Science.gov

Sample records for application methods water

  1. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J

    2006-01-01

    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  2. How to save water by choice of irrigation application method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  3. Application of improved extension evaluation method to water quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Heung; Hu, Bao Qing

    2014-02-01

    The extension evaluation method (EEM) has been developed and applied to evaluate water quality. There are, however, negative values in the correlative degree (water quality grades from EEM) after the calculation. This is not natural as the correlative degree is essentially an index based on grades (rankings) of water quality by different methods, which are positive. To overcome this negativity issue, the interval clustering approach (ICA) was introduced, which is based on the grey clustering approach (GCA) and interval-valued fuzzy sets. However, the computing process and formulas of ICA are rather complex. This paper provides a novel method, i.e., improved extension evaluation method, so as to avoid negative values in the correlative degree. To demonstrate our proposed approach, the improved EEM is applied to evaluate the water quality of three different cross-sections of the Fen River, the second major branch river of the Yellow River in China and the Han Jiang River, one of the major branch rivers of the Yangtse River in China. The results of the improved evaluation method are basically the same as the official water quality. The proposed method possesses also the same merit as the EEM and ICA method, which can be applied to assess water quality when the levels of attributes are defined in terms of intervals in the water quality criteria. Existing methods are mostly applicable to data in the form of single numeric values.

  4. Troubled waters: Environmental applications of electrical and electromagnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobes, David C.

    1996-07-01

    existing technology has lead to the development of fresh instruments, such as electrode arrays towed across the ground, resistivity logging while drilling, fast-rise time TEM, NMR combined with TEM, electric quadripole, et cetera. The applications of E & EM methods cover a wide range of geographic areas and groundwater problems, but have had particularly wide use for groundwater exploration in arid and semi-arid regions, for mapping and monitoring salt-water incursion in susceptible aquifers, and for mapping and monitoring contaminants.

  5. Liposome/water lipophilicity: methods, information content, and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Georgette Plemper; Martinet, Catherine a Marca; Caron, Giulia; Bouchard, Géraldine; Reist, Marianne; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Testa, Bernard

    2004-05-01

    This review discusses liposome/water lipophilicity in terms of the structure of liposomes, experimental methods, and information content. In a first part, the structural properties of the hydrophobic core and polar surface of liposomes are examined in the light of potential interactions with solute molecules. Particular emphasis is placed on the physicochemical properties of polar headgroups of lipids in liposomes. A second part is dedicated to three useful methods to study liposome/water partitioning, namely potentiometry, equilibrium dialysis, and (1)H-NMR relaxation rates. In each case, the principle and limitations of the method are discussed. The next part presents the structural information encoded in liposome/water lipophilicity, in other words the solutes' structural and physicochemical properties that determine their behavior and hence their partitioning in such systems. This presentation is based on a comparison between isotropic (i.e., solvent/water) and anisotropic (e.g., liposome/water) systems. An important factor to be considered is whether the anisotropic lipid phase is ionized or not. Three examples taken from the authors' laboratories are discussed to illustrate the factors or combinations thereof that govern liposome/water lipophilicity, namely (a) hydrophobic interactions alone, (b) hydrophobic and polar interactions, and (c) conformational effects plus hydrophobic and ionic interactions. The next part presents two studies taken from the field of QSAR to exemplify the use of liposome/water lipophilicity in structure-disposition and structure-activity relationships. In the conclusion, we summarize the interests and limitations of this technology and point to promising developments.

  6. Metropolitan Water Availability Forecasting Methods and Applications in South Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of adequate fresh water is fundamental to the sustainable management of water infrastructures that support both urban needs and agricultural uses in human society. Recent drought events in the U.S. have threatened drinking water supplies for communities in Maryl...

  7. Application of the conjugate-gradient method to ground-water models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manteuffel, T.A.; Grove, D.B.; Konikow, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    The conjugate-gradient method can solve efficiently and accurately finite-difference approximations to the ground-water flow equation. An aquifer-simulation model using the conjugate-gradient method was applied to a problem of ground-water flow in an alluvial aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado. For this application, the accuracy and efficiency of the conjugate-gradient method compared favorably with other available methods for steady-state flow. However, its efficiency relative to other available methods depends on the nature of the specific problem. The main advantage of the conjugate-gradient method is that it does not require the use of iteration parameters, thereby eliminating this partly subjective procedure. (USGS)

  8. A new method for qualitative simulation of water resources systems: 2. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, M. P.; Seixas, M. J.; Camara, A. S.; Pinheiro, M.

    1987-11-01

    SLIN (Simulação Linguistica) is a new method for qualitative dynamic simulation. As was presented previously (Camara et al., this issue), SLIN relies upon a categorical representation of variables which are manipulated by logical rules. Two applications to water resources systems are included to illustrate SLIN's potential usefulness: the environmental impact evaluation of a hydropower plant and the assessment of oil dispersion in the sea after a tanker wreck.

  9. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  10. Bacterial contamination of tile drainage water and shallow groundwater under different application methods of liquid swine manure.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, A D; Glasauer, S M; Lauzon, J D; O'Halloran, I P; Parkin, Gary W; Dunfield, K E

    2012-05-01

    A 2 year field experiment evaluated liquid manure application methods on the movement of manure-borne pathogens (Salmonella sp.) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens) to subsurface water. A combination of application methods including surface application, pre-application tillage, and post-application incorporation were applied in a randomized complete block design on an instrumented field site in spring 2007 and 2008. Tile and shallow groundwater were sampled immediately after manure application and after rainfall events. Bacterial enumeration from water samples showed that the surface-applied manure resulted in the highest concentration of E. coli in tile drainage water. Pre-tillage significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the movement of manure-based E. coli and C. perfringens to tile water and to shallow groundwater within 3 days after manure application (DAM) in 2008 and within 10 DAM in 2007. Pre-tillage also decreased the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in tile water samples. Indicator bacteria and pathogens reached nondetectable levels within 50 DAM. The results suggest that tillage before application of liquid swine manure can minimize the movement of bacteria to tile and groundwater, but is effective only for the drainage events immediately after manure application or initial rainfall-associated drainage flows. Furthermore, the study highlights the strong association between bacterial concentrations in subsurface waters and rainfall timing and volume after manure application.

  11. Toward a generic method for studying water renewal, with application to the epilimnion of Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgue, Olivier; Deleersnijder, Eric; White, Laurent

    2007-09-01

    We present a method, based on the concept of age and residence time, to study the water renewal in a semi-enclosed domain. We split the water of this domain into different water types. The initial water is the water initially present in the semi-enclosed domain. The renewing water is defined as the water entering the domain of interest. Several renewing water types may be considered depending on their origin. We present the equations for computing the age and the residence time of a certain water type. These timescales are of use to understand the rate at which the water renewal takes place. Computing these timescales can be achieved at an acceptable extra computer cost. The above-mentioned method is applied to study the renewal of epilimnion (i.e. the surface layer) water in Lake Tanganyika. We have built a finite element reduced-gravity model modified to take into account the water exchange between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion (i.e. the bottom layer), the water supply from precipitation and incoming rivers, and the water loss from evaporation and the only outgoing river. With our water renewal diagnoses, we show that the only significant process in the renewal of epilimnion water in Lake Tanganyika is the water exchange between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion, other phenomena being negligible.

  12. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  13. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution.

  14. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004–0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0–95 °C), pH (1–10), and conductivity (30–70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4- substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  15. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004-0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0-95 °C), pH (1-10), and conductivity (30-70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4-substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  16. Application of multivariate statistical methods and water-quality index to evaluation of water quality in the Kashkan River.

    PubMed

    Mostafaei, Abazar

    2014-04-01

    The Kashkan River (KR), located in the west of Iran, is a major source of water supply for residential and agricultural areas as well as livestock. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial and long temporal variations of surface water quality of the KR based on measured chemical ions. The Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) technique was utilized using measurements from 10 sampling stations during a period of 36 years (1974-2009). The measured data included cations (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺), anions (HCO(3)⁻, Cl⁻, SO(4)²⁻), pH, and electrical conductivity. Principal component analysis was performed to identify which of the parameters to be included in the CCME WQI calculations were actually correlated and which ones were responsible for most of the variance observed in the water-quality data. In addition, KR water quality was evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes using conventional methods. Last, trend detection in the WQI time series of the KR showed water-quality degradation at all sampling stations, whereas the Jelhool sub-basin more adversely affects the quality of KR water in the watershed. Nonetheless, on average, the water quality of the KR was rated as fair.

  17. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  18. A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

  19. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  20. Field and laboratory arsenic speciation methods and their application to natural-water analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    The toxic and carcinogenic properties of inorganic and organic arsenic species make their determination in natural water vitally important. Determination of individual inorganic and organic arsenic species is critical because the toxicology, mobility, and adsorptivity vary substantially. Several methods for the speciation of arsenic in groundwater, surface-water, and acid mine drainage sample matrices using field and laboratory techniques are presented. The methods provide quantitative determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and roxarsone in 2-8min at detection limits of less than 1??g arsenic per liter (??g AsL-1). All the methods use anion exchange chromatography to separate the arsenic species and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an arsenic-specific detector. Different methods were needed because some sample matrices did not have all arsenic species present or were incompatible with particular high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phases. The bias and variability of the methods were evaluated using total arsenic, As(III), As(V), DMA, and MMA results from more than 100 surface-water, groundwater, and acid mine drainage samples, and reference materials. Concentrations in test samples were as much as 13,000??g AsL-1 for As(III) and 3700??g AsL-1 for As(V). Methylated arsenic species were less than 100??g AsL-1 and were found only in certain surface-water samples, and roxarsone was not detected in any of the water samples tested. The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in the test samples ranged from 0% to 90% As(III). Laboratory-speciation method variability for As(III), As(V), MMA, and DMA in reagent water at 0.5??g AsL-1 was 8-13% (n=7). Field-speciation method variability for As(III) and As(V) at 1??g AsL-1 in reagent water was 3-4% (n=3). ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-02

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments.

  2. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the

  3. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  4. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  5. An alternative method to quantify 2-MIB producing cyanobacteria in drinking water reservoirs: Method development and field applications.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Ting; Yen, Hung-Kai; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-11-01

    2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is a commonly detected cyanobacterial odorant in drinking water sources in many countries. To provide safe and high-quality water, development of a monitoring method for the detection of 2-MIB-synthesis (mibC) genes is very important. In this study, new primers MIBS02F/R intended specifically for the mibC gene were developed and tested. Experimental results show that the MIBS02F/R primer set was able to capture 13 2-MIB producing cyanobacterial strains grown in the laboratory, and to effectively amplify the targeted DNA region from 17 2-MIB-producing cyanobacterial strains listed in the literature. The primers were further coupled with a TaqMan probe to detect 2-MIB producers in 29 drinking water reservoirs (DWRs). The results showed statistically significant correlations between mibC genes and 2-MIB concentrations for the data from each reservoir (R(2)=0.413-0.998; p<0.05), from all reservoirs in each of the three islands (R(2)=0.302-0.796; p<0.01), and from all data of the three islands (R(2)=0.473-0.479; p<0.01). The results demonstrate that the real-time PCR can be an alternative method to provide information to managers of reservoirs and water utilities facing 2-MIB-related incidents.

  6. Testing and Training of the Eggbeater Kick Movement in Water Polo: Applicability of a New Method.

    PubMed

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Viero, Valerio; Triossi, Tamara; Tancredi, Virginia; Galvani, Christel; Bonifazi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In water polo, many of the technical actions and the contacts with the opponent take place in quasi-vertical floating position using 2 types of lower limb actions: the eggbeater kick is used most often in fighting and passing and the breaststroke kick in jumping and throwing. The aim of this study was to identify a new system to evaluate and to train the eggbeater kick movement and to verify its applicability. Twenty amateur players and 22 elite players participated in the study. A jacket, homemade and easy to make, allowing the application of an overload submerged in water but not hindering breathing or mobility, was used. Standard anthropometry and a test consisting of different trials of the eggbeater kick action until exhaustion with an increasing overload (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 kg) were collected. Time to exhaustion and the overload estimated maximum value (OEMV) at second 2 were determined for each load. Body weight, height, and lower limb muscle performance of the elite and nonelite players were significantly different from each other (p ≤ 0.05). The effectiveness of the different measured variables in both subgroups and that of the OEMV was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Areas under the ROC curve for the different overloads were 0.72 (0.53-0.92) for 5 kg, 0.80 (0.68-0.90) for 7.5 kg, 0.87 (0.77-0.91) for 10 kg, and 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for 12.5 kg overload. Our results show that the test is sensitive enough and therefore can be used to plan and control training and injury recovery.

  7. Application of response surface methodology for determination of methyl red in water samples by spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2014-12-10

    In this study a rapid and effective method (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME)) was developed for extraction of methyl red (MR) prior to its determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Influence variables on DLLME such as volume of chloroform (as extractant solvent) and methanol (as dispersive solvent), pH and ionic strength and extraction time were investigated. Then significant variables were optimized by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and desirability function (DF). The optimized conditions (100μL of chloroform, 1.3mL of ethanol, pH 4 and 4% (w/v) NaCl) resulted in a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.015-10.0mgmL(-1) of MR in initial solution with R(2)=0.995 (n=5). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.015mgmL(-1), respectively. Finally, the DLLME method was applied for determination of MR in different water samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5% (n=5).

  8. Application of response surface methodology for determination of methyl red in water samples by spectrophotometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2014-12-01

    In this study a rapid and effective method (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for extraction of methyl red (MR) prior to its determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Influence variables on DLLME such as volume of chloroform (as extractant solvent) and methanol (as dispersive solvent), pH and ionic strength and extraction time were investigated. Then significant variables were optimized by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and desirability function (DF). The optimized conditions (100 μL of chloroform, 1.3 mL of ethanol, pH 4 and 4% (w/v) NaCl) resulted in a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.015-10.0 mg mL-1 of MR in initial solution with R2 = 0.995 (n = 5). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.015 mg mL-1, respectively. Finally, the DLLME method was applied for determination of MR in different water samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5% (n = 5).

  9. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  10. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  11. Identifying major sources of uncertainty in watershed water quality modeling: an application of the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed water quality models are widely used in management practices such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). However, the modeling often involves significant uncertainty, especially in addressing non-conventional pollutants on which both knowledge and data are very limited. In this study, the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM), incorporating the Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), is used as an efficient alternative to conventional Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) for uncertainty analysis. DEMM is one of the Response Surface Methods (RSMs) which calculates uncertainty in output variables based on the direct effect of every uncertain input parameter. This study aims to 1) examine the applicability of DEMM to complex watershed models; 2) develop strategies for identifying major uncertainty sources in watershed water quality modeling. A case study of watershed diazinon (an organophosphorus pesticide) pollution modeling is explored. The results demonstrate that the stochastic response of the output variables to the uncertain input parameters can be adequately approximated by DEMM. A low-order DEMM can save a great amount of CPU time, compared to MCS. Also, DEMM can be used for parameter sensitivity analysis and preliminary model validation without a full calibration of the watershed model. Overall, if designed appropriately, DEMM can be used to identify major sources of uncertainty in watershed water quality modeling, and provides useful information on improving the modeling.

  12. Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Kazuko, Ishikawa-Takata; Kim, Eunkyung; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy and noninvasive nature of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method makes it ideal for the study of human energy metabolism in free-living conditions. However, the DLW method is not always practical in many developing and Asian countries because of the high costs of isotopes and equipment for isotope analysis as well as the expertise required for analysis. This review provides information about the theoretical background and practical aspects of the DLW method, including optimal dose, basic protocols of two- and multiple-point approaches, experimental procedures, and isotopic analysis. We also introduce applications of DLW data, such as determining the equations of estimated energy requirement and validation studies of energy intake. PMID:24944767

  13. Application of selected methods of remote sensing for detecting carbonaceous water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. M.; Fosbury, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of aerial photography to determine the nature and extent of water pollution from carbonaceous materials is discussed. Flights were conducted over the Galveston Bay estuarine complex. Ground truth data were developed from field sampling of the waters in a region near the Houston Ship Channel. Tests conducted in the field were those for the following physical and chemical factors: (1) ph, (2) dissolved oxygen, (3) temperature, and (4) light penetration. Laboratory analyses to determine various properties of the water are described and the types of instruments used are identified. Results of the analyses are presented as charts and graphs.

  14. The 'principal components' statistical method as a complementary approach to geochemical methods in water quality factor identification; application to the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melloul, A.; Collin, M.

    1992-12-01

    In general, Schoeller and Piper diagrams, as well as other classical techniques, facilitate the description of the various geochemical groups of water, and help to explain quality changes in an aquifer. We propose the use mainly of 'principal components' analysis for identification of relevant groups of water and the factors that bring about a change in their quality. The major advantage of this method is its suitability for simultaneous analysis of a great number of variables and observations. It is here being applied for the investigation of the Dan metropolitan region of Israel's Coastal Plain. The variables involved include major ions as well as the physical factors of depth of the well intake filter below sea-level, distance from the sea, and aquifer recharge. The primary purpose of this work is to demonstrate the use and reliability of principal components analysis (PCA) as a method complementary to classical approaches for hydrogeochemical research. Subsidiary purposes involve determination of the major water groups characterizing the Coastal Plain aquifer, identification of some of the principal variables that influence changes in water quality in the aquifer, and description of some of the geochemical phenomena contributing to change in aquifer water quality. The following results were achieved for the test area: (1) Two major groups of water were identified: a low-salinity, calcium bicarbonate water occurring in the phreatic portion of the Coastal Plain aquifer, and a more saline, sodium chloride water characterizing the neighboring Cenomanian aquifer and the confined portions of the Coastal Plain aquifer. (2) The major water input sources, such as rain, injection water, waste water, irrigation, etc., may vary in their influence upon resulting water quality; this water quality is affected by such physical factors as distance from the sea, depth of well intake filters below sea-level, proximity to streams and the lithology of the saturated and unsaturated

  15. Detection of Microbial Water Quality Indicators and Fecal Waterborne Pathogens in Environmental Waters: A Review of Methods, Applications, and Limitations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental waters are important reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms, many of which are of fecal origin. In most cases, the presence of pathogens is determined using surrogate bacterial indicators. In other cases, direct detection of the pathogen in question is required. M...

  16. Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

  17. Application of acoustical methods for estimating water flow and constituent loads in Perdido Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.; Pittman, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Water flow and quality data were collected from December 1994 to September 1995 to evaluate variations in discharge, water quality, and chemical fluxes (loads) through Perdido Bay, Florida. Data were collected at a cross section parallel to the U.S. Highway 98 bridge. Discharges measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and computed from stage-area and velocity ratings varied roughly between + or - 10,000 cubic feet per second during a typical tidal cycle. Large reversals in flow direction occurred rapidly (less than 1 hour), and complete reversals (resulting in near peak net-upstream or downstream discharges) occurred within a few hours of slack water. Observations of simultaneous upstream and downstream flow (bidirectional flow) were quite common in the ADCP measurements, with opposing directions of flow occurring predominantly in vertical layers. Continuous (every 15 minutes) discharge data were computed for the period from August 18, 1995, to September 28, 1995, and filtered daily mean discharge values were computed for the period from August 19 to September 26, 1995. Data were not computed prior to August 18, 1995, either because of missing data or because the velocity rating was poorly defined (because of insufficient data) for the period prior to landfall of hurricane Erin (August 3, 1995). The results of the study indicate that acoustical techniques can yield useful estimates of continuous (instantaneous) discharge in Perdido Bay. Useful estimates of average daily net flow rates can also be obtained, but the accuracy of these estimates will be limited by small rating shifts that introduce bias into the instantaneous values that are used to compute the net flows. Instantaneous loads of total nitrogen ranged from -180 to 220 grams per second for the samples collected during the study, and instantaneous loads of total phosphorous ranged from -10 to 11 grams per second (negative loads indicate net upstream transport). The chloride concentrations

  18. Parabolic stationing method application to intertidal shellfish (Sinonovacula constricta) and growing waters microbiological monitoring in Yueqing Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Huan; Xu, Dan; Gu, Beiqiao

    2016-12-28

    This study reported microbiological monitoring by parabolic stationing method for S. constricta and their growing waters, and application for the first time in Yueqing Bay, China. The results indicated that numbers of Escherichia coli and aerobic colony count in S. constricta flesh showed an approximate 'parabola' distribution across the whole shellfish bed. Numbers of faecal coliform in seawater samples were significantly higher in the top of the bay, and lower in the lower half of the bay, whilst higher located in the edge of the bay than the center in contrast to three sampling sites on the same latitude. Numbers of total bacterial count were not significantly correlated with faecal coliform in seawater samples. Finally, the shellfish production areas were classified based on three batches of E. coli monitoring.

  19. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds.

  20. Development and application of a quantification method for water soluble organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Xiaopei; Hu, Di; Zhu, Rongshu; Ouyang, Feng

    2017-03-16

    In recent years, organosulfates have been found as a significant component of secondary organic aerosols from both smog chamber experiments and field measurements. In this study, an indirect method was developed to estimate organosulfates in aerosol particles as a whole based on their sulfate functional group. A series of experiments were conducted to optimize and validate the method, and it was then applied to quantify organosulfates in the aerosol samples collected at three sampling characteristic sites in Shenzhen, with one close to a power plant (PP), one at a heavy traffic intersection (HTI), and one on the campus of Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen graduate school (HITSZ). On average, the mass concentrations of organic sulfur (Sorg) were 1.98, 1.11, 0.25 μgS m(-3) in PP, HTI and HITSZ respectively. The lower bounds of mass concentrations of organosuflates (OMs-related) were 6.86, 3.85 and 0.86 μg m(-3) and the upper bounds of mass concentrations of organosulfates were 23.05, 12.93 and 2.90 μg m(-3) in PP, HTI and HITSZ respectively. This indicates that primary emissions from coal burning and automobile exhaust can promote the secondary formation of organosulfates in the atmosphere. Overall, the mass concentrations observed in this work were higher than those reported by previous studies.

  1. [Method for study of phase transitions in evaporating drop and its application for evaluation of physical-chemical properties of water and water solutions].

    PubMed

    Iakhno, T A; Sanin, A G; Sanina, O A; Iakhno, V G

    2012-01-01

    Spatial-temporal crystallization features of inorganic chlorides in evaporating drops of water solutions, considering solid surface wettability, were studied using a microscopic technique and the acoustical impedansometry. Physical-chemical mechanisms responsible for the difference in "dynamical portraits" of distilled water and salt solutions, as well as relaxation effects in water were discussed. The study demonstrated the potential use of a drying drop method in registration of changes in water properties under the action of physical and chemical factors.

  2. Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Medřík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbořil, Radek; Slunský, Jan; Černík, Miroslav; Stavělová, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

  3. Integrated hydrochemical method of water quality assessment for irrigation in arid areas: application to the Jilh aquifer, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Rumikhani, Yousef A.

    2003-05-01

    Water samples from 72 wells tapping the Jilh aquifer were collected and analyzed for 10 different water quality parameters. Using these data, a regional irrigation water quality was assessed using three techniques: (i) United States Department of Agriculture method (USDA), (ii) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines for water quality assessment, and (iii) Water-Types approach. The USDA method revealed that the aquifer water salinity, as represented by electrical conductivity, ECw, ranges from high salinity (C3: ECw > 0.75-2.25 dS/m) to a very high salinity (C4: ECw > 2.25 dS/m). The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) varied from low (S1) to very high (S4) sodicity. Therefore, the water of the Jilh aquifer is dominantly of the C4-S2 class representing 56% of the total wells followed by C4-S1, C4-S3, C3-S1 and C4-S4 classes at 19%, 14%, 8%, and 3% of the wells respectively. The FAO system indicated moderate to severe restriction on the use for irrigation and slight to moderate ion toxicities for Na+, Cl-, B+, NO3- and HCO3-. It is clear that, both USDA and FAO systems condemn the Jilh groundwater as hazardous for irrigation due to its high salt content, unless certain measures for salinity control are undertaken. The dominant salt constituents in the water are Mg-Cl2, Na-Cl and Ca-Cl2 as per the Water-Types method. However, due to the complexity in classifying the aquifer groundwater for irrigation, a simplified approach acknowledging three class groups (I-suitable water, II-conditionally suitable water and III-unsuitable water) adopted from the three methods, is suggested in this paper. The simplified approach combines C-S classes of the USDA method among these three groups according to the lowest ratings. The salinity of the FAO method has been split arbitrarily into slight and moderate subclasses with values of 0.7-2.25 and >2.25 dS/m, respectively; to match with the C3-class of the USDA system. The Water-Types were classified assuming that Ca-Cl2 is the

  4. Application of the methods of gas dynamics to water flows with free surface I : flows with no energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, Ernst

    1940-01-01

    The application is treated in sufficient detail to facilitate as much as possible its application by the engineer who is less familiar with the subject. The present work was undertaken with two objects in view. In the first place, it is considered as a contribution to the water analogy of gas flows, and secondly, a large portion is devoted to the general theory of the two-dimensional supersonic flows.

  5. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  6. A simple and efficient method to characterize bonded water molecules in aqueous solutions of electrolytes: Application to sodium sulphate decahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargeot, Carole; Bebon, C.; Colson, D.; Klein, J.-P.; Blandin, A.-F.; Bossoutrot, J.-M.

    2007-09-01

    During a study on crystallization in viscous media, an unexpected relevant theoretical and experimental result about the organization of water molecules in salt solutions has been obtained. Experimental results obtained during measurement of viscosity of saccharose and water solutions demonstrate that the salt dissolved in saccharose solution has the capacity to catch the solvent, namely water, from the solvated substance, here saccharose, which induces a quite large viscosity gap. There is a certain mutual electrolyte-water attraction; it may be pushed on by stronger water-salt than water-saccharose interactions. Determination of the binding of water with the salt in the solution can be done directly from measured viscosity. The number of water molecules withdrawn by Na 2SO 4 in solution is computable from viscosity values. Significance of the results obtained is a relevant demonstration that the 10 water molecules of Na 2SO 4·10H 2O are already organised around the solute before the crystallization. The phenomenon observed here questions theoretical predictions that rely on solvent organization and salt effect in solution. Novelty of this study may thus encourage further experimental work in order to elucidate and test the validity of such investigational method to determine the number of water molecules withdrawn by salt in solution.

  7. Stochastic weather inputs for improved urban water demand forecasting: application of nonlinear input variable selection and machine learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilty, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems are often stressed during seasonal outdoor water use as water demands related to the climate are variable in nature making it difficult to optimize the operation of the water supply system. Urban water demand forecasts (UWD) failing to include meteorological conditions as inputs to the forecast model may produce poor forecasts as they cannot account for the increase/decrease in demand related to meteorological conditions. Meteorological records stochastically simulated into the future can be used as inputs to data-driven UWD forecasts generally resulting in improved forecast accuracy. This study aims to produce data-driven UWD forecasts for two different Canadian water utilities (Montreal and Victoria) using machine learning methods by first selecting historical UWD and meteorological records derived from a stochastic weather generator using nonlinear input variable selection. The nonlinear input variable selection methods considered in this work are derived from the concept of conditional mutual information, a nonlinear dependency measure based on (multivariate) probability density functions and accounts for relevancy, conditional relevancy, and redundancy from a potential set of input variables. The results of our study indicate that stochastic weather inputs can improve UWD forecast accuracy for the two sites considered in this work. Nonlinear input variable selection is suggested as a means to identify which meteorological conditions should be utilized in the forecast.

  8. Application of Monte Carlo Methods to Perform Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis on Inverse Water-Rock Reactions with NETPATH

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, David; Hershey, Ronald L.

    2016-06-01

    Methods were developed to quantify uncertainty and sensitivity for NETPATH inverse water-rock reaction models and to calculate dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon-14 groundwater travel times. The NETPATH models calculate upgradient groundwater mixing fractions that produce the downgradient target water chemistry along with amounts of mineral phases that are either precipitated or dissolved. Carbon-14 groundwater travel times are calculated based on the upgradient source-water fractions, carbonate mineral phase changes, and isotopic fractionation. Custom scripts and statistical code were developed for this study to facilitate modifying input parameters, running the NETPATH simulations, extracting relevant output, postprocessing the results, and producing graphs and summaries. The scripts read userspecified values for each constituent’s coefficient of variation, distribution, sensitivity parameter, maximum dissolution or precipitation amounts, and number of Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo methods for analysis of parametric uncertainty assign a distribution to each uncertain variable, sample from those distributions, and evaluate the ensemble output. The uncertainty in input affected the variability of outputs, namely source-water mixing, phase dissolution and precipitation amounts, and carbon-14 travel time. Although NETPATH may provide models that satisfy the constraints, it is up to the geochemist to determine whether the results are geochemically reasonable. Two example water-rock reaction models from previous geochemical reports were considered in this study. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted to evaluate the change in output caused by a small change in input, one constituent at a time. Results were standardized to allow for sensitivity comparisons across all inputs, which results in a representative value for each scenario. The approach yielded insight into the uncertainty in water-rock reactions and travel times. For example, there was little

  9. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake.

  10. Application of 1H NMR spectroscopy method for determination of characteristics of thin layers of water adsorbed on the surface of dispersed and porous adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Turov, V V; Leboda, R

    1999-02-01

    The paper presents 1H NMR spectroscopy as a perspective method of the studies of the characteristics of water boundary layers in the hydrated powders and aqueous dispergated suspensions of the adsorbents. The method involves measurements of temperature dependence proton signals intensity in the adsorbed water at temperatures lower than 273 K. Free energy of water molecules at the adsorbent/water interface is diminished due to the adsorption interactions causing the water dosed to the adsorbent surface freezes at T < 273 K. Thickness of a non-freezing layer of water can be determined from the intensity of the water signal of 1H NMR during the freezing-thawing process. Due to a disturbing action of the adsorbent surface, water occurs in the quasi-liquid state. As a result, it is observed in the 1H NMR spectra as a relatively narrow signal. The signal of ice is not registered due to great differences in the transverse relaxation times of the adsorbed water and ice. The method of measuring the free surface energy of the adsorbents from the temperature dependence of the signal intensity of non-freezing water is based on the fact that the temperature of water freezing decreases by the quantity which depends on the surface energy and the distance of the adsorbed molecules from the solid surface. The water at the interface freezes when the free energies of the adsorbed water and ice are equal. To illustrate the applicability of the method under consideration the series of adsorption systems in which the absorbents used differed in the surface chemistry and porous structure. In particular, the behaviour of water on the surface of the following adsorbents is discussed: non-porous and porous silica (aerosils, silica gels); chemically and physically modified non-porous and porous silica (silanization, carbonization, biopolymer deposition); and pyrogeneous Al2O3 and aluminasilicas. The effect of preliminary treatment of the adsorbent (thermal, high pressure, wetting with polar

  11. Novel flow injection-fluorometric method for the determination of trace silicate and its application to ultrapurified water analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabarudin, Akhmad; Oshima, Mitsuko; Ishii, Naoe; Motomizu, Shoji

    2003-08-29

    A highly sensitive fluorescence quenching method for the determination of silicate based on the formation of an ion associate between molybdosilicate and Rhodamine B (RB) in nitric acid medium was developed. A flow injection system coupled with a fluorescence detector was used for the measurement of fluorescence intensity at 560 and 580 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The calibration graph for Si showed a linear range of 0.1-5 ng cm(-3) with correlation coefficient of 0.9999, and the detection limit of 0.06 ng cm(-3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of silicate in ultrapurified water with satisfactory results.

  12. Linking Predictive Models to Generic Planning Methods for Water Resource System Adaptation: Initial Application to The Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Matrosov, E.; Wade, S.; New, M. G.; Pinte, D.

