaccine prior to sensitization with recombinant Bla g 2 (rBla g 2) antigens, followed by nebulized rBla g 2 challenge. Bla g 2 vaccine could express at both transcriptional and translational levels in mammalian cells. Moreover, Bla g 2 vaccine significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell infiltrate and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and markedly decreased allergen-induced inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and Bla g 2-specific IgE in serum upon challenge with rBla g 2. Importantly, Bla g 2 vaccine could induce the production of antigen-specific IFN-γ and downregulated Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Thus, DNA vaccination showed protective efficacy against a clinically relevant allergen, Bla g 2.

  5. Transition of blaOXA-58-like to blaOXA-23-like in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in Southern China: An 8-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiyuan; He, Yi; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yuemei; Wu, Jinsong; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals has been increasing worldwide. This study aims to investigate the carbapenemase genes and the clonal relatedness among A. baumannii clinical isolates in a Chinese hospital. Methods Carbapenemase genes and the upstream locations of insertion sequences were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Results A total of 231 nonduplicate carbapenemase gene-harboring A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Shenzhen People’s Hospital, were investigated between 2002 and 2009. blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-40-like, and ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like were identified in 119, 107, 1, and 4 isolates, respectively. IS1008-ΔISAba3, ISAba3, and ISAba1 were detected upstream of the blaOXA-58-like gene in 69, 35, and 3 isolates, respectively. All blaOXA-23-like genes but one had an upstream insertion of ISAba1. blaOXA-58-like was the most common carbapenemase gene in A.baumannii before 2008, thereafter blaOXA-23-like became rapidly prevalent and replaced blaOXA-58-like in 2009. The majority of blaOXA-58-like-carrying isolates showed lower level of resistance to imipenem and meropenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml), compared with the majority of blaOXA-23-like-carrying isolates (MICs, 16 μg/ml to 64 μg/ml for both imipenem and meropenem). All 231 blaOXA carbapenemase gene-harboring isolates belonged to 14 PFGE types (A–N), and three dominant clones A, J, and H accounted for 43.3%, 42.0%, and 8.2% of the tested isolates, respectively. Clone A (sequence type ST92/ST208) with blaOXA-58-like was the most prevalent before 2008. Clone H (ST229) with blaOXA-23-like became striking between 2007 and 2008. Clone J (ST381) with blaOXA-23-like rapidly spread and replaced clones A and H in 2009. Conclusion This study is the first to

  6. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) use in human medical applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifei; Kubat, Nicole J; Isenberg, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    A number of electromagnetic field-based technologies are available for therapeutic medical applications. These therapies can be broken down into different categories based on technical parameters employed and type of clinical application. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) therapy is a non invasive, electromagnetic field-based therapeutic that is based on delivery of pulsed, shortwave radio frequency energy in the 13-27.12 MHz carrier frequency range, and designed for local application to a target tissue without the intended generation of deep heat. It has been studied for use in a number of clinical applications, including as a palliative treatment for both postoperative and non postoperative pain and edema, as well as in wound healing applications. This review provides an introduction to the therapy, a summary of clinical efficacy studies using the therapy in specific applications, and an overview of treatment-related safety.

  7. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  8. Carbon nanotubes: potential medical applications and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique atomic structure, as well as outstanding thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties, making them extremely attractive materials for several different applications. Many research groups are focusing on biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, however the application of CNTs to the biomedical field is not developing as fast as in other areas. While CNTs-based products are already being used in textiles, polymer matrices to strengthen materials, sports articles, microelectronics, energy storage, etc., medicinal products and medical devices for in vivo application based on CNTs have not been commercialized yet. However, CNTs for biomedical application, i.e., CNTs conjugated to siRNA for cancer therapy, or CNTs for imaging of colorectal cancer and many other products may enter clinical trials in the next years. Concerns related to the toxicity of CNTs must be overcome in order to have these products commercialized in a near future. This article reviews emerging biomedical applications of CNTs, specifically for therapy. It also deals with challenges associated with possible medical applications of CNTs, such as their not fully understood toxicological profile in the human body. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  10. Applications of artificial neural networks in medical science.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigneshkumar L; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2007-09-01

    Computer technology has been advanced tremendously and the interest has been increased for the potential use of 'Artificial Intelligence (AI)' in medicine and biological research. One of the most interesting and extensively studied branches of AI is the 'Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)'. Basically, ANNs are the mathematical algorithms, generated by computers. ANNs learn from standard data and capture the knowledge contained in the data. Trained ANNs approach the functionality of small biological neural cluster in a very fundamental manner. They are the digitized model of biological brain and can detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent as well as independent variables in a data where human brain may fail to detect. Nowadays, ANNs are widely used for medical applications in various disciplines of medicine especially in cardiology. ANNs have been extensively applied in diagnosis, electronic signal analysis, medical image analysis and radiology. ANNs have been used by many authors for modeling in medicine and clinical research. Applications of ANNs are increasing in pharmacoepidemiology and medical data mining. In this paper, authors have summarized various applications of ANNs in medical science.

  11. Software development for safety-critical medical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1992-01-01

    There are many computer-based medical applications in which safety and not reliability is the overriding concern. Reduced, altered, or no functionality of such systems is acceptable as long as no harm is done. A precise, formal definition of what software safety means is essential, however, before any attempt can be made to achieve it. Without this definition, it is not possible to determine whether a specific software entity is safe. A set of definitions pertaining to software safety will be presented and a case study involving an experimental medical device will be described. Some new techniques aimed at improving software safety will also be discussed.

  12. [Features of PHITS and its application to medical physics].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shintaro; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Iwase, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Furuta, Takuya; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    PHITS is a general purpose Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code to analyze the transport in three-dimensional phase space and collisions of nearly all particles, including heavy ions, over wide energy range up to 100 GeV/u. Various quantities, such as particle fluence and deposition energies in materials, can be deduced using estimator functions "tally". Recently, a microdosimetric tally function was also developed to apply PHITS to medical physics. Owing to these features, PHITS has been used for medical applications, such as radiation therapy and protection.

  13. WITS - A Coaxial Cable Bus Network for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    LaSonde, Clarence J.

    1980-01-01

    Walter Reed ARMY Medical Center has been serving as a Army test bed for coaxial cable-based local area networks since early 1978. This particular network, called the WRAMC Information Transfer System (WITS), carries commercial television, FM radio, closed-circuit TV and maintenance intercom audio, as well as digital data. The technology has proven successful. Broadband coaxial cable systems provide an opportunity to realize communications architectures that are flexible, highly reliable, and inexpensive. They are particularly appropriate for use in medical facilities where applications change over time and when many and varied systems are required to interact together.

  14. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network.

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN.

  15. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network

    PubMed Central

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN. PMID:26835422

  16. The physical metallurgy of nitinol for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Alan R.; Russell, Scott M.; Dicello, John

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current processing and resultant properties of Nitinol for medical device applications. The melting and fabrication of Nitinol present a number of unique challenges because of the strong sensitivity of the alloy system to chemistry and processing. The first part of this paper will summarize the effect of alloy fabrication on key material properties, vacuum-melting techniques, hot working, and cold working. The effects of the final shape-setting heat treatments on transformation temperature and mechanical properties for medical devices will also be reviewed.

  17. Detection of blaIMP4 and blaNDM1 harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a university hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hamzan, Nurul Izzati; Yean, Chan Yean; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (bla KPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians. PMID:25765342

  18. Integrated Medical Model Project - Overview and Summary of Historical Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Butler, D.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons, B.; Walton, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project. Methods: Figure 1 [see document] illustrates the IMM modeling system and scenario process. As illustrated, the IMM computational architecture is based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment techniques. Nineteen assumptions and limitations define the IMM application domain. Scenario definitions include crew medical attributes and mission specific details. The IMM forecasts probabilities of loss of crew life (LOCL), evacuation (EVAC), quality time lost during the mission, number of medical resources utilized and the number and type of medical events by combining scenario information with in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical information stored in the iMED. In addition, the metrics provide the integrated information necessary to estimate optimized in-flight medical kit contents under constraints of mass and volume or acceptable level of mission risk. Results and Conclusions

  19. Medical applications of model-based dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Antoni; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Ruminski, Jacek; Hryciuk, Marcin; Renkielska, Alicja; Grudzinski, Jacek; Siebert, Janusz; Jagielak, Dariusz; Rogowski, Jan; Roszak, Krzysztof; Stojek, Wojciech

    2001-03-01

    The proposal to use active thermography in medical diagnostics is promising in some applications concerning investigation of directly accessible parts of the human body. The combination of dynamic thermograms with thermal models of investigated structures gives attractive possibility to make internal structure reconstruction basing on different thermal properties of biological tissues. Measurements of temperature distribution synchronized with external light excitation allow registration of dynamic changes of local temperature dependent on heat exchange conditions. Preliminary results of active thermography applications in medicine are discussed. For skin and under- skin tissues an equivalent thermal model may be determined. For the assumed model its effective parameters may be reconstructed basing on the results of transient thermal processes. For known thermal diffusivity and conductivity of specific tissues the local thickness of a two or three layer structure may be calculated. Results of some medical cases as well as reference data of in vivo study on animals are presented. The method was also applied to evaluate the state of the human heart during the open chest cardio-surgical interventions. Reference studies of evoked heart infarct in pigs are referred, too. We see the proposed new in medical applications technique as a promising diagnostic tool. It is a fully non-invasive, clean, handy, fast and affordable method giving not only qualitative view of investigated surfaces but also an objective quantitative measurement result, accurate enough for many applications including fast screening of affected tissues.

  20. Prospects and applications of nanobiotechnology: a medical perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnology in biological fields. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that currently recruits approach, technology and facility available in conventional as well as advanced avenues of engineering, physics, chemistry and biology. Method A comprehensive review of the literature on the principles, limitations, challenges, improvements and applications of nanotechnology in medical science was performed. Results Nanobiotechnology has multitude of potentials for advancing medical science thereby improving health care practices around the world. Many novel nanoparticles and nanodevices are expected to be used, with an enormous positive impact on human health. While true clinical applications of nanotechnology are still practically inexistent, a significant number of promising medical projects are in an advanced experimental stage. Implementation of nanotechnology in medicine and physiology means that mechanisms and devices are so technically designed that they can interact with sub-cellular (i.e. molecular) levels of the body with a high degree of specificity. Thus therapeutic efficacy can be achieved to maximum with minimal side effects by means of the targeted cell or tissue-specific clinical intervention. Conclusion More detailed research and careful clinical trials are still required to introduce diverse components of nanobiotechnology in random clinical applications with success. Ethical and moral concerns also need to be addressed in parallel with the new developments. PMID:22817658

  1. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the blaOXA-72 gene in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge Lm; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region.

  2. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the bla OXA-72 gene in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge LM; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region. PMID:27653364

  3. Communication technologies and applications in a medical environment.

    PubMed

    Pombortsis, A S

    1998-01-01

    As we move into the next millennium, we anticipate a rapid introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into the medical environment. In applying these technologies in Health Care Environments, the basic goals are to improve: (a) the collaboration between the different partners in the health sector, (b) the access to care and (c) the medical education, and to enhance overall quality (by increasing the availability of some applications, improve the quality of others and facilitate some completely new ones), and all these at affordable cost. This requires close interaction between health care practitioners and information technologists to ensure that the proposed technologies satisfy current user's needs, and anticipate future. The public awareness and the acceptance of the new medical environments by the users are key factors for successful implementations.

  4. Impact of high tuition on medical school applicants and enrollees.

    PubMed

    Ayers, W R; Stangert, A C; Dennis, M J; Henry, J B

    1981-10-01

    As direct federal support of medical education has been reduced, tuition at U.S. medical schools has increased. Concern has been expressed over a decline in the socioeconomic diversity and the academic qualifications of the applicants. Experience gained at Georgetown University School of Medicine, the medical school with the highest tuition in the United States, indicates that the academic and nonacademic characteristics of the entering class have remained stable over a seven-year period despite a fourfold increase in tuition. Virtually all (98 percent) enrolled students currently receive some form of financial aid, mostly in the form of federally insured loans or federal scholarships with a service commitment. Maintenance of socioeconomic diversity depends on the continued availability of federally supported student loans and scholarships.

  5. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  6. How to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Aungst, T D; Clauson, K A; Misra, S; Lewis, T L; Husain, I

    2014-02-01

    There are thousands of medical applications for mobile devices targeting use by healthcare professionals. However, several factors related to the structure of the existing market for medical applications create significant barriers preventing practitioners from effectively identifying mobile medical applications for individual professional use. To define existing market factors relevant to selection of medical applications and describe a framework to empower clinicians to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in their own practice. Resources available on the Internet regarding mobile medical applications, guidelines and published research on mobile medical applications. Mobile application stores (e.g. iTunes, Google Play) are not effective means of identifying mobile medical applications. Users of mobile devices that desire to implement mobile medical applications into practice need to carefully assess individual applications prior to utilisation. Searching and identifying mobile medical applications requires clinicians to utilise multiple references to determine what application is best for their individual practice methods. This can be done with a cursory exploration of mobile application stores and then moving onto other available resources published in the literature or through Internet resources (e.g. blogs, medical websites, social media). Clinicians must also take steps to ensure that an identified mobile application can be integrated into practice after carefully reviewing it themselves. Clinicians seeking to identify mobile medical application for use in their individual practice should use a combination of app stores, published literature, web-based resources, and personal review to ensure safe and appropriate use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Smartphones and Medical Applications in the Emergency Department Daily Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshir, Amirhosein; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Sheikh, Hojjat; Vahedi, Motahar; Momeni, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Medical applications help physicians to make more rapid and evidence based decisions that may provide better patient care. This study aimed to determine the extent to which smart phones and medical applications are integrated in the emergency department daily practice. Method: In a cross sectional study, a modified standard questionnaire (Payne et al.) consisting of demographic data and information regarding quality and quantity of smartphone and medical app utilization was sent to emergency-medicine residents and interns twice (two weeks apart), in January 2015. The questionnaire was put online using open access "Web-form Module" and the address of the web page was e-mailed along with a cover letter explaining the survey. Finally, responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS 22 software. Results: 65 cases participated (response rate 86%). The mean age of interns and residents were 25.03 ± 1.13 and 30.27 ± 4.68 years, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between interns and residents in owning a smartphone (p = 0.5). Android was more popular than IOS (67.7% against 25.8%) and the most popular medical apps were Medscape and UpToDate, respectively. 38 (61.3%) of the respondents were using their apps more than once a day and mostly for drug information. English (83.9%), Persian (12.9%), and other languages (3.2%) were preferred languages for designing a medical software among the participants, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of present study showed that smartphones are very popular among Iranian interns and residents in emergency department and a substantial number of them own a smartphone and are using medical apps regularly in their clinical practice. PMID:28286821

  8. Smartphones and Medical Applications in the Emergency Department Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Jahanshir, Amirhosein; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Sheikh, Hojjat; Vahedi, Motahar; Momeni, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Medical applications help physicians to make more rapid and evidence based decisions that may provide better patient care. This study aimed to determine the extent to which smart phones and medical applications are integrated in the emergency department daily practice. In a cross sectional study, a modified standard questionnaire (Payne et al.) consisting of demographic data and information regarding quality and quantity of smartphone and medical app utilization was sent to emergency-medicine residents and interns twice (two weeks apart), in January 2015. The questionnaire was put online using open access "Web-form Module" and the address of the web page was e-mailed along with a cover letter explaining the survey. Finally, responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS 22 software. 65 cases participated (response rate 86%). The mean age of interns and residents were 25.03 ± 1.13 and 30.27 ± 4.68 years, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between interns and residents in owning a smartphone (p = 0.5). Android was more popular than IOS (67.7% against 25.8%) and the most popular medical apps were Medscape and UpToDate, respectively. 38 (61.3%) of the respondents were using their apps more than once a day and mostly for drug information. English (83.9%), Persian (12.9%), and other languages (3.2%) were preferred languages for designing a medical software among the participants, respectively. The findings of present study showed that smartphones are very popular among Iranian interns and residents in emergency department and a substantial number of them own a smartphone and are using medical apps regularly in their clinical practice.

  9. Medication-use evaluation with a Web application.

    PubMed

    Burk, Muriel; Moore, Von; Glassman, Peter; Good, Chester B; Emmendorfer, Thomas; Leadholm, Thomas C; Cunningham, Francesca

    2013-12-15

    A Web-based application for coordinating medication-use evaluation (MUE) initiatives within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system is described. The MUE Tracker (MUET) software program was created to improve VA's ability to conduct national medication-related interventions throughout its network of 147 medical centers. MUET initiatives are centrally coordinated by the VA Center for Medication Safety (VAMedSAFE), which monitors the agency's integrated databases for indications of suboptimal prescribing or drug therapy monitoring and adverse treatment outcomes. When a pharmacovigilance signal is detected, VAMedSAFE identifies "trigger groups" of at-risk veterans and uploads patient lists to the secure MUET application, where locally designated personnel (typically pharmacists) can access and use the data to target risk-reduction efforts. Local data on patient-specific interventions are stored in a centralized database and regularly updated to enable tracking and reporting for surveillance and quality-improvement purposes; aggregated data can be further analyzed for provider education and benchmarking. In a three-year pilot project, the MUET program was found effective in promoting improved prescribing of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and enhanced laboratory monitoring of ESA-treated patients in all specified trigger groups. The MUET initiative has since been expanded to target other high-risk drugs, and efforts are underway to refine the tool for broader utility. The MUET application has enabled the increased standardization of medication safety initiatives across the VA system and may serve as a useful model for the development of pharmacovigilance tools by other large integrated health care systems.

  10. IRMA--content-based image retrieval in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Thomas M; Güld, Mark O; Thies, Christian; Plodowski, Bartosz; Keysers, Daniel; Ott, Bastian; Schubert, Henning

    2004-01-01

    The impact of content-based access to medical images is frequently reported but existing systems are designed for only a particular modality or context of diagnosis. Contrarily, our concept of image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) aims at a general structure for semantic content analysis that is suitable for numerous applications in case-based reasoning or evidence-based medicine. Within IRMA, stepwise processing results in six layers of information modeling (raw data layer, registered data layer, feature layer, scheme layer, object layer, knowledge layer) incorporating medical expert knowledge. At the scheme layer, medical images are represented by a hierarchical structure of ellipses (blobs) describing image regions. Hence, image retrieval transforms to graph matching. The multilayer processing is implemented using a distributed system designed with only three core elements. The central database holds program sources, process-ing schemes, images, features, and blob trees; the scheduler balances distributed computing by addressing daemons running on all connected workstations; and the web server provides graphical user interfaces for data entry and retrieval..

  11. Hyaluronan, a truly "youthful" polysaccharide. Its medical applications.

    PubMed

    Robert, L

    2015-02-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a ubiquitous linear polysaccharide endowed with some exceptional physicochemical properties such as strong hydration and viscoelasticity that depend on the size of the molecule. It plays a variety of important physiological roles in tissue hydration and mechanical protection, for example in the umbilical cord, skin and most other tissues. Since its large scale preparation and the invention by E.A. Balazs of the preparation of its non-inflammatory fraction (NIF-NaHA), there have been several important medical and cosmetic applications, most notably of viscosurgery for eye operation, intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis and also for wrinkle filling on the face, as well as for drug administration. Its concentration in tissues is decreasing with age, source of loss of function and structure of tissues. The purpose of this review is to present a succinct overview of the essential properties of hyaluronan and its medical and esthetic applications.

  12. Extending Medical Center Computer Application to Rural Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredson, Douglas K.

    1983-01-01

    A paper entitled “A COMPUTER DATA BASE FOR CLINICIANS, MANAGERS AND RESEARCHERS,” presented during the 1981 SCAMC, described the Salt Lake VA Medical Center computer system. Since that time, two Rural Health Clinics each about 150 miles from Salt Lake City were established by the SL VAMC to reduce traveling distances and improve services for Veterans. Although many existing computer applications were available with no modifications, additional software was needed to support unique needs of the clinics. The Rural Health package of software was designed to gather and store demographic and clinical information on each Veteran, determine the types of services provided, track services over time, monitor services provided by local hospitals and clinical laboratories which are paid for by the VA, determine total clinic costs, etc. These computer applications may be of interest to Medical Centers with separate clinics or outreach programs and individuals or groups in private practice with programs similar to the VA Rural Health Clinics.

  13. Investigation of ferrofluid nanostructure by laser light scattering: medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E. K.; Velichko, E. N.; Pleshakov, I. V.; Aksenov, E. T.; Savchenko, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    Investigation of ferrofluids nanostructure by the laser light scattering technique is presented. Experimental studies involved measurements of the intensity of the laser radiation scattered by ferrofluid particles in interaction with albumin and under the influence of magnetic field. The effects of the magnitude and duration of the applied magnetic field on the formation of aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles and also the influence of magnetic fluids of different concentrations on blood proteins are considered. The findings may be useful for medical applications.

  14. Hybrid cathode lithium batteries for implantable medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaimin; Merritt, Donald R.; Howard, William G.; Schmidt, Craig L.; Skarstad, Paul M.

    Lithium batteries with hybrid cathodes of Ag 2V 4O 11 and CF x have been developed that combine the best features of both cathode components. They can offer power density and energy density that are competitive with or superior to other developed battery chemistries, along with the stability and reliability needed for implantable medical applications. More than 100,000 have been used in human implants since introduction in 1999.