    2009-12-01

    Adapting water resource systems to unknown future conditions will involve using trusted predictive models within planning methods. Planning methods include stochastic simulation and optimization, shared vision planning, robust-decision making, and others. The methods embed existing predictive models into the core of a planning process aiming to improve system design and/or operation. Planning methods that connect in a generic and modular way to predictive models will enable flexible and efficient deployment. This talk describes a generic open-source model platform that helps link models to planning methods. The link is made through standardized import/export functions or customized add-ins. The program allows to edit, organize, store, visualize and transfer model inputs and outputs. A computationally efficient water resource simulation model, IRAS, was connected to the platform using an add-in. A simple IRAS model of the Thames basin system was built with a weekly time step and 80 year time horizon and compared to a more detailed daily predictive model used by the UK’s Environment Agency. The Thames model is being connected to a scenario generator based on robust decision making. The scenarios will help identify robust system designs given multiple uncertain inputs (inflows, demands, energy prices).

  13. Benzotriazole and 5-methylbenzotriazole in recycled water, surface water and dishwashing detergents from Perth, Western Australia: analytical method development and application.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, M D; Patterson, B M; McKinley, A J; Reeder, A Y; Furness, A J

    2015-02-01

    A simplified and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method without requiring sample pre-concentration was successfully developed for detecting the occurrence of ultra-low (ng L(-1)) concentrations of benzotriazole (BTri), and its derivative 5-methyl benzotriazole (5-MeBT) in various Western Australian environmental water samples. The method detection limit was 2 ng L(-1), providing similar detection limits to other more process intensive methods where pre-concentration using solid phase extraction (SPE) was employed. The method was used to assess the occurrence of BTri and 5-MeBT in wastewater and surface water samples. Over a period of 12 months, BTri and 5-MeBT concentrations in secondary treated wastewater were measured, with the highest BTri and 5-MeBT concentrations observed during winter months at 78 ng L(-1) and 21 ng L(-1), respectively. The method was also used to assess the removal efficiency of BTri and 5-MeBT through an advanced water recycling plant (AWRP). While BTri was more persistent than 5-MeBT, both compounds were removed from the AWRP to <10 ng L(-1) (BTri) and <2 ng L(-1) (5-MeBT), with reverse osmosis (RO) providing the most effective treatment process for their removal.

  14. Interdisciplinary Methods in Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosens, Barbara; Fiedler, Fritz; Boll, Jan; Higgins, Lorie; Johnson, Gary; Kennedy, Brian; Strand, Eva; Wilson, Patrick; Laflin, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a myriad of complex water resource issues, traditional disciplinary separation is ineffective in developing approaches to promote a sustainable water future. As part of a new graduate program in water resources, faculty at the University of Idaho have developed a course on interdisciplinary methods designed to prepare students for…

  15. A study of alternative methods for reclaiming oxygen from carbon dioxide and water by a solid-electrolyte process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Two alternative technical approaches were studied for application of an electrochemical process using a solid oxide electrolyte (zirconia stabilized by yttria or scandia) to oxygen reclamation from carbon dioxide and water, for spacecraft life support systems. Among the topics considered are the advisability of proceeding to engineering prototype development and fabrication of a full scale model for the system concept, the optimum choice of method or approach to be carried into prototype development, and the technical problem areas which exist.

  16. The development of TXRF method and its application on the study of trace elements in water at SSRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Yu, H. S.; Li, L. N.; Wei, X. J.; Huang, Y. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is the development of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) method at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper, the SR-TXRF setup and the related experimental methods and results for the determination of trace elements in water were described. Compared with the conventional lab TXRF, the detection limits obtained in our experiment are very lower due to the advantages of synchrotron radiation, which varied from 1.11 pg (Cr) to 0.28 pg (Zn). The average deviation of the specimen replicates is below 5%, and the deviations of measured element concentrations for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu by SR-TXRF are within 10% compared with the values by ICP-MS, so our TXRF results are agreed with those obtained by ICP-MS for the detected metals. Based on the results, the SR-TXRF setup and method have been feasible for the quantitative analysis of multi-elements in water at SSRF and that will play an important role in the research area for the environmental liquid samples analysis.

  17. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D'Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  18. Photochemical-spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides: applications in river water samples and in technical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Garcia, M D; Martínez-Galera, M; López-López, T; Martínez-Vidal, J L; Mahedero, M C; Salinas, F

    2001-01-26

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was used to obtain fluorescent photoproducts from four non-fluorescent benzoylurea (BU) insecticides (flufenoxuron (FLF), lufenuron (LUF), hexaflumuron (HF) and triflumuron (TRF)). The effect of solvent, pH (in aqueous solutions), organic solvent percentage and UV irradiation time on the excitation and emission wavelengths and fluorescence intensity were investigated. The largest fluorescence signals and the shortest UV irradiation time were obtained in methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. Linear calibration graphs were established in the interval between 0.025 and 1.000 microg ml(-1) from FLF and TRF and between 0.050 and 1.000 microg ml(-1) from LUF and HF with regression coefficients larger than 0.99. A method based on the use of the first-derivative of the spectra of photoproducts was applied to the determination of BU insecticides in river water samples and in technical formulations. The mean recoveries ranged from 95.0% to 110.0% in river water samples and from 92.0% to 101.0% in technical formulations, according to the compound. A preconcentration step, using LLE, allowed to reach the concentration levels established by the EU directive for pesticides in drinking water.

  19. Extension of an explicit finite volume method to large time steps (CFL>1): application to shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, J.; García-Navarro, P.; Brufau, P.; Burguete, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the explicit first order upwind scheme is presented under a formalism that enables the extension of the methodology to large time steps. The number of cells in the stencil of the numerical scheme is related to the allowable size of the CFL number for numerical stability. It is shown how to increase both at the same time. The basic idea is proposed for a 1D scalar equation and extended to 1D and 2D non-linear systems with source terms. The importance of the kind of grid used is highlighted and the method is outlined for irregular grids. The good quality of the results is illustrated by means of several examples including shallow water flow test cases. The bed slope source terms are involved in the method through an upwind discretization.

  20. A practical method to avoid zero-point leak in molecular dynamics calculations: application to the water dimer.

    PubMed

    Czakó, Gábor; Kaledin, Alexey L; Bowman, Joel M

    2010-04-28

    We report the implementation of a previously suggested method to constrain a molecular system to have mode-specific vibrational energy greater than or equal to the zero-point energy in quasiclassical trajectory calculations [J. M. Bowman et al., J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2859 (1989); W. H. Miller et al., J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2863 (1989)]. The implementation is made practical by using a technique described recently [G. Czako and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 244302 (2009)], where a normal-mode analysis is performed during the course of a trajectory and which gives only real-valued frequencies. The method is applied to the water dimer, where its effectiveness is shown by computing mode energies as a function of integration time. Radial distribution functions are also calculated using constrained quasiclassical and standard classical molecular dynamics at low temperature and at 300 K and compared to rigorous quantum path integral calculations.

  1. Efficient Simulation Method for Polarizable Protein Force Fields: Application to the Simulation of BPTI in Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, Edward; Kim, Byungchan; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, Bruce J.

    2005-01-31

    A methodology for large scale molecular dynamics simulation of a solvated polarizable protein, using a combination of permanent and inducible point dipoles with fluctuating and fixed charges, is discussed and applied to the simulation of water solvated bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The electrostatic forces are evaluated using a generalized form of the P3M Ewald method which includes point dipoles in addition to point charge sites. The electrostatic configuration is propagated along with the nuclei during the course of the simulation using an extended Lagrangian formalism. For the system size studied, 20000 atoms, this method gives only a marginal computational overhead relative to nonpolarizable potential models (1.23-1.45) per time step of simulation. The models employ a newly developed polarizable dipole force field for the protein1 with two commonly used water models TIP4P-FQ and RPOL. Performed at constant energy and constant volume (NVE) using the velocity Verlet algorithm, the simulations show excellent energy conservation and run stably for their 2 ns duration. To characterize the accuracy of the solvation models the protein structure is analyzed. The simulated structures remain within 1 Å of the experimental crystal structure for the duration of the simulation in line with the nonpolarizable OPLS-AA model.

  2. Application of nano TiO(2) towards polluted water treatment combined with electro-photochemical method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junshui; Liu, Meichuan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jidong; Jin, Litong

    2003-09-01

    A novel composite reactor was prepared and studied towards the degradation of organic pollutants in this work. In the reactor, a UV lamp was installed to provide energy to excite nano TiO(2), which served as photocatalyst, leading to the production of hole-electron pairs, and a three-electrode electrolysis system was used to accumulate H(2)O(2) which played an important role in the degradation process. The reactor was evaluated by the degradation process of rhodamine 6G (R-6G), and the data obtained in the experiments showed that the combination of the photochemical and electrochemical system raised the degradation rate of R-6G greatly; the working mechanism of the reactor was also discussed in the article. The prepared reactor was also utilized to treat polluted water from dyeing and printing process. After continuous treatment for 0.5h, chemical oxygen demand biochemical oxygen demand, quantity of bacteria and ammonia nitrogen of the polluted water were reduced by 93.9%, 87.6%, 99.9% and 67.5%, respectively, which indicated that the method used here could be used for effective organic dyes degradation.

  3. Clean Water Act Analytical Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods (test procedures) that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples required by the Clean Water Act.

  4. Application of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for snow water equivalent retrieval based on passive microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Durand, M. T.; Vanderjagt, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a retrieval algorithm based on Bayes' rule, which starts from an initial state of snow/soil parameters, and updates it to a series of new states by comparing the posterior probability of simulated snow microwave signals before and after each time of random walk. It is a realization of the Bayes' rule, which gives an approximation to the probability of the snow/soil parameters in condition of the measured microwave TB signals at different bands. Although this method could solve all snow parameters including depth, density, snow grain size and temperature at the same time, it still needs prior information of these parameters for posterior probability calculation. How the priors will influence the SWE retrieval is a big concern. Therefore, in this paper at first, a sensitivity test will be carried out to study how accurate the snow emission models and how explicit the snow priors need to be to maintain the SWE error within certain amount. The synthetic TB simulated from the measured snow properties plus a 2-K observation error will be used for this purpose. It aims to provide a guidance on the MCMC application under different circumstances. Later, the method will be used for the snowpits at different sites, including Sodankyla, Finland, Churchill, Canada and Colorado, USA, using the measured TB from ground-based radiometers at different bands. Based on the previous work, the error in these practical cases will be studied, and the error sources will be separated and quantified.

  5. [Application of a rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in drinking water and beverages using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Osakada, Masakazu; Nakatsuji, Naoto; Nakayama, Yukiko; Kakimoto, You; Obana, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticides has been applied to drinking water and beverages. To a disposable polypropylene tube containing 10.0 g sample, 20 mL acetonitrile was added and the mixture was shaken vigorously for 1 min to extract pesticides. Then, 1 g sodium chloride and 4 g magnesium sulfate anhydrous were added, followed by vigorous shaking for 1 min and centrifugation to obtain the organic phase. The organic phase was processed with a graphite carbon black/PSA solid phase column. After concentration and reconstitution with 25% methanol containing aqueous solution, the test solution was analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Recovery tests of 91 pesticides fortified (0.02 μg/g) in 35 kinds of drinking water and beverages were conducted. The decline of recoveries in alcoholic beverages is considered to be due to the increase of organic phase volume owing to ethanol included in the alcoholic beverages. A simulation study was carried out with simulated alcoholic beverages, which consisted of 50% grape juice, with various amounts of ethanol and water, to examine pesticides recoveries and volume of the organic phase. The results suggested this method would be applicable both to alcoholic beverages containing less than 10% ethanol and to alcoholic beverages containing over 10% ethanol after dilution with water to below 10% ethanol prior to the addition of acetonitrile. A sample could be processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS within 2 h. Thus, this method should be useful for monitoring and screening pesticide residues in drinking water and various beverages.

  6. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  7. Application of the Methods of Gas Dynamics to Water Flows with Free Surface II : Flows with Momentum Discontinuities (hydraulic Jumps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, Ernst

    1940-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to shock polar diagrams is given which then leads into an examination of water depths in hydraulic jumps. Energy loss during these jumps is considered along with an extended look at elementary solutions of flow. An experimental test set-up is described and the results presented.

  8. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  9. Application of near surface geophysical methods to image water table response in an Alpine Meadow, Northern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, M.; Blacic, T. M.; Craig, M. S.; Yarnell, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Meadows are recognized for their value to the ecological, hydrologic, and aesthetic functions of a watershed. As natural water retention sinks, meadows attenuate floods, improve water quality and support herbaceous vegetation that stabilize streambanks and promote high biodiversity. Alpine meadows are especially vital, serving as freshwater sources and distributing to lower lying provinces through ground and surface water interaction. These complexes are highly vulnerable to drought conditions, altered seasonal precipitation patterns, and mismanaged land use. One such location, Van Norden meadow located in the Donner Summit area west of Lake Tahoe, is one of the largest sub-alpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of Northern California. Van Norden meadow offers a natural hydrologic laboratory. Ownership transfer of the area from a local land trust to the Forestry Service requires restoration toward natural meadow conditions, and involves notching the dam in 2016 to reduce currently impounded water volumes from 250 to less than 50 acre-feet. To monitor the effects of notching the dam on the upstream meadow conditions, better understanding of the surface and groundwater hydrology both pre-and post-base level alteration is required. Comprehensive understanding of groundwater flux that supports meadow reaches relies on knowledge of their often complex stratigraphic and structural subsurface framework. In recent years hydrogeophysics has emphasized the combination of near surface geophysical techniques, collaborated with well and borehole measures, to qualitatively define these parameters. Building on a preliminary GPR investigation conducted in 2014, in which 44 270 MHz transect lines were collected, we returned to Van Norden meadow in late summer 2015 to collect lower frequency GPR (50 and 100 MHz) and electrical resistivity profiles to better define the groundwater table, sedimentary, and structural features of the meadow.

  10. An experimental application of the Periodic Tracer Hierarchy (PERTH) method to quantify time-variable water and solute transport in a sloping soil lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Kim, M.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Troch, P. A. A.; Harman, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water molecules traverse myriad flow paths and spend different lengths of time on or within the landscape before they are discharged into a stream channel. The transit-time distribution (TTD) is a probability distribution that represents the range and likelihood of transit times for water and conservative solutes within soils and catchments, and is useful for comparative analysis and prediction of solute transport into streams. The TTD has customarily been assumed to be time-invariant in practical applications, but is understood to vary due to unsteady flow rates, changes in water-balance partitioning, and shifting flow pathways. Recent theoretical advances have clarified how the distribution of transit times experienced by water and solutes within a stream channel at any moment in time is conditional on the specific series of precipitation events preceding that time. Observations resolving how TTDs vary during a specific sequence of precipitation events could be obtained by introducing unique and conservative tracers during each event and quantifying their distinct breakthrough curves in the stream. At present, the number of distinct and conservative tracers available for this purpose is insufficient. Harman and Kim [Harman, C.J. and Kim, M., 2014, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 1567-1575] proposed a new experimental method—based on the establishment of periodic steady-state conditions—that allows multiple overlapping breakthrough curves of non-unique tracers to be decomposed, thus enabling analysis of the distinct TTDs associated with their specific times of introduction through precipitation. We present results from one of the first physical experiments to test this methodology. Our experiment involves a sloping lysimeter (10° slope) that contains one cubic meter of crushed basalt rock (loamy sand texture), an irrigation system adaptable to controlled tracer introductions, and instruments that enable total water balance monitoring. We imposed a repeated

  11. Water electrolysis and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamune, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nishiki, Y.; Tanaka, M.

    1995-12-31

    Permelec Electrode has commercialized various electrodes for industrial uses since 1969. Recently, we are focusing on developing several electrolytic systems which are composed of such electrodes and an ion exchange membrane. The membrane has abilities of separating ions and proceeding electrolysis even in the solution of low conductivity. It is clarified that various applications can be realized by this type of the electrolysis cell, so called the zero gap electrolysis system. The profitable and potential applications are introduced here, such as ozone production and diluted salt electrolytic systems for disinfection and water treatments.

  12. Development of a new three-phase membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction method: determination of nitrite in tap water samples as model analytical application.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Isabel; Chisvert, Alberto; March, Juan G; Salvador, Amparo; Benedé, Juan L

    2011-04-01

    A novel and simple device for membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction is used for the first time in a three-phase system. The device consists of a glass vial containing the aqueous acceptor phase, whose septum of its screw stopper has been replaced by a sized piece of polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with n-decane. The vial is assembled to a volumetric flask containing the aqueous donor phase, and the membrane comes in contact alternatively with both donor and acceptor aqueous phases by orbital agitation. The device has been tested for the determination of nitrite in tap water samples, which is extensively carried out in routine analysis, as model analytical application. Experimental variables, such as the organic solvent used to form the supported liquid membrane, the volumes of both donor and acceptor phases, the orbital agitation rate, and the extraction time were studied and optimized in terms of enrichment factor. Under the selected working conditions, the analytical figures of merit for nitrite determination were a linearity range up to 50 ng mL(-1), limits of detection and quantification of 0.15 and 0.50 ng mL(-1), respectively, and a good repeatability (RSD < 10%). The method has been applied to four tap water samples of different origins, and accurate and precise results were achieved. Besides, the very low volume of organic solvent used, its low cost and the no-risk of cross-contamination are significant operational advantages.

  13. Application of a real-time PCR method for Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens detection in water samples.

    PubMed

    Rozwadowska, Beata; Albertyńska, Marta; Hudzik, Grzegorz; Okła, Hubert; Jasik, Krzysztof P; Słodki, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic assessment of water sanitary state is based mainly on the cultivation of bacteria retained on membrane filters. However classical microbiology methods have a lot of disadvantages. More and more frequently, rapid detection and identification of pathogens present in water is based on molecular biology techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and usefulness of a real-time PCR method, when compared to the recommended bacteria culture method, in diagnostics of pathogens in water samples. The research concerned the detection and identification of main sanitary indicators of water such as: Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens. The analyses were conducted in water samples contaminated with the reference material (the aforementioned bacteria) and real environmental samples, which were examined for the presence of nucleic acid of: Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus and C. perfringens using a real-time PCR method.

  14. Application of a DNA-based luminescence switch-on method for the detection of mercury(II) ions in water samples from Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Fu, Wai-Chung; Shiu-Hin Chan, Daniel; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that damages the endocrine and central nervous systems. In view of the contamination of Hong Kong territorial waters with anthropogenic pollutants such as trace heavy metals, we have investigated the application of our recently developed DNA-based luminescence methodology for the rapid and sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in real water samples. The assay was applied to water samples from Shing Mun River, Nam Sang Wai and Lamma Island sea water, representing natural river, wetland and sea water media, respectively. The results showed that the system could function effectively in real water samples under conditions of low turbidity and low metal ion concentrations. However, high turbidity and high metal ion concentrations increased the background signal and reduced the performance of this assay.

  15. Semi-automated disk-type solid-phase extraction method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aqueous samples and its application to natural water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Baek, K H

    2007-07-20

    A disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was used for the extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in natural water and tap water. Since this SPE system comprised airtight glass covers with a decompression pump, it enabled continuous extraction with semi-automation. The disk-type SPE method was validated by comparing its recovery rates of spiked internal standards with those of the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The recovery ranges of both methods were similar in terms of (13)C-labeled internal standards: 64.3-99.2% for the LLE and 52.4-93.6% for the SPE. For the native spike of 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the recoveries in the SPE were in the normal range of 77.9-101.1%. However, in the LLE, the recoveries of 1,3,6,8-TCDD decreased significantly. One of the reasons for the low recovery is that the solubility of this congener is high. The semi-automated SPE method was applied to the analysis of different types of water: river water, snow, sea water, raw water for drinking purposes, and tap water. PCDD/F congeners were found in some sea water and snow samples, while their concentrations in the other samples were below the limits of detection (LODs). This SPE system is appropriate for the routine analysis of water samples below 50L.

  16. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  17. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for a Simple and Effective Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Water Sources in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Arienzo, Alyexandra; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Emeric Guetiya; Losito, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, “safe drinking-water must not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages”. Traditional methods of water analysis are usually complex, time consuming and require an appropriately equipped laboratory, specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. The aim of this work was to apply an alternative method, the Micro Biological Survey (MBS), to analyse for contaminants in drinking water. Preliminary experiments were carried out to demonstrate the linearity and accuracy of the MBS method and to verify the possibility of using the evaluation of total coliforms in 1 mL of water as a sufficient parameter to roughly though accurately determine water microbiological quality. The MBS method was then tested “on field” to assess the microbiological quality of water sources in the city of Douala (Cameroon, Central Africa). Analyses were performed on both dug and drilled wells in different periods of the year. Results confirm that the MBS method appears to be a valid and accurate method to evaluate the microbiological quality of many water sources and it can be of valuable aid in developing countries. PMID:26308038

  18. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Masaki, Y.; Odawara, Y.; Shimizu, N.

    1982-10-26

    The invention relates to an improvement of the floc-formation property of activated sludge contained in waste water. A waste water treatment process comprises steps culturing a novel strain-alcaligenes faecalis hrl-1-and adding the cultured cells to to-be-treated waste water.

  19. Analysis of the herbicide diuron, three diuron degradates, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in water-Method details and application to two Georgia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of the widely used herbicide diuron, three degradates of diuron, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in environmental water samples is described. Filtered water samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Quantification of the pesticides from the extracted water samples was done by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 20 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for each compound ranged from 75 to 97 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 10 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs) in water ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 ng/L using LC/MS/MS. The method was applied to water samples from two streams in Georgia, Sope Creek and the Chattahoochee River. Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) were detected in 100 and 80 percent, respectively, of the samples from the Chattahoochee River, whereas Sope creek had detection frequencies of 15 percent for diuron and 31 percent for 3,4-DCA. Detection frequencies for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, were 60 percent for the Chattahoochee River and 85 percent for Sope Creek. Field matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged over four water samples, ranged from 79 to 100 percent. The average percentage difference between replicate pairs for all compounds detected in the field samples was 10.1 (± 4.5) percent.

  20. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency.

  1. Method and apparatus for tritiated water separation

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Duncan, J.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-09-19

    The present invention is a membrane method and apparatus for separating isotopic water constituents from light water. The method involves providing a supported membrane of an aromatic polyphosphazene and pressurizing the water on one side of the membrane thereby forcing the light water through the supported membrane while isotopic water constituents are retained or vice versa. The apparatus of the present invention includes an aromatic polyphosphazene placed on a porous support and means for pressurizing water through the membrane while certain isotopic water constituents are retained. 1 fig.

  2. Method and apparatus for tritiated water separation

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, David A.; Duncan, James B.; Jensen, George A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a membrane method and apparatus for separating isotopic water constituents from light water. The method involves providing a supported membrane of an aromatic polyphosphazene and pressurizing the water on one side of the membrane thereby forcing the light water through the supported membrane while isotopic water constituents are retained or vice versa. The apparatus of the present invention includes an aromatic polyphosphazene placed on a porous support and means for pressurizing water through the membrane while certain isotopic water constituents are retained.

  3. A new method to assess long-term sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water using a bottom pressure sensor: Application to Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chierici, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Pignagnoli, Luca; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Rodgers, Mel; Malservisi, Rocco; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-11-01

    We present a new methodology using bottom pressure recorder (BPR) measurements in conjunction with sea level, water column, and barometric data to assess the long-term vertical seafloor deformation to a few centimeters accuracy in shallow water environments. The method helps to remove the apparent vertical displacement on the order of tens of centimeters caused by the BPR instrumental drift and by seawater density variations. We have applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude, lasted for several months. The method detected a vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 ± 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the submarine vertical deformation in shallow water. The estimated vertical deformation at the BPR also compares favorably with data acquired by a land-based GPS station located at the same distance from the maximum of the modeled deformation field. While BPR measurements are commonly performed in deep waters, where the oceanic noise is relatively low, and in areas with rapid, large-amplitude vertical ground displacement, the proposed method extends the capability of estimating vertical uplifts from BPR time series to shallow waters and to slow deformation processes.

  4. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  5. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  6. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-05-06

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior.

  7. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  8. Application of the water table fluctuation method for estimating evapotranspiration at two phreatophyte-dominated sites under hyper-arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Grinevsky, Sergey O.; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Yu, Jingjie; Dautova, Dina S.; Min, Leilei; Du, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yichi

    2014-11-01

    Shallow groundwater is primarily discharged via evapotranspiration (ETg) in arid and semi-arid riparian systems; however, the quantification of ETg remains a challenge in regional water resource assessments of such systems. In this study, the diagnostic indicators of groundwater evapotranspiration processes and the principles of applying the water table fluctuation (WTF) method to estimate ETg based on seasonal groundwater level changes were presented. These techniques were then used to investigate groundwater evapotranspiration processes at two sites dominated by phreatophytes (Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica) within hyper-arid desert environments in northwestern China for the period 2010-2012. The results indicate that steady declines in the water table, which are commonly attributed to groundwater evapotranspiration, occurred at both sites during the growing season. Based on the proposed WTF method, the estimated ETg was 0.63-0.73 mm/d at the Tamarix ramosissima site and 1.89-2.33 mm/d at the Populus euphratica site during the summer months (June-August). Numerical simulations using a one-dimensional root water uptake model indicate that the seasonal variations in ETg at both sites were primarily dependent on the potential evaporation rates. Comparisons with previous studies on plant transpiration at similar sites in this area show that these results are reasonable. It is apparent that the WTF method can provide a simple and relatively inexpensive method of estimating ETg on a large scale in arid/semi-arid regions. However, there are significant uncertainties associated with time-dependent lateral flow rates, which creates a challenge when applying this method. In addition, the selection of calculation periods that show steady declines in the groundwater level can be somewhat subjective. To enhance the performance of the WTF method based on seasonal water table declines, further research on the estimation of lateral flow rates should be performed

  9. Application of counter-current chromatography as a new pretreatment method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xueli; Yang, Chunlei; Pei, Hairun; Li, Xinghong; Xu, Xiaobai; Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-02-01

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) was investigated as a new sample pretreatment method for the determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water environmental samples. The experiment was performed with a non-aqueous binary two-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane and acetonitrile. The CCC column was first filled with the upper stationary phase, and then a large volume of water sample was pumped into the column while the CCC column was rotated at 1600 rpm. Finally, the trace amounts of PAHs extracted and enriched in the stationary phase were eluted out by the lower mobile phase and determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The enrichment and cleanup of PAHs can be fulfilled online by this method with high recoveries (84.1-103.2%) and good reproducibility (RSDs: 4.9-12.2%) for 16 EPA PAHs under the optimized CCC pretreatment conditions. This method has been successfully applied to determine PAHs in lake water where 8 PAHs were detected in the concentration of 40.9-89.9 ng/L. The present method is extremely suitable for the preparation of large volume of environmental water sample for the determination of trace amounts of organic pollutants including PAHs as studied in this paper.

  10. Advancing computational methods for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Application for modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Neuse Watershed of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Mehmet Bulent

    Watershed-scale hydrologic models are used for a variety of applications from flood prediction, to drought analysis, to water quality assessments. A particular challenge in applying these models is calibration of the model parameters, many of which are difficult to measure at the watershed-scale. A primary goal of this dissertation is to contribute new computational methods and tools for calibration of watershed-scale hydrologic models and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, in particular. SWAT is a physically-based, watershed-scale hydrologic model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water quality and quantity. The dissertation follows a manuscript format meaning it is comprised of three separate but interrelated research studies. The first two research studies focus on SWAT model calibration, and the third research study presents an application of the new calibration methods and tools to study climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Neuse Watershed of North Carolina using SWAT. The objective of the first two studies is to overcome computational challenges associated with calibration of SWAT models. The first study evaluates a parallel SWAT calibration tool built using the Windows Azure cloud environment and a parallel version of the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) calibration method modified to run in Azure. The calibration tool was tested for six model scenarios constructed using three watersheds of increasing size (the Eno, Upper Neuse, and Neuse) for both a 2 year and 10 year simulation duration. Leveraging the cloud as an on demand computing resource allowed for a significantly reduced calibration time such that calibration of the Neuse watershed went from taking 207 hours on a personal computer to only 3.4 hours using 256 cores in the Azure cloud. The second study aims at increasing SWAT model calibration efficiency by creating an open source, multi-objective calibration tool using the Non

  11. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(TradeMark) over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  12. Physical retrieval of precipitation water contents from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Part 2: Retrieval method and applications (report version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.

    1990-01-01

    A physical retrieval method for estimating precipitating water distributions and other geophysical parameters based upon measurements from the DMSP-F8 SSM/I is developed. Three unique features of the retrieval method are (1) sensor antenna patterns are explicitly included to accommodate varying channel resolution; (2) precipitation-brightness temperature relationships are quantified using the cloud ensemble/radiative parameterization; and (3) spatial constraints are imposed for certain background parameters, such as humidity, which vary more slowly in the horizontal than the cloud and precipitation water contents. The general framework of the method will facilitate the incorporation of measurements from the SSMJT, SSM/T-2 and geostationary infrared measurements, as well as information from conventional sources (e.g., radiosondes) or numerical forecast model fields.

  13. Application of a Developed Method for the Extraction of Triazines in Surface Waters and Storage Prior to Analysis to Seawaters of Galicia (Northwest Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-González, Noelia; Beceiro-González, Elisa; González-Castro, María José; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    A simple method based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn) in surface water samples was developed and validated. Under optimized conditions, 50 mL of water sample was pumped through the Oasis HLB cartridge, and triazines were eluted with 3 mL acetone. Finally the extract was concentrated to dryness, reconstituted with 1 mL methanol : water (1 : 1) and injected into the HPLC-DAD system. The stability of the herbicides on the cartridges at −18 and 4°C was also evaluated, and the recoveries obtained after three weeks of storage were satisfactory for all compounds. The analytical features of the proposed method were satisfactory: repeatability and intermediate precision were <10% and recoveries in spiked river water and seawater samples were higher than 93% for all compounds studied. Limits of quantification (varied from 0.46 to 0.98 µg L−1) were adequately allowing the determination of these compounds at the levels requested by the 2008/105/EC Directive. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 50 seawater samples from Galicia (northwest Spain). PMID:24228007

  14. A calorimetric method to determine water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg-1 to 3 mol kg-1 and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities.

  15. Development of a new seminested PCR method for detection of Legionella species and its application to surveillance of legionellae in hospital cooling tower water.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, H; Yamamoto, H; Arima, K; Fujii, J; Maruta, K; Izu, K; Shiomori, T; Yoshida, S

    1997-01-01

    The presence of PCR inhibitors in water samples is well known and contributes to the fact that a practical PCR assay has not been developed for legionella surveillance. In this study, we devised a new seminested PCR assay for detection of Legionella spp. in water samples as a means of overriding the PCR inhibitors without loss of sensitivity. The seminested PCR assay utilized primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene (LEG primers) of 39 Legionella spp. The assay was specific to legionellae, and the sensitivity was 1 fg of extracted Legionella DNA in laboratory examination. To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the PCR assay in identifying the presence of legionellae, it was used to survey Legionella contamination in the water of 49 cooling towers of 32 hospitals. A commercially available EnviroAmp Legionella kit and a culture method were also used in the survey for comparison with the seminested PCR assay. The detection rates of legionellae in the samples were 91.8% (45 of 49) by the PCR assay and 79.5% (39 of 49) by the culture method. The EnviroAmp kit revealed that 30.6% of the water samples (15 of 49) contained inhibitors of the PCR amplification. However, the seminested PCR assay could produce the Legionella-specific DNA bands in 14 of the 15 samples. Although 8 of the 14 samples were positive in the first-step PCR, 6 of the 14 samples became positive in the second-step PCR. These results suggest that the effect of PCR inhibitors in samples, if any, can be reduced because of the dilution of the sample in the second-step PCR and that sensitivity of detection can be increased by the second-step PCR. Thus, the seminested PCR assay with LEG primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of 39 Legionella spp. was a practical and sensitive method to detect Legionella spp. in water samples. PMID:9212400

  16. Investigation of the matrix effects on a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method and application for monitoring triazine, phenylurea and chloroacetanilide concentrations in fresh and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Delest, B; Méchin, B; Madigou, C; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R; Caquet, Th

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effects of matrix interferences on the analytical performance of a new multiresidue method based on off-line solid phase extraction followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation and electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection were investigated. This technique allows the simultaneous determination of 30 triazines, phenylureas and chloroacetanilides, extracted from freshwaters, in 40 minutes. Quantifications were performed with the use of appropriate internal standards (i.e. atrazine D5, diuron D6 and metolachlor D6). The limits of quantification were from 1 to 32 ng L(-1) for the triazines, from 5 to 59 ng L(-1) for the phenylureas and from 13 to 54 ng L(-1) for the chloroacetanilides. The matrix effects were studied by spiking various waters (i.e. tap, river, pond and sea waters) with the chemicals of interest. The results showed that the samples with the highest conductivity (i.e. seawater) and the most abundant dissolved organic matter content (i.e. pond water) exhibited important matrix effects with signal suppressions and high imprecision, respectively. These matrix effects were strongly minimized by performing appropriate internal standardizations. Afterward, this analytical method was applied for analyzing environmental samples from either river or estuarine waters and for monitoring herbicide input in a freshwater-seawater interface.