  15. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  16. Development and evaluation of a novel universal β-lactamase gene subtyping assay for blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M using clinical and livestock-associated Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Lena Marie; Dahms, Carmen; Becker, Karsten; Kramer, Axel; Kaase, Martin; Mellmann, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli is globally an increasing problem in public healthcare. Understanding the spread of plasmid-mediated ESBL genes is of great importance in elucidating their molecular epidemiology. However, differentiation of subtypes and alleles is frequently hampered by the lack of comprehensive diagnostic tools. We therefore developed a novel universal blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M subtyping assay based on PCR and Sanger sequencing that results in large amplicons of >700 bp, enabling differentiation of bla alleles as precisely as possible. The assay was established using 10 reference strains with known bla genotypes that represent all examined primer groups and 101 uncharacterized ESBL-producing E. coli of clinical and livestock-associated origins from different German regions. All isolates were tested in parallel with established blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M subtyping assays for the respective β-lactamases and their alleles. The novel assay yielded equal (n = 92) or better (n = 47) subtyping results compared with established subtyping methods and reliably detected all expected enzymes in the reference strains. Overall, the occurring enzymes could be differentiated into groups representing one (n = 9), two (n = 5) or three (n = 4) highly similar alleles. Moreover, ESBL and non-ESBL allelic variants of blaSHV and blaTEM occurring in the same isolate were distinguished reliably. We established a highly discriminatory assay for the subtyping of clinically important ESBL genes that can easily be used in epidemiological analyses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  18. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E; Rohrbaugh, John W; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  19. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  20. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  1. Identifying ionic interactions within a membrane using BLaTM, a genetic tool to measure homo- and heterotypic transmembrane helix-helix interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schanzenbach, Christoph; Schmidt, Fabian C.; Breckner, Patrick; Teese, Mark G.; Langosch, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of integral membrane protein complexes is frequently supported by transmembrane domain (TMD) interactions. Here, we present the BLaTM assay that measures homotypic as well as heterotypic TMD-TMD interactions in a bacterial membrane. The system is based on complementation of β-lactamase fragments genetically fused to interacting TMDs, which confers ampicillin resistance to expressing cells. We validated BLaTM by showing that the assay faithfully reports known sequence-specific interactions of both types. In a practical application, we used BLaTM to screen a focussed combinatorial library for heterotypic interactions driven by electrostatic forces. The results reveal novel patterns of ionizable amino acids within the isolated TMD pairs. Those patterns indicate that formation of heterotypic TMD pairs is most efficiently supported by closely spaced ionizable residues of opposite charge. In addition, TMD heteromerization can apparently be driven by hydrogen bonding between basic or between acidic residues. PMID:28266525

  2. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring blaKPC-3 and blaVIM-2 from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Bottoni, Carlo; Grimaldi, Alessandro; Segatore, Bernardetta; Celenza, Giuseppe; Mariani, Maurizio; Bellio, Pierangelo; Frascaria, Patrizia; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2013-02-01

    The frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae is increasing in Italian hospitals and poses an emerging threat to the management of infections in hospitalized patients. In this study, we report a detailed molecular characterization of a K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP1/11 isolate from the decubitus ulcer of a hospitalized patient with a serious infection. K. pneumoniae KP1/11 produces KPC-3 and VIM-2 β-lactamases. The bla(KPC-3) gene is harbored in a large plasmid in a complex structure of Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401a. The chromosomal DNA of K. pneumoniae harbored also 2 class 1 integrons with different variable regions: 1) orfD-aacA8; 2) aacA29-bla(VIM-2).

  3. Rapid and simultaneous detection of genes encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Scott A; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil; Patel, Robin

    2013-04-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min.

  4. Regulation of the beta-lactamase BlaL of Streptomyces cacaoi: the product of the blaB regulatory gene is an internal membrane-bound protein.

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, J; Joris, B; Van Beeumen, J; Brasseur, R; Dusart, J

    1995-01-01

    The beta-lactamase-encoding gene blaL, cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi in Streptomyces lividans, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. This regulation has been shown to depend on the products of two open reading frames, ORF1 (blaA) and ORF2 (blaB) [Lenzini, Magdalena, Fraipont, Joris, Matagne and Dusart (1992) Mol. Gen. Genet. 235, 41-48]. BlaA belongs to the LysR family of transcription activators, whereas BlaB shares some features with the penicillin-recognizing proteins. BlaB has now been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for antibody preparation. Immunoblotting of cell-fractionated materials from S. cacaoi showed that BlaB is attached to the internal face of the cytoplasmic membrane. It could not be released by high salt concentrations or EDTA, but only by protease treatment. Under the assay conditions, BlaB did not act as a penicillin-binding protein, a beta-lactamase, a D-amino-peptidase or a target in a phosphorylation step. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7575447

  5. Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Genes Encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Scott A.; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min. PMID:23345290

  6. [Non-medical applications for brain MRI: Ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, S; Fagot-Largeault, A; Leboyer, M; Houenou, J

    2015-04-01

    The recent neuroimaging techniques offer the possibility to better understand complex cognitive processes that are involved in mental disorders and thus have become cornerstone tools for research in psychiatry. The performances of functional magnetic resonance imaging are not limited to medical research and are used in non-medical fields. These recent applications represent new challenges for bioethics. In this article we aim at discussing the new ethical issues raised by the applications of the latest neuroimaging technologies to non-medical fields. We included a selection of peer-reviewed English medical articles after a search on NCBI Pubmed database and Google scholar from 2000 to 2013. We screened bibliographical tables for supplementary references. Websites of governmental French institutions implicated in ethical questions were also screened for governmental reports. Findings of brain areas supporting emotional responses and regulation have been used for marketing research, also called neuromarketing. The discovery of different brain activation patterns in antisocial disorder has led to changes in forensic psychiatry with the use of imaging techniques with unproven validity. Automated classification algorithms and multivariate statistical analyses of brain images have been applied to brain-reading techniques, aiming at predicting unconscious neural processes in humans. We finally report the current position of the French legislation recently revised and discuss the technical limits of such techniques. In the near future, brain imaging could find clinical applications in psychiatry as diagnostic or predictive tools. However, the latest advances in brain imaging are also used in non-scientific fields raising key ethical questions. Involvement of neuroscientists, psychiatrists, physicians but also of citizens in neuroethics discussions is crucial to challenge the risk of unregulated uses of brain imaging. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by

  7. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated feed...

  8. A Speckle Reduction Filter Using Wavelet-Based Methods for Medical Imaging Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    A Speckle Reduction Filter using Wavelet-Based Methods for Medical Imaging Application Su...Wavelet-Based Methods for Medical Imaging Application Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work

  9. A Software Development Platform for Wearable Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruikai; Lin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Wearable medical devices have become a leading trend in healthcare industry. Microcontrollers are computers on a chip with sufficient processing power and preferred embedded computing units in those devices. We have developed a software platform specifically for the design of the wearable medical applications with a small code footprint on the microcontrollers. It is supported by the open source real time operating system FreeRTOS and supplemented with a set of standard APIs for the architectural specific hardware interfaces on the microcontrollers for data acquisition and wireless communication. We modified the tick counter routine in FreeRTOS to include a real time soft clock. When combined with the multitasking features in the FreeRTOS, the platform offers the quick development of wearable applications and easy porting of the application code to different microprocessors. Test results have demonstrated that the application software developed using this platform are highly efficient in CPU usage while maintaining a small code foot print to accommodate the limited memory space in microcontrollers.

  10. Properties and medical applications of shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Bîzdoacă, N; Mîndrilă, I; Vasilescu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    One of the most known intelligent material is nitinol, which offers many functional advantages over conventional implantable alloys. Applications of SMA to the biomedical field have been successful because of their functional qualities, enhancing both the possibility and the execution of less invasive surgeries. The biocompatibility of these alloys is one of their most important features. Different applications exploit the shape memory effect (one-way or two-way) and the super elasticity, so that they can be employed in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications, as well as in the manufacture of new surgical tools. Therefore, one can say that smart materials, especially SMA, are becoming noticeable in the biomedical field. Super elastic NiTi has become a material of strategic importance as it allows to overcome a wide range of technical and design issues relating to the miniaturization of medical devices and the increasing trend for less invasive and therefore less traumatic procedures. This paper will consider just why the main properties of shape memory alloys hold so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection of current applications.

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli blaSHV genes in a Chinese teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Guangjian; Li, Ailing; Zong, Li; Dong, Zhaoguang; Lu, Junwan; Zhang, Kaibo; Cheng, Cong; Chang, Qingli; Wu, Xiuying; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Xianneng; Ding, Li; Zheng, Haixiao; Yu, Junping; Ying, Jun; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Peizhen; Li, Kewei; Wu, Songquan; Bao, Qiyu; Wang, Junrong

    2017-02-05

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly reside in human intestine and most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes cause serious food poisoning. This study identified and molecularly characterized blaSHV genes from 490 E. coli strains with multi-drug resistance in a hospital population. PCR and molecular cloning and southern blot were performed to assess functions and localizations of this resistant E. coli gene and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was utilized to demonstrate the clonal relatedness of the positive E. coli strains. The data showed that 4 of these 490 E. coli strains (4/499, 0.8%) carried blaSHV genes that included EC D2485 (blaSHV-5), EC D2487 (blaSHV-5), EC D2684 (blaSHV-11) and EC D2616 (blaSHV-195, a novel blaSHV). Analysis of blaSHV open-reading frame showed that blaSHV-5 had a high hydrolysis activity to the broad-spectrum penicillin (ampicillin or piperacillin), ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam. blaSHV-195 and blaSHV-11 had similar resistant characteristics with high hydrolysis activities to ampicillin and piperacillin, but low activities to cephalosporins. Moreover, the two blaSHV-5 genes were located on a transferable plasmid (23kb), whereas the other two blaSHV variants (blaSHV-11 and blaSHV-195) seemed to be located in the chromosomal material. Both EC D2485 and EC D2487 clones isolated in 2010 had the same DNA finger printing profile and they might be the siblings of clonal dissemination. The data from the current study suggest that the novel blaSHV and clonal dissemination may be developed, although blaSHV genes were infrequently identified in this hospital population. The results of the work demonstrate the necessity for molecular surveillance in tracking blaSHV-producing strains in large teaching hospital settings and emphasize the need for epidemiological monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying Nonspecific TEM β-Lactamase (blaTEM) Genes in a Wastewater Stream▿

    PubMed Central

    Lachmayr, Karen L.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Ford, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    To control the antibiotic resistance epidemic, it is necessary to understand the distribution of genetic material encoding antibiotic resistance in the environment and how anthropogenic inputs, such as wastewater, affect this distribution. Approximately two-thirds of antibiotics administered to humans are β-lactams, for which the predominant bacterial resistance mechanism is hydrolysis by β-lactamases. Of the β-lactamases, the TEM family is of overriding significance with regard to diversity, prevalence, and distribution. This paper describes the design of DNA probes universal for all known TEM β-lactamase genes and the application of a quantitative PCR assay (also known as Taqman) to quantify these genes in environmental samples. The primer set was used to study whether sewage, both treated and untreated, contributes to the spread of these genes in receiving waters. It was found that while modern sewage treatment technologies reduce the concentrations of these antibiotic resistance genes, the ratio of blaTEM genes to 16S rRNA genes increases with treatment, suggesting that bacteria harboring blaTEM are more likely to survive the treatment process. Thus, β-lactamase genes are being introduced into the environment in significantly higher concentrations than occur naturally, creating reservoirs of increased resistance potential. PMID:18997031

  13. IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 from German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Un, Sunjin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Kim, Chung-ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-09-01

    Bla g 6, a German cockroach allergen, shows homology to muscle protein troponin C. It contains four calcium-binding domains at amino acid (aa) residues 20-30, 56-67, 96-107, and 132-143, and its immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity is dependent upon calcium ion level. However, the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 have not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze the IgE binding epitopes from the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. The full-length of three Bla g 6 isoallergens (Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301) and five peptide fragments (P1: aa 1-111, P2: aa 1-95, P3: aa 33-111, P4: aa 80-151, and P5: aa 33-151) of Bla g 6.0101 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on 24 patients' sera that adjusted the final concentration 10 mM of CaCl(2) to determine the IgE activities of Bla g 6. Eight sera (33.3%), 9 sera (37.5%), and 11 sera (45.8%) showed IgE reactivity to Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301, respectively. Among the sera from the positive IgE reactivity, three patients' sera were selected and the IgE reactivity was measured by ELISA with the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. Based on IgE responses, one patient's serum exhibited the strongest IgE reactivity. We assumed that the aa between 96-151 residues, including the calcium binding domains III and IV, would be important for IgE binding. These results may provide information that will yield safe diagnostic methods and immunotherapeutics.

  14. Applications of Professional Video Equipment in Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Y. K.; Cvetko, J. F.; Sandau, J.

    1996-03-01

    The use of full-motion video technology in scientific applications is common. Yet, most researchers utilize remarkably simple technology, frequently intended for consumer applications. In many cases, this may be adequate. However, equipment budget issues aside, we find that this is often caused by a lack of familiarity with the state-of-the-art. From the world of broadcasters, production houses, and other professional users of video, there exists a wide range of equipment based on different industry standards. They provide storage, retrieval, and transport capabilities that add functionality and flexibility unavailable in lower-end equipment. We have developed an interactive video system, on which multiple high-resolution video sources may be recorded synchronously at a fixed frame rate of 30/s. The stored video can be forwarded over local- or wide-area networks and viewed on analog display monitors. Applications to bio-medical imaging systems will be emphasized here.

  15. Infrared laser-based sensing in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Markus W.; Bartlome, Richard; Gianella, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Laser-spectroscopic applications in medicine increase in importance. We present two medical applications of laser-based analyses of trace gases. The analysis of exhaled breath concerns the determination of the D/H isotope ratio after intake of a small amount of heavy water. The D/H isotope ratio can be used to deduce the total body water weight and lays the foundation for many other laser-based clinical applications. An elevated D/H ratio could be monitored in breath samples up to 30 days after ingestion of only 5 ml of D2O. A second example concerns the analysis of surgical smoke produced in minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery with electroknives. The quantitative determination of harmless and hazardous compounds down to the ppm level is demonstrated. A specific example is the presence of sevoflurane at concentrations of 80 to 300 ppm, an anesthetic, which to our knowledge is measured for the first time in an abdominal cavity.

  16. User Interface Design in Medical Distributed Web Applications.

    PubMed

    Serban, Alexandru; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Mada, Leonard; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2016-01-01

    User interfaces are important to facilitate easy learning and operating with an IT application especially in the medical world. An easy to use interface has to be simple and to customize the user needs and mode of operation. The technology in the background is an important tool to accomplish this. The present work aims to creating a web interface using specific technology (HTML table design combined with CSS3) to provide an optimized responsive interface for a complex web application. In the first phase, the current icMED web medical application layout is analyzed, and its structure is designed using specific tools, on source files. In the second phase, a new graphic adaptable interface to different mobile terminals is proposed, (using HTML table design (TD) and CSS3 method) that uses no source files, just lines of code for layout design, improving the interaction in terms of speed and simplicity. For a complex medical software application a new prototype layout was designed and developed using HTML tables. The method uses a CSS code with only CSS classes applied to one or multiple HTML table elements, instead of CSS styles that can be applied to just one DIV tag at once. The technique has the advantage of a simplified CSS code, and a better adaptability to different media resolutions compared to DIV-CSS style method. The presented work is a proof that adaptive web interfaces can be developed just using and combining different types of design methods and technologies, using HTML table design, resulting in a simpler to learn and use interface, suitable for healthcare services.

  17. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices.

  18. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  19. Detection of blaPER-1 & blaOxa10 among imipenem resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients hospitalized in Shiraz Burn Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Amir; Bazargani, Abdollah; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important Gram negative opportunistic bacteria which causes infection among burn patients. Resistance to the antibiotics in this group of bacteria is increased due to the activity of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) genes. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of two genes (blaPER-1 & blaOxa10) related β-lactamase genes among imipenem resistance clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: From May 2010 to March 2011, 270 P. aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized burned patients’ wounds in Shiraz Burn Hospital, were tested for Imipenem resistance by disk diffusion method. Presence of ESBLs exo-enzyme, blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 genes were also evaluated in the resistant isolate. Results: 210 (77.7%) of 270 P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem. blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 were detected among 168 (80.0%) of imipenem resistant isolates. Furthermore, 160 (76.2%) of them had blaOxa10 gene and 84 (40.0%) of them had blaPER-1 while 63 (30.0%) resistant isolates contained both genes simultaneously. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 genes in hospitalized burn patients in south west of Iran. Therefore, it’s highly recommended to perform such tests routinely to evaluate the resistance pattern in order to better antibiotic selection in the burned patients. PMID:26644867

  20. Genetic properties of blaCTX-M and blaPER β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Nakhaei; Beidokhti, Mehrdad Hashemi; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Ghahraman, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): blaCTX-M and blaPER are two genes that encode class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and can be responsible for therapeutic problems. This study was carried out to evaluate the molecular properties of these genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction digestion and sequencing. Materials and Methods: During six months, starting from January 2012, one hundred clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected from urinary samples. The ESBL-producing isolates were detected by phenotypic confirmation test. After plasmid extraction, blaPER and blaCTX-M genes were detected using PCR by specific primers. The blaCTX-M PCR products were digested with Taq1, and two of the blaCTX-M genes were sequenced. Results: Phenotypic tests showed that 27 (27%) isolates were ESBL producers with the highest frequency for Klebsiella pneumoniae (47.4%) and Escherichia coli (17.9%). Twenty six (26%) of Enterobacteriaceae isolates harbored the blaCTX-M gene, and none of them had blaPER. The restriction analysis of PCR products showed that all blaCTX-M amplified products had the same patterns. Both sequenced bacteria were CTX-M-15 type ESBL carriers. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the blaCTX-M-15 gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolates for the first time in Mashhad, Iran. High degrees of associated resistance to co-trimoxazole and gentamicin were found in ESBL producers. Therefore, an integrated and regular management of antibiotic prescription need to be trained in our society. PMID:24967067

  1. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting.

  2. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  3. Medical Applications Of CO2 Laser Fiber Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    In 1978, Hughes Laboratories reported development of fiber optics that were capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. These fibers are now being tested for medical applications. Wide ranging medical investigation with CO2 lasers has occurred during the twelve years since the first observations of laser hemostasis. Specialists in ophthalmology, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, maxillo-facial/plastic surgery, dermatology, and oncology among others, have explored its use. In principle, all these specialists use CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 microns to thermally destroy diseased tissues. As such, CO2 lasers compare and compete with electrosurgical devices. The fundamental difference between these modalities lies in how they generate heat in treated tissue.

  4. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  5. Recent application of quantification II in Japanese medical research.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Kudo, A

    1979-01-01

    Hayashi's Quantification II is a method of multivariate discrimination analysis to manipulate attribute data as predictor variables. It is very useful in the medical research field for estimation, diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of epidemiological factors, and other problems based on multiplicity of attribute data. In Japan, this method is so well known that most of the computer program packages include the Hayashi Quantification, but it seems to be yet unfamiliar with the method for researchers outside Japan. In view of this situation, we introduced 19 selected articles of recent applications of the Quantification II in Japanese medical research. In reviewing these papers, special mention is made to clarify how the researchers were satisfied with findings provided by the method. At the same time, some recommendations are made about terminology and program packages. Also a brief discussion of the background of the quantification methods is given with special reference to the Behaviormetric Society of Japan. PMID:540587

  6. Using medical genetics applications to educate for computer competence.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J A

    1991-01-01

    This article proposes specific areas of computing competence and illustrates how these skills can be acquired as an integral part of the curriculum of medical genetics. Geneticists are at the forefront in the use of computers for medical care, because of the driving force of the Human Genome Project. Computer searching of international data bases is the most efficient method to keep current with the explosion in molecular genetics data and with its immediate relevance to clinical care. The use of computers in genetics education could go far beyond the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to show how to use computer systems to assist with clinical decisions. The proposed basic computer skills can be obtained using genetics software. The six proposed skills include the use of (1) microcomputers, (2) productivity software, (3) CAI, patient simulations and specific application programs, (4) remote computers, (5) data bases and knowledge bases, and (6) computers to improve the clinical care of patients. PMID:1928095

  7. Medical applications of microarray technologies: a regulatory science perspective.

    PubMed

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Hackett, Joseph L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Puri, Raj K; Gutman, Steven I; Chumakov, Konstantin; Woodcock, Janet; Feigal, David W; Zoon, Kathryn C; Sistare, Frank D

    2002-12-01

    The potential medical applications of microarrays have generated much excitement, and some skepticism, within the biomedical community. Some researchers have suggested that within the decade microarrays will be routinely used in the selection, assessment, and quality control of the best drugs for pharmaceutical development, as well as for disease diagnosis and for monitoring desired and adverse outcomes of therapeutic interventions. Realizing this potential will be a challenge for the whole scientific community, as breakthroughs that show great promise at the bench often fail to meet the requirements of clinicians and regulatory scientists. The development of a cooperative framework among regulators, product sponsors, and technology experts will be essential for realizing the revolutionary promise that microarrays hold for drug development, regulatory science, medical practice and public health.

  8. Similarities and differences of hyperbaric oxygen and medical ozone applications.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Mehmet; Akay, Coskun; Oter, Sukru; Ay, Hakan; Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2011-11-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is based on the principle of having the patient breath 100% oxygen in an environment above atmospheric pressure. Ozone (O(3)) is a colourless gas with a specific odour and consists of three oxygen atoms. The classical scientific understanding is that the world has become a place suitable for life for aerobic organisms with the increasing oxygen in the atmosphere billions of years ago. The formation of ozone after oxygen has then protected aerobic creatures from harmful rays. We now use these two gases for treatment purposes. It is noteworthy that the oxygen and ozone molecules that are formed by the same atom in different numbers are used for similar medical indications. We will try to emphasize the similarities and differences of HBO and medical ozone applications in this article.

  9. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  10. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  11. Nuclear Data for Medical Applications - Recent Developments and Future Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. L.; Capote, R.

    2014-06-01

    Cancer treatment represents a major economic and medical issue because of the extensive incidence of the disease worldwide, with a particularly large rate of increase to be found in developing countries. Over the previous twenty years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has dedicated a series of investigations towards identifying and quantifying the production routes and decay characteristics of radioisotopes judged to be of existing and emerging importance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Both the recommendations formulated during the course of these technical debates and the results of recently completed and on-going IAEA coordinated research projects are focused towards the successful evolution of improvements in nuclear data for medical applications throughout the early 21st century.

  12. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  13. ``Low Power Wireless Technologies: An Approach to Medical Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellido O., Francisco J.; González R., Miguel; Moreno M., Antonio; de La Cruz F, José Luis

    Wireless communication supposed a great both -quantitative and qualitative, jump in the management of the information, allowing the access and interchange of it without the need of a physical cable connection. The wireless transmission of voice and information has remained in constant evolution, arising new standards like BluetoothTM, WibreeTM or ZigbeeTM developed under the IEEE 802.15 norm. These newest wireless technologies are oriented to systems of communication of short-medium distance and optimized for a low cost and minor consume, becoming recognized as a flexible and reliable medium for data communications across a broad range of applications due to the potential that the wireless networks presents to operate in demanding environments providing clear advantages in cost, size, power, flexibility, and distributed intelligence. About the medical applications, the remote health or telecare (also called eHealth) is getting a bigger place into the manufacturers and medical companies, in order to incorporate products for assisted living and remote monitoring of health parameteres. At this point, the IEEE 1073, Personal Health Devices Working Group, stablish the framework for these kind of applications. Particularly, the 1073.3.X describes the physical and transport layers, where the new ultra low power short range wireless technologies can play a big role, providing solutions that allow the design of products which are particularly appropriate for monitor people’s health with interoperability requirements.

  14. Access Control based on Attribute Certificates for Medical Intranet Applications

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Christos; Pangalos, George; Khair, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Background Clinical information systems frequently use intranet and Internet technologies. However these technologies have emphasized sharing and not security, despite the sensitive and private nature of much health information. Digital certificates (electronic documents which recognize an entity or its attributes) can be used to control access in clinical intranet applications. Objectives To outline the need for access control in distributed clinical database systems, to describe the use of digital certificates and security policies, and to propose the architecture for a system using digital certificates, cryptography and security policy to control access to clinical intranet applications. Methods We have previously developed a security policy, DIMEDAC (Distributed Medical Database Access Control), which is compatible with emerging public key and privilege management infrastructure. In our implementation approach we propose the use of digital certificates, to be used in conjunction with DIMEDAC. Results Our proposed access control system consists of two phases: the ways users gain their security credentials; and how these credentials are used to access medical data. Three types of digital certificates are used: identity certificates for authentication; attribute certificates for authorization; and access-rule certificates for propagation of access control policy. Once a user is identified and authenticated, subsequent access decisions are based on a combination of identity and attribute certificates, with access-rule certificates providing the policy framework. Conclusions Access control in clinical intranet applications can be successfully and securely managed through the use of digital certificates and the DIMEDAC security policy. PMID:11720951

  15. Predominance of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates carrying blaIMP and blaVIM metallo-β-lactamases in a major hospital in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toval, Francisco; Guzmán-Marte, Anel; Madriz, Vivian; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; García, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the molecular basis of the resistance to carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from a tertiary-level health facility in San José, Costa Rica. A total of 198 non-duplicated isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. The production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), the presence of MBL encoding genes (blaIMP, blaVIM and blaGIM-1) and the occurrence of these genes within class 1 integrons were investigated. In addition, an ERIC2 PCR fingerprinting method was used to elucidate the distribution of the detected MBL genes within the strain collection. Of the 198 isolates tested, 125 (63.1 %) were categorized as carbapenem-resistant. The majority (88.8 %) of the carbapemen-resistant isolates also showed resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Among the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 102 (81.6 %) showed MBL activity. Strikingly, both blaIMP and blaVIM genes were simultaneously detected in most (94.1 %) of the 102 MBL producers. Five carbapenem-resistant MBL producers were positive only for blaIMP genes. Almost 70 % of the isolates examined harboured the intI1 gene, accompanied by the sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 136 (99 %) and 122 (89 %) isolates, respectively. The majority (94.4 %) of the carbapenem-resistant isolates carried the intI1 gene, in contrast to 26 % of the carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Ninety-three out of 96 (96.9 %) isolates carrying both blaIMP and blaVIM genes also harboured the intI1, sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes. Gene cassettes from carbapenem-susceptible and MBL-negative carbapenem-resistant isolates encoded aminoglycoside-resistance enzymes (aadA2, aadA4 and aadA6) as well as orfD and qacF genes. RAPD analysis distributed 126 of the isolates in 29 clusters. Eighty of the 90 blaIMP (+) blaVIM (+) isolates were sorted into 16

  16. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Hines, J W

    1996-01-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  17. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  18. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, John W.

    1996-02-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  19. Medical and surgical applications of space biosensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers in space life sciences are rapidly approaching a technology impasse. Many of the critical questions on the impact of spaceflight on living systems simply cannot be answered with the limited available technologies. Research subjects, particularly small animal models like the rat, must be allowed to function relatively untended and unrestrained for long periods to fully reflect the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on their behavior and physiology. These requirements preclude the use of present hard-wired instrumentation techniques and limited data acquisition systems. Implantable sensors and miniaturized biotelemetry are the only means of capturing the fundamental and critical data. This same biosensor and biotelemetry technology has direct application to Earth-based medicine and surgery. Continuous, on-line data acquisition and improved measurement capabilities combined with the ease and flexibility offered by automated, wireless, and portable instruments and data systems, should provide a boon to the health care industry. Playing a key role in this technology revolution is the Sensors 2000! (S2K!) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. S2K!, in collaboration with space life sciences researchers and managers, provides an integrated capability for sensor technology development and applications, including advanced biosensor technology development, spaceflight hardware development, and technology transfer and commercialization. S2K! is presently collaborating on several spaceflight projects with dual-use medical applications. One prime example is a collaboration with the Fetal Treatment Center (FTC) at the University of California at San Francisco. The goal is to develop and apply implantable chemical sensor and biotelemetry technology to continuously monitor fetal patients during extra-uterine surgery, replacement into the womb, through birth and beyond. Once validated for ground use, the method will be transitioned to spaceflight applications to

  20. Smartphone Application for Mechanical Quality Assurance of Medical Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwiyoung; Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Suk; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-03-20

    Mechanical quality assurance (QA) of medical linear accelerators consists of time consuming and human-error prone procedures. We developed a smartphone-application system for mechanical QA. The system consists of two smartphones; one attached to the gantry to obtain real-time information on mechanical parameters of medical linear accelerator, and the other to display the real-time information by bluetoothing the former. Motion sensors embedded in the smartphone were used to measure gantry and collimator rotations. Images taken by a high-resolution camera of the smartphone were processed to evaluate accuracies of jaw-positioning, cross-hair centering, and source-to-surface distance (SSD). The application was developed using Android software development kit and OpenCV library. Accuracy and precision of the system were validated against an optical rotation stage and digital calipers, prior to routine QA measurements of five medical linear accelerators. The system accuracy and precision to measure angles and lengths were determined to be 0.05 ± 0.05° and 0.25 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The mean absolute errors (MAE) in QA measurements of gantry and collimator rotation were 0.05 ± 0.04° and 0.05 ± 0.04°, respectively. The MAE in QA measurements of light field was 0.39 ± 0.36 mm. The MAEs in QA measurements of crosshair centering and SSD were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm and 0.41 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. In conclusion, most of routine mechanical QA items could be performed by using the smartphone-application system within improved precision and time-frame, while eliminating potential human errors from the conventional manual method.

  1. The Clinical Application of Hydrogen as a Medical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Iida, Atsuyoshi; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Knaup, Emily; Naito, Hiromichi; Nishiyama, Chihiro; Yamakawa, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Kohei; Terado, Michihisa; Sato, Keiji; Ugawa, Toyomu; Nakao, Atsunori

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that molecular hydrogen is a particularyl effective treatment for various disease models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury; as a result, research on hydrogen has progressed rapidly. Hydrogen has been shown to be effective not only through intake as a gas, but also as a liquid medication taken orally, intravenously, or locally. Hydrogen's effectiveness is thus multifaceted. Herein we review the recent research on hydrogen-rich water, and we examine the possibilities for its clinical application. Now that hydrogen is in the limelight as a gaseous signaling molecule due to its potential ability to inhibit oxidative stress signaling, new research developments are highly anticipated.

  2. Biocompatibility and applications of carbon nanotubes in medical nanorobots

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Andrei M; Lozovik, Yurii E; Fiorito, Silvana; Yahia, L’Hocine

    2007-01-01

    The set of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on relative motion of carbon nanotubes walls is proposed for use in medical nanorobots. This set includes electromechanical nanothermometer, jet nanoengine, nanosyringe (the last can be used simultaneously as nanoprobe for individual biological molecules and drug nanodeliver). Principal schemes of these NEMS are considered. Operational characteristics of nanothermometer are analyzed. The possible methods of these NEMS actuation are considered. The present-day progress in nanotechnology techniques which are necessary for assembling of NEMS under consideration is discussed. Biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes is analyzed in connection with perspectives of their application in nanomedicine. PMID:18019835

  3. Biocompatibility and applications of carbon nanotubes in medical nanorobots.

    PubMed

    Popov, Andrei M; Lozovik, Yurii E; Fiorito, Silvana; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2007-01-01

    The set of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on relative motion of carbon nanotubes walls is proposed for use in medical nanorobots. This set includes electromechanical nanothermometer, jet nanoengine, nanosyringe (the last can be used simultaneously as nanoprobe for individual biological molecules and drug nanodeliver). Principal schemes of these NEMS are considered. Operational characteristics of nanothermometer are analyzed. The possible methods of these NEMS actuation are considered. The present-day progress in nanotechnology techniques which are necessary for assembling of NEMS under consideration is discussed. Biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes is analyzed in connection with perspectives of their application in nanomedicine.

  4. [Medical application of computers in obstetrics and gynecology education].

    PubMed

    Walton, R; Garrido, J; Salinas, H; Díaz, J

    1990-01-01

    Its related the development of two application in Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) in Medical Education with an Apple IIc and 128 K. The first using the PILOT for student; and the second a program of "Simulation of Labor Troubles" for interns and specialty training developed in BASIC. Am special point is the lower time training for the teacher with the PILOT. Its demonstrate the improvement through the qualification in relation to other evaluation in the same year and the relations with other questions during the same test.

  5. Proposed teleworking platform for workstations supporting multimedia medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphanos, George; Kanellopoulos, Dimitris; Prentzas, Lambros; Koubias, Stavros

    1993-09-01

    Teleworking refers to the usage of telecommunication facilities to improve human to human collaboration and enhance performance of work. This paper focuses on the way teleworking affects medicine. In particular, a teleworking platform is proposed to support multimedia medical applications embedded into RISC-based workstations. In order to support the teleworking platform, current commercially available products have to be taken into consideration and a range of new technologies need to be developed and made available. In this paper, we put emphasis on a RISC-based workstation, UNIXTM operating system, communication protocols capable to support the teleworking platform, and ISDN network capabilities.

  6. Solid State Radiation Dosimeters for Space and Medical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the development of two radiation monitors (RADMON's) for use in detecting total radiation dose and high-energy particles. These radiation detectors are chip-size devices fabricated in 1.2 micrometer CMOS and have flown in space on both experimental and commercial spacecraft. They have been used to characterize protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, particles from the Sun, and protons used for medical therapy. Having proven useful in a variety of applications, the detector is now being readied for commercialization.

  7. Emergence of blaNDM-7–Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Moussounda, Mesmin; Diene, Seydina M.; Dos Santos, Sandra; Goudeau, Alain; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa remain rare and assess mostly blaOXA-48–producing isolates from Mediterranean countries and South Africa. We identified blaNDM-7–producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon in 2016. The isolates contained blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids that were unusual and similar to the one described in a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae SZ04 isolate from China. PMID:28098536

  8. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of blaKPC, blaNDM and/or blaVIM, and blaOXA-48 from Perirectal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Fahle, Gary A.; Kemp, Margaret A.; Jassem, Agatha N.; Dekker, John P.; Frank, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all blaKPC), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (CT) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in CT values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU blaKPC Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, CT values for blaKPC were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, CT values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 CT values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a CT cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, CT values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management. PMID:26338860

  9. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of bla(KPC), bla(NDM) and/or bla(VIM), and bla(OXA)-48 from Perirectal Swabs.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna F; Fahle, Gary A; Kemp, Margaret A; Jassem, Agatha N; Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all bla(KPC)), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (C(T)) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in C(T) values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU bla(KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, C(T) values for bla(KPC) were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, C(T) values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 C(T) values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a C(T) cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, C(T) values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. A compact automated radionuclide separation system for nuclear medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, A. H.; Horwitz, E. P.; Hines, J. J.; Young, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    The purification of radionuclides for medical applications presents unique challenges; most notably the needs for chemical purity, radionuclidic purity, and reliable production. To address these considerations, a new generator technology and instrument have been developed to permit the rapid chromatographic purification of clinically useful quantities of radionuclides for use in diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine. The device comprises a separations module containing miniature chromatographic columns, a computer controller with driver software, and the fluid delivery components. This instrument is well suited for use in radionuclide generators as separations can typically be performed in <5 min with overall decontamination factors of >106. Chromatographic experiments targeting application in a 212Bi generator have demonstrated the usefulness of the Automated Radionuclide Separator as a low-pressure chromatography system.

  11. Interactions between cyclodextrins and cellular components: Towards greener medical applications?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the field of host–guest chemistry, some of the most widely used hosts are probably cyclodextrins (CDs). As CDs are able to increase the water solubility of numerous drugs by inclusion into their hydrophobic cavity, they have been widespread used to develop numerous pharmaceutical formulations. Nevertheless, CDs are also able to interact with endogenous substances that originate from an organism, tissue or cell. These interactions can be useful for a vast array of topics including cholesterol manipulation, treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, control of pathogens, etc. In addition, the use of natural CDs offers the great advantage of avoiding or reducing the use of common petroleum-sourced drugs. In this paper, the general features and applications of CDs have been reviewed as well as their interactions with isolated biomolecules leading to the formation of inclusion or exclusion complexes. Finally, some potential medical applications are highlighted throughout several examples. PMID:28144335

  12. Poly(hydroxy alkanoate)s in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Luef, K. P.; Stelzer, F.; Wiesbrock, F.

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the usage of poly(hydroxy alkanoate)s in medical and sanitary applications. Depending on the monomers incorporated into the polymers and copolymers, this class of polymers exhibits a broad range of (thermo-)plastic properties, enabling their processing by, e.g., solution casting or melt extrusion. In this review, strategies for the polymer analogous modification of these materials and their surfaces are highlighted and correlated with the potential applications of the corresponding materials and blends. While the commercial availability of purified PHAs is addressed in brief, special focus is put on the (bio-)degradability of these polymers and ways to influence the degradation mechanism and/or the duration of degradation. PMID:28239227

  13. Novel light diffusing fiber for use in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klubben, W. Spencer; Logunov, Stephan L.; Fewkes, Edward J.; Mooney, Jeff; Then, Paul M.; Wigley, Peter G.; Schreiber, Horst; Matias, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Cynthia J.; Ocampo, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-based cylindrical light diffusers are often used in photodynamic therapy to illuminate a luminal organ, such as the esophagus. The diffusers are often made of plastic and suffer from short diffusion lengths and low transmission efficiencies over a broad spectrum. We have developed FibranceTM, a glass-based fiber optic cylindrical diffuser which can illuminate a fiber from 0.5 cm to 10 meters over a broad wavelength range. With these longer illumination lengths, a variety of other medical applications are possible beyond photodynamic therapy. We present a number of applications for Fibrance ranging from in situ controllable illumination for Photodynamic Therapy to light guided anatomy highlighting for minimally invasive surgery to mitigating hospital acquired infections and more.

  14. Evidence-based Mobile Medical Applications in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Drincic, Andjela; Prahalad, Priya; Greenwood, Deborah; Klonoff, David C

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews mobile medical applications that are commercially available in the United States or European Union (EU) and are (1) associated with published data of clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature during the past 5 years, (2) cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, or (3) a recipient of a CE (Conformité Européenne) mark by the EU. Many of these applications have been shown to positively affect outcomes in the short term, but long-term studies are needed. Until more data are available, consumers and professionals can consider guidance based on FDA/CE status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  16. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-12-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases.

  17. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-01-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  18. [Application of medical imaging to general thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Medical imaging technology is rapidly progressing. Positron emission tomography (PET) has played major role in the staging and choice of treatment modality in lung cancer patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now routinely used for mediastinal tumors and the use of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) may help in the diagnosis of malignancies including lung cancers. The benefits of medical imaging technology are not limited to diagnostics, and include simulation or navigation for complex lung resection and other procedures. Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) shortens imaging time to obtain detailed and precise volume data, which improves diagnosis of small-sized lung cancers. 3-dimensional reconstruction of the volume data allows the safe performance of thoracoscopic surgery. For lung lobectomy, identification of the branching structures, diameter, and length of the arteries is useful in selecting the procedure for blood vessel treatment. For lung segmentectomy, visualization of venous branches in the affected segments and intersegmental veins has facilitated the preoperative determination of the anatomical intersegmental plane. Therefore, the application of medical imaging technology is useful in general thoracic surgery.

  19. Printable thermoelectric devices and conductive patterns for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungmin; Kim, Hyunjung; Chen, Linfeng; Choi, Sang H.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    Remote point-of-care is expected to revolutionize the modern medical practice, and many efforts have been made for the development of wireless health monitoring systems for continuously detecting the physiological signals of patients. To make the remote point-of-care generally accepted and widely used, it is necessary to develop cost-effective and durable wireless health monitoring systems. Printing technique will be helpful for the fabrication of high-quality and low-cost medical devices and systems because it allows high-resolution and high-speed fabrication, low material consumption and nano-sized patterning on both flexible and rigid substrates. Furthermore, application of thermoelectric generators can replace conventional batteries as the power sources for wireless health monitoring systems because thermoelectric generators can convert the wasted heat or the heat from nature into electricity which is required for the operation of the wireless health monitoring systems. In this research, we propose the concept of printable thermoelectric devices and conductive patterns for the realization of more portable and cost-effective medical devices. To print thermoelectric generators and conductive patterns on substrates, printing inks with special characteristics should be developed. For the development of thermoelectric inks, nano-structured thermoelectric materials are synthesized and characterized; and for the development of conductive inks, two kinds of surface treated carbon nanotubes are used as active materials.

  20. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A.; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C.; Klinzing, David C.; Daroy, Maria Luisa G.; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1. PMID:27032000

  1. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C; Klinzing, David C; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1.

  2. Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility and the Prevalence of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 Genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pongpech, Pintip; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Lokpichart, Somchai; Srifuengfung, Somporn; Sonprasert, Suthatta

    2017-03-24

    We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of the blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in Thailand. The isolates were tested using the disk diffusion method, and 100% of 370 isolates were found susceptible to cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. Some of the isolates were resistant to penicillin (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (88.0%), ofloxacin (97.4%), or tetracycline (89.1%). Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae accounted for 83.8% of isolates, with 70.0% of these further identified as penicillinase-producing plus tetracycline resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin are not recommended for treatment because of the high prevalence (89.7%) of multidrug resistant gonococci. A study of genes controlling enzyme of beta-lactamase production (blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135) was performed using mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR method and DNA sequencing. Beta-lactamase positive N. gonorrhoeae carried blaTEM-1 (69.6%) and blaTEM-135 (30.4%), indicating that there is a significant increase and spread of blaTEM-135 among gonococci in Thailand.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Light, Visible and Invisible and its Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newing, Angela

    2000-09-01

    This book is based on various lectures given by Professor Newing over the last few years covering the centenaries of the discovery of x-rays, radioactivity, the electron and radium. It is a splendid follow-up read after studying the more formal presentations in A-level textbooks. The theory of each technique is touched on and the reader is provided with a full list of references for deeper analysis. Intermittently within the text are paragraphs of historical and developmental details, illustrated by contemporary drawings and photographs. These passages, which appear in a different typeface, add greatly to the enjoyment of the book, but could be skipped by an impatient reader seeking to gain an appropriate review knowledge of the subject of medical radiation physics. The areas of physiological measurement and medical engineering are not covered, neither is medical computing. Chapters discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of x-rays. Different methods of scanning are outlined and the appropriateness of techniques brought up-to-date. Treatment with ionizing radiations is expanded to touch on electron radiotherapy, neutron therapy and brachytherapy. Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are considered in the section on treatments using non-ionizing radiations. The story starts with evidence from the ancient worlds of Egypt and Greece, accelerating through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the many treatments around today. The laser is shown to be a versatile and exact tool, available in a complete range of wavelengths for different surgical uses. The scientific principles and current applications of nuclear medicine, ultrasound and MRI are described. For each type of procedure, the author includes comments on advantages, disadvantages and operational safety. Dosimetry and quality assurance are touched upon. The book reflects Professor Newing's enthusiasm for her role as a medical physicist both as practitioner and teacher. To any students studying

  4. High Incidence of Escherichia coli Strains Coharboring mcr-1 and blaNDM from Chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Tao; Song, Feng-Jing; Zou, Ming; Zhang, Qi-Di; Shan, Hu

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying mcr-1-blaNDM from a chicken farm in China. Of the 78 E. coli isolates, 21 clonally unrelated isolates carried mcr-1-blaNDM Diverse IncI2 plasmids disseminated mcr-1, while the dissemination of blaNDM was mediated by diverse IncB/O plasmids. More striking was the colocalization of resistance genes mcr-1 and blaNDM-4 in an IncHI2/ST3 plasmid, which might pose a great challenge for public health. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Wideband optical detector of ultrasound for medical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-05-11

    Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions.

  6. Organic transistors with high thermal stability for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuribara, Kazunori; Wang, He; Uchiyama, Naoya; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zschieschang, Ute; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel; Klauk, Hagen; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Someya, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The excellent mechanical flexibility of organic electronic devices is expected to open up a range of new application opportunities in electronics, such as flexible displays, robotic sensors, and biological and medical electronic applications. However, one of the major remaining issues for organic devices is their instability, especially their thermal instability, because low melting temperatures and large thermal expansion coefficients of organic materials cause thermal degradation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of flexible thin-film transistors with excellent thermal stability and their viability for biomedical sterilization processes. The organic thin-film transistors comprise a high-mobility organic semiconductor, dinaphtho[2,3-b:2‧,3‧-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, and thin gate dielectrics comprising a 2-nm-thick self-assembled monolayer and a 4-nm-thick aluminium oxide layer. The transistors exhibit a mobility of 1.2 cm2 V-1s-1 within a 2 V operation and are stable even after exposure to conditions typically used for medical sterilization.