  17. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography as a new pretreatment method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xueli; Yang, Chunlei; Pei, Hairun; Li, Xinghong; Xu, Xiaobai; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was investigated as a new sample pretreatment method for the analysis of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water environmental samples. The experiment was performed with a nonaqueous binary two-phase solvent system composed of heptane-acetonitrile. The HSCCC column was first entirely filled with the upper stationary phase of the and a large volume of water sample was pumped into the column while the CCC column was rotated at 1600 rpm. Finally, the trace amount of PAHs extracted and enriched in the stationary phase were eluted out by the lower mobile phase. and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after concentration. The enrichment and cleanup of PAHs can be fulfilled online by this methodwithhigh recoveries (84.1%–103.2%) and good reproducibility (RSDs 4.9–12.2%) for 16 EPA PAHs under the optimized HSCCC pretreatment conditions. This method has been successfully applied to determine PAHs in lake waterwhere 8 PAHs were detected in the concentration of 40.9–89.9 ng/L. The present method is extremely suitable in the preparation of large volume of environmental water sample for the determination of a trace amount of organic pollutants including PAHs as studied in this paper. PMID:22282420

  18. Application of a fast and cost-effective in situ derivatization method prior to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to monitor endocrine disruptors in water matrices.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Mansilha, Catarina

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the optimization of a rapid, cost-effective, and eco-friendly gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of four endocrine disruptor compounds in water matrices: estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and bisphenol A, that are currently considered to be of main concern in the field of water policy and that could became candidates for future regulations. The method involves simultaneous derivatization and extraction of compounds by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. Derivatization and extraction parameters were optimized with the aid of experimental design approach. An excellent linear response was achieved for all analytes (r(2) ≥ 0.999). Limits of detection and quantification are 0.003-0.005 and 0.0094-0.0164 μg/L, respectively. Intraday precision ranged between 1.1 and 12.6%, whereas interday precision ranged between 0.5 and 14.7%. For accuracy, bias values varied between -15.0 and 13.7%. Recoveries at three concentration levels ranged from 86.4 to 118.2%. The proposed method can be applied to the routine analysis of groundwater, river, sea, tap, and mineral water samples with excellent sensitivity, precision, and accuracy.

  19. Development, validation, and application of a method for selected avermectin determination in rural waters using high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Maria Augusta Travassos; Matos, Camila Alves; de Resende, Michele Fabri; Prado, Rachel Bardy; Donagemma, Raquel Andrade; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Avermectins (AVM) are macrocyclic lactones used in livestock and agriculture. A quantitative method of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of eprinomectin, abamectin, doramectin and ivermectin in rural water samples was developed and validated. The method was employed to study samples collected in the Pito Aceso River microbasin, located in the Bom Jardim municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction using a polymeric stationary phase, the eluted fraction was re-concentrated under a gentle N2 flow and derivatized to allow AVM determination using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The excitation and emission wavelengths of the derivatives were 365 and 470nm, respectively, and a total chromatographic run of 12min was achieved. Very low limits of quantification (22-58ngL(-1)) were found after re-concentration using N2. Recovery values varied from 85.7% to 119.2% with standard deviations between 1.2% and 10.2%. The validated method was applied in the determination of AVM in 15 water samples collected in the Pito Aceso River microbasin, but most of them were free of AVM or showed only trace levels of these compounds, except for a sample that contained doramectin (9.11µgL(-1)). The method is suitable for routine analysis with satisfactory recovery, sensitivity, and selectivity.

  20. Molecularly imprinted polymers for triazine herbicides prepared by multi-step swelling and polymerization method. Their application to the determination of methylthiotriazine herbicides in river water.

    PubMed

    Sambe, Haruyo; Hoshina, Kaori; Haginaka, Jun

    2007-06-08

    Uniformly-sized, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for atrazine, ametryn and irgarol were prepared by a multi-step swelling and polymerization method using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and methacrylic acid (MAA), 2-(trifluoromethyl) acrylic acid (TFMAA) or 4-vinylpyridine either as a functional monomer or not. The MIP for atrazine prepared using MAA showed good molecular recognition abilities for chlorotriazine herbicides, while the MIPs for ametryn and irgarol prepared using TFMAA showed excellent molecular recognition abilities for methylthiotriazine herbicides. A restricted access media-molecularly imprinted polymer (RAM-MIP) for irgarol was prepared followed by in situ hydrophilic surface modification using glycerol dimethacrylate and glycerol monomethacrylate as hydrophilic monomers. The RAM-MIP was applied to selective pretreatment and enrichment of methylthiotriazine herbicides, simetryn, ametryn and prometryn, in river water, followed by their separation and UV detection via column-switching HPLC. The calibration graphs of these compounds showed good linearity in the range of 50-500 pg/mL (r > 0.999) with a 100 mL loading of a river water sample. The quantitation limits of simetryn, ametryn and prometryn were 50 pg/mL, and the detection limits were 25 pg/mL. The recoveries of simetryn, ametryn and prometryn at 50 pg/mL were 101%, 95.6% and 95.1%, respectively. This method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of simetryn, ametryn and prometryn in river water.

  1. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  2. Hybrid approach for free energy calculations with high-level methods: application to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water.

    PubMed

    Valiev, Marat; Garrett, Bruce C; Tsai, Ming-Kang; Kowalski, Karol; Kathmann, Shawn M; Schenter, Gregory K; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-08-07

    We present an approach to calculate the free energy profile along a condensed-phase reaction path based on high-level electronic structure methods for the reactive region. The bulk of statistical averaging is shifted toward less expensive descriptions by using a hierarchy of representations that includes molecular mechanics, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theories. As an application of this approach we study the reaction of CHCl3 with OH- in aqueous solution.

  3. Hybrid approach for free energy calculations with high-level methods: Application to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Marat; Garrett, Bruce C.; Tsai, Ming-Kang; Kowalski, Karol; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-08-01

    We present an approach to calculate the free energy profile along a condensed-phase reaction path based on high-level electronic structure methods for the reactive region. The bulk of statistical averaging is shifted toward less expensive descriptions by using a hierarchy of representations that includes molecular mechanics, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theories. As an application of this approach we study the reaction of CHCl3 with OH- in aqueous solution.

  4. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  5. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water.

    PubMed

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Franus, Wojciech; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Gzyl, Grzegorz

    2013-11-01

    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved-the removal efficiency exceeding 95% of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of zeolites. We found that technique as a very promising method for removal of not only radium isotopes from mine waters but also other ions (barium, iron, manganese). Treatment of several various water samples has been done to assess the removal efficiency for natural radionuclides. Preliminary results show very good effects for radium isotopes as well as for barium ions. In the paper, a short description of laboratory results of the purification of mine waters with application of synthetic zeolites is presented.

  6. Assessing and comparing the total antioxidant capacity of commercial beverages: application to beers, wines, waters and soft drinks using TRAP, TEAC and FRAP methods.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Raquel B; Tafulo, Paula A R; Sales, M Goreti F

    2013-01-01

    This work measures and tries to compare the Antioxidant Capacity (AC) of 50 commercial beverages of different kinds: 6 wines, 12 beers, 18 soft drinks and 14 flavoured waters. Because there is no reference procedure established for this purpose, three different optical methods were used to analyse these samples: Total Radical trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Parameter (FRAP). These methods differ on the chemical background and nature of redox system. The TRAP method involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms while TEAC and FRAP involves electron transfer reactions. The AC was also assessed against three antioxidants of reference, Ascorbic acid (AA), Gallic acid (GA) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl- 2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Anova one-way tests were applied to all results and suggested that methods and standards exhibited significant statistical differences. The possible effect of sample features in the AC, such as gas, flavours, food colouring, sweeteners, acidity regulators, preservatives, stabilizers, vitamins, juice percentage, alcohol percentage, antioxidants and the colour was also investigated. The AC levels seemed to change with brand, kind of antioxidants added, and kind of flavour, depending on the sample. In general, higher ACs were obtained for FRAP as method, and beer for kind of sample, and the standard expressing the smaller AC values was GA.

  7. Superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Pihui; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-01

    Cu2S and Cu2O composite (Cu2S@Cu2O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  8. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    elevation of the accounting surface. Differences in elevation between water levels and the accounting surface range from -0.2 to -11.3 feet, with most values exceeding -7.0 feet. In general, the ArcGIS Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) Contour and Natural Neighbor tools reasonably represent areas where the elevation of water levels in wells is above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the elevation of the accounting surface in the Vidal and Chemehuevi study areas and accurately delineate areas around outlying wells and where anomalies exist. The TIN Contour tool provides a strict linear interpolation while the Natural Neighbor tool provides a smoothed interpolation. Using the default options in ArcGIS, the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Spline tools also reasonably represent areas above, below, and near the accounting surface in the Vidal and Chemehuevi areas. However, spatial extent of and boundaries between areas above, below, and near the accounting surface vary among the GIS methods, which results largely from the fundamentally different mathematical approaches used by these tools. The limited number and spatial distribution of wells in comparison to the size of the areas, and the locations and relative differences in elevation between water levels and the accounting surface of wells with anomalous water levels also influence the contouring by each of these methods. Qualitatively, the Natural Neighbor tool appears to provide the best representation of the difference between water-level and accounting-surface elevations in the study areas, on the basis of available well data.

  9. Conjugate gradient method - Electromagnetism applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosig, Juan R.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents a brief but rigorous description of the conjugate gradient technique as applied to the solution of algebraic linear systems with complex coefficients. The relationships between conjugate gradient techniques and other commonly used methods are established. A normalized algorithm is introduced which optimally exploits the computer capabilities. Its performance is compared with that of Gaussian elimination by numerical tests on Hilbert matrices of more than a thousand unknowns. As a practical application, the problem of electrostatic screening by a finite ground plane has been solved with this technique.

  10. Development, validation, and application of a method for the GC-MS analysis of fipronil and three of its degradation products in samples of water, soil, and sediment.

    PubMed

    de Toffoli, Ana L; da Mata, Kamilla; Bisinoti, Márcia C; Moreira, Altair B

    2015-01-01

    A method for the identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water, soil, and sediment samples has been developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of real samples. The specificity was determined by the retention time and the confirmation and quantification of analyte ions. Linearity was demonstrated over the concentration range of 20 to 120 µg L(-1), and the correlation coefficients varied between 0.979 and 0.996, depending on the analytes. The recovery rates for all analytes in the studied matrix were between 86% and 112%. The intermediate precision and repeatability were determined at three concentration levels (40, 80, and 120 µg L(-1)), with the relative standard deviation for the intermediate precision between 1% and 5.3% and the repeatability varying between 2% and 13.4% for individual analytes. The limits of detection and quantification for fipronil, fipronil sulfide, fipronil-sulfone, and fipronil-desulfinyl were 6.2, 3.0, 6.6, and 4.0 ng L(-1) and 20.4, 9.0, 21.6, and 13.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The method developed was used in water, soil, and sediment samples containing 2.1 mg L(-1) and 1.2% and 5.3% of carbon, respectively. The recovery of pesticides in the environmental matrices varied from 88.26 to 109.63% for the lowest fortification level (40 and 100 µg kg(-1)), from 91.17 to 110.18% for the intermediate level (80 and 200 µg kg(-1)), and from 89.09 to 109.82% for the highest fortification level (120 and 300 µg kg(-1)). The relative standard deviation for the recovery of pesticides was under 15%.

  11. Monograph for using paleoflood data in Water Resources Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, R.E.; Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI) Technical Committee on Surface Water Hydrology is sponsoring a Task Committee on Paleoflood Hydrology to prepare a monograph entitled, "Use of Paleoflood and Historical Data in Water Resources Applications." This paper introduces the subject of paleoflood hydrology and discusses the topics, which are expected to be included in the monograph. The procedure for preparing and reviewing the monograph will also be discussed. The paleoflood hydrology monograph will include a discussion of types of hydrologic and paleoflood data, paleostage indicators, flood chronology, modeling methods, interpretation issues, water resources applications and case studies, and research needs. Paleoflood data collection and analysis techniques will be presented, and various applications in water-resources investigations will be provided. An overview of several flood frequency analysis approaches, which consider historical and paleoflood data along with systematic streamflow records, will be presented. The monograph is scheduled for completion and publication in 2001. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  12. Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

  13. Lower and upper bounds for the absolute free energy by the hypothetical scanning Monte Carlo method: application to liquid argon and water.

    PubMed

    White, Ronald P; Meirovitch, Hagai

    2004-12-08

    The hypothetical scanning (HS) method is a general approach for calculating the absolute entropy S and free energy F by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics techniques. With HS applied to a fluid, each configuration i of the sample is reconstructed by gradually placing the molecules in their positions at i using transition probabilities (TPs). At each step of the process the system is divided into two parts, the already treated molecules (the "past"), which are fixed, and the as yet unspecified (mobile) "future" molecules. Obtaining the TP exactly requires calculating partition functions over all positions of the future molecules in the presence of the frozen past, thus it is customary to invoke various approximations to best represent these quantities. In a recent publication [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 9235 (2004)] we developed a version of HS called complete HSMC, where each TP is calculated from an MC simulation involving all of the future molecules (the complete future); the method was applied very successfully to Lennard-Jones systems (liquid argon) and a box of TIP3P water molecules. In its basic implementation the method provides lower and upper bounds for F, where the latter can be evaluated only for relatively small systems. Here we introduce a new expression for an upper bound, which can be evaluated for larger systems. We also propose a new exact expression for F and verify its effectiveness. These free energy functionals lead to significantly improved accuracy (as applied to the liquid systems above) which is comparable to our thermodynamic integration results. We formalize and discuss theoretical aspects of HSMC that have not been addressed in previous studies. Additionally, several functionals are developed and shown to provide the free energy through the analysis of a single configuration.

  14. Application of the two-sample doubly labelled water method alters behaviour and affects estimates of energy expenditure in black-legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Schultner, Jannik; Welcker, Jorg; Speakman, John R; Nordøy, Erling S; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of the doubly labelled water (DLW) method in energetic studies of free-ranging animals, effects of the method on study animals are rarely assessed. We studied behavioural effects of two alternative DLW protocols. During two consecutive breeding seasons, 42 parent black-legged kittiwakes received either the commonly used two-sample (TS) or the less invasive single-sample (SS) DLW treatment. A third group served as a non-treated control. We evaluated the effect of treatment with respect to the time birds took to return to their nest after treatment and recaptures, and the nest attendance during DLW measurement periods. We found that TS kittiwakes took on average 20 times longer to return to their nest than SS kittiwakes after initial treatment, and nest attendance was reduced by about 40% relative to control birds. In contrast, nest attendance did not differ between control and SS kittiwakes. Estimates of energy expenditure of SS kittiwakes exceeded those of TS kittiwakes by 15%. This difference was probably caused by TS birds remaining inactive for extended time periods while at sea. Our results demonstrate that the common assumption that the TS DLW method has little impact on the behaviour of study subjects is in some circumstances fallacious. Estimates of energy expenditure derived by the SS approach may thus more accurately reflect unbiased rates of energy expenditure. However, the choice of protocol may be a trade-off between their impact on behaviour, and hence accuracy, and their differences in precision. Adopting procedures that minimize the impact of TS protocols may be useful.

  15. Development of an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue sulfonamide method and its application to water, manure slurry, and soils from swine rearing facilities.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Hakk, Heldur; Larsen, Gerald L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M

    2010-02-19

    An analytical method was developed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS) to simultaneously analyze 14 sulfonamides (SA) in 6 min. Despite the rapidity of the assay the system was properly re-equilibrated in this time. No carryover was observed even after high analyte concentrations. The instrumental detection limit based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>3, was below 1 pg/microL (5 pg on column) for all SAs except sulfachloropyridazine. Surface water, ground water, soil, and slurry manure contained in storage ponds in and around swine [Sus scrofa domesticus] rearing facilities were analyzed. Sample cleanup for ground water and surface water included using solid phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges. The soil and slurry manure required tandem strong anion exchange (SAX) and HLB solid phase extraction cartridges for sample cleanup. With few exceptions, the recoveries ranged from 60 to 100% for all matrices. The minimum detectable levels were below 2.0 ng/L for water, 30 ng/L for slurry manure, and 45 ng/kg for soil except for sulfachloropyridazine. The coefficient of variation (CV) was within 20% for most of the compounds analyzed. Using this method, sulfamethazine concentrations of 2250-5060 ng/L, sulfamethoxazole concentrations of 108-1.47 x 10(6)ng/L, and sulfathiazole concentrations of 785-1700 ng/L were found in the slurry manure. Sulfadimethoxine (2.0-32 ng/L), sulfamethazine (2.0-5.1 ng/L), and sulfamethoxazole (20.5-43.0 ng/L) were found in surface water and ground water. In top soil (0-15 cm), sulfamethazine ranged 34.5-663 ng/kg dry weight in those locations that received slurry manure as a nutrient; no SAs were found in the soil depths between 46 and 61 cm. The speed makes the method practical for medium to high throughput applications. The sensitivity and positive analyte identification make the method suitable for the demanding requirements for

  16. Disinfection of water and wastewater by UV-A and UV-C irradiation: application of real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Droumpali, Ariadni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Venieri, Danae

    2011-03-02

    The disinfection efficiency of synthetic and real wastewater by means of UV-A and UV-C irradiation in the presence or absence of TiO(2) was investigated. A reference strain of Escherichia coli suspended in sterile 0.8% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solution was used as a synthetic wastewater, while real wastewater samples were collected from the outlet of the secondary treatment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. E. coli inactivation was monitored both by the conventional culture technique and by the real-time PCR method. Culture method showed that UV-C irradiation (11 W lamp) achieved total E. coli inactivation of 100% within 3 min of photolytic treatment. On the other hand, UV-A (9 W lamp)/TiO(2); [TiO(2)]=200 mg L(-1) (i.e. best operating conditions) required 60 min to achieve total disinfection of the synthetic wastewater. Real time PCR revealed compatible results, regarding the better efficiency of UV-C. However, it showed different times of bacterial inactivation, probably due to the phenomenon of "viable but not culturable bacteria". Disinfection durability tests in the dark and under natural sunlight irradiation showed that there is cell repair when UV-C irradiation is used for synthetic wastewater disinfection. Regarding real wastewater it was observed that only UV-C irradiation was capable of totally inactivating E. coli population in short time. Comparing results obtained from both methods, real time PCR proved to be more reliable and accurate, concerning the bacterial detection and enumeration in aquatic samples after the application of UV irradiation.

  17. [Pharmacoepidemiology: definition, methods and applications].

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Sommet, Agnès; Montastruc, François; Moulis, Guillaume; Bagheri, Haleh; Damase-michel, Christine; Lapeyre-mestre, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of drugs before approval is based on the experimental design of clinical trial with randomization of drug exposure. Unfortunately, conclusions of clinical trials are necessarily limited to patients enrolled in the trial. It is therefore necessary to compare these experimental data from clinical trials with the real use of drugs in clinical practice. Pharmacoepidemiology is defined as the study in real conditions and on large populations, of use, effectiveness and risk of drugs. The methods and fields of application of pharmacoepidemiology are described. They allow to characterize conditions of use, misuse, clinical effectiveness, adverse drug reactions and risks of drugs. The development of pharmacoepidemiology should allow optimization of "rational use" of drugs.

  18. Behavior and distribution of heavy metals including rare Earth elements, thorium, and uranium in sludge from industry water treatment plant and recovery method of metals by biosurfactants application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90-100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution.

  19. Development of a method for measuring water-soluble organics in the atmosphere: Application to isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Reggie Sue

    2000-12-01

    Photooxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons contributes significantly to tropospheric ozone, secondary organic aerosol, and atmospheric free radical formation in urban and rural areas. A thorough understanding of reactions mechanisms for the most abundant biogenic hydrocarbons and the mixing ratios of their reaction products in the atmosphere is therefore essential for producing accurate photochemical models to predict formation of tropospheric pollutants. Two important biogenic hydrocarbons in western North America are isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). First-, second-, and third-generation products from the reactions of isoprene and MBO with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere include multifunctional carbonyls that have been difficult to measure due to their high polarity and low mixing ratios. In this work an analytical method that relies on a mist sampler for collection of water-soluble species, O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine derivatization of carbonyl groups, and bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatization of -OH and -COOH groups was optimized. Derivatized compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometry. Pentafluorobenzyl alcohol chemical ionization was essential for identifying atmospheric hydroxycarbonyls in the presence of other compounds that were not chromatographically resolved in an initial study, and in identifying the structure of and devising a quantification method for 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (2-HMPR), an MBO photooxidation product for which an authentic standard is not available. Using the optimized method, isoprene and MBO photooxidation products, including glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, 2-HMPR, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal, were collected at Blodgett Forest, CA, during August and September 2000. The overall collection efficiencies for these compounds in the mist sampler was ≥84%, atmospheric detection limits ranged from 1.7--99 pptv, mean field spike recoveries ranged

  20. Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Bikas

    1997-06-24

    This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

  1. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golterman, H. L.

    This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

  2. Water Polo Injuries and Training Methods.

    PubMed

    Spittler, Jack; Keeling, James

    Water polo is a unique team sport combining swimming sprints and eggbeater kicking, frequent overhead movements and throwing, and regular physical contact with minimal protective equipment. Accordingly, a wide variety of training methods attempt to enhance all of these skill sets. This usually includes some combination of aerobic/anaerobic fitness (via swimming), sport-specific skills, strengthening, and nutrition. In addition, injuries in water polo are somewhat diverse. Physical contact is responsible for the majority of acute injuries, most frequently being injuries to the head and face. The high prevalence of shoulder pain in water polo is likely related to increased shoulder mobility and subsequent instability and stress on shoulder structures, yet the underlying causation is not certain. The unique aspect of shoulder injuries occurring in water polo players is that they may be due to a combination of swimming-related overuse conditions, overhead throwing, and acute trauma-related conditions. Although there is generally minimal evidence-based information available, this article attempts to highlight the current knowledge that we have in regard to water polo injuries and training methods.

  3. Application of a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek for development of a method to estimate transit losses for reusable water, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Arnold, L. Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 to (1) apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise the existing transit-loss accounting program for Fountain Creek to incorporate new water-management strategies and allow for incorporation of future changes in water-management strategies, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program with a Web-based user interface. The purpose of this report is to present the results of applying a stream-aquifer model to the Monument Creek study reach. More...

  4. Proposal of New Water Electrode Method Used for Short-time Testing Method of Water Treeing and Consideration on Temperature Effects of Water Tree Initiation and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hiroaki; Kudo, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Kanekawa, Teruo; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Ushiwata, Kodai; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo

    Water treeing occurs when ac voltage is applied to electrical insulation system such as those in power cables and power apparatus. From a practical viewpoint, research on water treeing has been mostly performed under high-frequency ac voltage application. However, power cables and power apparatuses are also used under dc voltage application owing to progress in inverter technology. The inverter drive of a rotating electrical machine has spread and expanded for global warming prevention and maintenance improvement. An underwater motor is used in the water. In an underwater motor driven by the voltage of an inverter, it is necessary to consider the water treeing of motor insulation and connected cable insulation with a drive board. Thus far, the water electrode method that utilizes an ac voltage of high frequency has been used in conducting the accelerating experimental method of water treeing for a long time. On the other hand, an inverter with surge voltage generates an equivalent ac frequency by the application of a multifrequency pulse voltage similar to a pulse width modulation (PWM) control wave. Therefore, there is a possibility of committing a mistake in real-machine reliability evaluation because the initiation and propagation mechanisms are different from those in the case of a real-machine even if we can reproduce water treeing by increasing the basic frequency. In this paper, we investigated the new water electrode method and the temperature effects on water tree initiation and propagation. Furthermore, we compared the experimental results between 500Hz and 50Hz by using the new water electrode method from the view point of temperature.

  5. Application of a real-space three-dimensional image reconstruction method in the structural analysis of noncrystalline biological macromolecules enveloped by water in coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Wataru; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2011-08-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a novel technique in the structural analyses of particles that are difficult to crystallize, such as the biological particles composing living cells. As water is indispensable for maintaining particles in functional structures, sufficient hydration of targeted particles is required during sample preparation for diffraction microscopy experiments. However, the water enveloping particles also contributes significantly to the diffraction patterns and reduces the electron-density contrast of the sample particles. In this study, we propose a protocol for the structural analyses of particles in water by applying a three-dimensional reconstruction method in real space for the projection images phase-retrieved from diffraction patterns, together with a developed density modification technique. We examined the feasibility of the protocol through three simulations involving a protein molecule in a vacuum, and enveloped in either a droplet or a cube-shaped water. The simulations were carried out for the diffraction patterns in the reciprocal planes normal to the incident x-ray beam. This assumption and the simulation conditions corresponded to experiments using x-ray wavelengths of shorter than 0.03 Å. The analyses demonstrated that our protocol provided an interpretable electron-density map. Based on the results, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed protocol and its practical application for experimental data. In particular, we examined the influence of Poisson noise in diffraction patterns on the reconstructed three-dimensional electron density in the proposed protocol.

  6. Storm Water Management Model Applications Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model that computes runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. This manual is a practical application guide for new SWMM users who have already had some previous training in hydrolog...

  7. Methods and applications of electrical simulation in ground-water studies in the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River Valleys, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Reed, J.E.; Wells, C.J.; Swafford, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Arkansas River Multiple-Purpose Plan will provide year-round navigation on the Arkansas River from near its mouth to Muskogee, Okla., and on the Verdigris River from Muskogee to Catoosa, Okla. The altered regimen in the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers will affect ground-water conditions in the adjacent alluvial aquifers. In 1957 the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers entered into a cooperative agreement for a comprehensive ground-water study of the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River valleys. At the request of the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey agreed to provide (1) basic ground-water data before, during, and after construction of the Multiple-Purpose Plan and (2) interpretation and projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions. The data collected were used by the Corps of Engineers in preliminary foundation and excavation estimates and by the Geological Survey as the basis for defining the hydrologic properties of, and the ground-water conditions in, the aquifer. The projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions were used by the Corps of Engineers in the planning, design, construction, and operation of the Multiple-Purpose Plan. Analysis and projections of ground-water conditions were made by use of electrical analog models. These models use the analogy between the flow of electricity in a resistance-capacitance circuit and the flow of a liquid in a porous and permeable medium. Verification provides a test of the validity of the analog to perform as the aquifer would, within the range of historic forces. The verification process consists of simulating the action of historic forces which have acted upon the aquifer and of duplicating the aquifer response with the analog. The areal distribution of accretion can be treated as an unknown and can be determined by analog simulation of the piezometric surface in an aquifer. Comparison of accretion with depth to piezometric surface below land surface shows that

  8. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../water), generator column method. 799.6756 Section 799.6756 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended...) The measurement and estimation of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), has become...

  9. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Cole, Charles R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  10. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  11. Geotechnical Applications of the Self-Potential (SP) Method. Report 2. The Use of Self Potential to Detect Ground-Water Flow in Karst

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    with Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii. 14. The streaming potentials produced by the motion of ground water under a pressure gradient through a porous media...topography. An i.xtreme example is the -2,693-mv anomaly found on Agadak Volcano in Alaska (Corwin and Hoover 1978) and the -1,600-mv anomaly associated

  12. Measurement of "total" microcystins using the MMPB/LC/MS/MS method, and application to HAB impacted surface waters-presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection and quantification of microcystins, a family of toxins associated with harmful algal blooms, is complicated by their structural diversity and a lack of commercially available analytical standards for method development. As a result, most detection methods have focus...

  13. Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the application of probabilistic ideas, especially Monte Carlo simulation, to calculus. Describes some applications using the Monte Carlo method: Riemann sums; maximizing and minimizing a function; mean value theorems; and testing conjectures. (YP)

  14. Part I: temporal and spatial distribution of multiclass pesticide residues in lake waters of Northern Greece: application of an optimized SPE-UPLC-MS/MS pretreatment and analytical method.

    PubMed

    Kalogridi, Eleni-Chrysoula; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Bizani, Erasmia; Drimaropoulou, Garyfallia; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes the application of an analytical procedure, utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry instrumentation, for the determination of 253 multiclass pesticides, classified in six different groups. Solid phase extraction was applied for the isolation and pre-concentration of target compounds in water samples. Surface waters of the lakes located in Northern Greece (Volvi, Doirani, and Kerkini), were collected in two time periods (fall/winter 2010 and spring/summer 2011) and analyzed, applying the developed analytical methods. Spatial distribution of detected pesticides was visualized using interpolation methods and geographical information systems (GIS). Pesticides with maximum concentrations were amitrole, propoxur, simazine, chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, triazophos, disulfoton-sulfone, pyridaben, sebuthylazine, terbuthylazine, atrazine, atrazine-desethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, metobromuron, metribuzin, rotenone, pyriproxyfen, and rimsulfuron. In Lake Kerkini, mainly carbamates and triazines were determined at elevated concentrations, near the coastal point of the NW side of the lake. Seasonal variations were strong among the applied pesticide classes and determined concentrations, indicating the contribution of pesticide application patterns and rainfall. Lake Doirani exhibited organophosphate pesticides at higher concentrations mainly at coastal points, while triazines emerged as the main pollutant during spring sampling. Lake Volvi exhibited the highest pesticide concentrations, mostly triazines and ureas at the central part of the lake. The occurrence of extreme values and nonconstant seasonal variations indicated that the concentrations were increased disproportionately during the second sampling, as a result of the varying contribution of pollution sources right after the application period. In all cases, the total concentration of pesticides increased during the second sampling period.

  15. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  16. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  17. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  18. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  19. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  20. A New Method of Absorption-Phase Nanotomography for 3D Observation of Mineral-Organic-Water Textiles and its Application to Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Matsuno, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Nakano, T.; Vaccaro, E.; Russel, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Burton, A. S.; Messenger, S.; Miyake, A.; Takigawa, A.; Takayama, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine carbonaceous chondrites contain fine-grained matrix, which is composed largely of amorphous silicates, sub-micron silicate and sulfide crystals, and organic materials. They are regarded as primitive dust in the early Solar System that have suffered minimal alteration in their parent bodies. The matrix generally has different lithologies; some of them are unaltered but some are more or less aqueously altered. Their textures have been examined in 2D usually by FE-SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, nano-SIMS and micro-XRD. Observation of their complex fine textures, such as spatial relation between different lithologies in 3D, is important for understanding aggregation and alteration processes. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray tomography reveals 3D structures nondestructively with high spatial resolution of approximately greater than 100 nm. We have developed a new technique using absorption contrasts called "dual-energy tomography" (DET) to obtain 3D distribution of minerals at SPring-8, SR facility in Japan, and applied successfully to Itokawa particles. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using "scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy" (SIXM) at SPring-8, which can discriminate between void, water and organic materials. We applied this technique combined with FIB micro-sampling to carbonaceous chondrites to search for primitive liquid water. In this study, we combined the DET and SIXM to obtain three dimensional submicron-scale association between minerals, organic materials and water and applied this to pristine carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  2. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  3. QSAR analysis for nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxide in water oxidation: An application of chemometric methods in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazy, Mohammad; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Water oxidation is among the most important reactions in artificial photosynthesis, and nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxides are efficient catalysts toward this reaction. Herein, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed to predict the catalytic activities of twenty manganese-calcium oxides toward water oxidation using multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA) for multivariate calibration and feature selection, respectively. Although there are eight controlled parameters during synthesizing of the desired catalysts including ripening time, temperature, manganese content, calcium content, potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese, the average manganese oxidation state and the surface of catalyst, by using GA only three of them (potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese and the average manganese oxidation state) were selected as the most effective parameters on catalytic activities of these compounds. The model's accuracy criteria such as R(2)test and Q(2)test in order to predict catalytic rate for external test set experiments; were equal to 0.941 and 0.906, respectively. Therefore, model reveals acceptable capability to anticipate the catalytic activity.

  4. Method of arsenic removal from water

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  5. NASA Data for Water Resources Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Houser, Paul; Arsenault, Kristi; Entin, Jared

    2004-01-01

    Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1) estimating water storage including snowpack and soil moisture, 2) modeling and predicting water fluxes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation and river runoff, and 3) remote sensing of water quality, including both point source (e.g., turbidity and productivity) and non-point source (e.g., land cover conversion such as forest to agriculture yielding higher nutrient runoff). The objectives of the partnering cover three steps of: 1) Evaluation, 2) Verification and Validation, and 3) Benchmark Report. We are working with the U.S. federal agencies including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). We are using several of their Decision Support Systems (DSS) tools. This includes the DSS support tools BASINS used by EPA, Riverware and AWARDS ET ToolBox by USBR and SWAT by USDA and EPA. Regional application sites using NASA data across the US. are currently being eliminated for the DSS tools. The current NASA data emphasized thus far are from the Land Data Assimilation Systems WAS) and MODIS satellite products. We are currently in the first two steps of evaluation and verification validation. Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise s National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1

  6. Application of response surface method for optimization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of water-soluble components of Rosa damascena Mill. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sereshti, Hassan; Karimi, Maryam; Samadi, Soheila

    2009-01-09

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for the determination of Rose water constituents. The effective parameters such as volume of extraction and disperser solvents, temperature, and salt effect were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. It showed that salt addition had no effect on the efficiency. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. The optimal condition was obtained as 37.0 microL for extractor, 0.42 mL for disperser and temperature for 48 degrees C. The main components that were extracted at the optimum point were benzeneethanol (24.87%), geraniol (23.07%), beta-citronellol (22.38%), nerol (8.48%), eugenol (5.98%) and linalool (5.62%).

  7. A new method for application of the water-soluble dye SPADNS in a carbon paste electrode for determination of trace amounts of copper.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Tahereh; Taher, Mohammad Alu

    2008-01-01

    2-(P-sulfophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalene disulfate (SPADNS) was adsorbed on surfactant modified zeolite type A by electrostatic interaction in the aqueous phase. The dye was strongly retained and not easily leached from the surfactant-modified zeolite matrix. This compound was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of trace amounts of copper. The calibration plot was linear over the copper concentration range 2.0-800 microg/L. The detection limit was found to be 0.4 microg/L Cu(II), and for 5 successive determinations of 50 and 150 microg/L Cu(II) the relative standard deviations were 1.6 and 1.2%, respectively. The modified electrode prepared in this study could be used for the determination of Cu(II) in water samples and human hair with good results.

  8. Application of zinc chloride precipitation method for rapid isolation and concentration of infectious Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. lytic bacteriophages from surface water and plant and soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report describing precipitation of bacteriophage particles with zinc chloride as a method of choice to isolate infectious lytic bacteriophages against Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. from environmental samples. The isolated bacteriophages are ready to use to study various (ecological) aspects of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. The method comprises the well-known precipitation of phages from aqueous extracts of the test material by addition of ZnCl2, resuscitation of bacteriophage particles in Ringer's buffer to remove the ZnCl2 excess and a soft agar overlay assay with the host bacterium to isolate infectious individual phage plaques. The method requires neither an enrichment step nor other steps (e. g., PEG precipitation, ultrafiltration, or ultracentrifugation) commonly used in other procedures and results in isolation of active viable bacteriophage particles.

  9. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  10. Water recycling system using thermopervaporation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Yamada, A.

    1986-01-01

    A water recycling system concept for the crew of the space station is presented. A thermopervaporation method is a new key technology used for the distillation process, utilizing a hydrophobic membrane. An experimental study of thermopervaporation revealed that the permeation depends on the gap between the membrane and the cooling surface in the condensation room: the steam diffusion occurs with gaps less than 5 mm while natural convection becomes dominant with gaps more than 5 mm. A brief discussion of the system operation is also described.

  11. Development of an UPLC-MS/MS Sulfonamide Multi-residue Method and It's Application to Water, Manure Slurry, and Soils from Swine Rearing Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analytical method was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) to simultaneously analyze 14 sulfonamides (SA) in six minutes. The instrumental detection limit based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3, was below 1 pg/µL...

  12. Application of TDR to water level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, A.; Hansen, B.; Schelde, K.

    2000-09-01

    A specialised time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe for measuring water level in tanks collecting surface runoff was developed, calibrated and field-tested. The water level probe — in the form of a slightly modified soil moisture probe — was developed as part of a TDR measuring system designed for continuous monitoring of soil water content and surface runoff in plot studies of water erosion and sediment transport. A computer algorithm for the analysis of TDR traces from the new probe was developed and incorporated into existing software for automated acquisition and analysis of TDR data. Laboratory calibration showed that water level could be measured with sufficient accuracy (standard deviation <2 mm) for a range of applications in hydrology. Soil erosion is typically a short duration process closely linked to soil moisture content and rainfall intensity. A major benefit of integrating time critical measurements of surface runoff and soil moisture into a single system is the synchronisation of measurements. Measurements were made on a regular schedule except during rainfall events when the measuring rate depended on rainfall intensity. In a parallel calibration study it was shown that the performance of the TDR probe was comparable to a commercial ultrasonic liquid level sensor used for measuring runoff at an erosion site not instrumented for automated TDR measurements.

  13. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  14. Study of the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole and its degradation products in water by a bioluminescence method during application of the electro-Fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    Dirany, A; Efremova Aaron, S; Oturan, N; Sirés, I; Oturan, M A; Aaron, J J

    2011-04-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a synthetic antibiotic widely applied as a bacteriostatic drug to treat a number of diseases. SMX can persist in the environment for long periods of time because of its low biodegradability, which may result in various, direct and indirect, toxicological effects on the environment and on human health. Therefore, we have developed the electrochemical advanced oxidation process (AOP) "electro-Fenton" to degrade SMX in aqueous media. In this work, a detailed study of the evolution of toxicity of SMX and its degradation products in aqueous solutions, during treatment by the electro-Fenton AOP, is described, using the bioluminescence Microtox® method, based on the inhibition of luminescence of marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Samples were collected at various electrolysis times and analyzed by HPLC for quantifying the evolution of the degradation products, and their toxicity was measured by the Microtox® method. Our results demonstrated that the toxicity of SMX aqueous solutions varied considerably with the electrolysis time and the applied current intensity. This phenomenon could be explained by the formation and disappearance of several degradation products, including cyclic and/or aromatic intermediates, and short-chain acid carboxylic acids, having a toxicity different of the initial antibiotic. The curves of the % of bacterial luminescence inhibition vs. electrolysis time, corresponding to the evolution of the toxicity of the formed degradation products, were investigated and tentatively interpreted.

  15. APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

  16. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  17. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  18. Diet history: Method and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.

  19. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  20. SU-E-T-46: Application of a Twin-Detector Method for the Determination of the Mean Photon Energy Em at Points of Measurement in a Water Phantom Surrounding a GammaMed HDR 192Ir Brachytherapy Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chofor, N; Poppe, B; Nebah, F; Harder, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In a brachytherapy photon field in water the fluence-averaged mean photon energy Em at the point of measurement correlates with the radiation quality correction factor kQ of a non water-equivalent detector. To support the experimental assessment of Em, we show that the normalized signal ratio NSR of a pair of radiation detectors, an unshielded silicon diode and a diamond detector can serve to measure quantity Em in a water phantom at a Ir-192 unit. Methods: Photon fluence spectra were computed in EGSnrc based on a detailed model of the GammaMed source. Factor kQ was calculated as the ratio of the detector's spectrum-weighted responses under calibration conditions at a 60Co unit and under brachytherapy conditions at various radial distances from the source. The NSR was investigated for a pair of a p-type unshielded silicon diode 60012 and a synthetic single crystal diamond detector 60019 (both PTW Freiburg). Each detector was positioned according to its effective point of measurement, with its axis facing the source. Lateral signal profiles were scanned under complete scatter conditions, and the NSR was determined as the quotient of the signal ratio under application conditions x and that at position r-ref = 1 cm. Results: The radiation quality correction factor kQ shows a close correlation with the mean photon energy Em. The NSR of the diode/diamond pair changes by a factor of two from 0–18 cm from the source, while Em drops from 350 to 150 keV. Theoretical and measured NSR profiles agree by ± 2 % for points within 5 cm from the source. Conclusion: In the presence of the close correlation between radiation quality correction factor kQ and photon mean energy Em, the NSR provides a practical means of assessing Em under clinical conditions. Precise detector positioning is the major challenge.

  1. Assessment of Crop Water Requirement Methods for Annual Agricultural Water Allocation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghdasi, F.; Sharifi, M. A.; van der Tol, C.

    2010-05-01

    The potential use of remote sensing in water resource and in particular in irrigation management has been widely acknowledged. However, in reality, operational applications of remote sensing in irrigation management are few. In this study, the applicability of the main available remote sensing based techniques of irrigation management is evaluated in a pilot area in Iran. The evaluated techniques include so called Crop Water Requirement "CWR" methods for the planning of annual water allocation in irrigated agriculture. A total of 40 years of historical weather data were classified into wet, normal, and dry years using a Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). For each of these three classes the average CWR was calculated. Next, by applying Markov Chain Process to the time series of precipitation, the expected CWR for the forthcoming planning year was estimated. Using proper interpolation techniques the expected CWR at each station was converted to CWR map of the area, which was then used for annual water allocation planning. To estimate the crop water requirement, methods developed for the DEMETER project (DEMonstration of Earth observation Technologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) and Surface Energy Balance System "SEBS" algorithm were used, and their results were compared with conventional methods, including FAO-56 and lysimeter data amongst others. Use was made of both ASTER and MODIS images to determine crop water requirement at local and regional scales. Four methods of estimating crop coefficients were used: DEMETER Kc-NDVI, DEMETER Kc-analytical, FAO-56 and SEBS algorithm. Results showed that DEMETER (analytical approach) and FAO methods with lowest RMSE are more suitable methods for determination of crop coefficient than SEBS, which gives actual rather than potential evapotranspiration. The use of ASTER and MODIS images did not result in significantly different crop coefficients in the pilot area for the DEMETER analytical approach (α=0

  2. Methods for Environments and Contaminants: Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Information System Federal Version (SDWIS/FED) includes information on populations served and violations of maximum contaminant levels or required treatment techniques by the nation’s 160,000 public water systems.

  3. COMBINING METHODS FOR THE REDUCTION OF OXYCHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous investigations have shown ferrous iron application to be an effective and economically feasible method of removing residual chlorine dioxide and chlorite iron from drinking water. This treatment, however, was not effective in reducing concentrqations of chlorate iron. ...

  4. Methods for virus recovery in water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety is intimately connected to water sanitary quality as water is used at almost every node in the food production process. Common contaminating pathogens in water are human enteric viruses, many of which are responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States and other high-inc...

  5. Radiometric method for determining solubility of organic solvents in water

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, J.M.; Tseng, C.L.; Yang, J.Y.

    1986-06-01

    Cobalt-60 labeled cobalt(III) pyrrolidinecarbodithioate (/sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/) has a peculiar stability during storage in organic solvent and when its organic solution is shaken with an aqueous solution containing different acids or ions. Using these characteristics, the authors have attempted to use /sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/ as a radioagent for determining solubilities of various organic solvents in water. The radioagent was first dissolved in the organic solvent under investigation before pure water was added. The solution mixture was shaken vigorously in order to let the organic phase contact with water sufficiently. Some of the organic solvent would dissolve in water after shaking, resulting in volume reduction of the organic phase. However, the radioagent was found not to accompany the organic solvent molecules going into water; i.e., all the radioactivity of /sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/ would be retained in the organic phase. Solubility of the organic solvent in water therefore can be calculated from the value of the volume change of the organic phase divided by the water volume. Direct measurement of a small change in volume of organic phase with high accuracy is generally very difficult; alternatively, the authors have measured the specific activities of /sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/ (cpm/mL) in the original and the final organic solutions, and the counting results were used to estimate the decrease in volume of the organic phase. Several commonly used organic solvents were selected to test the applicability of the proposed radiometric method. The solubilities of the organic solvents selected for this study range from very small values (10/sup -4/) to relatively large values (10/sup -2/), 6 references, 1 table.

  6. A summary of meteorological requirements for water vapor data and possible space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The accuracy of water vapor measurement required by modelers and forecasters at a number of scales of motion is discussed. Direct and indirect methods for operational use in obtaining atmospheric water vapor data are reviewed along with meteorological applications of water vapor data obtained by a space shuttle laboratory lidar system.

  7. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, B.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Shu, C-W

    2000-12-31

    This volume contains a survey article for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGM) by the editors as well as 16 papers by invited speakers and 32 papers by contributed speakers of the First International Symposium on Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. It covers theory, applications, and implementation aspects of DGM.

  8. Study methods for disinfection water for injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Kascheev, Sergey; Polyakov, Vladimir; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Experimental results presented in this study tends to explore viruses in the water for their further decontamination under the influence of laser radiation (λ=220-390 nm). Conducted a series of experiments to study the dependence of water quality from the effects of laser radiation. Correlation between degree of survival of viruses and power density. The results showed that all the analyzed samples of water is clearing from bacteria to 98%. Preliminary tests of the prototype laboratory system UFOVI has opened up new opportunities for water sterilizing.

  9. Analytical method for measuring cosmogenic 35S in natural waters

    DOE PAGES

    Uriostegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; ...

    2015-05-18

    Here, cosmogenic sulfur-35 in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) has successfully been used as an intrinsic hydrologic tracer in low-SO4, high-elevation basins. Its application in environmental waters containing high SO4 concentrations has been limited because only small amounts of SO4 can be analyzed using current liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques. We present a new analytical method for analyzing large amounts of BaSO4 for 35S. We quantify efficiency gains when suspending BaSO4 precipitate in Inta-Gel Plus cocktail, purify BaSO4 precipitate to remove dissolved organic matter, mitigate interference of radium-226 and its daughter products by selection of high purity barium chloride, andmore » optimize LSC counting parameters for 35S determination in larger masses of BaSO4. Using this improved procedure, we achieved counting efficiencies that are comparable to published LSC techniques despite a 10-fold increase in the SO4 sample load. 35SO4 was successfully measured in high SO4 surface waters and groundwaters containing low ratios of 35S activity to SO4 mass demonstrating that this new analytical method expands the analytical range of 35SO4 and broadens the utility of 35SO4 as an intrinsic tracer in hydrologic settings.« less

  10. Graphene doping methods and device applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Yeom, Geun Young

    2014-02-01

    Graphene has recently been studied as a promising material to replace and enhance conventional electronic materials in various fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, sensors, etc. However, for the electronic applications of graphene prepared by various techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, etc., critical limitations are found due to the defects in the graphene in addition to the absence of a semiconducting band gap. For that, many researchers have investigated the doped graphene which is effective to tailor its electronic property and chemical reactivity. This work presents a review of the various graphene doping methods and their device applications. As doping methods, direct synthesis method and post treatment method could be categorized. Because the latter case has been widely investigated and used in various electronic applications, we will focus on the post treatment method. Post treatment method could be further classified into wet and dry doping methods. In the case of wet doping, acid treatment, metal chloride, and organic material coating are the methods used to functionalize graphene by using dip-coating, spin coating, etc. Electron charge transfer achieved from graphene to dopants or from dopants to graphene makes p-type or n-type graphenes, respectively, with sheet resistance reduction effect. In the case of dry doping, it can be further categorized into electrostatic field method, evaporation method, thermal treatment method, plasma treatment method, etc. These doping techniques modify Fermi energy level of graphene and functionalize the property of graphene. Finally, some perspectives and device applications of doped graphene are also briefly discussed.

  11. Application of high energy chemistry methods for purification of water and air (on the basis of the materials of the I International Conference on Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Water and Air Remediation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    The I International Conference on Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Water and Air Remediation was held from June 25-30, 1994, in London (province of Ontario, Canada). Dr. H. Al-Ekabi (Canada) was the chairman of Organizing Committee. Over 350 specialists from Russia, USA, Canada, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, Poland, Switzerland, Holland, People`s Republic of China, Austria, Finland, South Korea, Spain, Hong Kong, Denmark, Taiwan, Belgium, and Iraq took part. During the conference there was also an exhibition, at which several companies demonstrated products which were related to the themes of the conference. About 200 invited and contributed reports and poster communications were presented, evaluated and discussed. There were also three panel discussions about governmental ecological programs, the transfer of oxidation technologies, etc.

  12. Community of Practice Applications from WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.; Gregoric, G.; Polajnar, J.; Houser, P.; Rodell, M.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. It addresses a means for enhancing the social and economic developments of nations by increased use of practical research products from the terrestrial water cycle for making informed decisions. This paper provides a summary of the Water Cycle Community of Practice (CoP) plans and examples of Land Surface Model (LSM) applications for extreme events - floods, droughts, and heavy snowstorms in Europe. It discusses the concept of NASA's solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites EGU teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team is developing WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base. Recognizing the many existing highly valuable water-related science and application networks in the US and EU, we focus the balance of our efforts on enabling their interoperability - facilitating access and communications among decision-makers and scientists. We present results of our initial focus on identification, collection, and analysis of the two end points, these being the NWRs and EWRs and water related DSTs. We

  13. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    flux in the subsurface is difficult, prompting investigators to pursue indirect methods. Geophysical approaches that exploit the coupled relation between heat and water transport provide an attractive class of methods that have become widely used in investigations of recharge. This appendix reviews the application of heat to the problem of recharge estimation. Its objective is to provide a fairly complete account of the theoretical underpinnings together with a comprehensive review of thermal methods in practice. Investigators began using subsurface temperatures to delineate recharge areas and infer directions of ground-water flow around the turn of the 20th century. During the 1960s, analytical and numerical solutions for simplified heat- and fluid-flow problems became available. These early solutions, though one-dimensional and otherwise restricted, provided a strong impetus for applying thermal methods to problems of liquid and vapor movement in systems ranging from soils to geothermal reservoirs. Today?s combination of fast processors, massive data-storage units, and efficient matrix techniques provide numerical solutions to complex, three-dimensional transport problems. These approaches allow researchers to take advantage of the considerable information content routinely achievable in high-accuracy temperature work.

  14. Geophysical methods application in groundwater natural protection against pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatina, S. M.

    1994-02-01

    Natural protection against groundwater pollution mostly depends on water-bearing bed coverage with permeable rocks presenting a good or bad pollution intrusion barrier between the surface and subterranean water. Additional positive effects of polluted groundwater self-purification in these zones are visible. Natural protection from surface pollutants primarily depends on natural (geological) factors: (1) presence of poorly permeable rocks; (2) depth, lithology (grain-size distribution), and filtration features of rocks covering groundwater reservoirs; and (3) aquifer depth. In contrast to artesian aquifers, quantitative and qualitative evaluation for natural protection of intergranular aquifers with a free water surface is significantly complicated. In this case, the estimation is possible with the help of a specially developed statistical method, which requires the following elements referring to the zone of aeration: (1) poorly permeable strata depth; (2) filtration features; (3) groundwater level depth; and (4) lithology. For quantitative evaluation, it is necessary to know the time interval for pollution propagating from surface of the terrain to the free water surface. Describe access is particularly useful in the domain of zones of sanitary protection defined around the source of groundwater. This exploration method could be considerably rationalized by geophysical methods application. Various methods are useful, namely: electric mapping and sounding, self-potential method, seismic reflection and refraction methods, gravity and geomagnetic methods, the “turam” method, and different well-logging measurements (gamma ray, gammagamma, radioactivity log, and thermal log). In the paper, geophysical methods applictations in natural protection against groundwater pollution and appropriate critical analysis are presented. The results of this paper are based on the experience and application of geophysical methods to groundwater studies in Yugoslavia by the author.

  15. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  16. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  17. Water turbine system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  18. Water turbine system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2009-02-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  19. Water turbine system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2011-05-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  20. EPA METHODS FOR VIRUS DETECTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  1. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  2. Development of a method for environmentally friendly chemical peptide synthesis in water using water-dispersible amino acid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Due to the vast importance of peptides in biological processes, there is an escalating need for synthetic peptides to be used in a wide variety of applications. However, the consumption of organic solvent is extremely large in chemical peptide syntheses because of the multiple condensation steps in organic solvents. That is, the current synthesis method is not environmentally friendly. From the viewpoint of green sustainable chemistry, we focused on developing an organic solvent-free synthetic method using water, an environmentally friendly solvent. Here we described in-water synthesis technology using water-dispersible protected amino acids. PMID:21867548

  3. Water quality assessment in Qu River based on fuzzy water pollution index method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranran; Zou, Zhihong; An, Yan

    2016-12-01

    A fuzzy improved water pollution index was proposed based on fuzzy inference system and water pollution index. This method can not only give a comprehensive water quality rank, but also describe the water quality situation with a quantitative value, which is convenient for the water quality comparison between the same ranks. This proposed method is used to assess water quality of Qu River in Sichuan, China. Data used in the assessment were collected from four monitoring stations from 2006 to 2010. The assessment results show that Qu River water quality presents a downward trend and the overall water quality in 2010 is the worst. The spatial variation indicates that water quality of Nanbashequ section is the pessimal. For the sake of comparison, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and grey relational method were also employed to assess water quality of Qu River. The comparisons of these three approaches' assessment results show that the proposed method is reliable.

  4. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  5. Field Deployable Method for Arsenic Speciation in Water

    PubMed Central

    Voice, Thomas C.; Flores del Pino, Lisveth V.; Havezov, Ivan; Long, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies by arsenic is a world-wide problem. Total arsenic measurements are commonly used to investigate and regulate arsenic in water, but it is well understood that arsenic occurs in several chemical forms, and these exhibit different toxicities. It is problematic to use laboratory-based speciation techniques to assess exposure as it has been suggested that the distribution of species is not stable during transport in some types of samples. A method was developed in this study for the on-site speciation of the most toxic dissolved arsenic species: As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA). Development criteria included ease of use under field conditions, applicable at levels of concern for drinking water, and analytical performance. The approach is based on selective retention of arsenic species on specific ion-exchange chromatography cartridges followed by selective elution and quantification using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples can be delivered to a set of three cartridges using either syringes or peristaltic pumps. Species distribution is stable at this point, and the cartridges can be transported to the laboratory for elution and quantitative analysis. A set of ten replicate spiked samples of each compound, having concentrations between 1 and 60 µg/L, were analyzed. Arsenic recoveries ranged from 78–112 % and relative standard deviations were generally below 10%. Resolution between species was shown to be outstanding, with the only limitation being that the capacity for As (V) was limited to approximately 50 µg/L. This could be easily remedied by changes in either cartridge design, or the extraction procedure. Recoveries were similar for two spiked hard groundwater samples indicating that dissolved minerals are not likely to be problematic. These results suggest that this methodology can be use for analysis of the four primary arsenic species of concern in

  6. Field Deployable Method for Arsenic Speciation in Water.

    PubMed

    Voice, Thomas C; Flores Del Pino, Lisveth V; Havezov, Ivan; Long, David T

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies by arsenic is a world-wide problem. Total arsenic measurements are commonly used to investigate and regulate arsenic in water, but it is well understood that arsenic occurs in several chemical forms, and these exhibit different toxicities. It is problematic to use laboratory-based speciation techniques to assess exposure as it has been suggested that the distribution of species is not stable during transport in some types of samples. A method was developed in this study for the on-site speciation of the most toxic dissolved arsenic species: As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA). Development criteria included ease of use under field conditions, applicable at levels of concern for drinking water, and analytical performance.The approach is based on selective retention of arsenic species on specific ion-exchange chromatography cartridges followed by selective elution and quantification using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples can be delivered to a set of three cartridges using either syringes or peristaltic pumps. Species distribution is stable at this point, and the cartridges can be transported to the laboratory for elution and quantitative analysis. A set of ten replicate spiked samples of each compound, having concentrations between 1 and 60 µg/L, were analyzed. Arsenic recoveries ranged from 78-112 % and relative standard deviations were generally below 10%. Resolution between species was shown to be outstanding, with the only limitation being that the capacity for As (V) was limited to approximately 50 µg/L. This could be easily remedied by changes in either cartridge design, or the extraction procedure. Recoveries were similar for two spiked hard groundwater samples indicating that dissolved minerals are not likely to be problematic. These results suggest that this methodology can be use for analysis of the four primary arsenic species of concern in

  7. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4. PMID:27877527

  8. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4.

  9. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Kondo, W.; Kumagai, T.

    1980-02-12

    A closed system for obtaining hydrogen from water is provided by combining a first step of obtaining hydrogen by reacting water and ferrous halide, a second step of converting triiron tetraoxide produced as a by-product in the first step to ferrous sulfate, a third step of obtaining oxygen and by-products by thermally decomposing said ferrous sulfate, and a fourth step of returning said by-products by thermally decomposing said ferrous sulfate, and a fourth step of returning said by-products obtained in the third step to any of the previous steps.

  10. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1988-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  11. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  12. Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz

    2014-05-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90 ± 6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method.

  13. Other Clean Water Act Test Methods: Biosolids

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Methods for analysis of chemical pollutants in biosolids (municipal sewage sludge). These methods are not approved under 40 CFR Part 136, but may be of interest to regulated entities, permitting authorities and the public.

  14. Microwave thermography: principles, methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Myers, P C; Sadowsky, N L; Barrett, A H

    1979-06-01

    We review the physical principles, method of operation, measurement limitations, and potential medical applications of microwave thermography. We present detailed results of a study of breast cancer detection at 1.3 and 3.3 GHz, including the dependence of detection rates on microwave frequency, time, tumor depth, and tumor size. At 1.3 GHz, microwave thermography detects breast cancer as well as infrared thermography (true-positive rate = 0.76 when true-negative rate = 0.63). When the two methods are combined, the true-positive rate increases by about 0.1 over that of either method alone.

  15. Satellite Geodesy—Foundations, Methods, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fell, Patrick

    This text is an updated English translation of Satellitengeodasie, a book that was published in German in 1989. The text is the first in many years that attempts to cover the broad spectrum of methods, applications, and systems, both classical and current, that have developed in the field of satellite geodesy.The material is presented in a structure that follows the major observational methods used in satellite geodesy: classical techniques, Doppler, GPS, laser, altimetry, and special methods including satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite radiometry, and VLBI. Before introducing these observational techniques in detail, the author provides the fundamentals on reference frames, time signal propagation, orbital mechanics and basic applications of satellite geodesy in positioning, gravity field modeling, navigation, marine geodesy, kinematics, and geodynamics. An excellent reference list completes the text.

  16. Method for thermochemical decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Schreiner, Felix

    1977-01-11

    Water is thermochemically decomposed to produce hydrogen by the following sequence of reactions: KI, NH.sub.3, CO.sub. 2 and water in an organic solvent such as ethyl or propyl alcohol are reacted to produce KHCO 3 and NH.sub.4 I. The KHCO.sub.3 is thermally decomposed to K.sub.2 CO.sub.3, H.sub.2 O and CO.sub.2, while the NH.sub.4 I is reacted with Hg to produce HgI.sub.2, NH.sub.3 and H.sub.2. The K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 obtained by calcining KHCO.sub.3 is then reacted with HgI.sub.2 to produce Hg, KI, CO and O.sub.2. All products of the reaction are recycled except hydrogen and oxygen.

  17. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. The techniques include a finite difference step size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with plans for dealing with some of those needs.

  18. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications, and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Some innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. These techniques include a finite-difference step-size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, a simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Finally, some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with Langley plans for dealing with some of these needs.

  19. Alternative cooling tower water treatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The factors that contribute to proper water balance include total alkalinity, calcium hardness, and pH. In order to keep the cooling tower from scaling or corroding, a manipulation of these components is often necessary. This has traditionally been achieved with the use of chemicals, including but not limited to the following: acid, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, algicide, and bactericide. Extensive research has shown that a balanced water system can also be achieved by using the proper combination of copper with a known halogen. Microbiologists have determined that a small amount of copper, acting as a supplement to chlorine at 0.4 ppm, has the same efficiency as 2.0 ppm free chlorine. Therefore, by using the following combination of components and procedures, the desired results can still be achieved: production of copper compound ions as a supplement to the chemical regimen; analysis and manipulation of make-up water; the use of copper as a coagulant for reduction of scale; copper as a supplemental bacterial disinfectant; and copper as an algicide.

  20. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Anderson, David W.

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  1. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln

    1960-01-01

    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  2. Valuation of perspective application of lidar methods for sea monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, Igor V.; Goncharov, Vadim K.; Lyskov, Vladimir G.; Tsvetkov, Evgeny A.

    1997-02-01

    The materials of settlement valuations and experimental data about structures oil products discharging and depth its finding can be used for valuation of opportunity and conditions of application of air laser methods to detection and classification of oil pollution at operations of deposits of oil in shelf zone the theoretical estimations of opportunity realization of air LIDAR systems in view of oil distribution features in sea are adduced. It is shown that in processes of decomposition its' space structure changes, and the floating drops can be formed the optical contrast layers in waters near to the 'sea-atmosphere' interface. The estimations of optical systems permits to generalize about reality of development two-frequent LIDAR system, containing two channels, one of which measures the fluorescence of organic substances located in thicker water, and second- combinational scattering of light by molecules of water.

  3. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  4. Application of water quality guidelines and water quantity calculations to decisions for beneficial use of treated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Minh Phung T.; Castle, James W.; Rodgers, John H.

    2011-12-01

    Water reuse guidelines were compiled as a decision-analysis screening tool for application to potential water reuse for irrigation, livestock watering, aquaculture, and drinking. Data compiled from the literature for water reuses yielded guideline values for over 50 water quality parameters, including concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents as well as general water chemistry parameters. These water quality guidelines can be used to identify constituents of concern in water, to determine the levels to which the constituents must be treated for water reuse applications, and assess the suitability of treated water for reuse. An example is provided to illustrate the application of water quality guidelines for decision analysis. Water quantity analysis was also investigated, and water volumes required for producing 16 different crops in 15 countries were estimated as an example of applying water quantity in the decision-making process regarding the potential of water reuse. For each of the countries investigated, the crop that produces the greatest yield in terms of weight per water volume is tomatoes in Australia, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, USA; sugarcane in Chad, India, Indonesia, Sudan; watermelons in China; lettuce in Egypt, Mexico; and onions (dry) in Russia.

  5. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongwu; Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo; Xomeritakis, George K.; Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A.; Travesset, Alex; Anderson, Joshua A.; Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J.; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C.; McGrath, Matthew J.; Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L.; van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L.; Gerung, Henry; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  6. Extended applications of the vortex lattice method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of the vortex lattice method to problems not usually dealt with by this technique is considered. It is shown that if the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vortex-induced velocity that renders the vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special schemes for simulating non-zero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are presented. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentric cylindrical surfaces. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are briefly discussed.