  7. Nanowire-Based Sensors for Biological and Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongjie; Lee, Suwon; Koo, Kyo; Kim, Keekyoung

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles have already led to breakthroughs in the field of biological and medical sensors. The quantum size effects of the nanomaterials and their similarity in size to natural and synthetic nanomaterials are anticipated to improve sensor sensitivity dramatically. Nanowires are considered as key nanomaterials because of their electrical controllability for accurate measurement, and chemical-friendly surface for various sensing applications. This review covers the working principles and fabrication of silicon nanowire sensors. Furthermore, we review their applications for the detection of viruses, biomarkers, and DNA, as well as for drug discovery. Advances in the performance and functionality of nanowire sensors are also surveyed to highlight recent progress in this area. These advances include the improvements in reusability, sensitivity in high ionic strength solvent, long-term stability, and self-powering. Overall, with the advantages of ultra-sensitivity and the ease of fabrication, it is expected that nanowires will contribute significantly to the development of biological and medical sensors in the immediate future.

  8. Wideband Optical Detector of Ultrasound for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions. PMID:24895083

  9. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well.

  10. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  11. A continuous available (CA) server for medical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Liu, Brent J; Zhou, Z

    2004-07-01

    The trend of medical imaging research and application is toward large database management and manipulation, which requires a robust image server to receive image data from sources and to deliver them to users reliably and in a timely fashion. This article describes the design, implementation, and clinical applications of a continuous available (CA) image server for these purposes. The design of the CA image server is based on the concept of a triple modular redundancy server with three redundant server modules. Coupled with a majority voting mechanism in the three modules and failover software, the triple modular redundancy server takes care of all single points of failure hardware components in the CA image server automatically to achieve fault tolerance. Methods and procedures of evaluating the fault tolerance system reliability caused by network connectivity, motherboard, and disk storage failures are described. Thorough experimental results in laboratory and clinical environments verify that the image server achieves 99.999% hardware up time (or 5 minutes/year down time), satisfying the industrial terminology of hardware continuous availability. Performance of failover of the CA image server is automatically tabulated during these procedures. Applications of CA image server are extensive. Two examples are given including Picture Archiving and Communication System, and off-site back-up archive using the Application Service Provider model. As designed, the CA image server is portable, scalable, affordable, easy to install, and requires no human intervention during failover and system recovery.

  12. Hospital electronic medical record enterprise application strategies: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Fareed, Naleef; Ozcan, Yasar A; DeShazo, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Successful implementations and the ability to reap the benefits of electronic medical record (EMR) systems may be correlated with the type of enterprise application strategy that an administrator chooses when acquiring an EMR system. Moreover, identifying the most optimal enterprise application strategy is a task that may have important linkages with hospital performance. This study explored whether hospitals that have adopted differential EMR enterprise application strategies concomitantly differ in their overall efficiency. Specifically, the study examined whether hospitals with a single-vendor strategy had a higher likelihood of being efficient than those with a best-of-breed strategy and whether hospitals with a best-of-suite strategy had a higher probability of being efficient than those with best-of-breed or single-vendor strategies. A conceptual framework was used to formulate testable hypotheses. A retrospective cross-sectional approach using data envelopment analysis was used to obtain efficiency scores of hospitals by EMR enterprise application strategy. A Tobit regression analysis was then used to determine the probability of a hospital being inefficient as related to its EMR enterprise application strategy, while moderating for the hospital's EMR "implementation status" and controlling for hospital and market characteristics. The data envelopment analysis of hospitals suggested that only 32 hospitals were efficient in the study's sample of 2,171 hospitals. The results from the post hoc analysis showed partial support for the hypothesis that hospitals with a best-of-suite strategy were more likely to be efficient than those with a single-vendor strategy. This study underscores the importance of understanding the differences between the three strategies discussed in this article. On the basis of the findings, hospital administrators should consider the efficiency associations that a specific strategy may have compared with another prior to moving toward

  13. [Application of radiometallic compounds for medical diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Saji, Hideo

    2008-03-01

    The clinical use of radioactivity centered upon diagnosis and therapy constitutes one of the greatest advances in non-invasive medicine. This medical field is called nuclear medicine. The nuclides of metallic elements abound in radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. For the diagnostic application, pure gamma ray-emitting short-lived radionuclides, which possess low gamma energy emission, are useful due to high permeability in the body, and radiometals such as 99mTc, 201Tl, 67Ga and 111In have received great attention for diagnostic applications. Another clinical application of radionuclides is the therapeutic field. Since therapeutic nuclear medicine involving the use of internally administered radionuclides bases on the damage of radiation from the radionuclide to the target component in the cell, beta particle emitters, which provide high radiation dose, are useful for this purpose. Some compounds labeled with metallic radionuclides such as 90Y, 89,90Sr, 186,188Re and 67Cu have received attention for therapy. These metallic radionuclides have received the most attention due not only to their nuclear physical characteristics, but also to their inherent capacity to coordinate with a great variety of ligands. This great versatility allows the rational design of radiometallic compounds that show high and specific localization in a target tissue, an essential requirement for nuclear medical use. This paper describe some examples of successful drug designing using radiometallic compounds for nuclear medicine. Better knowledge of physiology and a more rational use of bioinorganic chemical principles will contribute to the development of new radiometallic compounds for targeted diagnosis and therapy.

  14. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  15. blaNDM-1 Carriage on IncR Plasmid in Enterobacteriaceae Strains.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Erika; Gužvinec, Marija; Butić, Iva; Krešić, Sanja; Crnek, Sandra Šestan; Tambić, Arjana; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Mazzariol, Annarita

    2016-03-01

    Four NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains (three Klebsiella pneumoniae and one Citrobacter koseri) were isolated between 2009 and 2011 through a nationwide surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia to study the molecular genetic background of blaNDM and the responsible plasmid types. Phenotypically, the clinical strains proved to be multidrug resistant. All strains remained susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. The clinical strains harbored variable antibiotic resistance determinants, notably, blaNDM-1, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-12, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-9, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-4, qnrB1, and aac(6')Ib-cr in different combinations. Two K. pneumoniae belonged to sequence type ST15 and one strain to ST16. As for the plasmid types, C. koseri and one of the ST15 K. pneumoniae carried IncR, and the second ST15 K. pneumoniae carried IncR and colE. The K. pneumoniae ST16 strain hosted A/C and colE plasmids. The blaNDM-1 gene was detected on conjugative high-molecular-weight plasmids, namely, A/C and IncR types. It is noteworthy that this is the first description of K. pneumoniae ST16 expressing NDM-1 in Europe. Remarkably, our study underscores the importance of the IncR plasmid as a reservoir of multidrug resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the IncR plasmid carrying blaNDM-1 in C. koseri is reported for the first time.

  16. Dissemination of bla OXA-370 gene among several Enterobacteriaceae species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magagnin, C M; Rozales, F P; Antochevis, L; Nunes, L S; Martins, A S; Barth, A L; Sampaio, J M; Zavascki, A P

    2017-05-30

    OXA-370 is a recently described OXA-48 variant that has only been described in a few Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of OXA-370-producing isolates in carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae recovered from 28 hospitals from Brazil. Real-time PCR was used to determine the presence of bla NDM-1, bla KPC-2, bla VIM-type, bla GES-type, bla OXA-48-like, and bla IMP-type genes. A total of 4,451 Enterobacteriaceae were screened. The gene bla OXA-48-like was detected in 74 (2.5%) isolates, mostly of Enterobacter spp. (44.6% E. cloacae and 2.7% E. aerogenes) and Klebsiella spp. (31.1% K. pneumoniae and 6.7% K. oxytoca), followed by Escherichia coli, (6.7%), Morganella morganii, (2.7%), Citrobacter freundii (1.3%), Proteus mirabilis (1.3%), Providencia stuartii (1.3%), and Serratia spp. (1.3%). These isolates were from five hospitals, 67 (90.5%) from the hospital where the bla OXA-370 was first described. Sequencing of bla OXA-48-like was performed in 52 isolates, including E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. coli, and C. freundii; all presenting 100% identity with bla OXA-370. PFGE revealed the presence of distinct clones among K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, K. oxytoca, and E. coli. Susceptibility rates to meropenem, imipenem, and ertapenem among OXA-370-producing isolates were 92.3%, 78.8%, 7.7% respectively; the MIC50 /MIC90 were 0.38/2 mg/L and 1/3 mg/L for meropenem and imipenem respectively. Overall, antimicrobial susceptibility analysis suggests that OXA-370 lacks carbapenemase activity. Our study demonstrated that the bla OXA-370 gene is disseminated among several Enterobacteriaceae species and clones, indicating a high potential for dissemination.

  17. Smartphone application for mechanical quality assurance of medical linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwiyoung; Lee, Hyunseok; In Park, Jong; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Suk; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-06-01

    Mechanical quality assurance (QA) of medical linear accelerators consists of time-consuming and human-error-prone procedures. We developed a smartphone application system for mechanical QA. The system consists of two smartphones: one attached to a gantry for obtaining real-time information on the mechanical parameters of the medical linear accelerator, and another displaying real-time information via a Bluetooth connection with the former. Motion sensors embedded in the smartphone were used to measure gantry and collimator rotations. Images taken by the smartphone’s high-resolution camera were processed to evaluate accuracies of jaw-positioning, crosshair centering and source-to-surface distance (SSD). The application was developed using Android software development kit and OpenCV library. The accuracy and precision of the system was validated against an optical rotation stage and digital calipers, prior to routine QA measurements of five medical linear accelerators. The system accuracy and precision in measuring angles and lengths were determined to be 0.05  ±  0.05° and 0.25  ±  0.14 mm, respectively. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) in QA measurements of gantry and collimator rotation were 0.05  ±  0.04° and 0.05  ±  0.04°, respectively. The MAE in QA measurements of light field was 0.39  ±  0.36 mm. The MAEs in QA measurements of crosshair centering and SSD were 0.40  ±  0.35 mm and 0.41  ±  0.32 mm, respectively. In conclusion, most routine mechanical QA procedures could be performed using the smartphone application system with improved precision and within a shorter time-frame, while eliminating potential human errors.

  18. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  19. Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from a New York City Hospital Belonging to Sequence Type 258 and Carrying blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-4.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Mills, Janet C; Jones, Ronald N; Soave, Rosemary; Jenkins, Stephen G; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2016-01-04

    Among 69 of 139 (49.6%) carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae carrying blaKPC, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae was also positive for blaVIM. The isolate belonged to sequence type 258 (ST258) and carried blaKPC-2 on a copy of Tn4401a and blaVIM-4 on a class 1 integron. Genes were located on distinct plasmids belonging to Inc types A/C and FII. Elevated expression of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC (acrA, 15.3 times) and reduced expression of outer membrane protein genes ompK35 and ompK37 (0.16 and 0.081 times, respectively) associated with various amino acid alterations on OmpK37 were observed. The presence of two carbapenemases in ST258 K. pneumoniae is of great concern due to the ability of this organism to widely disseminate.

  20. The establishment of a duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid and simultaneous detection of blaNDM and blaKPC genes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fen; Sun, Jingjing; Cheng, Cancan; Rui, Yongyu

    2013-10-22

    The latest threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria corresponds to the emergence of carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers. Rapid molecular detection is essential to limit their spread. In this study, a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that was specific for the detection of blaNDM and blaKPC with the same limit of detection of ten plasmid copies was developed. The assay was linear over eight log dilutions for blaNDM (R2 = 0.971; slope, -3.273) and blaKPC (R2 = 0.992; slope, -2.997) with efficiencies of 102% and 115%, respectively. The assay was validated with 157 clinical isolates and showed 100% concordance with conventional PCR. The excellent performance of the duplex PCR assay makes it a powerful tool for surveillance of the carbapenemases NDM and KPC.

  1. Medical Applications of the PHITS Code (3): User Assistance Program for Medical Physics Computation.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takuya; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    DICOM2PHITS and PSFC4PHITS are user assistance programs for medical physics PHITS applications. DICOM2PHITS is a program to construct the voxel PHITS simulation geometry from patient CT DICOM image data by using a conversion table from CT number to material composition. PSFC4PHITS is a program to convert the IAEA phase-space file data to PHITS format to be used as a simulation source of PHITS. Both of the programs are useful for users who want to apply PHITS simulation to verification of the treatment planning of radiation therapy. We are now developing a program to convert dose distribution obtained by PHITS to DICOM RT-dose format. We also want to develop a program which is able to implement treatment information included in other DICOM files (RT-plan and RT-structure) as a future plan.

  2. Identification of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Emphasis on New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in Bandar Abbas, South of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Saeed; Ansari, Maryam; Faridi, Forogh; Azad, Mohsen; Davoodian, Parivash; Javadpour, Sedigheh; Farahani, Abbas; Douzandeh Mobarrez, Banafsheh; Karmostaji, Afsaneh

    2017-10-03

    The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae especially blaNDM-1-carrying isolates is a great concern worldwide. In this study we describe the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in three teaching hospitals at Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. A total of 170 nonduplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method. PCR was carried out for detection of carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaOXA-48, and blaOXA-181) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaGES, and blaPER). Clonal relatedness of blaNDM-1-positive isolates was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Tigecycline was the most effective antimicrobial agent with 96.5% susceptibility. In addition, 6.5% of the isolates were carbapenem resistant. BlaNDM-1 was identified in four isolates (isolate A-D) and all of them were multidrug-resistant. MLST revealed that blaNDM-1-positive isolates were clonally related and belonged to two distinct clonal complexes, including sequence type (ST) 13 and ST 392. In addition to blaNDM-1, isolate A coharbored blaSHV-11, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM-1, isolate B harbored blaSHV-11 and blaCTX-M-15, and isolates C and D contained both blaSHV-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Our results indicate that NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST 13 and ST 392 are disseminated in our region. Moreover, one of our major concerns is that these isolates may be more prevalent in the near future. Tracking and urgent intervention is necessary for control and prevention of these resistant isolates.

  3. Medical robots in cardiac surgery - application and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kroczek, Karolina; Kroczek, Piotr; Nawrat, Zbigniew

    2017-03-01

    Medical robots offer new standards and opportunities for treatment. This paper presents a review of the literature and market information on the current situation and future perspectives for the applications of robots in cardiac surgery. Currently in the United States, only 10% of thoracic surgical procedures are conducted using robots, while globally this value remains below 1%. Cardiac and thoracic surgeons use robotic surgical systems increasingly often. The goal is to perform more than one hundred thousand minimally invasive robotic surgical procedures every year. A surgical robot can be used by surgical teams on a rotational basis. The market of surgical robots used for cardiovascular and lung surgery was worth 72.2 million dollars in 2014 and is anticipated to reach 2.2 billion dollars by 2021. The analysis shows that Poland should have more than 30 surgical robots. Moreover, Polish medical teams are ready for the introduction of several robots into the field of cardiac surgery. We hope that this market will accommodate the Polish Robin Heart robots as well.

  4. Positron scattering measurements for application to medical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James

    2015-09-01

    While the use of positrons in medical imaging is now well established, there is still much to learn regarding the transport of positrons through the body, and the subsequent damage induced. Current models of dosimetry use only a crude approximation of the collision physics involved, and at low energies misrepresent the thermalisation process to a considerable degree. Recently, collaborative work has commenced to attempt to refine these models, incorporating a better representation of the underlying physics and trying to gain a better understanding of the damage done after the emission of a positron from a medical radioisotope. This problem is being attacked from several different angles, with new models being developed based upon established techniques in plasma and swarm physics. For all these models, a realistic representation of the collision processes of positrons with relevant molecular species is required. At the Australian National University, we have undertaken a program of measurements of positron scattering from a range of molecules that are important in biological systems, with a focus on analogs to DNA. This talk will present measurements of positron scattering from a range of these molecules, as well as describing the experimental techniques employed to make such measurements. Targets have been measured that are both liquid and solid at room temperature, and new approaches have been developed to get absolute cross section data. The application of the data to various models of positron thermalisation will also be described.

  5. Medical robots in cardiac surgery – application and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kroczek, Karolina; Kroczek, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Medical robots offer new standards and opportunities for treatment. This paper presents a review of the literature and market information on the current situation and future perspectives for the applications of robots in cardiac surgery. Currently in the United States, only 10% of thoracic surgical procedures are conducted using robots, while globally this value remains below 1%. Cardiac and thoracic surgeons use robotic surgical systems increasingly often. The goal is to perform more than one hundred thousand minimally invasive robotic surgical procedures every year. A surgical robot can be used by surgical teams on a rotational basis. The market of surgical robots used for cardiovascular and lung surgery was worth 72.2 million dollars in 2014 and is anticipated to reach 2.2 billion dollars by 2021. The analysis shows that Poland should have more than 30 surgical robots. Moreover, Polish medical teams are ready for the introduction of several robots into the field of cardiac surgery. We hope that this market will accommodate the Polish Robin Heart robots as well. PMID:28515758

  6. A backscattered x-ray imager for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Eric Jude L.; Dibianca, Frank A.; Shukla, Hemant; Gulabani, Daya

    2005-04-01

    Conventional X-ray radiographic systems rely on transmitted photons for the production of images. Backscatter imaging makes use of the more abundant scattered photons for image formation. Specifically, incoherently (Compton) scattered X-ray photons are detected and used for image formation in this modality of medical imaging. However, additional information is obtained when the transmitted X-ray photons are also detected and used. Transmission radiography produces a two-dimensional image of a three dimensional system, therefore image information from a shallower object is often contaminated by image information from underlying objects. Backscattered x-ray imaging largely overcomes this deficiency by imaging depth selectively, which reduces corruption of shallow imaging information by information from deeper objects lying under it. Backscattered x-ray imaging may be particularly useful for examining anatomical structures at shallow depths beneath the skin. Some typical applications for such imaging might be breast imaging, middle ear imaging, imaging of skin melanomas, etc. Previous investigations, by way of theoretical calculations and computational simulations into the feasibility of this kind of imaging have uncovered high-contrast and SNR parameters. Simulations indicate that this method can be used for imaging relatively high-density objects at depths of up to approximately five centimeters below the surface. This paper presents both theoretical and experimental SNR results on this new medical imaging modality.

  7. Can We Trust Computational Modeling for Medical Applications?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Nelson, Emily; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Operations in extreme environments such as spaceflight pose human health risks that are currently not well understood and potentially unanticipated. In addition, there are limited clinical and research data to inform development and implementation of therapeutics for these unique health risks. In this light, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is leveraging biomedical computational models and simulations (M&S) to help inform, predict, assess and mitigate spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. To ensure that these M&S can be applied with confidence to the space environment, it is imperative to incorporate a rigorous verification, validation and credibility assessment (VV&C) processes to ensure that the computational tools are sufficiently reliable to answer questions within their intended use domain. In this presentation, we will discuss how NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) have successfully adapted NASA's Standard for Models and Simulations, NASA-STD-7009 (7009) to achieve this goal. These VV&C methods are also being leveraged by organization such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to establish new M&S VV&C standards and guidelines for healthcare applications. Similarly, we hope to provide some insight to the greater aerospace medicine community on how to develop and implement M&S with sufficient confidence to augment medical research and operations.

  8. Operational and design aspects of accelerators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Seidel, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Originally, the typical particle accelerators as well as their associated beam transport equipment were designed for particle and nuclear physics research and applications in isotope production. In the past few decades, such accelerators and related equipment have also been applied for medical use. This can be in the original physics laboratory environment, but for the past 20 years also in hospital-based or purely clinical environments for particle therapy. The most important specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational, and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the technical requirements, safety aspects, and required reliability of the accelerated beam differ substantially from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. It will be shown that this difference has significant implications on the safety and interlock systems. The operation of such a medical facility should be possible by nonaccelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). The organization and role of the control and interlock systems can be considered as being the most crucially important issue, and therefore a special, dedicated design is absolutely necessary in a facility providing particle therapy.

  9. Biomimetic adhesive materials containing cyanoacryl group for medical application.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sueng Hwan; Sohn, Jeong Sun

    2014-10-17

    For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  10. Functionalized DNA materials for sensing and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Army has strong interests in nanoscale architectures that enable enhanced extraction and controllable multiplication of the THz/IR regime spectral signatures associated with specific bio-molecular targets. Emerging DNAbased nano-assemblies (i.e., either materials or structural devices) will be discussed that realize novel sensing paradigms through the incorporation of organic and/or biological molecules such that they effect highly predictable and controllable changes into the electro-optical properties of the resulting superstructures. Results will be given to illustrate the utility of functionalized DNA materials in biological (and chemical) sensing, and to demonstrate how the basic science can be leveraged to study and develop synthetic antibodies, reporters and vaccines for future medical applications.

  11. Biocompatible yogurt carbon dots: evaluation of utilization for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinç, Saliha; Kara, Meryem; Demirel Kars, Meltem; Aykül, Fatmanur; Çiçekci, Hacer; Akkuş, Mehmet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, carbon dots (CDs) were produced from yogurt, a fermented milk product, via microwave-assisted process (800 W) in 30 min without using any additional chemical agents. Yogurt CDs had outstanding nitrogen and oxygen ratios. These dots were monodisperse and about 2 nm sized. The toxicological assessments of yogurt carbon dots in human cancer cells and normal epithelial cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. Yogurt carbon dots had intense fluorescent signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability in living cell system. The resulting yogurt carbon dots exhibited high biocompatibility up to 7.1 mg/mL CD concentration which may find utilization in medical applications such as cellular tracking, imaging and drug delivery. Yogurt carbon dots have potential to be good diagnostic agents to visualize cancer cells which may be developed as a therapeutic carrier.

  12. [Application of genome engineering in medical synthetic biology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyuan; Zhao, Dehua; Qi, Lei Stanley

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology aims to establish a complete set of engineering principles, theories, and methods, via the rational design and assembly of basic biological parts, for the goal of effective implementation of complex biological systems with programmable functions. In recent years, with emerging novel classes of programmable genetic parts, in particular, the establishment and optimization of CRISPR and CRISPRi technology platforms, synthetic biology is entering a new era. This review summarizes recent advances on CRISPR genome editing and gene regulation technologies, their applications in constructing programmable biological parts, and their roles in building sophisticated gene circuits. We also provide a future vision on how synthetic biology can transform medicine (named medical synthetic biology, MSB) and therapeutics.