  7. Measuring Plant Water Status: A Simple Method for Investigative Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Jay E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method suitable for quantitative studies of plant water status conducted by high school or college students and the calculation of the relative water content (RWC) of a plant. Materials, methods, procedures, and results are discussed, with sample data figures provided. (CS)

  8. Simulating protein dynamics: Novel methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishal, V.

    This Ph.D dissertation describes several methodological advances in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Methods like Markov State Models can be used effectively in combination with distributed computing to obtain long time scale behavior from an ensemble of short simulations. Advanced computing architectures like Graphics Processors can be used to greatly extend the scope of MD. Applications of MD techniques to problems like Alzheimer's Disease and fundamental questions in protein dynamics are described.

  9. Nuclear data calculation methods for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.; Lunev, V.P.; Masterov, V.S.; Kurenkov, N.V.; Kulikov, E.V.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron deficient radionuclides play an important role in medicine, where they are used for diagnostic with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET). Using some reactions connected with the producing most widely used radioisotopes {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99}Tc as example we calculated reaction cross sections and discuss the possibilities of the models and codes and recent progress in the methods to predict nuclear data for medical and other applications in medium energy region.

  10. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  11. Harmony search method: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, X Z; Govindasamy, V; Xu, H; Wang, X; Zenger, K

    2015-01-01

    The Harmony Search (HS) method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem.

  12. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  13. Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Friedman, Linda C.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter Al of the laboratory manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to analyze samples of water, suspended sediments, and bottom material for their content of inorganic constituents. Included are methods for determining the concentration of dissolved constituents in water, the total recoverable and total of constituents in water-suspended sediment samples, and the recoverable and total concentrations of constituents in samples of bottom material. The introduction to the manual includes essential definitions and a brief discussion of the use of significant figures in calculating and reporting analytical results. Quality control in the water-analysis laboratory is discussed, including the accuracy and precision of analyses, the use of standard-reference water samples, and the operation of an effective quality-assurance program. Methods for sample preparation and pretreatment are given also. A brief discussion of the principles of the analytical techniques involved and their particular application to water and sediment analysis is presented. The analytical methods of these techniques are arranged alphabetically by constituent. For each method, the general topics covered are the application, the principle of the method, the interferences, the apparatus and reagents required, a detailed description of the analytical procedure, reporting results, units and significant figures, and analytical precision data, when available. More than 126 methods are given for the determination of 70 inorganic constituents and physical properties of water, suspended sediment, and bottom material.

  14. Aquifer water abundance evaluation using a fuzzy- comprehensive weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifer water abundance evaluation is a highly relevant issue that has been researched for many years. Despite prior research, problems with the conventional evaluation method remain. This paper establishes an aquifer water abundance evaluation method that combines fuzzy evaluation with a comprehensive weighting method to overcome both the subjectivity and lack of conformity in determining weight by pure data analysis alone. First, this paper introduces the principle of a fuzzy-comprehensive weighting method. Second, the example of well field no. 3 (of a coalfield) is used to illustrate the method's process. The evaluation results show that this method is can more suitably meet the real requirements of aquifer water abundance assessment, leading to more precise and accurate evaluations. Ultimately, this paper provides a new method for aquifer water abundance evaluation.

  15. Water Conservation Methods for U.S. Army Installations. Volume II. Irrigation Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Iconstruction nt a"Am en inerngCorp. of Eginer Technical ReportN14 reseratrch Water Conservation and Reuse Guidelines t .. WAXER CONSERVATION METHODS FOR U.S...should be selected when natural landscaping is not applicable. ’-- 5. Innovative irrigation methods such as drip irrigation, wastewater reuse , and...Conservation and Reuse Guidelines." The applicable QCR is 6.27.20A. The OCE Technical Monitor was Walter Medding, DAEN-ECE-D. Dr. R. K. Jain is Chief

  16. 78 FR 57373 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water Withdraw Facilty Pursuant to License Article 202 and Soliciting Comments, Motions... Filed: July 31, 2013. d. Applicant: Appalachian Power Company (licensee). e. Name of Project:...

  17. Methods for determination of radioactive substances in water and fluvial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Leland Lincoln; Janzer, Victor J.; Edwards, Kenneth W.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of some of the more important components of fission or neutron activation product radioactivity and of natural radioactivity found in water are reported. The report for each analytical method includes conditions for application of the method, a summary of the method, interferences, required apparatus and reagents, analytical procedures, calculations, reporting of results, and estimation of precision. The fission product isotopes considered are cesium-137, strontium-90, and ruthenium-106. The natural radioelements and isotopes considered are uranium, lead-210, radium-226, radium-228, tritium, and carbon-14. A gross radioactivity survey method and a uranium isotope ratio method are given. When two analytical methods are in routine use for an individual isotope, both methods are reported with identification of the specific areas of application of each. Techniques for the collection and preservation of water samples to be analyzed for radioactivity are discussed.

  18. Comparison of Steady State Method and Transient Methods for Water Permeability Measurement in Low Permeability Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, P. F.; Bretonnier, P.; Gland, N.

    2010-12-01

    Very low permeability geomaterials (order of nanoDarcy (10-21 m2)), such as clays rocks, are studied for many industrial applications such as production from unconventional reserves of oil and gas, CO2 geological storage and deep geological disposal of high-level long-lived nuclear wastes. For these last two applications, clay efficiency as barrier relies mainly on their very low permeability. Laboratory measurement of low permeability to water (below 10-19 m2) remains a technical challenge. Some authors argue that steady state methods are irrelevant due to the time required to stabilize water fluxes in such low permeability media. Most of the authors measuring low permeabilities use a transient technique called pulse decay. This study aims to compare objectively these different types of permeability tests performed on a single clay sample. For the steady state method, a high precision pump was used to impose a pressure gradient and to measure the small resulting water flow rate at steady state. We show that with a suitable set-up, the steady state method enables to measure a very low permeability of 8 10-22 m2 in a period of three days. For a comparable duration, the pulse decay test, most commonly used for such low permeability measurements, provides only an average estimate of the permeability. Permeability measurements by pulse decay require to perform simulations to interpret the pressure relaxation signals. Many uncertainties remain such as the determination of the reservoirs storage factor, micro leakage effect, or the determination of the initial pulse pressure. All these uncertainties have a very significant impact on the determination of sample permeability and specific storage. Opposite to the wide-spread idea that transient techniques are required to measure very low permeability, we show that direct steady state measurement of water permeability with suitable equipments can be much faster and more accurate than measurement by pulse decay, especially in

  19. Application of a revised Water Poverty Index to target the water poor.

    PubMed

    Garriga, R Giné; Foguet, A Pérez

    2011-01-01

    The Water Poverty Index (WPI) has been recognized as a useful tool in policy analysis. The index integrates various physical, social and environmental aspects to enable more holistic assessment of water resources. However, soundness of this tool relies on two complementary aspects: (i) inadequate techniques employed in index construction would produce unreliable results, and (ii) poor dissemination of final outcome would reduce applicability of the index to influence policy-making. From a methodological point of view, a revised alternative to calculate the index was developed in a previous study. This paper is therefore concerned not with the method employed in index construction, but with how the composite can be applied to support decision-making processes. In particular, the paper examines different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool. A number of alternatives to disseminate achieved results are presented. The implications of applying the composite at different spatial scales are highlighted. Turkana District, in Kenya has been selected as initial case study to test the applicability and validity of the index. The paper concludes that the WPI approach provides a relevant tool for guiding appropriate action and policy-making towards more equitable allocation of water resources.

  20. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, S J; Bibi, S

    1991-07-01

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic 14CO2 from 14C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 degrees C under continuous shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours of incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, respectively. About 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory.

  1. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth [El Cerrito, CA

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  2. Welcome to Methods and Applications in Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David; Mély, Yves; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    2013-03-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board of Methods and Applications in Fluorescence and IOP Publishing we are delighted to invite you to read the first articles in our new journal. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence is forged out of the renowned MAF conference series of the same name and we fully expect the natural synergy between the two to provide the ideal platform for moving the field of fluorescence forward. Our aim is for this new journal to reflect the truly global and diverse impact fluorescence is having across many disciplines and help fluorescence achieve its full potential. Just as MAF is the leading conference in fluorescence we are confident of the high impact of this new journal. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence has a distinguished Editorial Board that is drawn from the MAF conference Permanent Steering Committee. Together with the Editorial Board and the rest of the community, the journal will closely track the very latest developments in fluorescence while delivering a fair and constructive review process. We are very pleased that this journal is backed by the Institute of Physics, one of the world's premier learned societies. IOP Publishing has a wealth of experience in science publishing that dates back to 1874. It is a not-for-profit organization that publishes over 60 journals, many on multidisciplinary topics and many including seminal contributions from Nobel Laureates. Any funding surplus generated by IOP Publishing goes directly back into science through the Institute of Physics, thus helping to nurture science for future generations. We invite submissions as regular articles, review articles and technical notes within the scope of the journal, which includes all the major aspects of fluorescence. This covers both theory and experiment across spectroscopy, imaging, materials, labels, probes and sensors. The applications of fluorescence to emerging areas in bionanotechnology, nanotechnology and medicine are very much part of the

  3. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  4. A rapid, accurate and sensitive method with the new stable isotopic tags based on microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application to the determination of hydroxyl UV filters in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Yuxia; Zhao, Xianen; Cao, Ziping; Xia, Lian; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Wang, Hua; You, Jinmao

    2017-05-15

    A rapid, accurate and sensitive method, using the stable isotope labeling (SIL), microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (MADLLME) and the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of hydroxyl UV Filters in environmental water samples. A pair of new isotopic tags D0-/D3-1-methylindole-3-acetic acid (D0-/D3-MIAA) is synthesized, with which a simple yet efficient pretreatment MADLLME-SIL is developed. Under the optimized conditions (80℃, 240W, 180s), the sample pretreatment including analyte extraction, pre-concentration and isotope labeling can be finished conveniently in only 9min. D0-/D3-MIAA labeling improves the chromatographic retention by strengthening the hydrophobicity and enhances the MS response for 3-4 orders of magnitude. Excellent linearity is established by the H/D ratios of 1/10-10/1 with the correlation coefficients >0.9990. The quite low detection limits (0.54-1.79ng/L) are achieved, ensuring the trace detection. This method is successfully applied to a series of environmental water samples. The recoveries (93.2%~103.5%) are significantly improved and the analysis time is largely reduced (<15min). The excellent sensitivity, accuracy, recovery, and efficiency demonstrate this MADLLME-SIL-LC-MS/MS method a superior alternative for the analysis of UV filters in water samples.

  5. Improvements to the DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water vulnerability maps are designed to show areas of greatest potential for ground-water contamination on the basis of hydrogeologic and anthropogenic (human) factors. The maps are developed by using computer mapping hardware and software called a geographic information system (GIS) to combine data layers such as land use, soils, and depth to water. Usually, ground-water vulnerability is determined by assigning point ratings to the individual data layers and then adding the point ratings together when those layers are combined into a vulnerability map. Probably the most widely used ground-water vulnerability mapping method is DRASTIC, named for the seven factors considered in the method: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer (Aller and others, 1985, p. iv). The DRASTIC method has been used to develop ground-water vulnerability maps in many parts of the Nation; however, the effectiveness of the method has met with mixed success (Koterba and others, 1993, p. 513; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993; Barbash and Resek, 1996; Rupert, 1997). DRASTIC maps usually are not calibrated to measured contaminant concentrations. The DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method was improved by calibrating the point rating scheme to measured nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2+NO3–N) concentrations in ground water on the basis of statistical correlations between NO2+NO3–N concentrations and land use, soils, and depth to water (Rupert, 1997). This report describes the calibration method developed by Rupert and summarizes the improvements in results of this method over those of the uncalibrated DRASTIC method applied by Rupert and others (1991) in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

  6. Application of the organic on water reactions to prebiotic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2012-10-01

    The old view that prebiotic reactions in water are hampered by the low solubility of the organic compounds in water is now being revised due to the discoveries of the reactions "on water". These reactions occur in the heterogeneous system comprising of the organic compounds and water. Unexpectedly, such reactions are extremely efficient; they often give quantitative yields, and are accelerated in the presence of water as compared to the organic solvents. These "on water" reactions are not the same as the "in water" reactions, which occur in solution, and are thus homogenous. Examples of the "on water" reactions include Diels-Alder, Claisen, Passerini and Ugi reactions, among many others. Some of these reactions are multicomponent, but give a single product. We survey a selected number of the "on water" reactions, which have a potential prebiotic applications.

  7. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management.

  8. A water-activated pump for portable microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Good, Brian T; Bowman, Christopher N; Davis, Robert H

    2007-01-15

    An on-chip micropump for portable microfluidic applications was investigated using mathematical modeling and experimental testing. This micropump is activated by the addition of water, via a dropper, to ionic polymer particles that swell due to osmotic effects when wetted. The resulting particle volume increase deflects a membrane, forcing a separate fluid from an adjacent reservoir. The micropump components, along with the microfluidic components, are fabricated using the contact liquid photolithographic polymerization (CLiPP) method. The maximum flow rate achieved with this pump is 17 microL per minute per mg of dry polymer particles of 355-425 microm in diameter. The pump flow rate may be controlled by adjusting the particle size and amount, the membrane properties, and the channel dimensions. The experimental results demonstrate good agreement with an analytical model describing the particle swelling and its coupling with resistive forces from the bending membrane, viscous flow in the microchannel, and interfacial effects. Key features of this micropump are that it can be placed directly on a microdevice, and that it requires only a small amount of water and no external power supply to function. Therefore, this pumping system is useful for applications in which a highly portable device is required.

  9. Improved Correction Method for Water-Refracted Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data Acquired in the Mountain Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, N.; Asano, Y.; Moribe, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Detailed information of underwater topography is required for better understanding and prediction of water and sediment transport in a mountain channel. Recent research showed promising utility of green-wavelength Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for measuring submerged stream-bed structure in fluvial environment. However, difficulty in acquiring reliable underwater data has been remained in the part of mountain channel where water surface has some gradient. Since horizontal water surface was a major premise for the existing water refraction correction method, significant error was resulted in such area. Therefore, this paper presents a modified method to correct water-refracted TLS data acquired over mountain channel with complex water-surface slope. Applicability of the modified method was validated using the field data and compared with the existing correction method and non-corrected data. The results showed that the modified method has much smaller error with RMSE value of 3 mm than the existing method (RMSE = 10 mm) and non-corrected data (RMSE = 23 mm). Presented method successfully corrected water-refracted TLS data acquired over sloped channel. This would enable us to quantitatively measure whole units of complex mountain channels, and help us to understand water dynamics better in the area.

  10. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  11. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Industrial applications of laser methods profilometry

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laser-based profilometry has evolved rapidly over the past ten years. During that period, QUEST Integrated Inc. has been actively involved in the development of systems for a wide variety of NDE applications. The measurement method is based on the principle of optical triangulation. The sensor includes a diode laser which generates the collimated laser beam that is projected orthogonally onto a target surface. Receiving optics, positioned at an oblique angle to the beam, image the reflected light onto a lateral-effect photodetector. Depending on the packaging constraints and resolution requirements, probes use either a single or dual-axis lateral-effect photodetector. As the target surface moves toward or away from the laser source, the imaged light moves across the photodetector in a predictable and repeatable manner. Since the laser beam can be focused to a ``footprint`` as small as a few microns in diameter, this method provides unparalleled spatial resolution. In addition, lateral effect photodetectors are composed or a single silicon element that provides almost infinite lateral resolution. This method was applied to two applications in this paper. The first was to locate and identify flows caused by pitting corrosion in steam generator tubes at nuclear power plants. The second was for inspection of gun tubes by the US army.

  13. Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, C.G.

    1981-10-27

    Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  14. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  15. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  16. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOEpatents

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  17. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  18. Remote sensing retrieval of water constituents in shallow coastal waters with applications to the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Marani, M.; Albertson, J. D.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased direct and indirect anthropogenic pressure. Monitoring the environmental state and trends in such environment would benefit from the use of remote sensing techniques, which can access a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, most remote sensors are not suitable for monitoring shallow and optically-complex waters, because of their low spatial and spectral-resolution and of the uncertainties associated with the contribution of the bottom sediment to the observed remote sensing signal. We apply here a remote sensing-based approach to mapping suspended sediment and chlorophyll concentrations in the shallow Venice lagoon, which integrates hyperspectral remote sensing data, a simplified radiative transfer model, and in-situ water quality measurements. First, we calibrate and validate the key parameters of the model, such as bottom albedo and absorption/backscattering coefficients of sediment, by comparing remote sensing derived water constituent concentrations with in-situ data. We then determine the statistics of those parameters, and the associated estimation uncertainty, by applying a bootstrapping technique. Finally, the lagoon-wide distribution of water constituent concentrations, and of the estimation uncertainty, is derived by inverting the model. The estimates are consistent with measured concentrations and their known optical properties, particularly for the suspended sediment concentrations, while chlorophyll concentration estimates remain more uncertain. Our analyses show that remote sensing methods can provide reliable water constituent concentrations at the system scale and that uncertainties become overwhelming only in particularly shallow areas (water depths indicatively lower than 1 m in the present application). Importantly, the joint use of radiative transfer models, in situ observations, and statistical techniques allows the production of

  19. ISO standards on test methods for water radioactivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Herranz, M; Jerome, S; Kwakman, P; Llaurado, M; Tokonami, S

    2013-11-01

    Water is vital to humans and each of us needs at least 1.5L of safe water a day to drink. Beginning as long ago as 1958 the World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidelines to help ensure water is safe to drink. Focused from the start on monitoring radionuclides in water, and continually cooperating with WHO, the International Standardization Organization (ISO) has been publishing standards on radioactivity test methods since 1978. As reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity measurements, international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an important tool for production of such measurements. This paper presents the ISO standards already published that could be used as normative references by testing laboratories in charge of radioactivity monitoring of drinking water as well as those currently under drafting and the prospect of standardized fast test methods in response to a nuclear accident.

  20. Basic characteristics of the radio imaging method for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hieda, I; Nam, K C; Takahashi, A

    2004-06-01

    The radio imaging method (RIM), a technology used practically for geophysical surveys, was applied to biomedical measurements. The characteristics of a subject between a pair of simple loop antennas were measured by using a feeble electromagnetic wave of low frequency. Water distribution inside the human body was expected to be measured, as well as the original method imaged mineral distributions. In geophysical surveys, finer resolution is provided than a wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. This was also expected for biomedical measurements. An acrylic water tank was used as a phantom of the abdominal portion of the human body, and basic measurements were performed with the phantom. The inner tank of the phantom, whose cross section was 6 x 8 cm, was detected by the method when the frequency was 54 MHz or the wavelength was nearly 6 m in free space. The resolution provided by the experiment suggested that the proposed method was effective even if the wavelength was longer than the dimensions of the targeted area. The advantage of the method is simplicity, economy and safety. The authors are looking for specific applications for example, a urination sensor or a vital monitor for in-home care, where the strong points of the method are suitable.

  1. Evaluation and implementation of a membrane filter method for Cronobacter detection in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Yuelian; Cui, Jinghua; Liu, Lanzheng; Liu, Huiyuan; Hu, Guangchun; Shi, Yuwen; Li, Jian

    2013-07-01

    A membrane filter (MF) method was evaluated for its suitability for qualitative and quantitative analyses of Cronobacter spp. in drinking water by pure strains of Cronobacter and non-Cronobacter, and samples spiked with chlorinated Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544. The applicability was verified by the tests: for pure strains, the sensitivity and the specificity were both 100%; for spiked samples, the MF method recovered 82.8 ± 10.4% chlorinated ATCC 29544 cells. The MF method was also applied to screen Cronobacter spp. in drinking water samples from municipal water supplies on premises (MWSP) and small community water supplies on premises (SCWSP). The isolation rate of Cronobacter spp. from SCWSP samples was 31/114, which was significantly higher than that from MWSP samples which was 1/131. Besides, the study confirmed the possibility of using total coliform as an indicator of contamination level of Cronobacter spp. in drinking water, and the acquired correct positive rate was 96%.

  2. Global Precipitation Measurement: Methods, Datasets and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco; Turk, Francis J.; Petersen, Walt; Hou, Arthur Y.; Garcia-Ortega, Eduardo; Machado, Luiz, A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Salio, Paola; Kidd, Chris; Huffman, George J.; De Castro, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the many aspects of precipitation measurement that are relevant to providing an accurate global assessment of this important environmental parameter. Methods discussed include ground data, satellite estimates and numerical models. First, the methods for measuring, estimating, and modeling precipitation are discussed. Then, the most relevant datasets gathering precipitation information from those three sources are presented. The third part of the paper illustrates a number of the many applications of those measurements and databases. The aim of the paper is to organize the many links and feedbacks between precipitation measurement, estimation and modeling, indicating the uncertainties and limitations of each technique in order to identify areas requiring further attention, and to show the limits within which datasets can be used.

  3. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  4. Ranking filter methods for concentrating pathogens in lake water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately comparing filtration methods for concentrating waterborne pathogens is difficult because of two important water matrix effects on recovery measurements, the effect on PCR quantification and the effect on filter performance. Regarding the first effect, we show how to create a control water...

  5. New color segmentation method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    1999-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step in the early stage of image analysis. Color or multi-spectral image segmentation usually involves search and clustering techniques in a three or higher dimensional spectral space - an exercise which is considered computationally expensive. This paper presents a new color segmentation method for color image analysis with its application to plant leaf area measurement. A 3D histogram for an RGB color image is established basing on an octree data structure. The histogram represents the color distribution of the image in the RGB color space on which a 3D Gaussian filter is applied to smooth out small maxima of this distribution. The color space is then searched to find out al the major maxima. Around each maxima, a covering cube with a controlled side width is established. These maxima and covering cubes are considered to be potential color classes. Each cube may expand according to the value of surrounding neighbors. Once enough modes and their cover cubes have been found, a k-means clustering algorithm is used to classify these maxima into a predetermined number of classes. Then, the classified modes and the color covered by the cubes are used as training samples for a Bayes classifier which can be used to classify all the pixels in the image. A statistical relaxation method is then sued as a find segmentation. This method can either be supervised or unsupervised, depending on the different requirements of specific applications. The octree data structure significantly reduces the color space to be searched and consequently reduces computational cost. An extension of this method can also be applied to multi-spectral image analysis.

  6. Evaluating online data of water quality changes in a pilot drinking water distribution system with multivariate data exploration methods.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Satu M; Tissari, Soile; Huikko, Laura; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Lehtola, Markku J; Hirvonen, Arja

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of drinking water generates soft deposits and biofilms in the pipelines of distribution systems. Disturbances in water distribution can detach these deposits and biofilms and thus deteriorate the water quality. We studied the effects of simulated pressure shocks on the water quality with online analysers. The study was conducted with copper and composite plastic pipelines in a pilot distribution system. The online data gathered during the study was evaluated with Self-Organising Map (SOM) and Sammon's mapping, which are useful methods in exploring large amounts of multivariate data. The objective was to test the usefulness of these methods in pinpointing the abnormal water quality changes in the online data. The pressure shocks increased temporarily the number of particles, turbidity and electrical conductivity. SOM and Sammon's mapping were able to separate these situations from the normal data and thus make those visible. Therefore these methods make it possible to detect abrupt changes in water quality and thus to react rapidly to any disturbances in the system. These methods are useful in developing alert systems and predictive applications connected to online monitoring.

  7. Applications of remote sensing to water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Analyses were made of selected long-term (1985 and beyond) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and to develop alternative solutions to any potential problems. One long-term objective selected for analysis was Water Availability Forecasting. A brief overview was scheduled in FY-77 of the objective -- primarily a fact-finding study to allow Data Management personnel to gain adequate background information to perform subsequent data system analyses. This report, includes discussions on some of the larger problems currently encountered in water measurement, the potential users of water availability forecasts, projected demands of users, current sensing accuracies, required parameter monitoring, status of forecasting modeling, and some measurement accuracies likely to be achievable by 1980 and 1990.

  8. Antimicrobial applications of water-dispersible magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Keng-Shiang; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Wu, Ping-Ching; Cheng, Fong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The increasing morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases is an increasing concern. Despite the continuous development and synthesis of new antimicrobial drugs, microbial pathogens are exhibiting increased multi-drug resistance. Nanomaterials display unique and well-defined physical and chemical properties including a very high surface area to volume ratio, and new approaches for antimicrobial therapies have attempted to combine nanomaterials and current antimicrobial drugs. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are characterized by biocompatibility, biodegradation, and safety for human ingestion. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been approved for human use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For biomedicine applications, MNPs require surface modification to become water-soluble and be stable enough to resist the effects of proteins and salts in the physiological environment. MNPs can combine various substrata, such as biomolecules and nanomaterials to generate new antimicrobial agents which combine antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. This can be accomplished through a series of surface modification methods. Because MNPs have unique superparamagnetic characteristics, they can be controlled and recycled by an external magnetic field.In addition, the antimicrobial activity of MNPs-based nanocomposites is superior to that of metallic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent literature on the use of MNP-based nanomaterials in antimicrobial applications in biomedicine. Antimicrobial applications mainly focus on inhibiting and killing bacteria and fungi and viruses inactivation. The synthesis, surface modification, and characteristics related to MNPs will also be briefly addressed.

  9. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  10. A bootstrap method for estimating uncertainty of water quality trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.; DeCicco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the direction and magnitude of trends in surface water quality remains a problem of great scientific and practical interest. The Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method was recently introduced as an exploratory data analysis tool to provide flexible and robust estimates of water quality trends. This paper enhances the WRTDS method through the introduction of the WRTDS Bootstrap Test (WBT), an extension of WRTDS that quantifies the uncertainty in WRTDS-estimates of water quality trends and offers various ways to visualize and communicate these uncertainties. Monte Carlo experiments are applied to estimate the Type I error probabilities for this method. WBT is compared to other water-quality trend-testing methods appropriate for data sets of one to three decades in length with sampling frequencies of 6–24 observations per year. The software to conduct the test is in the EGRETci R-package.

  11. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses are important etiological agents of waterborne disease and are responsible for outbreaks of gastroenteritis. However, the prevalence and occurrence of these pathogens in raw drinking water sources is poorly understood. This is primarily due to the limited methods ...

  12. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation.

  13. EPOC WATER INC. MICROFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. Operational data ...

  14. Applications of spectroscopy to remote determination of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M. C.; Weiner, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote laser Raman and molecular spectroscopic techniques to measure water quality is examined. Measurements cover biological, chemical, and physical properties of the water. Experimental results show chemical properties are harder to obtain remotely than biological or physical properties and that molecular spectroscopy seems to be the best method for obtaining water quality data.

  15. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  16. METHOD OF OPERATING A HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1962-08-14

    A method of removing fission products from the heavy water used in a slurry type nuclear reactor is described. According to the process the slurry is steam distilled with carbon tetrachloride so that at least a part of the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are vaporized; the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are separated; the carbon tetrachloride is returned to the steam distillation column at different points in the column to aid in depositing the slurry particles at the bottom of the column; and the heavy water portion of the condensate is purified. (AEC)

  17. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  18. Shallow Water Laser Bathymetry: Accomplishments and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    still exist worldwide, present a backlog of hundreds of ship-years to conventional acoustic surveying. Additionally, much of surveyed navigation...related to its maximum depth capability, weather -related phenomena, and bottom structure. Water clarity, in particular, limits the ability of the laser

  19. Ultrasonic method for measuring water holdup of low velocity and high-water-cut oil-water two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, An; Han, Yun-Feng; Ren, Ying-Yu; Zhai, Lu-Sheng; in, Ning-De

    2016-03-01

    Oil reservoirs with low permeability and porosity that are in the middle and late exploitation periods in China's onshore oil fields are mostly in the high-water-cut production stage. This stage is associated with severely non-uniform local-velocity flow profiles and dispersed-phase concentration (of oil droplets) in oil-water two-phase flow, which makes it difficult to measure water holdup in oil wells. In this study, we use an ultrasonic method based on a transmission-type sensor in oil-water two-phase flow to measure water holdup in low-velocity and high water-cut conditions. First, we optimize the excitation frequency of the ultrasonic sensor by calculating the sensitivity of the ultrasonic field using the finite element method for multiphysics coupling. Then we calculate the change trend of sound pressure level attenuation ratio with the increase in oil holdup to verify the feasibility of the employed diameter for the ultrasonic sensor. Based on the results, we then investigate the effects of oil-droplet diameter and distribution on the ultrasonic field. To further understand the measurement characteristics of the ultrasonic sensor, we perform a flow loop test on vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow and measure the responses of the optimized ultrasonic sensor. The results show that the ultrasonic sensor yields poor resolution for a dispersed oil slug in water flow (D OS/W flow), but the resolution is favorable for dispersed oil in water flow (D O/W flow) and very fine dispersed oil in water flow (VFD O/W flow). This research demonstrates the potential application of a pulsed-transmission ultrasonic method for measuring the fraction of individual components in oil-water two-phase flow with a low mixture velocity and high water cut.

  20. New methods of subcooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard

    2001-08-01

    Two new methods of sub-cooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers are presented in this paper. The first one- impedance method use a new semiconductor mirror in which the dew point detector, the thermometer and the heaters were integrated all together. The second one an optical method based on a multi-section optical detector is discussed in the report. Experimental results of both methods are shown. New types of dew pont hydrometers of ability to recognized sub-cooled water were proposed.

  1. A discovery of an ultra-pure water detection method based on water mark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui-Wen; Jing, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Shi-Rui; Xu, Xin-Wei; Tian, He; Xin, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Bo; Liu, Rui-Tao; Wang, Gang; Ge, Jie; Cai, Hua-Lin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-02-01

    The purity evaluation of deionized (DI) water is highly desirable for VLSI or ULSI industry, as the traditional "reverse osmosis filter" cannot always meet the requirement towards the DI water. The filtered DI water may still contain many contaminations which are not up to the standard for the wet cleaning of wafer surface. A novel method is presented by analyzing the residues of a water droplet after the low-temperature evaporation. The contamination contained in the water will remain during the gasification. By analyzing the residual contamination's morphology, the purity of the DI water can be estimated by employing merely a 3D laser microscope. Compared to the traditional fluorescence detecting system for water quality monitoring, it is simpler and has a lower cost. The paper describes an excellent water detection method which is meaningful for preparing ultra-pure water. Experimental results have shown that the deionized distilled (DID) water can repeatedly get a higher purity using this detection method. The DID water can be applied to the wet cleaning of wafer surface, preparation of chemical reagents and many other aspects.

  2. A simple method for locating the fresh water-salt water interface using pressure data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kue-Young; Chon, Chul-Min; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2007-01-01

    Salt water intrusion is a key issue in dealing with exploitation, restoration, and management of fresh ground water in coastal aquifers. Constant monitoring of the fresh water-salt water interface is necessary for proper management of ground water resources. This study presents a simple method to estimate the depth of the fresh water-salt water interface in coastal aquifers using two sets of pressure data obtained from the fresh and saline zones within a single borehole. This method uses the density difference between fresh water and saline water and can practically be used at coastal aquifers that have a relatively sharp fresh water-salt water interface with a thin transition zone. The proposed method was applied to data collected from a coastal aquifer on Jeju Island, Korea, to estimate the variations in the depth of the interface. The interface varied with daily tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall in the rainy season. The estimated depth of the interface showed a good agreement with the measured electrical conductivity profile.

  3. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  4. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  5. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  6. Method for computing the maximum water temperature in a fuel pool containing spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.P.; Soler, A.I.; Gupta, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for computing the upper bound on the local water temperature rise with respect to the bulk temperature in a spent fuel pool. The solution involves casting the continuity and momentum relationships in integral form in terms of the unknown velocity functions. The method of collocation is used to solve the problem. Computer application of this method shows it to be an efficient and cost-effective design tool.

  7. Application of minidisk infiltrometer to estimate soil water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Lichner, Ľubomír

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) reduces affinity of soils to water resulting in detrimental implication for plants growth as well as for hydrological processes. During the last decades, it has become clear that SWR is much more widespread than formerly thought, having been reported for a wide variety of soils, land uses and climatic conditions. The repellency index (RI), based on soil-water to soil-ethanol sorptivity ratio, was proposed to characterize subcritical SWR that is the situation where a low degree of repellency impedes infiltration but does not prevent it. The minidisk infiltrometer allows adequate field assessment of RI inherently scaled to account for soil physical properties other than hydrophobicity (e.g., the volume, connectivity and the geometry of pores) that directly influence the hydrological processes. There are however some issues that still need consideration. For example, use of a fixed time for both water and ethanol sorptivity estimation may lead to inaccurate RI values given that water infiltration could be negligible whereas ethanol sorptivity could be overestimated due to influence of gravity and lateral diffusion that rapidly come into play when the infiltration process is very fast. Moreover, water and ethanol sorptivity values need to be determined at different infiltration sites thus implying that a large number of replicated runs should be carried out to obtain a reliable estimate of RI for a given area. Minidisk infiltrometer tests, conducted under different initial soil moisture and management conditions in the experimental sites of Ciavolo, Trapani (Italy) and Javea, Alicante (East Spain), were used to investigate the best applicative procedure to estimate RI. In particular, different techniques to estimate the water, Sw, and ethanol, Se, sorptivities were compared including i) a fixed 1-min time interval, ii) the slope of early-time 1D infiltration equation and iii) the two-term transient 3D infiltration equation that explicitly

  8. Methods and applications in single molecule electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihath, Joshua

    In recent years it has become possible to measure charge transport in a single molecule contacted to two metal electrodes. However, a thorough understanding of how a molecule behaves while contacted to two electrodes and how it interacts with its environment is still lacking. This thesis demonstrates various experimental methods for understanding and controlling charge transport in a single molecule junction and the application of these methods to various molecular systems to help elucidate the conduction mechanisms invoked. First, the conductance of DNA is examined in a controlled environment while varying the length, sequence, base-pair matching, bias, temperature, and electrochemical gate of the molecule. These studies show that the conductance of DNA is extremely sensitive to changes in length, sequence, and base-matching, but not as sensitive to temperature and electrochemical gate. Despite the variety of experimental methods applied, the subtleties of the conduction mechanism remain uncertain, and as such necessitate the development of additional tools for understanding the behavior of a single molecule junction. Next, the Conductance Screening Tool for Molecules (CSTM) is described. This is a new tool capable of creating 1000's of single molecules junctions in a matter of minutes. This tool has been used to study the conductance of alkanedithiols, molecules in an array, and single amino acid residues. This system allows for greater speed and flexibility in determining the conductance of a single molecule junction, and provides a capability for performing large-scale systematic studies of molecular systems to determine the conduction mechanism. Finally, an additional experimental method capable of extracting information about the interaction between a molecule and its environment is developed. Here, electron-phonon interactions in a single molecule contacted to two electrodes are studied. This method allows one to obtain a specific, chemical signature of a

  9. [Toxicity tests and their application in safety assessment of water quality].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Chun-Tao; Wei, Dong-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The safety of water quality has important impacts not only on the health of ecological system, but also on the survival and development of human beings. The conventional assessment methods for water quality based on the concentration limits are not reliable. The toxicity tests can vividly reflect the whole adverse biological effects of multiple chemicals in water body, which has been regarded as a necessary supplement for conventional water quality assessment methods based on physicochemical parameters. Considering the chemical pollutants usually have various adverse biological effects, the ecotoxicity testing methods, including lethality, genotoxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, were classified according to the different toxicity types. Then, the potential applications of toxicity testing methods and corresponding evaluation indices in evaluating the toxicity characteristics of ambient water samples were discussed. Particularly, the safety assessment methods for water quality based on the toxicity tests, including potential toxicology, toxicity unit classification system, potential ecotoxic effect probe, and safety assessment of water quality based on toxicity test battery, were summarized. This paper not only systematically reviewed the progress of toxicity tests and their application in safety assessment of water quality, but also provided the scientific basis for the further development in the future.

  10. A new water-based liquid scintillator and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, M.; Hans, S.; Beriguete, W.; Rosero, R.; Hu, L.; Hahn, R. L.; Diwan, M. V.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Littenberg, L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe a new type of scintillating liquid based on water. We describe the concept, preparation, and properties of this liquid, and how it could be used for a very large, but economical detector. The applications of such a detector range from fundamental physics such as nucleon decay and neutrino physics to physics with broader application such as neutron detection. We briefly describe the scientific requirements of these applications, and how they can be satisfied by the new material.

  11. Near Term Application of Supercritical Water Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Bastian; Starflinger, Joerg; Schulenberg, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    A pressurized water reactor with a supercritical water primary loop is analyzed (PWR-SC) within this paper. It will be shown that the PWR-SC offers considerable advantages in the fields of safety, economy and efficiency compared with a conventional PWR design. A cycle analysis shows that the net plant efficiency increases by 2% compared to currently operated or built systems. In addition, the mass flow rate of the primary side is strongly decreased, which enables a reduction of the primary pump power by a factor of 4. In the secondary loop, the mass flow rate can be decreased by about 15%, which allows down-scaling of all secondary side components such as turbines, condensers and feed-water preheat systems as a consequence of the high core exit temperature. A coupled core analysis and a hot channel factor analysis are performed to demonstrate the promising safety features of the PWR-SC and to show the technical feasibility of such a system. (authors)

  12. Antimicrobial nanomaterials as water disinfectant: applications, limitations and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Fahim; Perales-Perez, Oscar J; Hwang, Sangchul; Román, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology and its application is one of the rapidly developing sciences. As demand of fresh drinking water is increasing, nanotechnology can contribute noticeable development and improvement to water treatment process. Disinfection process is the last and most important step in water and wastewater treatment process. Some nanomaterials can be used as disinfectants due to their antimicrobial properties and reduce the possibility of harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during traditional disinfection process. A significant number of research efforts is done or going on to understand the mechanisms and enhance the efficiency of nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents, although it will take more time to understand the full potential of nanomaterials in this field. This review paper focuses on inactivation pathways of benign nanomaterials, their possible and probable application and limitations as disinfectants and future opportunities for their application in water cleaning processes.

  13. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples.This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for each method and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental investigations.

  14. Comparison of seven water quality assessment methods for the characterization and management of highly impaired river systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    In the context of water resource management and pollution control, the characterization of water quality impairments and identification of dominant pollutants are of critical importance. In this study, water quality impairment was assessed on the basis of 7 hydrochemical variables that were monitored bimonthly at 17 sites in 2010 along the rural-suburban-urban portion of the Wen-Rui Tang River in eastern China. Seven methods were used to assess water quality in the river system. These methods included single-factor assessment, water quality grading, comprehensive pollution index, the Nemerow pollution index, principle component analysis, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and comprehensive water quality identification index. Our analysis showed that the comprehensive water quality identification index was the best method for assessing water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River due to its ability to effectively characterize highly polluted waters with multiple impairments. Furthermore, a guideline for the applications of these methods was presented based on their characteristics and efficacy. Results indicated that the dominant pollutant impairing water quality was total nitrogen comprised mainly of ammonium. The temporal variation of water quality was closely related to precipitation as a result of dilution. The spatial variation of water quality was associated with anthropogenic influences (urban, industrial, and agriculture activities) and water flow direction (downstream segments experiencing cumulative effects of upstream inputs). These findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in highly polluted surface waters with multiple water quality impairments in areas with rapid industrial growth and urbanization.

  15. Applications of Langevin and Molecular Dynamics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomdahl, P. S.

    Computer simulation of complex nonlinear and disordered phenomena from materials science is rapidly becoming an active and new area serving as a guide for experiments and for testing of theoretical concepts. This is especially true when novel massively parallel computer systems and techniques are used on these problems. In particular the Langevin dynamics simulation technique has proven useful in situations where the time evolution of a system in contact with a heat bath is to be studied. The traditional way to study systems in contact with a heat bath has been via the Monte Carlo method. While this method has indeed been used successfully in many applications, it has difficulty addressing true dynamical questions. Large systems of coupled stochastic ODE's (or Langevin equations) are commonly the end result of a theoretical description of higher dimensional nonlinear systems in contact with a heat bath. The coupling is often local in nature, because it reflects local interactions formulated on a lattice, the lattice for example represents the underlying discreteness of a substrate of atoms or discrete k-values in Fourier space. The fundamental unit of parallelism thus has a direct analog in the physical system the authors are interested in. In these lecture notes the authors illustrate the use of Langevin stochastic simulation techniques on a number of nonlinear problems from materials science and condensed matter physics that have attracted attention in recent years. First, the authors review the idea behind the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which forms that basis for the numerical Langevin stochastic simulation scheme. The authors then show applications of the technique to various problems from condensed matter and materials science.

  16. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  17. A method for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings in central Florida by using a simple water-balance/transfer-function model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method is needed that provides estimates of transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings that can be incorporated into other hydrologic models. Deep water-table settings are areas where the water table is below the reach of plant roots and virtually all water that is not lost to surface runoff, evaporation at land surface, or evapotranspiration in the root zone eventually becomes ground-water recharge. Areas in central Florida with a deep water table generally are high recharge areas; consequently, simulation of recharge in these areas is of particular interest to water-resource managers. Yet the complexities of meteorological variations and unsaturated flow processes make it difficult to estimate short-term recharge rates, thereby confounding calibration and predictive use of transient hydrologic models. A simple water-balance/transfer-function (WBTF) model was developed for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings. The WBTF model represents a one-dimensional column from the top of the vegetative canopy to the water table and consists of two components: (1) a water-balance module that simulates the water storage capacity of the vegetative canopy and root zone; and (2) a transfer-function module that simulates the traveltime of water as it percolates from the bottom of the root zone to the water table. Data requirements include two time series for the period of interest?precipitation (or precipitation minus surface runoff, if surface runoff is not negligible) and evapotranspiration?and values for five parameters that represent water storage capacity or soil-drainage characteristics. A limiting assumption of the WBTF model is that the percolation of water below the root zone is a linear process. That is, percolating water is assumed to have the same traveltime characteristics, experiencing the same delay and attenuation, as it moves through the unsaturated zone. This assumption is more accurate if

  18. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  19. Application of the urban water use model for urban water use management purposes.

    PubMed

    Costa Dos Santos, D; Benetti, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present an application of the urban water use (UWU) model, which is a support decision tool to define the best group of efficient water use measures for UWU management purposes. Therefore, the UWU was developed under integrated urban water management (IUWM) and strategic planning principles to promote a systemic approach for decision taking. The IUWM considers the interfaces between water service systems, while by strategic planning it is possible to elaborate a vision to be achieved in future scenarios. Specifically to define the best measure group of efficient water use, the UWU has many alternatives for these measures, which are based on water demand management, decentralized sanitation, ecological sanitation and sustainable urban drainage system philosophies. In this context, the UWU application presented was developed for Seara city, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this application a vision and five scenarios were built. The measure groups were composed by greywater systems, filterstrips, water saving devices in buildings, and water loss reduction in water supply systems and wastewater treatment system. In this context the UWU model was applied. The measure group that presented the highest effectiveness was based on the water demand management and decentralized sanitation strategies.

  20. The Halliwick Method: Water Freedom for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    This publication explains the Halliwick Method of swim instruction for people with disabilities. The Halliwick Method emphasizes independent functioning in the water, obtained through the development of control over body movements and establishing physical and psychological comfort. Containing over 75 photographs, including underwater shots, this…

  1. The Halliwick Method. "Water Freedom for the Handicapped."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.; Gildersleeve, Lisa A.

    The Halliwick Method originated in England where in 1949 James McMillan developed techniques for helping handicapped individuals become independent swimmers. Based on the adaptation of scientific and hydrodynamic principles to the behavior of the human body in water, the Halliwick Method emphasizes the goal of individual independence. Instruction…

  2. GROUND WATER PURGING AND SAMPLING METHODS: HISTORY VS. HYSTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  3. Evaluation of alternative methods of supplemental recharge by storm-water basins on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aronson, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the more than 2,200 storm-water basins on Long Island, N.Y., having runoff and infiltration characteristics similar to those of a basin studied in North Massapequa are potential sites for returning large volumes of reclaimed water (highly treated waste water) to the ground-water reservoir. By use of a finite-difference method of calculation, formulas were devised to calculate changes in basin storage at various time intervals from the start of storm inflow, with and without addition of reclaimed water. The North Massapequa storm-water basin was the prototype design used to test several methods of water application. Calculations using various infiltration rates, storm durations, and storm-return periods indicate that several methods of applying reclaimed water to storm-water basins on Long Island would be feasible. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Measuring Air-water Interfacial Area for Soils Using the Mass Balance Surfactant-tracer Method

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Juliana B.; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. PMID:25950136

  5. Methods and technologies to improve efficiency of water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Robert G.; Sadler, E. John

    2008-07-01

    The competition for existing freshwater supplies will require a paradigmatic shift from maximizing productivity per unit of land area to maximizing productivity per unit of water consumed. This shift will, in turn, demand broad systems approaches that physically and biologically optimize irrigation relative to water delivery and application schemes, rainfall, critical growth stages, soil fertility, location, and weather. Water can be conserved at a watershed or regional level for other uses only if evaporation, transpiration, or both are reduced and unrecoverable losses to unusable sinks are minimized (e.g., salty groundwater or oceans). Agricultural advances will include implementation of crop location strategies, conversion to crops with higher economic value or productivity per unit of water consumed, and adoption of alternate drought-tolerant crops. Emerging computerized GPS-based precision irrigation technologies for self-propelled sprinklers and microirrigation systems will enable growers to apply water and agrochemicals more precisely and site specifically to match soil and plant status and needs as provided by wireless sensor networks. Agriculturalists will need to exercise flexibility in managing the rate, frequency, and duration of water supplies to successfully allocate limited water and other inputs to crops. The most effective means to conserve water appears to be through carefully managed deficit irrigation strategies that are supported by advanced irrigation system and flexible, state-of-the-art water delivery systems. Nonagricultural water users will need to exercise patience as tools reflecting the paradigmatic shift are actualized. Both groups will need to cooperate and compromise as they practice more conservative approaches to freshwater consumption.

  6. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  7. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  8. A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Hartmut

    1963-01-01

    With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

  9. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

  10. An alternative procedure for uranium analysis in drinking water using AQUALIX columns: application to varied French bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Bouvier-Capely, C; Bonthonneau, J P; Dadache, E; Rebière, F

    2014-01-01

    The general population is chronically exposed to uranium ((234)U, (235)U, and (238)U) and polonium ((210)Po) mainly through day-to-day food and beverage intake. The measurement of these naturally-occurring radionuclides in drinking water is important to assess their health impact. In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene-derivatives columns for uranium analysis in drinking water was investigated. A simple and effective method was proposed on a specific column called AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. This procedure is suitable for routine analysis and the analysis time is considerably shortened (around 4h) by combining the separation on AQUALIX with fast ICP-MS measurement. This new method was tested on different French bottled waters (still mineral water, sparkling mineral water, and spring water). Then, the case of simultaneous presence of uranium and polonium in water was considered due to interferences in alpha spectrometry measurement. A protocol was proposed using a first usual step of spontaneous deposition of polonium on silver disc in order to separate Po, followed by the uranium extraction on AQUALIX column before alpha spectrometry counting.

  11. Original isotopic composition of water in precipitation by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. P.

    2016-11-01

    Stable isotopes of 2H and 18O in precipitation are different globally and carry all information about water molecules movement in hydrosphere cycles. Isotopic composition is a function of temperature, relative humidity, and speed of evaporation at different latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes. On the basis of this, we observe local meteoric water line measurements in the plot of δ2H versus δ18O. It will be interesting to know the original isotopic composition (without any modification) in a transition from cloud down to earth in different environmental conditions. This had been done by plotting of slope versus intercept of Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) at different altitudes in different years of observations. Intercept of LMWL with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) data taken from the hydrology frame work of Corsica was plotted and it was found that the isotopic composition of water in precipitation by all these methods is same.

  12. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, K.; Woods, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1??C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1??C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ?? 2 and ?? 0.2???, respectively, for ??D and ??18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents. ?? 1990.

  13. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions § 425.03 Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration... the potassium ferricyanide titration method for the determination of sulfide in wastewaters...

  14. Group methods of determining surfactants in water (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Subbotina, E.I.; Dedkov, Yu.M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years new and promising methods for the determination of industrial surfactant waste migration and concentration in the hydrosphere have been developed. These methods include different forms of chromatography, ion selective electrode analysis, titration, and solvent extraction. This article reviews the application and usefulness of each of these methods in the analysis of various surfactants. The methods of chromatography reviewed include liquid column, thin layer, and ion exchange.

  15. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  16. Simultaneous detection of antibiotics and other drug residues in the dissolved and particulate phases of water by an off-line SPE combined with on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS: Method development and application.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Ines; Caria, Giovanni; Ouddane, Baghdad; Ghorbel-Abid, Ibtissem; Ternane, Riadh; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika; Net, Sopheak

    2016-09-01

    Due to their widespread use in human and animal healthcare, antibiotics and other drug residues are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Given their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and public health, the quantification of environmental drug residues has become a necessity. Various analysis techniques have been found to be suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, quantification can be difficult because these compounds are present at trace or ultra-trace levels. Consequently, the accuracy of environmental analyses depends on both the efficiency and the robustness of the extraction and quantification method. In this work, an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS was applied to the simultaneous extraction and quantification of 26 pharmaceutical products, including 18 antibiotics, dissolved in a water phase. Optimal conditions were determined and then applied to assess the contamination level of the targeted drug residues in water collected from four sites in Northern France: a river, the input and output of an aerated lagoon, and a wastewater treatment plant. Drug residues associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) were also quantified in this work using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with an on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS system in order to complete an assessment of the degree of total background pollution.

  17. Scalable Production Method for Graphene Oxide Water Vapor Separation Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Gotthold, David W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Membranes for selective water vapor separation were assembled from graphene oxide suspension using techniques compatible with high volume industrial production. The large-diameter graphene oxide flake suspensions were synthesized from graphite materials via relatively efficient chemical oxidation steps with attention paid to maintaining flake size and achieving high graphene oxide concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes produced using scalable casting methods exhibited water vapor flux and water/nitrogen selectivity performance meeting or exceeding that of membranes produced using vacuum-assisted laboratory techniques. (PNNL-SA-117497)

  18. Underwater plasma discharge and its water treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sukhwal; Huh, Jin Young; Kim, Kangil; Hong, Yong Cheol; National Fusion Research Institute Team; Chonbuk National University Team; Kwangwoon University Team; NPAC Team

    2016-09-01

    In recent, the quality of water has been exacerbated by the influx of wastewater and water pollutants. There have been frequent occurrences of water blooms due to the eutrophication of river. Therefore, the needs for water treatment are increased through effective and environment-friendly method. In this work, we propose the plasma system to overcome the problems mentioned above using underwater discharge plasma. The underwater discharges are generated by capillary electrode, and have the advantages of low cost, high efficiency and eco-friendly processing. The proposed technologies can be suitable for eliminating cyanobacteria, decreasing the concentration of oil dissolved in water, and purifying wastewater. Cyanobacteria is killed directly by the underwater discharge and water-dissolved oil and heavy-metal wastewater are purified by coagulation effect, which may result from the chemical reactions of underwater plasma. Consequently, these technologies using underwater discharge can be alternative methods to replace the existing technologies.

  19. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  20. Serum proteomics of glioma: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Nijaguna, Mamatha B; Kumar, Durairaj Mohan

    2009-10-01

    The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma, the most malignant adult glial brain tumor, remains poor in spite of advances in treatment procedures, including surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy. Genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma warrants extensive studies in order to gain a thorough understanding of the biology of this tumor. While there have been several studies of global transcript profiling of glioma with the identification of gene signatures for diagnosis and disease management, translation into clinics is yet to happen. Serum biomarkers have the potential to revolutionize the process of cancer diagnosis, grading, prognostication and treatment response monitoring. Besides having the advantage that serum can be obtained through a less invasive procedure, it contains molecules at an extraordinary dynamic range of ten orders of magnitude in terms of their concentrations. While the conventional methods, such as 2DE, have been in use for many years, the ability to identify the proteins through mass spectrometry techniques such as MALDI-TOF led to an explosion of interest in proteomics. Relatively new high-throughput proteomics methods such as SELDI-TOF and protein microarrays are expected to hasten the process of serum biomarker discovery. This review will highlight the recent advances in the proteomics platform in discovering serum biomarkers and the current status of glioma serum markers. We aim to provide the principles and potential of the latest proteomic approaches and their applications in the biomarker discovery process. Besides providing a comprehensive list of available serum biomarkers of glioma, we will also propose how these markers will revolutionize the clinical management of glioma patients.

  1. General Characterization Methods for Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinjian; Cai, Lili; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Xiaolin; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a very promising technology that converts water into clean hydrogen fuel and oxygen by using solar light. However, the characterization methods for PEC cells are diverse and a systematic introduction to characterization methods for PEC cells has rarely been attempted. Unlike most other review articles that focus mainly on the material used for the working electrodes of PEC cells, this review introduces general characterization methods for PEC cells, including their basic configurations and methods for characterizing their performance under various conditions, regardless of the materials used. Detailed experimental operation procedures with theoretical information are provided for each characterization method. The PEC research area is rapidly expanding and more researchers are beginning to devote themselves to related work. Therefore, the content of this Minireview can provide entry-level knowledge to beginners in the area of PEC, which might accelerate progress in this area.

  2. Visualization of oxygen transfer across the air-water interface using a fluorescence oxygen visualization method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhee

    2002-04-01

    Oxygen concentration fields in a water body were visualized by the fluorescence oxygen visualization (FOV) method. Pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) was used as a fluorescent indicator of oxygen, and an intensive charge coupled-device (ICCD) camera as an image detector. Sequential images (over 2000 images) of the oxygen concentration field around the surface water of the tank (1 x 1 x 0.75 m3) were produced during the 3 h experiment. From image processing, the accurate pathway of oxygen-rich, cold water at the water surface was also visualized. The amount of oxygen transferred through the air-water interface during the experiment was measured and the oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)) was determined as 0.22 m/d, which was much higher than that is expected in molecular diffusion. Results suggest that vertical penetration of cold water was the main pathway of oxygen in the water body in the tank. The average velocity of cold water penetrating downward in water body was also measured from consecutive images and the value was 0.3-0.6 mm/s. The FOV method used in this research should have wide application in experimental fluid mechanics and can also provide a phenomenological description of oxygen transfer under physically realizable natural conditions in lakes and reservoirs.

  3. The water exchange method for colonoscopy-effect of coaching

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, R; Fan, RS; Fischer, LS; Friedland, S; Ho, SB; Hsieh, YH; Hung, I; Li, MK; Matsui, S; Mcquaid, KR; Ohning, G; Ojuri, A; Sato, T; Shergill, AK; Shoham, MA; Simons, TC; Walter, MH; Yen, A

    2012-01-01

    The growing popularity of water immersion is supported by its long history as an adjunct to air insufflation; after facilitating colonoscope passage, the infused water is conveniently removed during withdrawal. Water exchange, a modification of water immersion to minimize discomfort in scheduled unsedated patients in the U.S. is new. Even though it may be superior in reducing pain and increasing adenoma detection, the paradigm shift to complete exclusion of air during insertion necessitates removal of infused water containing residual feces, a step often perceived as laborious and time-consuming. The nuances are the efficient steps to remove infused water predominantly during insertion to maintain minimal distension and deliver salvage cleansing. Mastery of the novel maneuvers with practice returns insertion time towards baseline. In this observational study the impact of direct verbal coaching on the primary outcome of intention-to-treat cecal intubation was assessed. The results showed that 14 of 19 (74%) experienced colonoscopists achieved 100% intention-to-treat cecal intubation. Initiation of the examination with water exchange did not preclude completion when conversion to the more familiar air insufflation method was deemed necessary to achieve cecal intubation (total 98%). The overall intention-to-treat cecal intubation rate was 88%, 90% in male and 87% in female. Only 2.7% of bowel preparation was rated as poor during withdrawal. The mean volume of water infused and cecal intubation time was 1558 ml and 18 min, respectively. Direct coaching appears to facilitate understanding of the nuances of the water exchange method. Studies of individual learning curves are necessary. PMID:23805391

  4. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature.

    PubMed

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles), the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.

  5. Application of ``water only`` cyclone in Slovak steam coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Jakabsky, S.; Lovas, M.; Hredzak, S.

    1998-12-31

    The paper deals with the possibilities of water only cyclone application in steam coal preparation with the aim to decrease the ash content in coal and to increase the coal heating value. The steam coal of the three Slovak coal localities from the Upper Nitra Basin was subjected to separation in a hydrocyclone without using a heavy medium. The influence of pressure and solid particle concentration is described. The steam coal preparation scheme proposal including the water only cyclones is also introduced.

  6. Impact of artificial monolayer application on stored water quality at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, P; Martínez-Alvarez, V; Hancock, N; Gallego-Elvira, B

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation mitigation has the potential to significantly improve water use efficiency, with repeat applications of artificial monolayer formulations the most cost-effective strategy for large water storages. Field investigations of the impact of artificial monolayers on water quality have been limited by wind and wave turbulence, and beaching. Two suspended covers differing in permeability to wind and light were used to attenuate wind turbulence, to favour the maintenance of a condensed monolayer at the air/water interface of a 10 m diameter tank. An octadecanol formulation was applied twice-weekly to one of two covered tanks, while a third clean water tank remained uncovered for the 14-week duration of the trial. Microlayer and subsurface water samples were extracted once a week to distinguish impacts associated with the installation of covers, from the impact of prolonged monolayer application. The monolayer was selectively toxic to some phytoplankton, but the toxicity of hydrocarbons leaching from a replacement liner had a greater impact. Monolayer application did not increase water temperature, humified dissolved organic matter, or the biochemical oxygen demand, and did not reduce dissolved oxygen. The impact of an octadecanol monolayer on water quality and the microlayer may not be as detrimental as previously considered.

  7. Application of pulsed photoacoustics in water at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, S S; Hannigan, J; MacKenzie, H A

    1999-08-20

    The application of pulsed photoacoustics to the study of liquids at pressures of up to 350 bars is discussed. The design and development of an in-line sensor for the subsea monitoring of crude oil concentrations in water is reported. Crude oil detection sensitivities at parts per million concentrations were achieved with prototype instrumentation. A comparison of experimental results and a theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of the pulsed photoacoustic response from water is outlined. The results demonstrate that existing models that describe pulsed photoacoustic generation in liquids are applicable to high-pressure conditions.

  8. Application of Pulsed Photoacoustics in Water at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeborn, Scott S.; Hannigan, John; MacKenzie, Hugh A.

    1999-08-01

    The application of pulsed photoacoustics to the study of liquids at pressures of up to 350 bars is discussed. The design and development of an in-line sensor for the subsea monitoring of crude oil concentrations in water is reported. Crude oil detection sensitivities at parts per million concentrations were achieved with prototype instrumentation. A comparison of experimental results and a theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of the pulsed photoacoustic response from water is outlined. The results demonstrate that existing models that describe pulsed photoacoustic generation in liquids are applicable to high-pressure conditions.

  9. Method for Estimating the Acoustic Pressure in Tissues Using Low-Amplitude Measurements in Water.

    PubMed

    Keravnou, Christina P; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple, reliable and reproducible method for accuracy in estimating the acoustic pressure delivered in tissue exposed to ultrasound. Such a method would be useful for therapeutic applications of ultrasound with microbubbles, for example, sonoporation. The method is based on (i) low-amplitude water measurements that are easily made and do not suffer from non-linear propagation effects, and (ii) the attenuation coefficient of the tissue of interest. The range of validity of the extrapolation method for different attenuation and pressure values was evaluated with a non-linear propagation theoretical model. Depending on the specific tissue attenuation, the method produces good estimates of pressures in excess of 10 MPa. Ex vivo machine-perfused pig liver tissue was used to validate the method for source pressures up to 3.5 MPa. The method can be used to estimate the delivered pressure in vivo in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound.

  10. Method and apparatus for collaborative use of application program

    DOEpatents

    Dean, Craig D.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus permitting the collaborative use of a computer application program simultaneously by multiple users at different stations. The method is useful with communication protocols having client/server control structures. The method of the invention requires only a sole executing copy of the application program and a sole executing copy of software comprising the invention. Users may collaboratively use a set of application programs by invoking for each desired application program one copy of software comprising the invention.

  11. A novel method for measuring polymer-water partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tengyi; Jafvert, Chad T; Fu, Dafang; Hu, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) often is used as the sorbent material in passive sampling devices to estimate the average temporal chemical concentration in water bodies or sediment pore water. To calculate water phase chemical concentrations from LDPE concentrations accurately, it is necessary to know the LDPE-water partition coefficients (KPE-w) of the chemicals of interest. However, even moderately hydrophobic chemicals have large KPE-w values, making direct measurement experimentally difficult. In this study we evaluated a simple three phase system from which KPE-w can be determined easily and accurately. In the method, chemical equilibrium distribution between LDPE and a surfactant micelle pseudo-phase is measured, with the ratio of these concentrations equal to the LDPE-micelle partition coefficient (KPE-mic). By employing sufficient mass of polymer and surfactant (Brij 30), the mass of chemical in the water phase remains negligible, albeit in equilibrium. In parallel, the micelle-water partition coefficient (Kmic-w) is determined experimentally. KPE-w is the product of KPE-mic and Kmic-w. The method was applied to measure values of KPE-w for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls, and 9 polybrominated diphenylethers. These values were compared to literature values. Mass fraction-based chemical activity coefficients (γ) were determined in each phase and showed that for each chemical, the micelles and LDPE had nearly identical affinity.

  12. Methods of disinfection of the water system of dental units by water chlorination.

    PubMed

    Fiehn, N E; Henriksen, K

    1988-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple disinfection method for reducing the content of bacteria in the water system of dental units to an acceptable level. The study was carried out at the Royal Dental College, Copenhagen, on 250 dental units. Samples of the cooling water supplying the ultrasonic scalers and of the water supplying the water glasses were obtained from eight different units representing different parts of the school. Disinfection of the water system was carried out by addition of chlorine to the pipe water near the institution's main water intake. The chlorination of the water was automatically regulated, and the installation was so flexible that the concentration of chlorine and the time and frequency of the chlorination could be varied. Different modes of chlorine dosage were examined. Before chlorination, the bacterial content in the water system of the units was about 10(4)-10(5) cfu/mL. It was found that an intermittent chlorination with 0.5-1 ppm chlorine for 10 minutes every day could reduce the normal bacterial counts in the water system to about a few hundred per mL.

  13. [Methods of disinfection of water systems in dental units by water chlorination].

    PubMed

    Fiehn, N E; Henriksen, K

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple disinfection method to reduce the content of bacteria in the water system of dental units to an acceptable level. The study was carried out at the Royal Dental College, Copenhagen on 250 dental units. Samples of the cooling water to the ultrasonic scalers and of the water to the water glasses were obtained from eight different units representing different parts of the school. Disinfection of the water system was carried out by addition of chlorine to the pipe water near the main water intake to the institution. The chlorination af the water was automatically regulated, and the installation was so flexible that the concentration of chlorine and the time and frequency of the chlorination could be varied. Different modes of dosage of chlorine were examined. Before chlorination the bacterial content in the water system of the units was about 10(4)-10(5) c.f.u./ml. It was found that an intermittent chlorination with 0.5-1 ppm chlorine for 10 min. every day could normally reduce the bacterial counts in the water system to about a few hundreds per ml.