  13. [Design and application of medical knowledge model on SAGE].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Bin-fei; Ye, Feng; Lv, Xu-dong

    2009-01-01

    As an methodology for promoting the quality and efficiency of health care, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have gained much improvement. The knowledge base (KB) plays an important role in DSS. For CDSSs, the construction of KB means modeling the medical knowledge based on a suitable model. This study analyzes the SAGE model, then implements it on knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and improves the SAGE to enhance its expression ability. The model is constructed as the KB in CDSS, and be applied in hospital. The evaluation result of CDSS reveals that the SAGE model should be useful in clinical application. Finally, this study propounds some points yet to be improved in the SAGE.

  14. Occurrence of blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M and mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Well Water in rural China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pan; Bi, Zhenwang; Nilsson, Maud; Zheng, Beiwen; Berglund, Björn; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Börjesson, Stefan; Li, Xuewen; Chen, Baoli; Yin, Hong; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2017-01-23

    We report on co-existence of mcr-1 and blaCTX-M in multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli belonging to the ST10 complex, isolated from well water in rural China. Raoultella ornithinolytica with blaKPC-2 was also detected in the well water from the same area. This study shows that genes coding for resistance to last resort antibiotics are present in wells in rural China, indicating a potential source for antibiotic resistance.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas sp. Strain Carrying blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2 Carbapenemase Genes from Hospital Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiyi; Wu, Wenjing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain WCHP16 recovered from hospital sewage in West China Hospital, Chengdu, China was found to carry two carbapenemase genes blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2. Here, we report its 5.7-Mb draft genome sequence, comprising 141 contigs and an average 59.53% G+C content. The genome contained 5,504 coding sequences and 67 tRNA genes. PMID:27795238

  16. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  17. Advanced Medical Technology Capacity Building and the Medical Mentoring Event: A Unique Application of SOF Counterinsurgency Medical Engagement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Dan; Tate, Charmaine; Wey, Pierre-Francois; Batjom, Emmanuel; Nicholas, Thomas A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) is a military commander?s tool developed during the Vietnam War to gain access to and positively influence an indigenous population through the provision of direct medical care provided by military medical personnel, particularly in Counter Insurgency Operations (COIN). An alternative to MEDCAPs is the medical seminar (MEDSEM). The MEDSEM uses a Commander?s military medical assets to share culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population in order to create a sustainable training resource for the local population?s health system. At the heart of the MEDSEM is the ?train the trainer? concept whereby medical information is passed to indigenous trainers who then pass that information to an indigenous population. The MEDSEM achieves the Commander?s objectives of increasing access and influence with the population through a medical training venue rather than direct patient care. Previous MEDSEMS conducted in Afghanistan by military forces focused on improvement of rural healthcare through creation of Village Health Care Workers. This model can also be used to engage host nation (HN) medical personnel and improve medical treatment capabilities in population centers. The authors describe a modification of the MEDSEM, a Medical Mentorship (MM), conducted in November 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan, at the Afghan National Army (ANA) National Medical Hospital. This training was designed to improve intubation skills in Afghan National Army Hospitals by ANA medical providers, leave residual training capability, and build relationships within the institution that not only assist the institution, but can also be leveraged to foster Commanders? objectives, such as health and reconstruction initiatives and medical partnering for indigenous corps and medical forces described below. Methods We, the authors, developed a culturally appropriate endotracheal intubation training package including a Dari and

  18. BLA to vHPC Inputs Modulate Anxiety-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Beyeler, Anna; Seo, Changwoo; Leppla, Christopher A.; Wildes, Craig P.; Tye, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) have both been implicated in mediating anxiety-related behaviors, but the functional contribution of BLA inputs to the vHPC has never been directly investigated. Here we show that activation of BLA-vHPC synapses acutely and robustly increased anxiety-related behaviors, while inhibition of BLA-vHPC synapses decreased anxiety-related behaviors. We combined optogenetic approaches with in vivo pharmacological manipulations and ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to dissect the local circuit mechanisms, demonstrating that activation of BLA terminals in the vHPC provided monosynaptic, glutamatergic inputs to vHPC pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, BLA inputs exerted polysynaptic, inhibitory effects mediated by local interneurons in the vHPC that may serve to balance the circuit locally. These data establish a role for BLA-vHPC synapses in bidirectionally controlling anxiety-related behaviors in an immediate, yet reversible, manner and a model for the local circuit mechanism of BLA inputs in the vHPC. PMID:23972595

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  20. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  1. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type class A carbapenemase genes on novel chromosomal integrative elements and plasmids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Davidson, Ross; Delport, Johannes A; Fuller, Jeff; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Levett, Paul; Roscoe, Diane L; Willey, Barbara M; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-02-21

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species, however blaNMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwiggii Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A (n=10), IMI-1 (n=5), and IMI-9 (n=2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements, EcloIMEXs, located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, blaIMI-5 and blaIMI-6, were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A/IMI-type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential.

  2. 78 FR 59038 - Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... applications intended for use on mobile platforms (mobile applications or ``mobile apps''). At this time, the FDA intends to apply regulatory requirements to only a small subset of mobile apps referred to in this guidance as mobile medical applications (mobile medical apps). DATES: Submit either electronic or written...

  3. β-Lactam Resistance Genes: Characterization, Epidemiology, and First Detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry in Brazil-Brazil Ministry of Agriculture's Pathogen Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Fernanda Marques; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Oliveira, Vinicius Gomes Sales; Gaspari, Marcus Vinicius; Dos Santos, Amaury; de Freitas, Josinete Barros; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread in nature; however, human infections occur mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, specially poultry and eggs. In Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) oversees food production in general, with the goal of preventing transmission of pathogens through the food chain. In 2004, MAPA initiated a program to monitor and control levels of Salmonella in poultry during slaughter. This study analyzes isolates from MAPA's program for β-lactam resistance and the resistance genes involved, as well as the geographic distributions of potentially clonal populations of resistant isolates within Brazil. Initially, 1,939 Salmonella spp. isolated between 2004 and 2011 were examined. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and 100 isolates resistant or intermediate to ampicillin and ceftriaxone were screened initially for the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPSA, blaCMY-1, and blaCMY-2 genes. There were 55 isolates whose resistance genes were not identified by this panel and these isolates are the subject of this report. These 55 isolates were differentiated into 31 distinct ribogroups, with multiple β-lactam resistance genes, including AmpC blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaCTX-M-14. Isolates carrying variants of blaCTX-M were identified in three geographic regions. Salmonella carrying particular genetic variants of blaCTX-M and belonging to the same ribogroup were identified from multiple poultry slaughtering facilities. In some instances, these presumptive clonal-related isolates were from facilities over 300 miles apart, indicating potential clonal spread between two geographic regions. This is the first report of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella in Brazil.

  4. Hospital sewage water - a reservoir for variants of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) and ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shadab; Khan, Asad U

    2017-09-05

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a threat to public health. Hospital sewage is generally unexplored, having a potential for harbouring bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections. Hence, we initiated this study to monitor NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital sewage water. We detected 32 isolates with blaNDM variants, 17 Escherichia coli, 8 Citrobacter freundii, 4 Shigella boydii, 2 Citrobacter braakii, and 1 Citrobacter farmeri in hospital sewage water, showing resistance to all antibiotics except colistin. All isolates carried blaNDM (of which nine were blaNDM-1, eleven blaNDM-4, ten blaNDM-5, and two blaNDM-7), blaCMY variants (one blaCMY-2, three blaCMY-4, five blaCMY-6, eleven blaCMY-42, two blaCMY-86, and two blaCMY-139) in 24 isolates, blaOXA-type (blaOXA-1 in seventeen isolates, and blaOXA-48 in three isolates), blaCTX-M in 19 isolates and/or ampC in 9 isolates on conjugative plasmid of IncFIA, IncFIB, IncFIC, IncP, IncY, IncHI1 and IncI1 types. In Escherichia coli, coexistence of blaNDM-1 with blaCMY-6 and blaCMY-139, blaNDM-4 with blaCMY-6, blaCMY-42, and blaCMY-86, blaNDM-5 with blaCMY-6 and blaCMY-42, and blaNDM-7 with blaCMY-6, were observed. Identification of NDM-5-producing Shigella boydii and NDM-7-producing Citrobacter freundii and detection of association of blaNDM-4 and blaOXA-48 in Citrobacter braakii and Citrobacter farmeri. Class 1 integron was also found on the plasmid. ISAba125 and bleomycin genes were found surrounding all blaNDM variants. The emergence and dissemination of blaNDM variants in the hospital sewage water is a matter of concern, creating an endemic scenario, leading to the level of an outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  6. Application study of medical robots in vascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wang-sheng; Xu, Wu-yi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Da; Wang, Da-min; Jia, Po; Li, Zhi-cao; Wang, Tian-miao; Zhang, Da-peng; Tian, Zeng-min; Zeng, Yanjun

    2011-09-01

    Based on the background of minimally invasive surgery and applications of medical robots, a vascular interventional robotic system has been developed that can be used in the field of vascular intervention. The robotic system comprises a propulsion system, an image navigation system and a virtual surgery training system. Integration of the three systems constitutes a vascular intervention prototype robotic system used to carry out in vitro vascular intervention and animal experiments. On a transparent glass vascular model, a catheter was shown to enter an arbitrary branch of the vascular model with catheter motion meeting the requirements of clinical vascular intervention surgery (VIS); i.e. error band of catheter motion < 0.5 mm. In the animal experiments, 1.33-2.00 mm (4F-6F) diameter catheters were selectively inserted successfully into predefined targets in the animal, such as the renal, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular artery. Compared with conventional manual surgery, the time for robotic surgery is a little longer. There were no operative complications in the animal experiments. These simulation and animal study results demonstrate that this vascular interventional robotic system allows doctors to perform angiography remotely and prevents them from radiation exposure. The system may be the basis for further clinical applications of vascular intervention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C. L.

    2013-02-05

    Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K.; Azeem, Sitara

    2013-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer. PMID:23599874

  9. Laser heating of dielectric particles for medical and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Tribelsky, Michael I; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2016-07-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of a spherical dielectric particle embedded in a liquid. The discussed range of the problem parameters is typical for medical and biological applications. We focus on the case, when the heat diffusivity in the particle is of the same order of magnitude as that in the fluid. We perform quantitative analysis of the heat transfer equation based on interplay of four characteristic scales of the problem, namely the particle radius, the characteristic depth of light absorption in the material of the particle and the two heat diffusion lengths: in the particle and in the embedding liquid. A new quantitative characteristic of the laser action, that is the cooling time, describing the temporal scale of the cooling down of the particle after the laser pulse is over, is introduced and discussed. Simple analytical formulas for the temperature rise in the center of the particle and at its surface as well as for the cooling time are obtained. We show that at the appropriate choice of the problem parameters the cooling time may be by many orders of magnitude larger the laser pulse duration. It makes possible to minimize the undesirable damage of healthy tissues owing to the finite size of the laser beam and scattering of the laser radiation, simultaneously keeping the total hyperthermia period large enough to kill the pathogenic cells. An example of application of the developed approach to optimization of the therapeutic effect at the laser heating of particles for cancer therapy is presented.

  10. Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia patients have to recognize the information on both eyes equally when they gaze at the display with parallax and perceive the stereo depth of the content. Participants in this interactive training engage actively with the image. As a result, they are able to revive their binocular visual function while playing a game. Through the training, the observers became able to recognize the amount of parallax correctly. In addition, the training level can be changed according to the eyesight difference between a right eye and a left eye. As a result, we ascertained that practical application of the II method for strabismus or amblyopia patients would be possible.

  11. Machine learning for epigenetics and future medical applications.

    PubMed

    Holder, Lawrence B; Haque, M Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-03

    Understanding epigenetic processes holds immense promise for medical applications. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) are critical to realize this promise. Previous studies used epigenetic data sets associated with the germline transmission of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and novel ML approaches to predict genome-wide locations of critical epimutations. A combination of Active Learning (ACL) and Imbalanced Class Learning (ICL) was used to address past problems with ML to develop a more efficient feature selection process and address the imbalance problem in all genomic data sets. The power of this novel ML approach and our ability to predict epigenetic phenomena and associated disease is suggested. The current approach requires extensive computation of features over the genome. A promising new approach is to introduce Deep Learning (DL) for the generation and simultaneous computation of novel genomic features tuned to the classification task. This approach can be used with any genomic or biological data set applied to medicine. The application of molecular epigenetic data in advanced machine learning analysis to medicine is the focus of this review.

  12. Medical and welfare applications of shape memory alloy microcoil actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Y.; Mizushima, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Esashi, M.

    2005-10-01

    We have successfully developed several mechanisms using Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) microcoil actuators, for example, a bending mechanism, an extension/contraction mechanism, a torsional mechanism and a stiffness control mechanism. The principles involved in these mechanisms and the structure of each mechanism are detailed, and medical and welfare applications are presented. One of the devices which has been developed is an active bending soft tube using an SMA microcoil actuator. Doctors can control the bending motion of the tip of the tube from outside the body. One application of this tube is the treatment of intestinal obstruction. The tube consists of a bending tip (external diameter, 6 mm length, 40 mm) and a 3 m long silicone rubber tube. It enables easier and more reliable passage at the lower end of the stomach (pylorus). The maximum bending angle is 110°. Another device we have developed using SMA microcoil actuators is a dynamic tactile pin display which displays Braille characters and graphic information by dynamic up-and-down movement of an array of pins. SMA microcoil actuators enable up-and-down movement of the pins and a magnetic latch mechanism keeps the pins in an up or down state. This two-dimensional pin display consists of 100 (10 × 10) pins with a pin pitch of 2.5 mm, the actuation length of each pin being 2 mm. The tactile information can be displayed sequentially every 0.3 s.

  13. Liposomal Encapsulation Enzymes: From Medical Applications to Kinetic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jahadi, M; Khosravi-Darani, K

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes and nanoliposomes as small vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayer (entrapping one or more hydrophilic or lipophilic components) have recently found several potential applications in medicine and food industry. These vesicles may protect the core materials from moisture, heat and other extreme conditions. They may also provide controlled release of various bioactive agents, including food ingredients at the right place and time. Potential applications of enzyme-loaded liposomes are in the medical or biomedical field, particularly for the enzymereplacement therapy, as well as cheese industry for production of functional foods with improved health beneficial impacts on the consumer. Encapsulation process has a recondite impact on enzymes. In fact, liposome preparation techniques may alter the pH and temperature optima, affinity of the enzyme to substrate (Km), and maximum rate of reaction (Vmax). In addition, in this paper, the impact of process variables on the kinetic characteristics of enzymes encapsulated in liposomes was investigated. Also, the effects of enzyme entrapment in liposomes, prepared by different methods, on the catalytic efficiency of enzyme, as well as its kinetic properties and stability compared to native (free) enzymes has been reviewed.

  14. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, G. J.

    2000-12-01

    In this article a review is given on the research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades. Special attention will be directed to the radio-lanthanides for several reasons: firstly, the radio-lanthanides are three-valent metallic radionuclides which show any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for PET, β-- and Auger electron emission suitable for therapy). Even the alpha decay mode (suitable for therapy in selected cases) is available in the lanthanide group. Secondly, the 15 lanthanides can be seen chemically as one single element for labelling of tracer molecules, providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical molecule parameter and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Very recent developments in bioconjugation chemistry call for three-valent metallic radionuclides for all kinds of nuclear medical application: diagnosis, in vivo dosimetry and radionuclide therapy where the rare-earth elements will play an important role in future.

  15. Public Use of Mobile Medical Applications: A Case Study on Cloud-Based Medical Service of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen-Luan; Yan, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The use of smart mobile devices has been getting increasingly popular. The focus of this study is an attempt to explore the development of mobile medical App by medical centers and regional hospitals of Taiwan and the function of the App for comparison. The results show indicated that many hospitals developed Apps for the public for mobile medical service, of which 26 medical centers (100%) and 72 regional hospitals (84.7%) availed appointment making service via Apps. The result indicated variance at significant level (p < 0.01). There are 23 medical centers (88.5%) and 74 regional hospitals (87.1%) availed Apps for checking service progress. The result indicated insignificant variance level (p > 0.01). We can see that mobile medical service is gradually emerging as a vital issue. Yet, this is a new domain in medical service. With the mushrooming of medical applications in smart mobile devices, the medical service system is expected to be installed in these devices to enhance interactive mode of operation and inquiry services, such as medication and inquiries into physical examination results. By then, people can learn the status of their health with this system.

  16. The spread of bla OXA-48 and bla OXA-244 carbapenemase genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. isolated in Moscow, Russia.

    PubMed

    Fursova, Nadezhda K; Astashkin, Eugeny I; Knyazeva, Anastasia I; Kartsev, Nikolay N; Leonova, Ekaterina S; Ershova, Olga N; Alexandrova, Irina A; Kurdyumova, Natalia V; Sazikina, Svetlana Yu; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-11-02

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a great problem of healthcare worldwide. Study of the spread for bla OXA-48-like genes coding epidemically significant carbapenemases among hospital pathogens is important for the regional and global epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. Antibacterial resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 95) from 54 patients, P. mirabilis (n = 32) from 20 patients, Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 6) from four patients, and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4) from four patients were collected from January, 2013 to October, 2014 in neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute, Moscow. Characteristics of the isolates were done using susceptibility tests, PCR detection of the resistance genes, genotyping, conjugation, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Major strains under study were multi drug resistant (MDR), resistant to three or more functional classes of drugs simultaneously-98.9 % K. pneumoniae, 100 % P. mirabilis, one E. aerogenes isolate, and one E. cloacae isolate. Molecular-genetic mechanism of MDR in K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis isolates were based on carrying of epidemic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M-15 gene (87.2 and 90.6 % accordingly), carbapenemase bla OXA-48-like gene (55.3 and 23.3 % accordingly), and class 1 (54.8 and 31.3 % accordingly) and class 2 (90.6 % P. mirabilis) integrons. The bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae were collected during whole two-year surveillance period, while P. mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. carrying bla OXA-48-like genes were detected only after four and 18 months after the research start, respectively. The bla OXA-48-like gene acquisition was shown for P. mirabilis isolates collected from five patients and for E. cloacae isolate collected from one patient during their stay in the ICU, presumably from bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae. The source of the bla OXA-244 gene acquired by E

  17. The Research of Medical Safety Information Engineering in Hospital Application Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Hao; Fan, Zhang; Li-nong, Yu; Jie, Wang; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-Explore and research the application effect of medical security information engineering in the hospital. Methods-Based on the real examples of the medical security hidden danger, the transportation module system of medical security is set up. By the all survival cycle's theory and IOP modeling method, four modules of structure model are developed, which are disposal of medical hidden danger. Results-The medical information system is developed, which includes four-in-one modules of structure model of integrated medical security transportation system, disputes evaluation system, protocol handling system, medical case analysis and handling system. And it is applied in the implementation of hospital management. Conclusions-The application of the research in the implementation of hospital management can find security hidden danger of hospital timely, the objective existence of medical disputes problems timely. And it can solve medical disputes timely and appropriately, and achieve ideal result, which is worth popularizing and applying in the hospital management.

  18. 76 FR 50231 - Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... would be similar to an infusion pump stand, which is currently classified as a class I device because it supports the intended use of an infusion pump (class II medical device). A mobile medical app that...

  19. A Look at a Deviant Group of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Donald; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A study of physicians who had graduated from or had matriculated without graduating from dental school prior to entering a medical school focused on reasons for career choices, medical school admissions process, academic perfromance in both schools, medical specialty, and attitudes toward dentistry and medicine. (Editor/JT)

  20. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    PubMed

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  1. IncH-Type Plasmid Harboring blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, and qnrB4 Genes Recovered from Animal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Andreas; Nordmann, Patrice; Bonnin, Rémy A.; Millemann, Yves; Eikmeyer, Felix G.; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The whole sequence of plasmid pENVA carrying the extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-15 was determined. It was identified from a series of clonally related Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 274 strains recovered from companion animals. This plasmid was 253,984 bp in size and harbored, in addition to blaCTX-M-15, a large array of genes encoding resistance to many antibiotic molecules, including β-lactams (blaTEM-1, blaDHA-1), aminoglycosides (aacA2, aadA1), tetracycline (tetA), quinolones (qnrB4), trimethoprim (dfrA15), and sulfonamides (two copies of sul1). In addition, genes encoding resistance to mercury, tellurium, nickel, and quaternary compounds were identified. It also carried genes encoding DNA damage protection and mutagenesis repair and a locus for a CRISPR system, which corresponds to an immune system involved in protection against bacteriophages and plasmids. Comparative analysis of the plasmid scaffold showed that it possessed a structure similar to that of only a single plasmid, which was pNDM-MAR encoding the carbapenemase NDM-1 and identified from human K. pneumoniae isolates. Both plasmids possessed two replicons, namely, those of IncFIB-like and IncHIB-like plasmids, which were significantly different from those previously characterized. The blaCTX-M-15 gene, together with the other antibiotic resistance genes, was part of a large module likely acquired through a transposition process. We characterized here a new plasmid type carrying the blaCTX-M-15 gene identified in a K. pneumoniae isolate of animal origin. The extent to which this plasmid type may spread efficiently and possibly further enhance the dissemination of blaCTX-M-15 among animal and human isolates remains to be determined. PMID:24752252

  2. Laser heating of dielectric particles for medical and biological applications

    PubMed Central

    Tribelsky, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of a spherical dielectric particle embedded in a liquid. The discussed range of the problem parameters is typical for medical and biological applications. We focus on the case, when the heat diffusivity in the particle is of the same order of magnitude as that in the fluid. We perform quantitative analysis of the heat transfer equation based on interplay of four characteristic scales of the problem, namely the particle radius, the characteristic depth of light absorption in the material of the particle and the two heat diffusion lengths: in the particle and in the embedding liquid. A new quantitative characteristic of the laser action, that is the cooling time, describing the temporal scale of the cooling down of the particle after the laser pulse is over, is introduced and discussed. Simple analytical formulas for the temperature rise in the center of the particle and at its surface as well as for the cooling time are obtained. We show that at the appropriate choice of the problem parameters the cooling time may be by many orders of magnitude larger the laser pulse duration. It makes possible to minimize the undesirable damage of healthy tissues owing to the finite size of the laser beam and scattering of the laser radiation, simultaneously keeping the total hyperthermia period large enough to kill the pathogenic cells. An example of application of the developed approach to optimization of the therapeutic effect at the laser heating of particles for cancer therapy is presented. PMID:27446706

  3. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  4. Medical visualization based on VRML technology and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Lu, Qiang; Sheng, Rongbing; Liu, Yafeng

    2003-07-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three dimensional visualization objects in biomedical images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3-D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we held the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. So in this system we use the 3-D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3-D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm, using OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulate voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3-D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3-D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed. With the help of OCT and MPE scanning image system, applying these techniques to the visualization of rabbit brain, constructing data sets of hierarchical subdivisions of the cerebral information, we can establish a virtual environment on the World Wide Web for the rabbit brain research from its gross anatomy to its tissue and cellular levels of detail, providng graphical modeling and information management of both the outer and the inner space of the rabbit brain.