  14. Testing contamination source identification methods for water distribution networks

    DOE PAGES

    Seth, Arpan; Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John D.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In the event of contamination in a water distribution network (WDN), source identification (SI) methods that analyze sensor data can be used to identify the source location(s). Knowledge of the source location and characteristics are important to inform contamination control and cleanup operations. Various SI strategies that have been developed by researchers differ in their underlying assumptions and solution techniques. The following manuscript presents a systematic procedure for testing and evaluating SI methods. The performance of these SI methods is affected by various factors including the size of WDN model, measurement error, modeling error, time and number of contaminant injections,more » and time and number of measurements. This paper includes test cases that vary these factors and evaluates three SI methods on the basis of accuracy and specificity. The tests are used to review and compare these different SI methods, highlighting their strengths in handling various identification scenarios. These SI methods and a testing framework that includes the test cases and analysis tools presented in this paper have been integrated into EPA’s Water Security Toolkit (WST), a suite of software tools to help researchers and others in the water industry evaluate and plan various response strategies in case of a contamination incident. Lastly, a set of recommendations are made for users to consider when working with different categories of SI methods.« less

  15. Testing contamination source identification methods for water distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Arpan; Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John D.; Haxton, Terranna; Laird, Carl D.

    2016-04-01

    In the event of contamination in a water distribution network (WDN), source identification (SI) methods that analyze sensor data can be used to identify the source location(s). Knowledge of the source location and characteristics are important to inform contamination control and cleanup operations. Various SI strategies that have been developed by researchers differ in their underlying assumptions and solution techniques. The following manuscript presents a systematic procedure for testing and evaluating SI methods. The performance of these SI methods is affected by various factors including the size of WDN model, measurement error, modeling error, time and number of contaminant injections, and time and number of measurements. This paper includes test cases that vary these factors and evaluates three SI methods on the basis of accuracy and specificity. The tests are used to review and compare these different SI methods, highlighting their strengths in handling various identification scenarios. These SI methods and a testing framework that includes the test cases and analysis tools presented in this paper have been integrated into EPA’s Water Security Toolkit (WST), a suite of software tools to help researchers and others in the water industry evaluate and plan various response strategies in case of a contamination incident. Lastly, a set of recommendations are made for users to consider when working with different categories of SI methods.

  16. Electron deposition in water vapor, with atmospheric applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivero, J. J.; Stagat, R. W.; Green, A. E. S.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the consequences of electron impact on water vapor in terms of the microscopic details of excitation, dissociation, ionization, and combinations of these processes. Basic electron-impact cross-section data are assembled in many forms and are incorporated into semianalytic functions suitable for analysis with digital computers. Energy deposition in water vapor is discussed, and the energy loss function is presented, along with the 'electron volts per ion pair' and the efficiencies of energy loss in various processes. Several applications of electron and water-vapor interactions in the atmospheric sciences are considered, in particular, H2O comets, aurora and airglow, and lightning.

  17. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  18. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  20. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the...

  4. Detection of Organic Compounds in Water by an Optical Absorbance Method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chihoon; Eom, Joo Beom; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optical method which allows determination of the organic compound concentration in water by measurement of the UV (ultraviolet) absorption at a wavelength of 250 nm~300 nm. The UV absorbance was analyzed by means of a multiple linear regression model for estimation of the total organic carbon contents in water, which showed a close correlation with the UV absorbance, demonstrating a high adjusted coefficient of determination, 0.997. The comparison of the TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations for real samples (tab water, sea, and river) calculated from the UV absorbance spectra, and those measured by a conventional TOC analyzer indicates that the higher the TOC value the better the agreement. This UV absorbance method can be easily configured for real-time monitoring water pollution, and built into a compact system applicable to industry areas. PMID:26742043

  5. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.

  6. Automatic Measurement of Water Levels by Using Image Identification Method in Open Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Yang, Han; Xue Yang, Jia

    2014-05-01

    Water level data is indispensable to hydrology research, and it is important information for hydraulic engineering and overall utilization of water resources. The information of water level can be transmitted to management office by the network so that the management office may well understand whether the river level is exceeding the warning line. The existing water level measurement method can only present water levels in a form of data without any of images, the methods which make data just be a data and lack the sense of reality. Those images such as the rising or overflow of river level that the existing measurement method cannot obtain simultaneously. Therefore, this research employs a newly, improved method for water level measurement. Through the Video Surveillance System to record the images on site, an image of water surface will be snapped, and then the snapped image will be pre-processed and be compared with its altitude reference value to obtain a water level altitude value. With the ever-growing technology, the application scope of image identification is widely in increase. This research attempts to use image identification technology to analyze water level automatically. The image observation method used in this research is one of non-contact water level gage but it is quite different from other ones; the image observation method is cheap and the facilities can be set up beside an embankment of river or near the houses, thus the impact coming from external factors will be significantly reduced, and a real scene picture will be transmitted through wireless transmission. According to the dynamic water flow test held in an indoor experimental channel, the results of the research indicated that all of error levels of water level identification were less than 2% which meant the image identification could achieve identification result at different water levels. This new measurement method can offer instant river level figures and on-site video so that a

  7. An improved PCA method with application to boiler leak detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Marquez, Horacio J; Chen, Tongwen; Riaz, Muhammad

    2005-07-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular fault detection technique. It has been widely used in process industries, especially in the chemical industry. In industrial applications, achieving a sensitive system capable of detecting incipient faults, which maintains the false alarm rate to a minimum, is a crucial issue. Although a lot of research has been focused on these issues for PCA-based fault detection and diagnosis methods, sensitivity of the fault detection scheme versus false alarm rate continues to be an important issue. In this paper, an improved PCA method is proposed to address this problem. In this method, a new data preprocessing scheme and a new fault detection scheme designed for Hotelling's T2 as well as the squared prediction error are developed. A dynamic PCA model is also developed for boiler leak detection. This new method is applied to boiler water/steam leak detection with real data from Syncrude Canada's utility plant in Fort McMurray, Canada. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce false alarm rate, provide effective and correct leak alarms, and give early warning to operators.

  8. On Applicability of Formal Methods and Tools to Dependable Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    As a variety of digital services are provided through networks, more and more efforts are made to ensure dependability of software behavior implementing services. Formal methods and tools have been considered as promising means to support dependability in complex software systems during the development. On the other hand, there have been serious doubts on practical applicability of formal methods. This paper overviews the present state of formal methods and discusses their applicability, especially focusing on two representative methods (SPIN and B Method) and their recent industrial applications. This paper also discusses applications of formal methods to dependable networked software.

  9. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  10. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  11. Assessing the urban water balance: the Urban Water Flow Model and its application in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Katerina; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lange, Manfred A

    2012-01-01

    Modelling the urban water balance enables the understanding of the interactions of water within an urban area and allows for better management of water resources. However, few models today provide a comprehensive overview of all water sources and uses. The objective of the current paper was to develop a user-friendly tool that quantifies and visualizes all water flows, losses and inefficiencies in urban environments. The Urban Water Flow Model was implemented in a spreadsheet and includes a water-savings application that computes the contributions of user-selected saving options to the overall water balance. The model was applied to the coastal town of Limassol, Cyprus, for the hydrologic years 2003/04-2008/09. Data were collected from the different authorities and hydrologic equations and estimations were added to complete the balance. Average precipitation was 363 mm/yr, amounting to 25.4 × 10(6)m(3)/yr, more than double the annual potable water supply to the town. Surface runoff constituted 29.6% of all outflows, while evapotranspiration from impervious areas was 21.6%. Possible potable water savings for 2008/09 were estimated at 5.3 × 10(3) m(3), which is 50% of the total potable water provided to the area. This saving would also result in a 6% reduction of surface runoff.

  12. Water jet: a promising method for cutting optical glass.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Luna, Javier; Machorro, Roberto; Camacho, Javier; Luna, Esteban; Nunez, Juan

    2006-05-20

    We present an alternative method for cutting optical glass. It works with a high-pressure fluid, carring abrasive powder. This technique offers some advantages over conventional methods that use diamond abrasive covered wires or disks. We make a critical comparison between those two techniques, characterizing cuts with interferometric, polarimetric, and Ronchi testing. The main feature of the water-jet technique is that it allows surface of any shape, already polished, to be cut safely.

  13. Water jet: a promising method for cutting optical glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Luna, Javier; Machorro, Roberto; Camacho, Javier; Luna, Esteban; Nunez, Juan

    2006-05-01

    We present an alternative method for cutting optical glass. It works with a high-pressure fluid, carring abrasive powder. This technique offers some advantages over conventional methods that use diamond abrasive covered wires or disks. We make a critical comparison between those two techniques, characterizing cuts with interferometric, polarimetric, and Ronchi testing. The main feature of the water-jet technique is that it allows surface of any shape, already polished, to be cut safely.

  14. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  15. Determination of the Electronics Charge--Electrolysis of Water Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatachar, Arun C.

    1985-01-01

    Presents an alternative method for measuring the electronic charge using data from the electrolysis of acidified distilled water. The process (carried out in a commercially available electrolytic cell) has the advantage of short completion time so that students can determine electron charge and mass in one laboratory period. (DH)

  16. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  17. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance with... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of Application. 18.6 Section...

  18. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  19. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  20. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  1. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  2. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  3. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  4. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  5. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  6. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  7. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  8. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  9. One-Step Coating toward Multifunctional Applications: Oil/Water Mixtures and Emulsions Separation and Contaminants Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yingze; Liu, Na; Zhang, Weifeng; Feng, Lin; Wei, Yen

    2016-02-10

    Here, a method that can simultaneously separate oil/water mixtures and remove water-soluble contaminants has been developed. Various substrates with different pore size were coated by polydopamine and polyethylenepolyamine codeposition films. The as-prepared materials were superhydrophilic and under-water superoleophobic. The materials can separate a range of different oil/water mixtures (including immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactant-stabilized emulsions) in a single unit operation, with >99.6% separation efficiency and high fluxes. Copper ion and methyl blue can be effectively absorbed from water when it permeates through the materials. This method can be applied on organic and inorganic substrates and used in preparing large-scale product. Therefore, the simple and facile method has excellent potential in practical application and creates a new field for oil/water separation materials with multifunctional applications.

  10. Using the Method of Water Poverty Index (WPI) to Evaluate the Region Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Kachanoski, G.

    2008-12-01

    Water security is a widely concerned issue in the world nowadays. A new method, water poverty index (WPI), has been used to evaluate the regional water security. Twelve state farms in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China were selected to evaluate water security status based on the data of 2006 by using WPI and mean deviation grading method. The method of WPI includes five key indexes, such as resources(R), access (A), capacity(C), utilization (U) and environment (E). Each key index includes several sub-indexes. According to the results of WPI, the grade of each farm has been calculated by using the method of mean deviation grading. Thus, the radar images can be protracted of each farm. From the radar images, the conclusions can be drawn that the WPI values of Farms 853 and Hongqiling were in very safe status, while that of Farm Raohe was in safe status, those of Farms Youyi, 597, 852, 291 and Jiangchuan were in moderate safe status, that of Farm Beixing was in low safe status and those of Farms Shuangyashan, Shuguang and Baoshan were in unsafe status. The results from this study can provide basic information for decision making on rational use of water resources and regulations for regional water safety guarantee system.

  11. NEOCHIM: An electrochemical method for environmental application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Meier, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ion migration and electroosmosis are the principal processes underlying electrokinetic remediation of hazardous wastes from soils. These processes are a response of charged species to an applied electrical current and they are accompanied by electrolysis of water at the electrodes through which the current is applied. Electrolysis results in the formation of OH- at the cathode and H+ at the anode. The current drives the OH- and H+ thus formed from the electrodes, through the soil and to the electrode of opposite charge. Introduction of OH- and H+ into the soil being treated modifies soil chemistry and can interfere with either the collection or immobilization of hazardous waste ions. The introduction of either OH- or H+ to the soil can be problematic to electrokinetic remediation but the problem caused by OH- has been the focus of most researchers. The problem has been addressed by flushing the OH- from the soil near the cathode or treating the soil with buffers. These treatments would apply as well to soils affected by H+. With the NEOCHIM technology, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use as a sampling technique in exploration for buried ore deposits, OH- and H+ are retained in the inner compartment of two-compartment electrodes and are thus prevented from reaching the soil. This enables the extraction of cations and anions, including anionic forms of toxic metals such as HAsO42-. One of the principal attributes of NEOCHIM is the large volume of soil from which ions can be extracted. It is mathematically demonstrable that NEOCHIM extraction volumes can be orders of magnitude greater than volumes typically sampled in more conventional geochemical exploration methods or for environmental sampling. The technology may also be used to introduce selected ions into the soil that affect the solubility of ceratin ions present in the soil. Although field tests for mineral exploration have shown NEOCHIM extraction efficiencies of about 25-35%, laboratory

  12. Estimating basin scale evapotranspiration (ET) by water balance and remote sensing methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Leake, S.; Nagler, P.L.; Artan, G.; Dickinson, J.; Cordova, J.T.; Glenn, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important hydrological process that can be studied and estimated at multiple spatial scales ranging from a leaf to a river basin. We present a review of methods in estimating basin scale ET and its applications in understanding basin water balance dynamics. The review focuses on two aspects of ET: (i) how the basin scale water balance approach is used to estimate ET; and (ii) how ‘direct’ measurement and modelling approaches are used to estimate basin scale ET. Obviously, the basin water balance-based ET requires the availability of good precipitation and discharge data to calculate ET as a residual on longer time scales (annual) where net storage changes are assumed to be negligible. ET estimated from such a basin water balance principle is generally used for validating the performance of ET models. On the other hand, many of the direct estimation methods involve the use of remotely sensed data to estimate spatially explicit ET and use basin-wide averaging to estimate basin scale ET. The direct methods can be grouped into soil moisture balance modelling, satellite-based vegetation index methods, and methods based on satellite land surface temperature measurements that convert potential ET into actual ET using a proportionality relationship. The review also includes the use of complementary ET estimation principles for large area applications. The review identifies the need to compare and evaluate the different ET approaches using standard data sets in basins covering different hydro-climatic regions of the world.

  13. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

  14. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  15. Fuzzy pricing for urban water resources: model construction and application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ranhang; Chen, Shouyu

    2008-08-01

    A rational water price system plays a crucial role in the optimal allocation of water resources. In this paper, a fuzzy pricing model for urban water resources is presented, which consists of a multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model and a water resources price (WRP) computation model. Various factors affecting WRP are comprehensively evaluated with multiple levels and objectives in the multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model, while the price vectors of water resources are constructed in the WRP computation model according to the definition of the bearing water price index, and then WRP is calculated. With the incorporation of an operator's knowledge, it considers iterative weights and subjective preference of operators for weight-assessment. The weights determined are more rational and the evaluation results are more realistic. Particularly, dual water supply is considered in the study. Different prices being fixed for water resources with different qualities conforms to the law of water resources value (WRV) itself. A high-quality groundwater price computation model is also proposed to provide optimal water allocation and to meet higher living standards. The developed model is applied in Jinan for evaluating its validity. The method presented in this paper offers some new directions in the research of WRP.

  16. Evaluation of super-water reducers for highway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, D.

    1981-03-01

    Super-water reducers were characterized and evaluated as potential candidates for production of low water to cement ratio, high strength concretes for highway construction applications. Admixtures were composed of either naphthalene or melamine sulfonated formaldehyde condensates. A mini-slump procedure was used to assess dosage requirements and behavior of workability with time of cement pastes. Required dosage was found to be a function of tricalcium aluminate content, alkali content, and fineness of the cement. Concretes exhibited high rates of slump loss when super-water reducers were used. The most promising area of application of these products appears to be in production of dense, high cement content concrete using mobile concrete mixer/transporters.

  17. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  18. Escherichia coli in marine water: Comparison of methods for the assessment of recreational bathing water samples.

    PubMed

    Lušić, Darija Vukić; Jozić, Slaven; Cenov, Arijana; Glad, Marin; Bulić, Marko; Lušić, Dražen

    2016-12-15

    Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) specifies two reference methods for Escherichia coli detection: ISO 9308-1 and 9308-3. The revised ISO 9308-1 is recommended only for waters with a low bacterial background flora. Considering the extended time needed for analysis and, generally, the lack of experience in using ISO 9308-3 in the Mediterranean, the suitability of ISO 9308-1 for the examination of E. coli in bathing water was evaluated. The present study was aimed at a comparison of data obtained by the reference method in seawater samples (110 beaches, N=477) with data received from six alternative methods. Results show that recently used TSA/TBA method may overestimate E. coli numbers in marine waters. The temperature modified ISO 9308-1 (44°C) did not significantly alter the results, but outperformed the antibiotic supplemented agar at reducing non-E. coli bacteria on the plates, allowing the use of the respective method for monitoring coastal water.

  19. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation in ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Martina; Kompare, Boris; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2015-05-01

    Ballast water is, together with hull fouling and aquaculture, considered the most important factor of the worldwide transfer of invasive non-indigenous organisms in aquatic ecosystems and the most important factor in European Union. With the aim of preventing and halting the spread of the transfer of invasive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and also in accordance with IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, the systems for ballast water treatment, whose work includes, e.g. chemical treatment, ozonation and filtration, are used. Although hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is used in many different areas, such as science and engineering, implied acoustics, biomedicine, botany, chemistry and hydraulics, the application of HC in ballast water treatment area remains insufficiently researched. This paper presents the first literature review that studies lab- and large-scale setups for ballast water treatment together with the type-approved systems currently available on the market that use HC as a step in their operation. This paper deals with the possible advantages and disadvantages of such systems, as well as their influence on the crew and marine environment. It also analyses perspectives on the further development and application of HC in ballast water treatment.

  20. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  1. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  2. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  3. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  4. Predicting recreational water quality advisories: A comparison of statistical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Wesley R.; Corsi, Steven R.; Fienen, Michael N.; Carvin, Rebecca B.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water are associated with illnesses among people having contact with the water. In order to mitigate public health impacts, many beaches are posted with an advisory when the concentration of FIB exceeds a beach action value. The most commonly used method of measuring FIB concentration takes 18–24 h before returning a result. In order to avoid the 24 h lag, it has become common to ”nowcast” the FIB concentration using statistical regressions on environmental surrogate variables. Most commonly, nowcast models are estimated using ordinary least squares regression, but other regression methods from the statistical and machine learning literature are sometimes used. This study compares 14 regression methods across 7 Wisconsin beaches to identify which consistently produces the most accurate predictions. A random forest model is identified as the most accurate, followed by multiple regression fit using the adaptive LASSO.

  5. A new method for water desalination using microbial desalination cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoxin; Huang, Xia; Liang, Peng; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shown here that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Omega to 970 Omega at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria.

  6. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila.

  7. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  8. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hee Jeong; Shin, Su Ryon; Cha, Jae Min; Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature. The properties (mechanical strength, water swelling degree and degradation rate) of fish GelMA differed from those of porcine GelMA, and could be tuned to suit diverse applications. Cells adhered, proliferated, and formed networks with surrounding cells on fish GelMA, and maintained high initial cell viability. These data suggest that fish GelMA could be utilized in a variety of biomedical fields as a substitute for mammalian-derived materials. PMID:27723807

  9. Corn and sorghum performance are affected by irrigation application method: SDI versus Mid-elevation spray irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  10. Corn and sorghum performance are affected by irrigation application method: SDI versus mid-elevation spray irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency (WUE), but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through the planting, early growth and yield developme...

  11. Corn and sorghum performance affected by irrigation application method:SDI versus mid-elevation spray irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  12. A rapid analytical technique for the determination of energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Barrie, A; Coward, W A

    1985-09-01

    The doubly labelled water method involves the administration of water enriched in 2H and 18O followed by determination of the turnover rates of these isotopes. Since 18O is eliminated from the body as both CO2 and water, while 2H leaves only as water, the difference between the two turnover rates provides a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Isotopic analysis by conventional stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) is labour intensive and time consuming, as it requires off-line conversion of water samples to gases (H2 and CO2) followed by sequential analysis for each of the two isotopes using the mass spectrometer. Lack of suitable automated instrumentation with the ability to process large numbers of samples has prevented routine application of the method. We describe here an automated technique in which body water samples (urine, saliva, breath water or milk) are analysed simultaneously for 2H and 18O. The single bench system comprises two mass spectrometer analysers, one for measuring 2H from H2 gas, the other for measuring 18O from the water vapour (masses 18, 20). Both analysers share a common heated inlet system into which microlitre quantities of the body fluids are injected from an autosampler (102 samples). The water vapour flows both directly to one analyser for 18O measurement and into a uranium reduction furnace for conversion to H2, prior to 2H measurement by the second analyser. Both analysers also share vacuum and electronic components, enabling savings in both space and cost. In this paper we present results illustrating performance characteristics and procedures for routine application to human subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Adaptation of the doubly labeled water method for subjects consuming isotopically enriched water.

    PubMed

    Gretebeck, R J; Schoeller, D A; Socki, R A; Davis-Street, J; Gibson, E K; Schulz, L O; Lane, H W

    1997-02-01

    The use of doubly labeled water (DLW) to measure energy expenditure is subject to error if the background abundance of the oxygen and hydrogen isotope tracers changes during the test period. This study evaluated the accuracy and precision of different methods by which such background isotope changes can be corrected, including a modified method that allows prediction of the baseline that would be achieved if subjects were to consume water from a given source indefinitely. Subjects in this study were eight women (4 test subjects and 4 control subjects) who consumed for 28 days water enriched to resemble drinking water aboard the United States space shuttle. Test subjects and control subjects were given a DLW dose on days 1 and 15, respectively. The change to an enriched water source produced a bias in expenditure calculations that exceeded 2.9 MJ/day (35%), relative to calculations from intake-balance. The proposed correction based on the predicted final abundance of 18O and deuterium after equilibration to the new water source eliminated this bias, as did the traditional use of a control group. This new modified correction method is advantageous under field conditions when subject numbers are limited.

  14. Latex-like water-borne polyaniline for coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Clark, R.; Yang, S.C.

    1998-07-01

    The authors report the synthesis of a polymeric complex of polyaniline that is dispersed in water as a stable suspension. The polymer, PAN:PVME-MLA, is a molecular complex of polyaniline and poly(vinylmethylether-co-maleic acid). The synthetic process leads to a stable latex-like suspension in water. The water-borne conducting polymer, once dried as a thin film on a substrate, is not dissolvable by water or other solvents. An example of piece-dyeing process is presented to show its potential for electrostatic dissipation of textile products. Another example illustrates that the material may be used as electroactive thin-films for electrochromic windows and for rechargeable battery applications.

  15. Standardised survey method for identifying catchment risks to water quality.

    PubMed

    Baker, D L; Ferguson, C M; Chier, P; Warnecke, M; Watkinson, A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a systematic methodology to identify and quantify risks in drinking water and recreational catchments. The methodology assesses microbial and chemical contaminants from both diffuse and point sources within a catchment using Escherichia coli, protozoan pathogens and chemicals (including fuel and pesticides) as index contaminants. Hazard source information is gathered by a defined sanitary survey process involving use of a software tool which groups hazards into six types: sewage infrastructure, on-site sewage systems, industrial, stormwater, agriculture and recreational sites. The survey estimates the likelihood of the site affecting catchment water quality, and the potential consequences, enabling the calculation of risk for individual sites. These risks are integrated to calculate a cumulative risk for each sub-catchment and the whole catchment. The cumulative risks process accounts for the proportion of potential input sources surveyed and for transfer of contaminants from upstream to downstream sub-catchments. The output risk matrices show the relative risk sources for each of the index contaminants, highlighting those with the greatest impact on water quality at a sub-catchment and catchment level. Verification of the sanitary survey assessments and prioritisation is achieved by comparison with water quality data and microbial source tracking.

  16. A new method of snowmelt sampling for water stable isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penna, D.; Ahmad, M.; Birks, S. J.; Bouchaou, L.; Brencic, M.; Butt, S.; Holko, L.; Jeelani, G.; Martinez, D. E.; Melikadze, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Sokratov, S. A.; Stadnyk, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Vreca, P.

    2014-01-01

    We modified a passive capillary sampler (PCS) to collect snowmelt water for isotopic analysis. Past applications of PCSs have been to sample soil water, but the novel aspect of this study was the placement of the PCSs at the ground-snowpack interface to collect snowmelt. We deployed arrays of PCSs at 11 sites in ten partner countries on five continents representing a range of climate and snow cover worldwide. The PCS reliably collected snowmelt at all sites and caused negligible evaporative fractionation effects in the samples. PCS is low-cost, easy to install, and collects a representative integrated snowmelt sample throughout the melt season or at the melt event scale. Unlike snow cores, the PCS collects the water that would actually infiltrate the soil; thus, its isotopic composition is appropriate to use for tracing snowmelt water through the hydrologic cycle. The purpose of this Briefing is to show the potential advantages of PCSs and recommend guidelines for constructing and installing them based on our preliminary results from two snowmelt seasons.

  17. Rapid method for measuring rotenone in water at piscicidal concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Harman, P.D.; Schultz, D.P.; Allen, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure that is rapid, specific, and sensitive (limit of detection <0.005 mg/liter) was developed for monitoring application and degradation rates of rotenone. For analysis, a water sample is buffered to pH 5 and injected through a Sep Pak(R) C18 disposable cartridge. The cartridge adsorbs and retains the rotenone which then can be eluted quantitatively from the cartridge with a small volume of methanol. This step effectively concentrates the sample and provides sample cleanup. The methanol extract is analyzed directly by HPLC on an MCH 10 reverse-phase column; methanol: water (75:25, volume : volume) is the mobile phase and flow rate is 1.5 ml/minute. The rotenone is detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 295 nm.

  18. Methods of measuring water levels in deep wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garber, M.S.; Koopman, F. C.

    1968-01-01

    Accurate measurement of water levels deeper than 1,000 feet in wells requires specialized equipment. Corrections for stretch and thermal expansion of measuring tapes must be considered, and other measuring devices must be calibrated periodically. Bore-hole deviation corrections also must be made. Devices for recording fluctuation of fluid level usually require mechanical modification for use at these depths. A multichannel recording device utilizing pressure transducers has been constructed. This device was originally designed to record aquifer response to nearby underground nuclear explosions but can also be used for recording data from multi-well pumping tests. Bottom-hole recording devices designed for oil-field use have been utilized in a limited manner. These devices were generally found to lack the precision required, in ground-water investigations at the Nevada Test Site but may be applicable in other areas. A newly developed bottom-hole recording pressure gauge of improved accuracy has been used with satisfactory results.

  19. Fabrication and Water Treatment Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)-Based Composite Membranes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lining; Dong, Xinfa; Chen, Mingliang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Chaoxian; Yang, Fenglin; Dong, Yingchao

    2017-01-01

    Membrane separation technology is widely explored for various applications, such as water desalination and wastewater treatment, which can alleviate the global issue of fresh water scarcity. Specifically, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based composite membranes are increasingly of interest due to the combined merits of CNTs and membrane separation, offering enhanced membrane properties. This article first briefly discusses fabrication and growth mechanisms, characterization and functionalization techniques of CNTs, and then reviews the fabrication methods for CNTs-based composite membranes in detail. The applications of CNTs-based composite membranes in water treatment are comprehensively reviewed, including seawater or brine desalination, oil-water separation, removal of heavy metal ions and emerging pollutants as well as membrane separation coupled with assistant techniques. Furthermore, the future direction and perspective for CNTs-based composite membranes are also briefly outlined. PMID:28335452

  20. Polyoxometalate water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

    2014-09-02

    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  1. Selective demineralization of water by nanofiltration application to the defluorination of brackish water.

    PubMed

    Lhassani, A; Rumeau, M; Benjelloun, D; Pontie, M

    2001-09-01

    Nanofiltration is generally used to separate monovalent ions from divalent ions, but it is also possible to separate ions of the same valency by careful application of the transfer mechanisms involved. Analysis of the retention of halide salts reveals that small ions like fluoride are the best retained, and that this is even more marked under reduced pressure when selectivity is greatest. The selectivity desalination of fluorinated brackish water is hence feasible and drinking water can be produced directly at much lower cost than using reverse osmosis by optimizing the pressure for the type of water treated.

  2. Soil water content assessment: seasonal effects on the triangle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Cammalleri, C.

    2016-10-01

    Among indirect estimations of the soil water content in the upper layer, the "triangle method" is based on the relationship between the optical and thermal features sensed via Earth Observation. These features are controlled by water content at surface and within root zone, but also by meteorological forcing including air temperature and humidity, and solar radiation. Night and day-time MODIS composite land-surface temperature (LST) allowed applying the thermal admittance version of the method; by taking into account the temporal admittance of the soil, this version was previously found achieving high accuracy in estimate the soil water content at high spatial resolution within a short time period (a single irrigation season). In this study, the method has been applied on a long time series to analyse the seasonal influence of the meteorological forcing on the triangle method index (or temperature vegetation index, TVX). The Imera Meridionale hydrological basin (≍ 2000 km2, Sicily) has been chosen to test the method over a decade time series, since its climate varies during the year from arid to temperate. The climate is arid for ≍3-7 months (from April-May to August- October) depending on altitude. The temporal analysis reveals that NDVI and LST pairs moves circularly within the optical and thermal diachronic feature space. Concordantly, the boundaries of the triangle move during the seasons. Results suggest that the contribution of soil water content fluctuations need to be isolated from other environmental stress factors, or at least, the conceptual meaning of TVX have to be better interpreted.

  3. Wide-field TCSPC: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Suhling, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is a widely used, robust and mature technique to measure the photon arrival time in applications such as fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, LIDAR and optical tomography. In the past few years there have been significant developments with wide-field TCSPC detectors, which can record the position as well as the arrival time of the photon simultaneously. In this review, we summarise different approaches used in wide-field TCSPC detection, and discuss their merits for different applications, with emphasis on fluorescence lifetime imaging.

  4. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  5. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  6. Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

  7. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  8. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  9. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  10. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  11. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  12. Determining the Most Appropriate Classification Methods for Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, Önder

    2016-10-01

    Assessing water resources’ quality and also monitoring them have attracted lots of attention in the recent years. Remote sensing has been growing widely in the last decade and its resources are very usable when it comes to water resources management. In this study, by using remote sensing technology, satellite images that have 350 to 1050 nanometres wavelength band sensors are used to determine the quality of the Kizilirmak River's water. Through the river's resources, ground based spectral measurements are made to identify the quality differences of the water at the test spots that have been determined before. In this context at Imranli, where the river contacts civilization for the first time, which is located in Sivas city of Turkey, samples are gathered in order to do ground based spectroradiometer measurements. These samples are gathered simultaneously with the image acquiring time of CHRIS Proba satellite. Spectral signatures that are obtained from ground measurements are used as reference data in order to classify CHRIS Proba satellite's hyperspectral images over the study area. Satellite images are classified based on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity (EC) attributes. As a result, interpretations obtained from classified CHRIS Proba satellite hyperspectral images of the study area are presented. Spectras are readied for Matched Filtering and Spectral Angle Mapper methods for determining the best classification method.

  13. A new method for determining water uptake in elderberry plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tőkei, László; Dunkel, Zoltán; Jung, András

    A considerable quantity of elderberry ( Sambucus nigra L.) fruit gets yearly on the market in Hungary. The decisive majority of this quantity is harvested from feral plants. The area of elderberry plantations is only 150-180 ha in spite of the fact that it would be possible to produce this valuable fruit on larger surface if suitable watering system were applied. The fruit of elderberry is important from the aspect of food industry. The goal of present study is promoting the effective irrigation of elder berry plantation. The experiments were carried out in the Experimental Farm of the University for Horticulture and Food Industry in Szigetcsép from 1989. The measuring of the water demand of elderberry using the heat pulse method was started in 1996. The measurement of the sap-flow in the trunk is a new element of phyto-climate researches. The development of the equipment was started in 1991 and improvement of the method is still going on. In this phase, first of all the connections between sap-flow velocity and meteorological data were investigated. Summarising the experiences of the trials it can be announced that: (1) The water circulation of elder plants principally depends on the conditions of atmosphere. It is barely sensitive to the water content of the soil. (2) The transpiration intensity reacts sensitively to the change of meteorological conditions. (3) The changing rate of the transpiration coefficient is particularly large in certain intervals of the meteorological elements.

  14. Problems of applicability of statistical methods in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, S. F.

    2015-12-15

    The problems arising from the incorrect formulation of measuring problems of identification for cosmological models and violations of conditions of applicability of statistical methods are considered.