  5. The application of Aronson's taxonomy to medication errors in nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Medication administration is a frequent nursing activity that is prone to error. In this study of 318 self-reported medication incidents (including near misses), very few resulted in patient harm-7% required intervention or prolonged hospitalization or caused temporary harm. Aronson's classification system provided an excellent framework for analysis of the incidents with a close connection between the type of error and the change strategy to minimize medication incidents. Taking a behavioral approach to medication error classification has provided helpful strategies for nurses such as nurse-call cards on patient lockers when patients are absent and checking of medication sign-off by outgoing and incoming staff at handover.

  6. Complete sequence of a conjugative incn plasmid harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Doi, Yohei

    2014-11-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

  7. Complete Sequence of a Conjugative IncN Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. PMID:25182636

  8. Medical Applications of White LEDs for Surgical Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. The evolution of solid-state-lighting is currently going to be developed due to the progress of white light emitting diodes (LEDs). We proposed and developed the new lighting equipment that is a surgical lighting goggle composed of InGaN-YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet):Ce3+-based white LEDs. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN-blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. After our first challenge for medical application of white LEDs, we have been trying to improve the luminance power of white LED, the color rendering in red colors and the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs. We have produced new concepts for LED lighting sources and new several generations of LED lighting goggles.

  9. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity, evolution and medical applications of insect antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Muhammed, Maged

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families. Furthermore, we highlight the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model in high-throughput screening methods to identify AMPs with efficacy against human pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumanii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We also discuss the potential medical applications of AMPs, including their use as alternatives for conventional antibiotics in ectopic therapies, their combined use with antibiotics to restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and their use as templates for the rational design of peptidomimetic drugs that overcome the disadvantages of therapeutic peptides. The article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides’. PMID:27160593

  11. Diversity, evolution and medical applications of insect antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Muhammed, Maged; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families. Furthermore, we highlight the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model in high-throughput screening methods to identify AMPs with efficacy against human pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumanii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus We also discuss the potential medical applications of AMPs, including their use as alternatives for conventional antibiotics in ectopic therapies, their combined use with antibiotics to restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and their use as templates for the rational design of peptidomimetic drugs that overcome the disadvantages of therapeutic peptides.The article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Low Energy Laser Biostimulation: New Prospects For Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castel, John C.; Abergel, R. Patrick; Willner, Robert E.; Baumann, James G.

    1987-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of light-energy is not a new concept to the modern world. Documented applications from ancient times tell of the therapeutic effects of ordinary sun-light to treat such common ailments as painful body joints, wounds, compound fractures and tetanus. The discovery of laser light in the 1960's, opened up new prospects for the medical use of light. Laser light differs from other forms of electromagnetic spectrum in that a single wavelength rather than a spectrum of wavelengths is emitted. Since the early 1970's, low-energy laser radiation has been reported to enhance wound healing rates, reduce edema, and relieve musculoskeletal pain. There is no detectable thermal effect of this laser on the tissue being treated. The effects are considered to occur as a result of photochemical, non thermal effects of the laser beam. Photons are absorbed by the tissue being treated and, in turn, produce positive therapeutic effects such as reduction of pain and edema. Pre-clinical and clinical evaluations are, presently, underway to document the safety and efficacy of low energy laser therapy, which represents a significant advance in the non-invasive treatment of pain.

  13. Noncontact laser fiber delivery system for endoscopic medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Nikolay A.; Griffin, Stephen E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to design and to investigate laser fiber delivery system for treatment of obstructed human internal tubular organs using endoscopic techniques. This system eliminates the main disadvantages of both applied contact and non-contact probes, namely surface contamination with concomitant hydrothermal probe deterioration and large beam divergence with poor energy density, respectively. Proposed silica or sapphire probes produce quasi-collimated beam with specific outside diameter and power distribution. To provide comparative analysis of laser delivery systems' optical properties with non-contact endoscopic probes 'steady beam distance' (SBD) and 'steady beam ratio' (SBR) coefficients are proposed. The calculation results are presented in the form of the plots of the SBR - coefficients and SBDs for a 2.0 mm specific outside beam diameter versus laser wavelength, delivery fiber core diameter and its numerical aperture for both probe material. Additionally, the cross power distributions along the SBD were studied. Results obtained could provide a useful tool to designers of non-contact fiber delivery systems intended for a variety of medical applications, including endoscopic surgery with cw or pulse laser tissue irradiation, skin de-epithelialization, laser-induced fluorescence and photodynamic therapy.

  14. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lesa R; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-07-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. Accession numbers: The atomic coordinates and the structure factors have been deposited to the Protein Data Band under accession codes: 4N7C for native Bla g 4 and 4N7D for the Se-Met Bla g 4 structure.

  15. Decline in Medical-School Applications Seen Damaging Quality of Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1988-01-01

    Factors related to the decline in applications for medical school include costs of medical education, student's desire to begin earning money quickly, publicity about the high cost of malpractice insurance and the increasingly bureaucratic nature of the medical professions, and the perception that there is a continuing overabundance of doctors.…

  16. [The Feasibility Study on the Application of Global Medical Device Nomenclature(GMDN)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjuan; Zheng, Jian; Li, Jun; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Chunqing; Li, Jingli

    2015-09-01

    The article has analyzed the policy co-ordination, Industry coverage and technical experience of the global medical device nomenclature (GMDN) to our country, argued the feasibility on the application of GMDN in our medical device administration system, provided some reference on building the naming system of medical device in our country.

  17. [The Analysis on Application of Global Medical Device Nomenclature(GMDN)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2015-07-01

    The article has reviewed the administration technical structure and global application of the global medical device nomenclature(GMDN), analyzed the coordination between GMDN and the industry status of medical device in our country, put forward some suggestions on the applicaition of GMDN, provided some reference on raising the management level of medical device in our country.

  18. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an...

  19. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, Colorado (Beacon Medical Services). The negative determination was issued on June 22...

  20. Legal medicine: assessing mental capacity and writing medical reports for deputy applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hui Min; Goh, Lee Gan; Thirumoorthy, T

    2017-01-01

    Medical reports are required to support court applications to appoint a deputy to make decisions on behalf of a person who has lost mental capacity. The doctor writing such a medical report needs to be able to systematically assess the mental capacity of the person in question, in order to gather the necessary evidence for the court to make a decision. If the medical report is not adequate, the application will be rejected and the appointment of the deputy delayed. This article sets out best practices for performing the assessment and writing the medical report, common errors, and issues of concern. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Medication Adherence Application with Communication for Seniors in Independent Living Communities.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Johnson, Reid A; Chaudhry, Beenish; Reeves, Kimberly G; Willaert, Patty; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a pressing concern among seniors, leading to a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. While mobile applications provide a viable medium for medication management, their utility can be limited without tackling the specific needs of seniors and facilitating the active involvement of care providers. To address these limitations, we are developing a tablet-based application designed specifically for seniors to track their medications and a web portal for their care providers to track medication adherence. In collaboration with a local Aging in Place program, we conducted a three-month study with sixteen participants from an independent living facility. Our study found that the application helped participants to effectively track their medications and improved their sense of wellbeing. Our findings highlight the importance of catering to the needs of seniors and of involving care providers in this process, with specific recommendations for the development of future medication management applications.

  2. Design and Evaluation of a Medication Adherence Application with Communication for Seniors in Independent Living Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Johnson, Reid A.; Chaudhry, Beenish; Reeves, Kimberly G.; Willaert, Patty; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a pressing concern among seniors, leading to a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. While mobile applications provide a viable medium for medication management, their utility can be limited without tackling the specific needs of seniors and facilitating the active involvement of care providers. To address these limitations, we are developing a tablet-based application designed specifically for seniors to track their medications and a web portal for their care providers to track medication adherence. In collaboration with a local Aging in Place program, we conducted a three-month study with sixteen participants from an independent living facility. Our study found that the application helped participants to effectively track their medications and improved their sense of wellbeing. Our findings highlight the importance of catering to the needs of seniors and of involving care providers in this process, with specific recommendations for the development of future medication management applications. PMID:28269843

  3. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains carrying the bla(OxA-23) and the bla(GES-11) genes in a neonatology center in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Charfi-Kessis, Karama; Mansour, Wejdene; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Mastouri, Maha; Nordmann, Patrice; Aouni, Mahjoub; Poirel, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant and difficult-to-treat Acinetobacter baumannii may be responsible for nosocomial infections. The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) of the GES type possessing a carbapenemase activity has been increasingly reported worldwide in A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms of two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered in a neonatology center in the center-east of Tunisia. Two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates were recovered. The first isolate co-harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene and the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene. Analyses of the genetic location indicated that the blaGES-11 gene was plasmid located (Gr6). However, the blaOxA-23 gene was located on the chromosome. The second strain had only the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene, which was plasmid located. This study showed the first description of the GES-type β-lactamase in A. baumannii in Tunisia.

  4. Molecular characterization of newly emerged blaKPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Ngan, Grace; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T P; Teo, Jeanette

    2012-02-01

    In Asia, bla(KPC) detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four bla(KPC-2)-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). bla(KPC-2) was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Newly Emerged blaKPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Grace; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T. P.; Teo, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    In Asia, blaKPC detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four blaKPC-2-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). blaKPC-2 was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates. PMID:22116160

  6. Plasmid carriage of bla NDM-1 in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lim S; Toleman, Mark A; Weeks, Janis L; Howe, Robin A; Walsh, Timothy R; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan K

    2014-07-01

    NDM-1 probably emerged in Acinetobacter species prior to its dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae, and NDM-1-like enzymes are increasingly reported in Acinetobacter species. Here, we report on the genetic context of blaNDM-1 in the earliest known NDM-1-producing organisms, clinical isolates of Acinetobacter from India in 2005. These strains harbor blaNDM-1 plasmids of different sizes. The gene is associated with the remnants of the Tn125 transposon normally associated with blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter spp. The transposon has been disrupted by the IS26 insertion and subsequent movement events.

  7. First Description of Shigella sonnei Harboring blaCTX-M-55 Outside Asia.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jeannete; Ortega-Paredes, David; Barba, Pedro

    2016-12-28

    Shigella sonnei harboring blaCTX-M-55 was isolated outside of Asia for the first time. The blaCTX-M-55 gene was found to be downstream of ISEcp-1 and located in a ~130 kb conjugative plasmid belonging to the I1 incompatibility group. The strain was recovered from a 7-year-old Ecuadorian girl with watery diarrhea who had not travelled abroad. Recent local data describe the emergence of blaCTX-M-55 and other variants typically found in Asia in the Andean Region, suggesting that increased travel of humans and trade relationships with Asian countries are influencing the current Ecuadorian bacterial resistance situation.

  8. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1977-01-01

    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  9. Trends Plus: U.S. Medical School Applicants, Matriculants, Graduates 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report provides statistical data and charts concerning trends in undergraduate medical education over the past decade. It presents trends in grade point averages (GPAs); in Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores for premedical school applicants and matriculants; and provides information on applicant and matriculant characteristics,…

  10. A Pilot Matching Program for Applicants to Five California Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Jochen; Pops, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    The 1989 California Medical School Matching Program pilot study illustrated that the technical aspects of a matching program for medical school applicants can be successful, paralleling the current admission process to a reasonable degree. The process is designed to solve the problem of multiple acceptance within an applicant pool. (Author/MSE)

  11. Medical applications of Cu, Zn, and S isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Albarede, Francis; Télouk, Philippe; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Oger, Philippe; Bonaventura, Paola; Miossec, Pierre; Fujii, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    This review examines recent applications of stable copper, zinc and sulfur isotopes to medical cases and notably cancer. The distribution of the natural stable isotopes of a particular element among coexisting molecular species varies as a function of the bond strength, the ionic charge, and the coordination, and it also changes with kinetics. Ab initio calculations show that compounds in which a metal binds to oxygen- (sulfate, phosphate, lactate) and nitrogen-bearing moieties (histidine) favor heavy isotopes, whereas bonds with sulfur (cysteine, methionine) favor light isotopes. Oxidized cations (e.g., Cu(ii)) and low coordination numbers are expected to favor heavy isotopes relative to their reduced counterparts (Cu(i)) and high coordination numbers. Here we discuss the first observations of Cu, Zn, and S isotopic variations, three elements closely related along multiple biological pathways, with emphasis on serum samples of healthy volunteers and of cancer patients. It was found that heavy isotopes of Zn and to an even greater extent Cu are enriched in erythrocytes relative to serum, while the difference is small for sulfur. Isotopic variations related to age and sex are relatively small. The (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratio in the serum of patients with colon, breast, and liver cancer is conspicuously low relative to healthy subjects. The characteristic time over which Cu isotopes may change with disease progression (a few weeks) is consistent with both the turnover time of the element and albumin half-life. A parallel effect on sulfur isotopes is detected in a few un-medicated patients. Copper in liver tumor tissue is isotopically heavy. In contrast, Zn in breast cancer tumors is isotopically lighter than in healthy breast tissue. (66)Zn/(64)Zn is very similar in the serum of cancer patients and in controls. Possible reasons for Cu isotope variations may be related to the cytosolic storage of Cu lactate (Warburg effect), release of intracellular copper from cysteine

  12. [Development and application of a medical device maintenance information platform based on BS architecture].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenglin; Zhang, Xutian; Wang, Guohong; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-03-01

    Based on specified demands on medical devices maintenance for clinical engineers and Browser/Server architecture technology, a medical device maintenance information platform was developed, which implemented the following modules such as repair, preventive maintenance, accessories management, training, document, system management and regional cooperation. The characteristics of this system were summarized and application in increase of repair efficiency, improvement of preventive maintenance and cost control was introduced. The application of this platform increases medical device maintenance service level.

  13. A Flexible Model for Correlated Medical Costs, with Application to Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines is used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike Information Criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method. PMID:26403805

  14. A flexible model for correlated medical costs, with application to medical expenditure panel survey data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A

    2016-03-15

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines are used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike information criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method.

  15. [Research and application of supply catalog and encoding identification technology applied to medical consumable materials management].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingna; Han, Wei; Zhang, Enke; Li, Shuaishuai

    2013-01-01

    In this article, medical consumable materials supply catalog technology was introduced through the principle, method and application of topic studies, at the same time bar code tags to tag and identify medical consumable materials were introduced. These two techniques established the correspondence between the real supplies logistics and information flow system, provided foundation for medical supplies all process tracking and traceability management. Supply catalog and encoding identification technology provide a new solution for the effective management of medical consumable materials.

  16. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals.

  17. Systems Development and Applications Software in Medical Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    functions. 7. Establish a medical data base which can support clinical and health services re’search. 8. Assist in the teachirng of medical staff and...medical students in the health education of the law Public. 9. Provide data necessari for Projection of health care needs and Planning for hospital and...for (1) investigators needing both Patient arid statistical files for clinical, epidemiological, and health services research; (2) admisistrators for

  18. Mapping medical careers: Questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, KV; McManus, IC

    2004-01-01

    Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional) typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Methods Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry), in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032) or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973) and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437). Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL) on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Results Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. Conclusions There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic), Hospital Medicine (Investigative), Psychiatry (Artistic), Public Health (Social), Administrative Medicine (Enterprising), and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional). The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be used as the basis

  19. Mapping medical careers: questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students.

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; McManus, I C

    2004-10-01

    The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional) typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry), in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032) or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973) and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437). Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL) on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic), Hospital Medicine (Investigative), Psychiatry (Artistic), Public Health (Social), Administrative Medicine (Enterprising), and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional). The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be used as the basis for understanding career choice, and for

  20. Connectivity, security, and performance of an NGI testbed for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Fan, Yu; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Zhang, Hong; Hwang, Kyungtae; Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Cao, Fei

    2000-05-01

    Tele-medical imaging applications require low cost, and high- speed backbone wide area networks (WAN) to carry large amount of imaging data for rapid turn around interpretation. Current low cost commercially available WAN is too slow for medical imaging applications, while high speed WAN is too costly. Internet2 or Next Generation Internet (NGI) emerges as a good candidate for tele-medical imaging applications because of its high speed and low cost. This paper describes the beginning of a three-year project on exploring the possibility of using NGI for medical imaging applications. Connectivity of a private ATM to the Internet2 is first discussed, followed by methods of preserving data integrity in the public networks. Two medical imaging applications in telemammography and interactive teaching of breast imaging are presented. A preliminary plan on methods of evaluating the performance of the NGI is followed.

  1. Mobilizing Your Medications: An Automated Medication Reminder Application for Mobile Phones and Hypertension Medication Adherence in a High-Risk Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir; Jacobus-Kantor, Laura; Marshall, Lorraine; Ritchie, Clark; Kaplinski, Michelle; Khurana, Parvinder S.; Katz, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension frequently accompanies diabetes mellitus, worsening prognosis and complicating medical care for patients. Low medication adherence with multiple medications is a major factor in the inadequate achievement of blood pressure treatment goals. Widespread access to mobile phones offers a new opportunity to communicate with patients and enhance disease self-management. Methods We recruited 50 high-risk urban patients with hypertension, who are using at least two prescription medications for hypertension, into an open-label trial using medication reminder software on a mobile phone. Medication adherence was assessed by review of pharmacy refill rates before, during, and after availability of the medication reminder software (pre-activation, activation, and post-activation phase, respectively). Results Forty-eight patients completed the study. All subjects were insured by Medicaid, 96% were African-American, and the majority had diabetes mellitus. The proportion of days covered for each study phase was as follows: pre-activation phase = 0.54, activation phase = 0.58, and post-activation phase = 0.46. A significant difference was found between the activation and post-activation phases (p = .001). The increase in measured adherence between the pre-activation and activation phases approached significance (p =.057). Forty-six patients completed the pre- and post-Morisky medication adherence survey. The median score rose from 2.0 at baseline to 3.0 at study completion (p <.001). Average blood pressure and level of control during study period improved significantly after initiation of the study and remained improved from baseline through the course of the study. The 48 subjects who completed the study reported a high level of satisfaction with the medication reminder application at the final study visit. Conclusions A mobile-phone-based automated medication reminder system shows promise in improving medication adherence and blood pressure in high

  2. Spread and exchange of bla NDM-1 in hospitalized neonates: role of mobilizable genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Mitra, S; Chattopadhyay, P; Som, T; Mukherjee, S; Basu, S

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the mobilizable elements associated with bla NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from septicaemic neonates at a NICU in India, during December, 2008-2011. An attempt was also made to understand whether there was a pattern in the temporal acquisition of bla NDM-1 within the unit. Transferability of carbapenem resistance was tested by conjugation and transformation. Plasmid types and addiction systems were analysed. The genetic background of bla NDM-1 and association with class 1 integron were evaluated by PCR mapping. RFLP was carried out to discriminate plasmids of same incompatibility group. Transfer of carbapenem resistance was successful in 13/15 cases. bla NDM-1 was associated with different plasmid scaffolds (IncFII, IncL/M, IncN, IncR, IncHIB-M/FIB-M), IncF type being the prevalent one. Addiction systems ccdAB and hok/sok were associated with transferable plasmids. Genetic structures surrounding bla NDM-1 showed its association with at least a remnant of ISAba125 at its 5'-end. The spread of NDM-1 was not related to class 1 integron which possessed resistance determinants against trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA1, dfrA5), streptomycin (aadA2, aacA4), and rifampicin (arr-3). RFLP showed that three isolates possessed the same FII/FIIs plasmid; two of these three isolates were from a single neonate, implying interspecies transfer of bla NDM-1. The predominance of FII plasmids and ISAba125 along with bla NDM-1 was noted, but no specific pattern in the temporal acquisition of mobile genetic elements could be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to inform the in-vivo interspecies plasmid transfer event of bla NDM-1 in a neonate.

  3. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  4. Evaluation of LAMP assay using phenotypic tests and conventional PCR for detection of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes among carbapenem-resistant clinical Gram-negative isolates.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Rachana; Vanjari, Lavanya; Ede, Nagapriyanka; Gungi, Akhila; Soory, Amarendranath; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2013-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant pathogens cause infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and cost-effective detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in comparison with conventional PCR and existing phenotypic methods. A total of 60 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates [Escherichia coli (15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22), Acinetobacter baumannii (23)] were screened for the presence of carbapenemases (bla(KPC) and bla(NDM-1)) using phenotypic methods such as the modified Hodge test (MHT) and combined disc test (CDT) and molecular methods such as conventional PCR and LAMP assay. In all, 47/60 isolates (78.3%) were MHT positive while 48 isolates were positive by CDT [46.6% positive with EDTA, 30% with 3' aminophenylboronic acid (APB) plus EDTA and 1.6% with APB alone]. Isolates showing CDT positivity with EDTA or APB contained bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes, respectively. bla(NDM-1) was present as a lone gene in 28 isolates (46.7%) and present together with the bla(KPC) gene in 19 isolates (31.7%). Only one E. coli isolate had a lone bla(KPC) gene. The LAMP assay detected either or both bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes in four isolates that were missed by conventional PCR. Neither gene could be detected in 12 (20%) isolates. The LAMP assay has greater sensitivity, specificity and rapidity compared to the phenotypic methods and PCR for the detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC). With a turnaround time of only 2-3 h, the LAMP assay can be considered a point-of-care assay.

  5. The Korean research & development program on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Song; Kim, Sung June; Chung, Bong Hyun; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Seon Hee

    2007-01-01

    Non or minimally invasive approaches for medical applications are very important for the alleviation of patient complaints. The miniaturization of medical devices using micro & nano technologies might be one of the possible solutions. Several national research and development (R&D) programs have been launched by the Korean government to further the development of biological & medical micro/nano devices in this country. This paper gives an overview of the current status of national R&D programs which are related to the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)/Nano technology in biological and medical applications and discusses the main activities of each program.

  6. Legal medicine: assessing mental capacity and writing medical reports for deputy applications

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui Min; Goh, Lee Gan; Thirumoorthy, T

    2017-01-01

    Medical reports are required to support court applications to appoint a deputy to make decisions on behalf of a person who has lost mental capacity. The doctor writing such a medical report needs to be able to systematically assess the mental capacity of the person in question, in order to gather the necessary evidence for the court to make a decision. If the medical report is not adequate, the application will be rejected and the appointment of the deputy delayed. This article sets out best practices for performing the assessment and writing the medical report, common errors, and issues of concern. PMID:27752705

  7. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yasufumi; Pitout, Johann D D; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A; Motyl, Mary R; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade.

  8. Biochemical Characterization of PER-2 and Genetic Environment of blaPER-2▿

    PubMed Central

    Power, Pablo; Di Conza, José; Rodríguez, María Margarita; Ghiglione, Bárbara; Ayala, Juan A.; Casellas, José María; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    PER-2 was the first detected and the second most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase in clinical pathogens isolated in Argentina and was also reported only in other South American countries. Citrobacter freundii 33587 was isolated in 1999 in Buenos Aires and was resistant to all tested β-lactams except cephamycins and carbapenems. The strain produced both plasmid-borne TEM-1 and PER-2 (pI 5.4), which could be transferred by conjugation. By PCR screening, thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and DNA sequencing, we detected an ISPa12/IS1387a insertion sequence upstream of blaPER-2, previously reported as also being associated with blaPER-1. The presence of similar structures upstream of blaPER-1 and blaPER-2 suggests a common origin and mobilization. Compared to blaPER-1 genes, an additional putative promoter for blaPER-2 was found. PER-2 kinetic analysis showed its high hydrolysis efficiencies toward both CTX and CAZ (kcat/Km, 0.76 and 0.43 μM−1·s−1, respectively). PMID:17438050

  9. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Pitout, Johann D.D.; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A.; Motyl, Mary R.; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade. PMID:27767006

  10. Risks in the application of medical devices: human factors in the medical environment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The more complex a medical device is, the more difficult it is to control the hazards associated with its use. A substantial percentage of harm or injuries to patients resulting from treatment can be attributed to errors. No one knows exactly how many victims have been claimed by medical errors. Studies from the United States and other countries show that 3% to 4% of all hospital patients suffer harm or injuries. This text is intended to provide a practice-oriented approach to the discussion of targeted improvement opportunities in connection with a superficial consideration of the sociotechnical system comprising the manufacturers, the medical devices, and the users in the health facilities. Analysis of the risk reports received by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte) in connection with undesirable events involving the use of medical devices. Supplementary consideration of additional data from previous human factors research in the field of medicine. The evaluation period for the primary data focuses on the years 2005 to 2008. A differentiation is made between the error causal factors, man, and device. A substantial percentage of the incidents that occurred can be attributed to human blunders. Within the scope of an evaluation of more than 16 000 risk reports in connection with medical devices, 5000 risk reports could not be directly attributed to the failure of a medical device. The lack of an error culture seems to be a considerable problem. The safe and reliable development and use of medical devices requires efficient and consistent risk management. Until now, human factors are not sufficiently considered when identifying sources of errors in sociotechnical systems. The useful data required for an extensive risk assessment are missing. An interface-overlapping method of solution is required which permits system-analytical and unbiased error handling and integrates all stakeholders.

  11. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  12. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  13. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  14. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  15. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  16. Introduction to smart card technology and initial medical application.

    PubMed

    Quick, G

    1994-10-01

    Smart card technology is the name applied to the use of a plastic card with an embedded computer chip. Recent development of smart card software has allowed storage and retrieval of medical information, affording the opportunity to provide a standardized, portable, accessible medical record for use in prehospital and emergency department patient encounters. We describe the smart card concept and its initial deployment in a section of a large Midwestern urban area.

  17. Dose Tracker Application for Monitoring Crew Medication Usage, Symptoms, and Adverse Effects During Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia; Smith, LaRona

    2015-01-01

    Medication usage records can be used as a relatively nonintrusive means of monitoring health. This has been attempted previously through crew medical records, but these records are incomplete from the perspective of a research pharmacologist. During the shuttle era, NASA operations did not include routine questioning of crewmembers about their medication use until after missions were complete. The (long!) questionnaire was on paper. Asking crewmembers to recall medication use from weeks before questioning made getting complete and accurate information virtually impossible. This study will document medication usage of crewmembers before and during their missions. It will capture previously unrecorded data regarding medication use during spaceflight, including side effect qualities, frequencies and severities. The research-oriented data will be collected for research purposes, separate from medical records. Dose Tracker employs an iOS application (app) for fast & easy collection of medication usage data from crewmember participants during their missions.

  18. Application of rapid prototyping techniques for modelling of anatomical structures in medical training and education.

    PubMed

    Torres, K; Staśkiewicz, G; Śnieżyński, M; Drop, A; Maciejewski, R

    2011-02-01

    Rapid prototyping has become an innovative method of fast and cost-effective production of three-dimensional models for manufacturing. Wide access to advanced medical imaging methods allows application of this technique for medical training purposes. This paper presents the feasibility of rapid prototyping technologies: stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling, and three-dimensional printing for medical education. Rapid prototyping techniques are a promising method for improvement of anatomical education in medical students but also a valuable source of training tools for medical specialists.

  19. Keeping Up with Healthcare Trends: IcHeart as a Medication Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2016-11-01

    According to the US governments, more than 125,000 people die each year due to failure to manage their medications, leading to approximately USD100 billion in preventable costs to healthcare systems. The core failure in medication management is attributed by patients failing to adhere their medication regimens, whether by accident, negligence, or intentional. Recognizing the importants of vigilant monitoring in medication management, this paper is set to review the latest android-based healthcare trends and propose a new mobile medication reminder application called IcHeart.

  20. [Mobile phone-computer wireless interactive graphics transmission technology and its medical application].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Liu, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Application of clinical digital medical imaging has raised many tough issues to tackle, such as data storage, management, and information sharing. Here we investigated a mobile phone based medical image management system which is capable of achieving personal medical imaging information storage, management and comprehensive health information analysis. The technologies related to the management system spanning the wireless transmission technology, the technical capabilities of phone in mobile health care and management of mobile medical database were discussed. Taking medical infrared images transmission between phone and computer as an example, the working principle of the present system was demonstrated.

  1. [The application and development of artificial intelligence in medical diagnosis systems].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhencheng; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Mingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Jiang, Dazong

    2002-09-01

    This paper has reviewed the development of artificial intelligence in medical practice and medical diagnostic expert systems, and has summarized the application of artificial neural network. It explains that a source of difficulty in medical diagnostic system is the co-existence of multiple diseases--the potentially inter-related diseases. However, the difficulty of image expert systems is inherent in high-level vision. And it increases the complexity of expert system in medical image. At last, the prospect for the development of artificial intelligence in medical image expert systems is made.

  2. Podcasting as a novel way to communicate with medical school applicants.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Benjamin D; Bister, Mary K; Krapec, Joni N

    2014-09-01

    Podcasting in medical education is becoming more widely used and may be a useful tool for communicating with applicants to medical school. Given recent trends in the popularity of podcasting and mobile media, we created a podcast to communicate more effectively with applicants to our medical school as well as with the broader premedical community. The purpose of this study was to characterize the listening habits and motivations of our audience and compare the podcast's benefits to those of other resources. We additionally sought to understand patterns by which our podcast was consumed by a premedical audience. We surveyed medical school applicants who interviewed at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine for matriculation in 2013. Forty-one percent of those surveyed had listened to the podcast prior to their interview. Only 12 % of listeners accessed the podcast using a mobile device. Ninety-two percent of listeners felt that it faithfully represented the medical school, and 81 % felt that listening would encourage the decision to matriculate. A majority of listeners responded that the podcast was more helpful than other traditional resources. This is the first use of podcasting in medical school admissions and represents a novel way to communicate with prospective students. Our findings demonstrate that podcasting can be an effective tool for communicating with applicants to medical school and highlight its usefulness in recruitment. This method of communication could be adopted by other medical schools to enhance the ways in which they inform their own prospective medical students.

  3. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  4. First report of blaNDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian war.

    PubMed

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Mallat, Hassan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been observed worldwide. We describe the first detection of A. baumannii carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in Lebanon, isolated from Syrian patients wounded during the civil war. Four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated in 2012 in the Tripoli Government Hospital, Lebanon, from civilians wounded during the Syrian war, were analysed. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing, and resistance to carbapenems was confirmed by Etest. The presence of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-143-like, and blaNDM was investigated by PCR. Clonal relationships were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing. All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene and were negative for other tested carbapenemases. They all belonged to the sequence type 85 and formed a single cluster by PFGE. Finally, blaOXA-51-like gene sequencing revealed the presence of the blaOXA-94 variant in all four isolates. These findings show that Syria constitutes a reservoir for NDM-1-producing bacteria. These results also highlight the need for effective measures to stop the threatening spread of such strains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactivity of German cockroach allergen, Bla g 2, peptide fragments to IgE antibodies in patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeseok; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Shin, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Myung-hee; Gantulaga, Darambazar; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    Bla g 2 is a cockroach allergen of great importance. This study was conducted to identify IgE-binding epitope(s) of Bla g 2 using the recombinant protein technique. Approximately 50% of tested sera showed IgE reactivity to Pichia-expressed Bla g 2 (PrBla g 2) and E. coli-expressed Bla g 2 (ErBla g 2). Only 5.3% of serum samples showed stronger reactivity to PrBla g 2 than ErBla g 2, indicating that serum was reactive to conformational or carbohydrate epitopes. The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 2 were produced in E. coli. All fragments showed IgE-binding activity to the cockroach-allergy patients' sera. Specifically, peptide fragments of amino acid residue 1-75 and 146-225 appeared to be important for IgE-binding. The information about the IgE-binding epitope of Bla g 2 can aid in the diagnosis and treatment for cockroach allergies.

  6. Dissemination of metallo-β-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Egypt: mutation in blaVIM-4.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shaeky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from Suez Canal University Hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic and genotypic screening for MBLs were performed on 147 isolates of P. aeruginosa. MICs were determined by agar dilution method for carbapenem that was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem. MBL genes were detected by multiplex and monoplex PCR for P. aeruginosa-harbored plasmids. Mutation profile of sequenced MBL genes was screened using online software Clustal Omega. Out of 147 P. aeruginosa, 39 (26.5%) were carbapenem-resistant isolates and 25 (64%) were confirmed to be positive for MBLs. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa toward polymyxin B and norfloxacin was 99% and 88%, respectively. Identification of collected isolates by API analysis and constructed phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA showed that the isolates were related to P. aeruginosa species. The frequency of blaGIM-1, blaSIM-1, and blaSPM-1 was 52%, 48%, and 24%, respectively. BlaVIM and blaIMP-like genes were 20% and 4% and the sequences confirm the isolate to be blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-4, and blaIMP-1. Three mutations were identified in blaVIM-4 gene. Our study emphasizes the high occurrence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa-producing MBL enzymes. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Two complementary personal medication management applications developed on a common platform: case report.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen E; Johnson, Kevin B; Siek, Katie A; Gordon, Jeffry S; Khan, Danish U; Haverhals, Leah M

    2011-07-12

    Adverse drug events are a major safety issue in ambulatory care. Improving medication self-management could reduce these adverse events. Researchers have developed medication applications for tethered personal health records (PHRs), but little has been reported about medication applications for interoperable PHRs. Our objective was to develop two complementary personal health applications on a common PHR platform: one to assist children with complex health needs (MyMediHealth), and one to assist older adults in care transitions (Colorado Care Tablet). The applications were developed using a user-centered design approach. The two applications shared a common PHR platform based on a service-oriented architecture. MyMediHealth employed Web and mobile phone user interfaces. Colorado Care Tablet employed a Web interface customized for a tablet PC. We created complementary medication management applications tailored to the needs of distinctly different user groups using common components. Challenges were addressed in multiple areas, including how to encode medication identities, how to incorporate knowledge bases for medication images and consumer health information, how to include supplementary dosing information, how to simplify user interfaces for older adults, and how to support mobile devices for children. These prototypes demonstrate the utility of abstracting PHR data and services (the PHR platform) from applications that can be tailored to meet the needs of diverse patients. Based on the challenges we faced, we provide recommendations on the structure of publicly available knowledge resources and the use of mobile messaging systems for PHR applications.

  8. Prevalence and characterization of hybrid blaCTX-M among Escherichia coli isolates from livestock and other animals.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Liu, Melissa Chun-Jiao; Lo, Wai-U; Lai, Eileen Ling-Yi; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Law, Oi-Kwan; Chow, Kin-Hung

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated 248 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 2012 to 2013 for hybrid blaCTX-M genes. blaCTX-M genes were detected in 228 isolates of which 14 isolates were hybrid blaCTX-M positive (6 blaCTX-M-123, 6 blaCTX-M-64, and 2 blaCTX-M-132). The 14 hybrid blaCTX-M-carrying isolates (8 from chickens, 2 each from pigs and cattle, 1 each from dog and rodent) were genetically diverse. All but 2 hybrid blaCTX-M were carried on IncI1 (5 blaCTX-M-123) and IncI2 (6 blaCTX-M-64 and one blaCTX-M-132) plasmids. Our IncI1 and IncI2 plasmids had pHNAH4-1-like and pHN1122-1-like restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, respectively. Genetic relatedness of the plasmids to pHNAH4-1 and pHN1122-1 were confirmed by complete sequencing of 3 plasmids, pCTXM123_C0996, pCTXM64_C0967, and pCTXM132_P0421. Plasmids closely related to pHNAH4-1 and pHN1122-1 and carrying different blaCTX-M alleles have been reported from multiple geographic areas in China previously. The findings highlighted the wide dissemination of hybrid blaCTX-M variants in different parts of China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito

  10. Telelearning standards and their application in medical education.

    PubMed

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikolaj

    2004-01-01

    Medial education, both on the graduate and postgraduate levels, has become a real challenge nowadays. The volume of information in medical sciences grows so rapidly that many health professionals experience essential problems in keeping track of the state of the art in this domain. e-learning offers important advantages to medical education continuation due to its universal availability and opportunity for implementation of flexible patterns of training. An important trace of medical education is developing practical skills. Some examples of standardization efforts include: the CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology (WSLT), the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC), Education Network Australia (EdNA) and PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in European Society (PROMETEUS). Sun Microsystems' support (Sun ONE, iPlanetTM ) for many of the above-mentioned standards is described as well. Development of a medical digital video library with recordings of invasive procedures incorporating additional information and commentary may improve the efficiency of the training process in interventional medicine. A digital video library enabling access to videos of interventional procedures performed in the area of thoracic medicine may be a valuable element for developing practical skills. The library has been filled with video resources recorded at the Department of Interventional Pulmonology; it enhances training options for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons. The main focus was put on demonstration of bronchofiberoscopic and videothoracoscopic procedures. The opportunity to browse video recordings of procedures performed in the specific field also considerably enhances the options for training in other medical specialties. In the era of growing health consumer awareness, patients are also perceived as the target audience for medical digital libraries. As a case study of Computer-Based Training systems, the Medical Digital Video Library is

  11. [Assessment of two applications of medication self-management in older patients. Qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Carrillo, I; Guilabert, M; Pérez-Jover, V; Mira, J J

    2015-01-01

    The aging population and the growing use of technology are two realities of modern society. Developing tools to support medication self-management to polymedicated elderly may contribute to increase their safety. To know how patients polymedicated and older than 64 years manage dose their medication and assessment the utility of two medication self-management applications, specifically analyzing management systems, medication errors and positive and improvable aspects of each of the tools presented. Seven focal groups with 59 patients from associations and health departments were conducted. In such meetings, they received the applications and they were encouraged to use it. Then, a several group questions were asked them about their health status, how they managed their medication and their assessment about the applications. Most participants reported to use memory strategies to take correctly their medication. They assessed positively the applications although some of them showed resistance to incorporate it in their daily routine. The simple interface and ease of use were the characteristics of the applications most appreciated by patients. Is possible to foster among elderly patients the use of technological tools to support the proper administration of medications with purpose is to decrease errors and increase safety. When designing health applications is necessary to take into account the preferences of those who are targeted. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. [Application of advanced engineering technologies to medical and rehabilitation fields].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Masakatsu

    2012-07-01

    The words "Japan syndrome" can now be heard increasingly through the media. Facing the approach of an elderly-dominated society, Robot Technology(RT)is expected to play an important role in Japan's medical, rehabilitation, and daily support fields. The industrial robot, which has already spread through the world with a great success in certain isolated environments by doing the work which is specialized for the thing with the hard known characteristic. By comparison, in the medical and rehabilitation fields, environments always change intricately, and individual characteristics differ from person to person. Furthermore, there are many times when a robot will be asked to directly interact with people. Moreover, the relation between a robot and a person turns into a relation which should involve contact flexibly according to a situation, and also turns into a relation which should avoid contact. In our group, we have so far developed practical rehabilitation and medical robots which can respond to difficulties such as environmental change and individual specificity. In developing rehabilitation robots, it is especially important to consider intuitive operability and individual differences. In addition, in developing medical robots, it is important to replace the experimental knowledge of surgeons to the mechanical quantitative properties. In this article, we introduce some practical examples of rehabilitation and medical robots interweaving several detailed technologies we have so far developed.

  13. Prevalence of bla(PenA) and bla(OXA) in Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Patients at Sappasitthiprasong Hospital and Their Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Panya, Marutpong; Thirat, Suthinee; Wanram, Surasak; Panomket, Pawana; Nilsakul, Jiraporn

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a causative agent of melioidosis. Ceftazidime is the preferred drug of choice for treatment. However, the motility rate is high in endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility tofour different antimicrobial agents and to detect the β-lactamase genes in B. pseudomallei isolates from patients admitted to Sappasitthiprasong Hospital. 85 B. pseudomallei isolates from patients admitted to Sappasitthiprasong Hospital between November 2010 and May 2011 were determined for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of bla(penA) and bla(OXA) in β-lactamase genes. Almost all of the clinical isolates ofB. pseudomallei were susceptible to ceftazidime and imipenem. Cefatzidime MIC was ≤ 1-16 μg/ml and imipenem MIC was ≤ 1-4 μg/ml. The real-time PCR revealed that more than 90% of B. pseudomallei isolates carried bla(PenA) and bla(OXA). Although the clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei were susceptible to ceftazidime and imipenem, this study showed B. pseudomallei had a gene that produced beta-lactamase enzyme and may be poorly effective in the use of beta-lactam drugs.

  14. Medical simulation: Overview, and application to wound modelling and management

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dinker R.; Singh, Simerjit

    2012-01-01

    Simulation in medical education is progressing in leaps and bounds. The need for simulation in medical education and training is increasing because of a) overall increase in the number of medical students vis-à-vis the availability of patients; b) increasing awareness among patients of their rights and consequent increase in litigations and c) tremendous improvement in simulation technology which makes simulation more and more realistic. Simulation in wound care can be divided into use of simulation in wound modelling (to test the effect of projectiles on the body) and simulation for training in wound management. Though this science is still in its infancy, more and more researchers are now devising both low-technology and high-technology (virtual reality) simulators in this field. It is believed that simulator training will eventually translate into better wound care in real patients, though this will be the subject of further research. PMID:23162218

  15. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aamir; Köhler, Gottfried; Knapp, Martin; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Puchinger, Martin; Edetsberger, Michael

    2009-11-26

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19941643

  17. The availability, functionality, and quality of mobile applications supporting medication self-management.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Belter, Lisa T; Pandit, Anjali U; Carpenter, Delesha M; Carlos, Eamon; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review mobile applications currently available to patients to support outpatient medication self-management. Three online stores were searched in March 2013 using nine distinct search terms. Applications were selected if they supported general outpatient medication self-management for adults; they were excluded if they focused on only one medication or condition, provided only a medication list or reference, only ordered refills, were written in a non-English language, or were for local pharmacy/hospital patients only. A multi-step review process was utilized by two independent reviewers to identify eligible applications. A standardized form was used to abstract data. User reviews were compiled from a subsample of applications and qualitatively coded to identify common criticisms. 14,893 applications were initially identified. After the multi-step review process, 424 applications were deemed eligible for inclusion by reviewers (κ=0.85). On average, applications were rated 2.8 stars (out of 5) from 107 reviews. Almost all provided medication reminders (91.0%), half enabled patients to create a medication history or log (51.5%), and 22% could email the log to a third party. Few helped patients organize their regimen (6.2%), check for drug interactions (2.8%), or identify pills (4.0%). User reviews (N=1091) from the subsample of 26 applications revealed common criticisms, including technical malfunctions, poor compatibility with certain medications, and absence of desired features. Hundreds of applications exist in the marketplace to support medication self-management. However, their quality, content, and functionality are highly variable. Research is needed to determine optimal capabilities, evaluate utility, and determine clinical benefit.

  18. 78 FR 31563 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements AGENCY: Health... XXVI of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of... on core medical services, including antiretroviral drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS...

  19. Simple fractal method of assessment of histological images for application in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We propose new method of assessment of histological images for medical diagnostics. 2-D image is preprocessed to form 1-D landscapes or 1-D signature of the image contour and then their complexity is analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method. The method may have broad medical application, from choosing implant materials to differentiation between benign masses and malignant breast tumors. PMID:21134258

  20. [Application of the myringoscope and myringophotography in forensice medical identification].

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Tian, X

    1997-01-01

    In analysis of tympanitio membrane injury, we have compared conventional otoscope with myringoscope and found that the myringoscope has an advantage over the conventional otoscope. The myringoscope can show the whole tympanitic membrane, the positions, shapes and characteristics of tympanitic membrane injuries more clearly. The pictures of myringophotography could be preserved and offered to court as an important forensic medical evidence.

  1. Projection-based medical image compression for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Juliet, Sujitha; Rajsingh, Elijah Blessing; Ezra, Kirubakaran

    2015-04-01

    Recent years have seen great development in the field of medical imaging and telemedicine. Despite the developments in storage and communication technologies, compression of medical data remains challenging. This paper proposes an efficient medical image compression method for telemedicine. The proposed method takes advantage of Radon transform whose basis functions are effective in representing the directional information. The periodic re-ordering of the elements of Radon projections requires minimal interpolation and preserves all of the original image pixel intensities. The dimension-reducing property allows the conversion of 2D processing task to a set of simple 1D task independently on each of the projections. The resultant Radon coefficients are then encoded using set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) encoder. Experimental results obtained on a set of medical images demonstrate that the proposed method provides competing performance compared with conventional and state-of-the art compression methods in terms of compression ratio, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and computational time.

  2. What qualities do medical school applicants need to have?--secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yera; Kim, Sun

    2009-06-30

    Doctors are asked to play the roles of both a healer and a professional. In dealing with this inherent demand, we should first ask ourselves if we are selecting students who show traits that would enable them to become a good doctor. The primary concern of this study was to identify the core elements of medical professionalism that will develop into professional competence that we should be sought in medical school applicants. One hundred-six responses from the Delphi survey done by medical school professors and 230 completed questionnaires from medical students were used for analysis. We also set out to analyze the level of medical professionalism in newly entering medical students using a 5-point Likert scale. Of the 27 elements of medical professionalism examined, the most important core element was thought to be 'life-long learning skills'. The level of professionalism in Korean medical students was mostly assessed to be less than the 3.0 mean score given by the professors. Medical students tended to rate themselves higher than did the professors for their level of medical professionalism. Medical professionalism can be categorized into three domains; professional knowledge, professional skills, and professional attitude. For the prominent differences in the recognition of the levels of professionalism elements in medical students by students and professors, further studies investigating the reasons for discrepancy are needed.

  3. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Gerd J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2003-05-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application.

  4. Investigation of Signal Transduction Routes within the Sensor/Transducer Protein BlaR1 of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Staude, Michael W.; Frederick, Thomas E.; Natarajan, Sivanandam V.; Wilson, Brian D.; Tanner, Carol E.; Ruggiero, Steven T.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane antibiotic sensor/signal transducer protein BlaR1 is part of a cohort of proteins that confer β-lactam antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1–3). Specifically, BlaR1 regulates the inducible expression of β-lactamases that hydrolytically destroy β–lactam antibiotics. The resistance phenotype starts with β-lactam antibiotic acylation of the BlaR1 extracellular domain (BlaRS). The acylation activates the cytoplasmic protease domain through an obscure signal-transduction mechanism. Here, we compare protein dynamics of apo versus antibiotic-acylated BlaRS using NMR. Our analyses reveal inter-residue interactions that relay acylation-induced perturbations within the antibiotic-binding site to the transmembrane helix regions near the membrane surface. These are the first insights into the process of signal transduction by BlaR1. PMID:25658195

  5. The prospects of medical application of metal-based nanoparticles and nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chekman, I S; Ulberg, Z R; Gorchakova, N O; Nebesna, T Yu; Gruzina, T G; Priskoka, A O; Doroshenko, A M; Simonov, P V

    2011-01-01

    Current studies, dedicated to metallic (gold, silver, iron, and copper) nanomaterials are reviewed in this paper. This metals own unique physical and chemical properties which determine their application. The medical application of metallic nanomaterials includes therapy and prophylaxis of diseases, development of new drugs and improvement of conventional ones, nanodiagnostics. Nevertheless some aspects concerning the introduction of the nanometals into medical practice need further profound research.

  6. Do state medical board applications violate the americans with disabilities act?

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Robin; Brazeau, Chantal M L R; Zackin, Freda; Rovi, Sue; Dickey, John; Johnson, Mark S; Keller, Steven E

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether medical licensing board application questions about the mental or physical health or substance use history of the applicant violate the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. Content analysis of 51 allopathic licensing applications (50 states and District of Columbia) was performed at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School in 2005. Questions referencing physical or mental health or substance use were identified by a team of physicians and reviewed and categorized based on the ADA and appropriate case law by legal counsel. Of the 51 applications reviewed, 49 (96%) contained questions pertaining to the physical or mental health or substance use history of the applicant. Thirty-four of the 49 (69%) state medical licensing applications contained at least one "likely impermissible" or "impermissible" item based on the ADA and appropriate case law. Most state medical licensing applications contain questions that ask about the physical or mental health and substance use of physician applicants. Many licensing applications appear to be in violation of the ADA, even 19 years after enactment of the regulation. These questions do not elicit responses by which professional competence can be judged. The presence of these questions on licensing applications may cause physicians to avoid or delay treatment of personal illness.

  7. A Multimodal Database for a Home Remote Medical Care Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medjahed, Hamid; Istrate, Dan; Boudy, Jerome; Steenkeste, François; Baldinger, Jean-Louis; Dorizzi, Bernadette

    The home remote monitoring systems aim to make a protective contribution to the well being of individuals (patients, elderly persons) requiring moderate amounts of support for independent living spaces, and improving their everyday life. Existing researches of these systems suffer from lack of experimental data and a standard medical database intended for their validation and improvement. This paper presents a multi-sensors environment for acquiring and recording a multimodal medical database, which includes physiological data (cardiac frequency, activity or agitation, posture, fall), environment sounds and localization data. It provides graphical interface functions to manage, process and index these data. The paper focuses on the system implementation, its usage and it points out possibilities for future work.

  8. Application of Telemedicine System to Prehospital Medical Control

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Suck Ju; Kwon, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although ambulance-based telemedicine has been reported to be safe and feasible, its clinical usefulness has not been well documented, and different prehospital management systems would yield different results. The authors evaluated the feasibility and usefulness of telemedicine-assisted direct medical control in the Korean emergency medical service system. Methods Twenty ambulances in the Busan area were equipped with a telemedicine system. Three-lead electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and pulse oximetry data from the patient and audiovisual input from the scene were transferred to a server. Consulting physicians used desktop computers and the internet to connect to the server. Both requesting emergency medical service (EMS) providers and consulting physicians were asked to fill out report forms and submit them for analysis. Results In the 41 cases in which telemedicine equipment was used, cellular phones were concomitantly used in 28 cases (68.35%) to compensate for the poor audio quality provided by the equipment. The EMS providers rated the video transmission quality with a 4-point average score (interquartile range [IQR] 2-5) on a 5-point scale, and they rated the biosignal transmission quality as 4 (IQR 3-5). The consulting physicians rated the video quality as 4 (IQR 2.5-4) and the biosignal quality as 4 (IQR 3-4). The physicians' ratings for usefulness for making diagnosis or treatment decisions did not differ significantly in relation to the method of communication used. Conclusions Our study did not find any significant advantage of implementing telemedicine over the use of voice calls in delivering on-line medical control. More user-friendly, smaller devices with clear advantages over voice communication would be required before telemedicine can be successfully implemented in prehospital patient care. PMID:26279957

  9. Micro fibre optic flow checker for the medical analysis application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danping

    2007-01-01

    Two micro fibre optic flow checkers are presented in this paper. They are used for a medical analysis to control a solvent flow up to 1microl/min resolution. A fibre optic sensor as well as a hydraulic system are the principle components of these flow checkers. This paper describes the principle and the experiment setup. It gives the linearity, the repeatability and the stability results.

  10. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  11. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination.

  12. Complete sequences of two plasmids in a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella oxytoca isolate from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Wen; Wang, Jann-Tay; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liao, Tsai-Lien; Lai, Jui-Fen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chen, Ying-Tsong; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-08-01

    Genetic determinants of a bla(NDM-1)-positive, multidrug-resistant bacterial isolate that caused active infection was investigated by DNA sequencing. Two plasmids, pKOX_NDM1 and pKOX-R1, were identified for the Klebsiella oxytoca strain E718. Sequence annotation revealed a bla(NDM-1) gene in pKOX_NDM1 and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers (bla(CTX-M-3) and blaSHV-12) and a wide array of resistance genes in pKOX-R1. These findings highlight the difficulty in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and the potential danger of emerging resistant enterobacteria.

  13. blaCTX-M-2 Is Located in an Unusual Class 1 Integron (In35) Which Includes Orf513

    PubMed Central

    Arduino, Sonia M.; Roy, Paul H.; Jacoby, George A.; Orman, Betina E.; Pineiro, Silvia A.; Centron, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Examination of the blaCTX-M-2 gene in plasmid pMAR-12 by sequencing and PCR analysis revealed that the bla gene and the surrounding DNA, which is closely related (99% homology) to the Kluyvera ascorbata chromosomal DNA that contains the blaKLUA-1 gene, are located in a complex sul1-type integron, termed In35, that includes Orf513. It is possible that blaCTX-M-2 was acquired by plasmid pMAR-12 through an uncharacterized recombinational event in which Orf513 could be involved. PMID:12069995

  14. First report of the bla(OXA-58) gene in a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Deuseli Quaresma de; Santos, Kátia Regina Netto Dos; Pereira, Eliezer Menezes; Schuenck, Ricardo Pinto; Mendonça-Souza, Cláudia Rezende Vieira de; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona de

    2011-05-01

    Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among nonfermentative Gram-negative isolates. This study aimed to report the detection of bla(OXA-58) gene in multiresistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from inpatients in a public hospital. Polymerase chain reaction tests were performed to detect the bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and bla(OXA-51-like) genes. The bla(OXA-58) and bla(OXA-23) genes were detected in one and three isolates, respectively. Sequencing of the bla(OXA-58-like) amplicon revealed 100% identity with the A. baumannii bla(OXA-58) gene listed in the GenBank database. This is the first report of an OXA-58-producing A. baumannii isolate in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  16. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine

    PubMed Central

    Offermann, Lesa R.; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, Jayaraman; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-01-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. PMID:24769496

  17. Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... from becoming larger and causing more serious problems. Antiplatelets are medications that stop blood particles called platelets ... an angioplasty procedure. Aspirin is one type of antiplatelet medicine. (See "Aspirin: Take With Caution" ) Beta blockers ...

  18. Medical students' recognition and application of geriatrics principles in a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Aman; Farrell, Timothy W; Shield, Renée R; Tomas, Maria; Campbell, Susan E; Wetle, Terrie

    2013-03-01

    Given the aging U.S. population, it is imperative that medical students recognize and apply geriatrics principles. To address this need, in 2006, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University integrated geriatrics content into a new medical school curriculum. Preclinical and clinical medical students submitted written reflective journals in response to prompts regarding the geriatrics content of the new medical school curriculum, including their didactic and clinical experiences. An interdisciplinary team used a structured qualitative approach to identify themes, including the recognition and application of geriatrics principles. Thirty medical student journalers submitted 405 journal entries. Themes regarding students' emerging understanding of geriatrics principles included a growing understanding of geriatrics principles, recognition of the importance of psychosocial factors and patient preferences in caring for older adults, recognition of the complexities of treating older adults and application of geriatric principles to clinical situations, and understanding of physicians' roles in managing the care of older adults. Medical student reflective journaling allows medical educators to obtain timely feedback on curricular innovations and helps illuminate the process by which medical students learn to recognize and apply core geriatrics principles. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  20. Immobilized liquid layers: A new approach to anti-adhesion surfaces for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Sotiri, Irini; Overton, Jonathan C; Waterhouse, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Surface fouling and undesired adhesion are nearly ubiquitous problems in the medical field, complicating everything from surgeries to routine daily care of patients. Recently, the concept of immobilized liquid (IL) interfaces has been gaining attention as a highly versatile new approach to antifouling, with a wide variety of promising applications in medicine. Here, we review the general concepts behind IL layers and discuss the fabrication strategies on medically relevant materials developed so far. We also summarize the most important findings to date on applications of potential interest to the medical community, including the use of these surfaces as anti-thrombogenic and anti-bacterial materials, anti-adhesive textiles, high-performance coatings for optics, and as unique platforms for diagnostics. Although the full potential and pitfalls of IL layers in medicine are just beginning to be explored, we believe that this approach to anti-adhesive surfaces will prove broadly useful for medical applications in the future. PMID:27022136

  1. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed.

  2. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. Objectives In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Methods Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae. All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC (blaCMY and blaDHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Results A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). blaTEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound blaTEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae. blaSHV and Sul1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaAMPC, blaCMY, blaDHA, blaOXA-1, and blaOXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium

  4. Ethics and the comprehensive application of epistemology in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Tannirandorn, Yuen; Uerpairojkit, Boonchai; Thamkhantho, Manopchai; Pruksapong, Chumsak; Kanjanapitak, Aurchart; Phupong, Vorapong

    2005-12-01

    Our simple definition of ethics is good thought, speak and action. Epistemology means the hypothesis of facts about thought, speech and action. Medical practice is all means of medicine. Medicine classifies people into normal and abnormal. The abnormal are the sick. They loose some organs or those normal looking organs are dysfunctional. They are social problems, some can be treated, and some do not get the appropriate care. The problems of society of normal people are overeating and obesity, abortion, drug abuse, promiscuity, torture, terrorism, disobeying rules and order, corruption, brain-washing and unethical advertisements, etc. On the other hand, the social problems of the abnormal are down, deafness, blindness, dumb, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and cancer, etc. An example of the social-doctor problem is the mal distribution of doctors in rural areas. It was reported by the ministry of public health that the ratio of doctor to population to be 1:800 in Bangkok and 1:5, 700 in some rural areas in the north eastern part of Thailand. The doctors, themselves, are at a high grade of worker and intelligent quotient. They know all the problem and, at the same time, create problems, both, faster than the general population can do. It affects good and bad in the society. In the past, present and the foreseeable future the medical students get their studies in the western style. Their medical schools are situated in big cities. These schools are old and famous. They learn their medical procedure in a big hospital of more than 400 beds in the inpatient department wards. Their instructors and professors are highly qualified, are middle class people and well accepted in the society. Their families are lovely and warm. Their children study in the first class schools in town. The medical students feel very happy and appreciate seeing their professors in television routinely at prime time. In conclusion, their professors are an example of role model

  5. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  6. The Effect of Undergraduate GPA Selectivity Adjustment on Pre-interview Ranking of Rural Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gregory Eastham; Blue, Amy Victoria; Basco, William Thomas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all U.S. medical schools adjust applicants' GPAs based on the selectivity of applicants' undergraduate institutions. Analysis of data from 2,033 in-state applicants to the Medical University of South Carolina, 1996-99, found that this practice did not adversely affect the number of rural applicants offered admission interviews. (SV)

  7. The Effect of Undergraduate GPA Selectivity Adjustment on Pre-interview Ranking of Rural Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gregory Eastham; Blue, Amy Victoria; Basco, William Thomas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all U.S. medical schools adjust applicants' GPAs based on the selectivity of applicants' undergraduate institutions. Analysis of data from 2,033 in-state applicants to the Medical University of South Carolina, 1996-99, found that this practice did not adversely affect the number of rural applicants offered admission interviews. (SV)

  8. Medical and molecular biological application in the FELI

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, E.; Ogino, S.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-12-31

    Some of the user`s rooms of the FELI have been equipped for medical and molecular biological research. Main subjects are immunological reaction and cell fusion induced by IR FEL. We are beginning to do the preliminary irradiation experiments. The cultured T lymphocytes (Molt-4, human) are irradiated to FEL at wavelength 6.3{mu}m with the power density approximate 500mW/mm{sup 2} for 10 minutes, in the culture media (RPMI-1640) including 10% fetal bovine serum. Swelling and consequent collapse of the cells can be observed, probably due to abrasion of the cell membranes.

  9. [Application of medical guidelines for the prescription of statins].

    PubMed

    Chevalier, C; Giral, P; Chinaud, F; Carzon, M; Gartenlaub, D; Blanchon, B; Trutt, B

    2002-10-01

    The efficacy of statins to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) is well documented. This class of lipid-lowering drugs is now widely prescribed and was demonstrated to be cost effective in high risk patients. To assess the appropriateness of statins use, regarding initiation and follow-up of the treatment, as compared to the guidelines elaborated in 1996 by National Agency for the Development of Medical Evaluation (ANDEM). These guidelines were based on stratification of patients according to cardiovascular risk. Two groups of patients living in Ile-de-France region were defined, using Health Insurance computer database, on reimbursements. The first group named "new users" included patients in whom statin therapy was initiated during March 2000. The second group named "long term users" included patients who have been treated by statin therapy for one year or more. A sample of patients were randomly selected among these two groups. Trained Health Insurance advisors analyzed in depth the patients medical history and diet. All biological results were recorded and a complete history of medical therapy was assessed for each patient. An algorithm allowed the advisor to rate for nonadherence according to French medical guidelines. "New users": the random sample consisted of 460 patients, among whom 398 (87%) were free of CHD in whom the nonadherence rate was 72.4% (68.0% to 76.8%). Nonadherence concerned: LDL cholesterol level not tested (32%) and/or absence of prior fat-free diet (37%) and/or LDL cholesterol value before drug therapy was below the guidelines/threshold. "Long term users": the random sample consisted of 582 patients, among whom 381 (65%) were free of CHD. The nonadherence rate was 71.1% (66.5% to 75.7%). In addition, the nonadherence rate for patients in secondary prevention was 82.1% (79.7% to 84.6%) respectively, corresponding to: LDL cholesterol level not tested (41% and 34%); and/or no change dietary (18% and 12%); and/or unreach the LDL-C target level

  10. Application of an Electronic Medical Record in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic Medical Records (EMR) have been emerging over the past decade. Today, they are replacing the paper chart in clinics throughout the nation. Approximately three years ago, the NASA-JSC Flight Medicine Clinic initiated an assessment of the EMRs available on the market. This assessment included comparing these products with the particular scope of practice at JSC. In 1998, the Logician EMR from Medicalogic was selected for the JSC Flight Medicine Clinic. This presentation reviews the process of selection and implementation of the EMR into the unique practice of aerospace medicine at JSC.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Medical Models--Applications in Rhinology.

    PubMed

    Raos, Pero; Klapan, Ivica; Galeta, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we are introducing guidelines and suggestions for use of 3D image processing SW in head pathology diagnostic and procedures for obtaining physical medical model by additive manufacturing/rapid prototyping techniques, bearing in mind the improvement of surgery performance, its maximum security and faster postoperative recovery of patients. This approach has been verified in two case reports. In the treatment we used intelligent classifier-schemes for abnormal patterns using computer-based system for 3D-virtual and endoscopic assistance in rhinology, with appropriate visualization of anatomy and pathology within the nose, paranasal sinuses, and scull base area.

  12. Assessment of MEMS energy harvester for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek

    2015-05-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of the energy harvesting principle for the development of an autonomous power supply unit for a new generation of biomedical devices, e.g. artificial cochlear implants. Requirements for the harvester are set based on a research of power demands of state-of-the-art medical devices. Feasible methods of the energy conversion are then reviewed, and a simulation model of the generic energy harvester is developed. Acceleration in the head area of the user is measured and used as an input excitation for the model. Possible course of the follow-up research is outlined based on simulation and measurement results.

  13. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  14. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms (Extended Abstract).

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Eugene Y; Hatcliff, John

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals.

  15. Force-torque input enhances medical VR applications.

    PubMed

    Riener, Robert; Burgkart, Rainer; Frey, Martin; Sae-Kee, Bundit; Pröll, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Force-torque measuring input devices can significantly enhance the performance of classical simulation environments that are, for example, based on pure passive phantoms. Such devices allow not only the determination of force/torque amplitude and direction but also the contact point, where a torque-free force is applied to the phantom. The force/torque information can be displayed visually or acoustically, drive a realistic graphical animation environment or it can be saved and compared with a haptic library comprising the force/torque history of any medical specialist.

  16. Genre Analysis of Personal Statements: Analysis of Moves in Application Essays to Medical and Dental Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…

  17. Genre Analysis of Personal Statements: Analysis of Moves in Application Essays to Medical and Dental Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…

  18. Factors Affecting Applicants' Acceptance or Decline of Offers to Enroll in a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave-Hogg, Doreen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A University of Toronto (Canada) study of medical school applicants accepting (n=784) and declining (n=255) admission identified influential factors. Some (living cost, location) cannot be affected by the institution. The institution has limited control of others (faculty size, school environment) but can influence applicant perceptions. One…

  19. Development of tunable Fabry-Perot spectral camera and light source for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaarre, M.; Kivi, S.; Panouillot, P. E.; Saari, H.; Mäkynen, J.; Sorri, I.; Juuti, M.

    2013-05-01

    VTT has developed a fast, tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter component and applied it in making small, lightweight spectral cameras and light sources. One application field where this novel technology is now tested is medical field. A demonstrator has been made to test the applicability of FP based spectral filtering in the imaging of retina in visible light wavelength area.

  20. [Impact of a software application to improve medication reconciliation at hospital discharge].

    PubMed

    Corral Baena, S; Garabito Sánchez, M J; Ruíz Rómero, M V; Vergara Díaz, M A; Martín Chacón, E R; Fernández Moyano, A

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of a software application to improve the quality of information concerning current patient medications and changes on the discharge report after hospitalization. To analyze the incidence of errors and to classify them. Quasi-experimental pre / post study with non-equivalent control group study. Medical patients at hospital discharge. implementation of a software application. Percentage of reconciled patient medication on discharge, and percentage of patients with more than one unjustified discrepancy. A total of 349 patients were assessed; 199 (pre-intervention phase) and 150 (post-intervention phase). Before the implementation of the application in 157 patients (78.8%) medication reconciliation had been completed; finding reconciliation errors in 99 (63.0%). The most frequent type of error, 339 (78.5%), was a missing dose or administration frequency information. After implementation, all the patient prescriptions were reconciled when the software was used. The percentage of patients with unjustified discrepancies decreased from 63.0% to 11.8% with the use of the application (p<.001). The main type of discrepancy found on using the application was confusing prescription, due to the fact that the professionals were not used to using the new tool. The use of a software application has been shown to improve the quality of the information on patient treatment on the hospital discharge report, but it is still necessary to continue development as a strategy for improving medication reconciliation. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.