  15. Integrated borehole logging methods for wellhead protection applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Pedler, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Modeling of ground water infiltration and movement in the wellhead area is a critical part of an effective wellhead protection program. Such models depend on an accurate description of the aquifer in the wellhead area so that reliable estimates of contaminant travel times can be used in defining a protection area. Geophysical and hydraulic measurements in boreholes provide one of the most important methods for obtaining the data needed to specify wellhead protection measures. Most effective characterization of aquifers in the wellhead vicinity results when a variety of geophysical and hydraulic measurements are made where geophysical measurements can be calibrated in terms of hydraulic variables, and where measurements are made at somewhat different scales of investigation. The application of multiple geophysical measurements to ground water flow in the wellhead area is illustrated by examples in alluvial, fractured sedimentary, and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. Data obtained from a single test well are useful, but cannot indicate how conductive elements in the aquifer are connected to form large-scale flow paths. Geophysical and hydraulic measurements made in arrays of observation boreholes can provide information about such large-scale flow paths, and are especially useful in specifying aquifer properties in wellhead protection studies.

  16. Application of short-data methods on extreme surge levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclone-induced storm surges are among the most destructive natural hazards that impact the United States. Unfortunately for academic research, the available time series for extreme surge analysis are very short. The limited data introduces uncertainty and affects the accuracy of statistical analyses of extreme surge levels. This study deals with techniques applicable to data sets less than 20 years, including simulation modelling and methods based on the parameters of the parent distribution. The verified water levels from water gauges spread along the Southwest and Southeast Florida Coast, as well as the Florida Keys, are used in this study. Methods to calculate extreme storm surges are described and reviewed, including 'classical' methods based on the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), and approaches designed specifically to deal with short data sets. Incorporating global-warming influence, the statistical analysis reveals enhanced extreme surge magnitudes and frequencies during warm years, while reduced levels of extreme surge activity are observed in the same study domain during cold years. Furthermore, a non-stationary GEV distribution is applied to predict the extreme surge levels with warming sea surface temperatures. The non-stationary GEV distribution indicates that with 1 Celsius degree warming in sea surface temperature from the baseline climate, the 100-year return surge level in Southwest and Southeast Florida will increase by up to 40 centimeters. The considered statistical approaches for extreme surge estimation based on short data sets will be valuable to coastal stakeholders, including urban planners, emergency managers, and the hurricane and storm surge forecasting and warning system.

  17. The Benchmark Farm Program : a method for estimating irrigation water use in southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Irrigation water-use data are summarized in this report for 74 farms in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Most data are for 1978-90, but 18 farms have data extending back to the early 1970's. Data include site number and location, season and year, crop type, irrigation system, monitoring method, and inches of water applied per acre. Crop types include citrus, cucumbers, pasture, peanuts, sod, strawberries, and tropical fish farms are also included. Water-application rates per growing season ranged from 0 inches per acre for several citrus and pasture sites to 239.7 inches per acre for a nursery site. The report also includes rainfall data for 12 stations throughout the study area. (USGS)

  18. Rapid Method for the Determination of the Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Water in Alcoholic Beverages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobing; Zhong, Qiding; Li, Guohui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-10-28

    This paper demonstrates the first successful application of an online pyrolysis technique for the direct determination of oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of water in alcoholic beverages. Similar water concentrations in each sample were achieved by adjustment with absolute ethyl alcohol, and then a fixed GC split ratio can be used. All of the organic ingredients were successfully separated from the analyte on a CP-PoraBond Q column and subsequently vented out, whereas water molecules were transferred into the reaction furnace and converted to CO. With the system presented, 15-30 μL of raw sample was diluted and can be analyzed repeatedly; the analytical precision was better than 0.4‰ (n = 5) in all cases, and more than 50 injections can be made per day. No apparent memory effect was observed even if water samples were injected using the same syringe; a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9998) was found between the water δ(18)O of measured sample and that of working standards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean δ(18)O value and that obtained by the traditional method (CO2-water equilibration/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the newly developed method in this study. The advantages of this new method are its rapidity and straightforwardness, and less test portion is required.

  19. High-Resolution Vulnerability Methods and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    University ATTN: Dr. Pei Chi Chou College of Engineering Philadelphia, PA 19104 1 DuPont Company FPD ATTN: Dr. Oswald R. Bergmann B-1246, 1007...Bergman MZ-2860, John Romanko MZ-2844, Cynthia Waters PO Box 748 Ft. Worth, TX 76101-0748 No. of Cop iss Organization 1 General Dynamics...V. Saylor 3307 Bob Wallace Ave., Suite 4 Huntsville, AL 35807 1 Alan Smolen and Associates, Inc. ATTN: Alan Smolen, President One Cynthia

  20. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural

  1. An automated dynamic water vapor permeation test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Phillip; Kendrick, Cyrus; Rivin, Donald; Charmchii, Majid; Sicuranza, Linda

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an automated apparatus developed to measure the transport of water vapor through materials under a variety of conditions. The apparatus is more convenient to use than the traditional test methods for textiles and clothing materials, and allows one to use a wider variety of test conditions to investigate the concentration-dependent and nonlinear transport behavior of many of the semipermeable membrane laminates which are now available. The dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC) has been automated to permit multiple setpoint testing under computer control, and to facilitate investigation of transient phenomena. Results generated with the DMPC are in agreement with and of comparable accuracy to those from the ISO 11092 (sweating guarded hot plate) method of measuring water vapor permeability.

  2. Latest methods in preinsulated underground chilled water piping

    SciTech Connect

    Maffei, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    In a District Cooling facility, the chilled water distribution piping is an important and integral part of the system. Based on the cost of energy, the high temperature of the ground in many areas, and colder fluid temperatures being used in some systems, many owners and engineers are choosing to insulate their distribution piping. Once the decision has been made to insulate the piping, many options exist as to materials and methods. Some common carrier pipes are steel, ductile iron, PVC or polyethylene. The most common insulation for chilled water is polyurethane foam, but other options exist. Finally, there are a variety of jacketing materials including fiberglass, PVC and polyethylene. Since there are pros and cons to each method, a thorough understanding is required to make an informed decision. Factors such as piping cost, installation cost, and long term reliability must all be considered.

  3. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  4. ERTS-1 applications in hydrology and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    After having been in orbit for less than one year, the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) has shown that it provides very applicable data for more effective monitoring and management of surface water features over the globe. Mapping flooded areas, snowcover, and wetlands and surveying the size, type, and response of glaciers to climate are among the specific areas where ERTS-1 data were applied. In addition the data collection system has proven to be a reliable tool for gathering hydrologic data from remote regions. Turbidity variations in lakes and rivers were also observed and related to shoreline erosion, industrial plant effluent, and overall water quality.

  5. Supercritical water oxidation - Concept analysis for evolutionary Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, John B., Jr.; Brewer, Dana A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) concept to reduce the number of processes needed in an evolutionary Space Station design's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), while reducing resupply requirements and enhancing the integration of separate ECLSS functions into a single Supercritical Water Oxidation process, is evaluated. While not feasible for an initial operational capability Space Station, the SCWO's application to the evolutionary Space Station configuration would aid the integration of eight ECLSS functions into a single one, thereby significantly reducing program costs.

  6. An improved method for total organic iodine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sayess, Rassil; Reckhow, David A

    2017-01-01

    A concise, rapid, and sensitive method is developed to measure organically-bound iodine in water. Total organic iodine (TOI) is used as an integrative surrogate that reflects the amount of iodinated organics in a water sample and is quantified using a refined method that builds on previous adsorption and detection approaches. The proposed method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. During method development, three analytical variables (factors) were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method for iodine recovery: 1) the sample pH prior to adsorption on the granular activated carbon (GAC); 2) the amount of base addition to the trap solution; and 3) composition of the ICP-MS wash solution. These factors were tested with solutions of eight iodinated model organic compounds, two iodinated inorganic compounds, and field water samples using a full factorial experimental design. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and related statistical methods were deployed to identify the best combination of conditions (i.e., treatment) that results in the most complete recovery of iodine from the model compounds and the highest rejection of inorganic iodine. The chosen treatment for TOI measurement incorporates a sample pH of less than 1 prior to adsorption onto the GAC, a solution of 2% (v/v) tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for trapping of combustion products, and a TMAH wash solution of 0.1% (v/v) for the ICP-MS.

  7. Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Papiashvili, Nona; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Shilon, Guy; Khankin, Daniel; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Kalisky, Ofra; Parola, Abraham H.

    2011-11-01

    Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this way provides a 2-D and 3-D fluorescence map of the tested sample and the diagonals through the axes origin provide the synchronous fluorescence spectra at a constant wavelengths differences between the emission and excitation wavelengths, thus enabling multitude components identification. This map contains all the relevant spectroscopic information of the tested sample, and serves as a unique "fingerprint" with a very specific and accurate identification. When compared with pre-determined spectra and calibration curves from a "databank", there is a one-toone correspondence between the image and the specific compound, and it can be identified accurately both qualitatively and quantitatively. This method offers several significant advantages, and it provides a sensitive (ppm detection level), accurate and simple spectroscopic tool to monitor impurities and pollutants in water. The design and performance of the spectrofluorimeter prototype, as well as the software development and analysis of chemical organic compounds and mixtures in water will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Cartesian Methods for the Shallow Water Equations on a Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.

    2000-02-14

    The shallow water equations in a spherical geometry are solved using a 3-dimensional Cartesian method. Spatial discretization of the 2-dimensional, horizontal differential operators is based on the Cartesian form of the spherical harmonics and an icosahedral (spherical) grid. Computational velocities are expressed in Cartesian coordinates so that a problem with a singularity at the pole is avoided. Solution of auxiliary elliptic equations is also not necessary. A comparison is made between the standard form of the Cartesian equations and a rotational form using a standard set of test problems. Error measures and conservation properties of the method are reported for the test problems.

  9. EPA Method 551.1: Determination of Chlorination Disinfection Byproducts, Chlorinated Solvents, and Halogenated Pesticides/Herbicides in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Gas Chromatography With Electron-Capture Detection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method as a gas chromatography with electron capture detection applicable to the determination of halogenated analytes in finished drinking water, drinking water during intermediate stages of treatment and raw source water.

  10. A facile TiO2/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yiming; Fan, Rong; Lewis, Rosmala

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO2/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO2/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties.

  11. A method for the temperature calibration of an infrared camera using water as a radiative source

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, S. M.; Kou, J.; Saylor, J. R.

    2009-09-15

    Presented here is an effective low-cost method for the temperature calibration of infrared cameras, for applications in the 0-100 deg. C range. The calibration of image gray level intensity to temperature is achieved by imaging an upwelling flow of water, the temperature of which is measured with a thermistor probe. The upwelling flow is created by a diffuser located below the water surface of a constant temperature water bath. The thermistor probe is kept immediately below the surface, and the distance from the diffuser outlet to the surface is adjusted so that the deformation of the water surface on account of the flow is small, yet the difference between the surface temperature seen by the camera and the bulk temperature measured by the thermistor is also small. The benefit of this method compared to typical calibration procedures is that, without sacrificing the quality of the calibration, relatively expensive commercial blackbodies are replaced by water as the radiative source ({epsilon}{approx_equal}0.98 for the wavelengths considered here). A heat transfer analysis is provided, which improves the accuracy of the calibration method and also provides the user with guidance to further increases in accuracy of the method.

  12. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  13. QMRA and water safety management: review of application in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S R; Ashbolt, N J

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), the assessment of microbial risks when model inputs and estimated health impacts are explicitly quantified, is a valuable tool to support water safety plans (WSP). In this paper, research studies undertaken on the application of QMRA in drinking water systems were reviewed, highlighting their relevance for WSP. The important elements for practical implementation include: the data requirements to achieve sufficient certainty to support decision-making; level of expertise necessary to undertake the required analysis; and the accessibility of tools to support wider implementation, hence these aspects were the focus of the review. Recommendations to support the continued and growing application of QMRA to support risk management in the water sector are provided.

  14. 7 CFR 1430.503 - Time and method for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.503 Time and method for application. (a) Dairy operations may obtain an application, Form CCC-1040 (Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program Payment Application), in person, by mail,...

  15. Aspects of testing and selecting stainless steels for sea water applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steinsmo, U.; Rogne, T.; Drugli, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    In the period from 1980, highly alloyed stainless steels (i.e. Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE{sub N}) > 40) have been widely selected for chlorinated sea water systems in the Norwegian offshore industry. Recently failures have been reported -- severe crevice corrosion on flanges in a cooling water system and crevice corrosion at the threaded cast and forged joints in a fire water system. The failures highlights the question of corrosion testing and safe use limits for high alloyed stainless steels in sea water systems. This paper discusses three aspects regarding testing and selection of highly alloyed stainless steels for sea water application -- the relevancy of the electrochemical test methods used, the quality control system and the importance of repassivation.

  16. Water monitoring by optofluidic Raman spectroscopy for in situ applications.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of water monitoring by Raman spectroscopy with a portable optofluidic system for in-situ applications has been successfully demonstrated. In the proposed approach, the sample under analysis is injected into a capillary nozzle in order to produce a liquid jet that acts as an optical waveguide. This jet waveguide provides an effective strategy to excite and collect the Raman signals arising from water contaminants due to the high refractive index difference between air and water. The proposed approach avoids any necessity of liquid container or flow cell and removes any background signal coming from the sample container commonly affects Raman measurements. Furthermore, this absence is a significant advantage for in situ measurements where fouling problems can be relevant and cleaning procedures are troublesome. The extreme simplicity and efficiency of the optical scheme adopted in our approach result in highly sensitive and rapid measurements that have been performed on different representative water pollutants. The experimental results demonstrate the high potentiality of our device in water quality monitoring and analysis. In particular, nitrate and sulfate are detected below the maximum contamination level allowed for drinking water, whereas a limit of detection of 40mg/l has been found for benzene.

  17. Methods of reducing the water permeability of water and oil producing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, E.D.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a method of reducing the water produced from a subterranean formation penetrated by a wellbore without appreciably reducing the oil produced therefrom, it comprises: pumping a hydrocarbon solution of a hydrocarbon carrier liquid and a treating agent into the formation by way of the wellbore, and then discontinuing the pumping and returning the formation to production.

  18. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  19. A novel method for bacterial inactivation using electrosprayed water nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Yamauchi, Toshiyuki; Demokritou, Philip

    2012-08-01

    This is a study focusing on the potential to deactivate biological agents (bacteria and endospores) using engineered water nanostructures (EWNS). The EWNS were generated using an electrospray device that collects water by condensing atmospheric water vapor on a Peltier-cooled electrode. A high voltage is applied between the collection electrode and a grounded electrode resulting in aerosolization of the condensed water and a constant generation of EWNS. Gram-negative Serratia marcescens, gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus atrophaeus endospores were placed on stainless steel coupons and exposed to generated EWNS at multiple time intervals. Upon exposures, the bacteria were recovered and placed on nutrient agar to grow, and the colony forming units were counted. Ozone levels as well as air temperature and relative humidity were monitored during the experiments. Qualitative confirmation of bacterial destruction was also obtained by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, important EWNS aerosol properties such as particle number concentration as a function of size as well as the average surface charge of the generated EWNS were measured using real-time instrumentation. It was shown that the novel electrospray method can generate over time a constant flux of EWNS. EWNS have a peak number concentration of 8,000 particles per cubic centimeter with a modal peak size around 20 nm. The average surface charge of the generated EWNS was found to be 10 ± 2 electrons per particle. In addition, it was shown that the EWNS have the potential to deactivate both bacteria types from surfaces. At the same administrate dose, however, the endospores were not inactivated. This novel method and the unique properties of the generated EWNS could potentially be used to develop an effective, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive method for bacteria inactivation.

  20. Application of an environmental decision support system to a water quality trading program affected by surface water diversions.

    PubMed

    Obropta, Christopher C; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon's (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  1. A combined-water-system approach for tackling water scarcity: application to the Permilovo groundwater basin, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena A.; Baldenkov, Mikhail G.

    2016-03-01

    The suitability of a combined water system (CWS) is assessed for meeting drinking-water demand for the city of Arkhangelsk (northwestern Russian Federation), instead of using the polluted surface water of the Northern Dvina River. An appropriate aquifer system (Permilovo groundwater basin) was found and explored in the 1980s, and there were plans then to operate an abstraction scheme using traditional pumping methods. However, the 1980s planned water system was abandoned due to projected impermissible stream depletion such that complete interception of the cone of depression with the riverbed would cause the riverbed to become dry. The design of a CWS is now offered as an approach to addressing this environmental problem. Several sets of major pumping wells associated with the CWS are located on the banks of Vaymuga River and induce infiltration from the stream. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons is compensated for by pumping from aquifer storage. A numerical model was constructed using MODFLOW-2000. The results of the simulation showed the efficiency of the compensation pumping. The streamflow depletion caused by the CWS is equal to the minimum permissible stream flow and is lower than the depletion projected by the abandoned plan. Application of the CWS in the Permilovo groundwater basin makes it possible to meet water demands during water-limited periods and to avoid environmental problems.

  2. Stability of Materials in High Temperature Water Vapor: SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell material systems require long term stability in environments containing high-temperature water vapor. Many materials in fuel cell systems react with high-temperature water vapor to form volatile hydroxides which can degrade cell performance. In this paper, experimental methods to characterize these volatility reactions including the transpiration technique, thermogravimetric analysis, and high pressure mass spectrometry are reviewed. Experimentally determined data for chromia, silica, and alumina volatility are presented. In addition, data from the literature for the stability of other materials important in fuel cell systems are reviewed. Finally, methods for predicting material recession due to volatilization reactions are described.

  3. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  4. Selenide-Based Electrocatalysts and Scaffolds for Water Oxidation Applications.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Hedhili, Mohamed N; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-01-06

    Selenide-based electrocatalysts and scaffolds on carbon cloth are successfully fabricated and demonstrated for enhanced water oxidation applications. A max-imum current density of 97.5 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of a mere 300 mV and a small Tafel slope of 77 mV dec(-1) are achieved, suggesting the potential of these materials to serve as advanced oxygen evolution reaction catalysts.

  5. Krylov subspace methods - Theory, algorithms, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sad, Youcef

    1990-01-01

    Projection methods based on Krylov subspaces for solving various types of scientific problems are reviewed. The main idea of this class of methods when applied to a linear system Ax = b, is to generate in some manner an approximate solution to the original problem from the so-called Krylov subspace span. Thus, the original problem of size N is approximated by one of dimension m, typically much smaller than N. Krylov subspace methods have been very successful in solving linear systems and eigenvalue problems and are now becoming popular for solving nonlinear equations. The main ideas in Krylov subspace methods are shown and their use in solving linear systems, eigenvalue problems, parabolic partial differential equations, Liapunov matrix equations, and nonlinear system of equations are discussed.

  6. Improved biostability assessment of drinking water with a suite of test methods at a water supply treating eutrophic lake water.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Dick; Martijn, Bram; Schaap, Peter G; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J

    2015-12-15

    Assessment of drinking-water biostability is generally based on measuring bacterial growth in short-term batch tests. However, microbial growth in the distribution system is affected by multiple interactions between water, biofilms and sediments. Therefore a diversity of test methods was applied to characterize the biostability of drinking water distributed without disinfectant residual at a surface-water supply. This drinking water complied with the standards for the heterotrophic plate count and coliforms, but aeromonads periodically exceeded the regulatory limit (1000 CFU 100 mL(-1)). Compounds promoting growth of the biopolymer-utilizing Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 accounted for c. 21% of the easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration (17 ± 2 μg C L(-1)) determined by growth of pure cultures in the water after granular activated-carbon filtration (GACF). Growth of the indigenous bacteria measured as adenosine tri-phosphate in water samples incubated at 25 °C confirmed the low AOC in the GACF but revealed the presence of compounds promoting growth after more than one week of incubation. Furthermore, the concentration of particulate organic carbon in the GACF (83 ± 42 μg C L(-1), including 65% carbohydrates) exceeded the AOC concentration. The increased biomass accumulation rate in the continuous biofouling monitor (CBM) at the distribution system reservoir demonstrated the presence of easily biodegradable by-products related to ClO2 dosage to the GACF and in the CBM at 42 km from the treatment plant an iron-associated biomass accumulation was observed. The various methods applied thus distinguished between easily assimilable compounds, biopolymers, slowly biodegradable compounds and biomass-accumulation potential, providing an improved assessment of the biostability of the water. Regrowth of aeromonads may be related to biomass-turnover processes in the distribution system, but establishment of quantitative relationships is needed for

  7. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V. |; Morrison, H.F. |

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles.

  9. Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method.

    PubMed

    Prest, E I; Hammes, F; Kötzsch, S; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15 min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing.

  10. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovirus revealed that high percentages of virus particles, sometimes greater than 99%, were lost through adherence to containers, especially in less turbid waters. This effect was partially overcome by the use of polypropylene containers and by the absence of movement during incubation. Adherence to containers clearly demonstrated the need for labeled viruses to monitor losses in this type of study. Loss of viral infectivity in samples found to occur during freezing was avoided by addition of broth. Finally, microbial contamination of the cell cultures during infectivity assays was overcome by the use of gentamicin and increased concentrations of penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B. PMID:3004328

  11. Multigrid methods with applications to reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shengyou

    1994-05-01

    Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir simulation. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir simulator. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.

  12. Precision cleaning methods for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Lindewall, H.

    1988-01-01

    A small CO2 snow cleaning apparatus to clean both molecular films and particles from small and large components and surfaces was constructed. Various types of surfaces were cleaned using the CO2 technique. Vacuum deposited and sputtered metallic coatings such as germanium, aluminum, and silver and silicon wafers, and polished copper conical mirrors were purposely contaminated with everyday aerospace contaminants, including particle fallout and fingerprints. Precleaning characterization by Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), ellipsometry, nonvolatile residue, and microscopic particle evaluation served as evaluation of cleaning efficiency. Good results were obtained in trial application.

  13. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    bacteria. Therefore the applicability of on-site enzymatic activity determination as a direct surrogate or proxy parameter for microbiological standard assays and quantification of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentration could not be approved and further research in this field is necessary. Presently we conclude that rapid on-site detection of enzymatic activity is applicable for surface water monitoring and that it constitutes a complementary on-site monitoring parameter with high potential. Selection of the type of measured enzymatic activities has to be done on a catchment-specific basis and further work is needed to learn more about its detailed information characteristics in different habitats. The accomplishment of this method detecting continuous data of enzymatic activity in high temporal resolution caused by a target bacterial member is on the way of becoming a powerful tool for water quality monitoring, health related water quality- and early warning requirements.

  14. Methods for the determination and speciation of mercury in natural waters--a review.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Kerstin; Foulkes, Michael; Worsfold, Paul

    2010-03-24

    This review summarises current knowledge on Hg species and their distribution in the hydrosphere and gives typical concentration ranges in open ocean, coastal and estuarine waters, as well as in rivers, lakes, rain and ground waters. The importance of reliable methods for the determination of Hg species in natural waters and the analytical challenges associated with them are discussed. Approaches for sample collection and storage, pre-concentration, separation, and detection are critically compared. The review covers well established methods for total mercury determination and identifies new approaches that offer advantages such as ease of use and reduced risk of contamination. Pre-concentration and separation techniques for Hg speciation are divided into chromatographic and non-chromatographic methods. Derivatisation methods and the coupling of pre-concentration and/or separation methods to suitable detection techniques are also discussed. Techniques for sample pre-treatment, pre-concentration, separation, and quantification of Hg species, together with examples of total Hg determination and Hg speciation analysis in different natural (non-spiked) waters are summarised in tables, with a focus on applications from the last decade.

  15. Evaluation of methods for the extraction of DNA from drinking water distribution system biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Andersen, Gary L; LeChevallier, Mark W; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2012-01-01

    While drinking water biofilms have been characterized in various drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), little is known about the impact of different DNA extraction methods on the subsequent analysis of microbial communities in drinking water biofilms. Since different DNA extraction methods have been shown to affect the outcome of microbial community analysis in other environments, it is necessary to select a DNA extraction method prior to the application of molecular tools to characterize the complex microbial ecology of the DWDS. This study compared the quantity and quality of DNA yields from selected DWDS bacteria with different cell wall properties using five widely used DNA extraction methods. These were further selected and evaluated for their efficiency and reproducibility of DNA extraction from DWDS samples. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis and the 454 pyrosequencing technique were used to interpret the differences in microbial community structure and composition, respectively, from extracted DNA. Such assessments serve as a concrete step towards the determination of an optimal DNA extraction method for drinking water biofilms, which can then provide a reliable comparison of the meta-analysis results obtained in different laboratories.

  16. Applications of a transonic wing design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.

  17. Multispectral digital holographic microscopy with applications in water quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Jin, Chao; Yu, Mei; Amelard, Robert; Haider, Shahid; Saini, Simarjeet; Emelko, Monica; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for human health, yet over a billion people worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water. Due to the presence and accumulation of biological contaminants in natural waters (e.g., pathogens and neuro-, hepato-, and cytotoxins associated with algal blooms) remain a critical challenge in the provision of safe drinking water globally. It is not financially feasible and practical to monitor and quantify water quality frequently enough to identify the potential health risk due to contamination, especially in developing countries. We propose a low-cost, small-profile multispectral (MS) system based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and investigate methods for rapidly capturing holographic data of natural water samples. We have developed a test-bed for an MSDHM instrument to produce and capture holographic data of the sample at different wavelengths in the visible and the near Infra-red spectral region, allowing for resolution improvement in the reconstructed images. Additionally, we have developed high-speed statistical signal processing and analysis techniques to facilitate rapid reconstruction and assessment of the MS holographic data being captured by the MSDHM instrument. The proposed system is used to examine cyanobacteria as well as Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts which remain important and difficult to treat microbiological contaminants that must be addressed for the provision of safe drinking water globally.

  18. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed.

  19. Method and apparatus for hydrogen production from water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method, apparatuses and chemical compositions are provided for producing high purity hydrogen from water. Metals or alloys capable of reacting with water and producing hydrogen in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions are reacted with one or more inorganic hydrides capable of releasing hydrogen in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions, one or more transition metal compounds are used to catalyze the reaction and, optionally, one or more alkali metal-based compounds. The metal or alloy is preferably aluminum. The inorganic hydride is from a family of complex inorganic hydrides; most preferably, NaBH.sub.4. The transition metal catalyst is from the groups VIII and IB; preferably, Cu and Fe. The alkali metal-based compounds are preferably NaOH, KOH, and the like. Hydrogen generated has a purity of at least 99.99 vol. % (dry basis), and is used without further purification in all types of fuel cells, including the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell.

  20. GPU Accelerated Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the development, verification, and performance of a GPU accelerated discontinuous Galerkin method for the solutions of two dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations. The shallow water equations are hyperbolic partial differential equations and are widely used in the simulation of tsunami wave propagations. Our algorithms are tailored to take advantage of the single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture of graphic processing units. The time integration is accelerated by local time stepping based on a multi-rate Adams-Bashforth scheme. A total variational bounded limiter is adopted for nonlinear stability of the numerical scheme. This limiter is coupled with a mass and momentum conserving positivity preserving limiter for the special treatment of a dry or partially wet element in the triangulation. Accuracy, robustness and performance are demonstrated with the aid of test cases. We compare the performance of the kernels expressed in a portable threading language OCCA, when cross compiled with OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenMP at runtime.

  1. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  2. Application of magnetic iron-based nanosorbents for water cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Revvo, Anastasya; Byzov, Ilya; Baerner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Iron-based magnetic nanopowders (Fe, γ-Fe2O3, γ-Fe3O4) are effective sorbents for the cleaning of water from heavy metal ions, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. The sorption capacity of the powder is defined by the specific surface which for particle diameter in nanosized range comes up to hundreds of m2/g. However, the small particle size creates difficulties to separate the solid phase from the water suspension using conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without additional reagents. If the nanoparticles have magnetic moments, their separation from aqueous solution can be enhanced in gradient magnetic fields. This will help to avoid a secondary water pollution by coagulants and flocculants. The sedimentation dynamics of the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanopowders with different particle sizes (10-100 nm) in water in gradient magnetic fields of different configurations ( radial and strip), with the strengths H = 0.5-6 kOe, and gradients up to dH/dz= 2 kOe/cm was studied by optical and by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. . In the gravitation field the suspensions of the small particles (~ 10-20 nm) remain stable for over 20 hours. The sedimentation process can be greatly accelerated by the action of a vertical gradient magnetic field, and the sedimentation time is reduced down to several minutes. In a gradient magnetic field enhanced by a steel grid the sedimentation of the nanopowder (c0= 0.1 g/l) for 180 minutes resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l. In the flowing water regime the residual iron concentration in water 0.3 mg/l is reached after 80 minutes. This corresponds to the hygienic and environmental standards for drinking water and fishery.

  3. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations.

  4. Optical Element, Device, Method, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    optical element is a phase-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). 28. The method of claim 26, further comprising: c1) in step (c), setting...jl(l;, 11) to 0, wherein the optical element is an amplitude-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). * * * * *

  5. Translational bioinformatics in psychoneuroimmunology: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine. It provides a powerful method to bridge the gaps between various knowledge domains in PNI and systems biology. Translational bioinformatics methods at various systems levels can facilitate pattern recognition, and expedite and validate the discovery of systemic biomarkers to allow their incorporation into clinical trials and outcome assessments. Analysis of the correlations between genotypes and phenotypes including the behavioral-based profiles will contribute to the transition from the disease-based medicine to human-centered medicine. Translational bioinformatics would also enable the establishment of predictive models for patient responses to diseases, vaccines, and drugs. In PNI research, the development of systems biology models such as those of the neurons would play a critical role. Methods based on data integration, data mining, and knowledge representation are essential elements in building health information systems such as electronic health records and computerized decision support systems. Data integration of genes, pathophysiology, and behaviors are needed for a broad range of PNI studies. Knowledge discovery approaches such as network-based systems biology methods are valuable in studying the cross-talks among pathways in various brain regions involved in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Gas sensing method applicable to real conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, A.; Maciejewska, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we tested the influence of various sampling techniques and modes of operation on the response of sensor systems under real conditions. The first system was based on diffusive sampling. The second one used a dynamic method of sampling. In the third system, a stop flow mode of operation was applied. A considerable error of target gas concentration assessment was obtained in the first two cases. The error resulted from sensor signal fluctuations encountered during their exposure either to the air at the measurement point (diffusive sampling) or to the air drawn from the measurement point (dynamic sampling). The fluctuations could be attributed to the temporal variation of physical and chemical parameters of air. The main merit of the third method consists in utilizing sensor exposure under the conditions of stopped flow for the purpose of pollutant concentration assessment. While using this method, the accuracy of target gas quantification under real conditions was comparable to the one achieved when measuring standard gases. We think that the proposed method is a valuable contribution, which addresses the increasing demand for sensor systems that perform quantitative pollution assessment in workplace air, under real conditions. This paper was presented at the Conference on Optoelectronic and Electronic Sensors held in Karpacz, Poland, on 24-27 June 2012.

  7. Symmetries in nuclei: New methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, Mark A.

    2011-04-01

    When a symmetry is a ``good'' symmetry of the nuclear system, as in the dynamical symmetries of the shell model and interacting boson model, this symmetry can directly give the spectroscopic properties of the nucleus, without the need for involved calculations. However, even if a symmetry is strongly broken, it nonetheless provides a calculational tool, classifying the basis states used in a full computational treatment of the many-body problem and greatly simplifying the underlying computational machinery. The symmetry then serves as the foundation for a physically meaningful truncation scheme for the calculation. This talk will provide an introduction to new applications of symmetry approaches to the nuclear problem, including the required mathematical developments. Supported by the US DOE under grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934 and by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  8. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  9. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  10. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  11. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  12. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  13. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  14. Automated ground-water monitoring with robowell-Case studies and potential applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Robowell is an automated system and method for monitoring ground-water quality. Robowell meets accepted manual-sampling protocols without high labor and laboratory costs. Robowell periodically monitors and records water-quality properties and constituents in ground water by pumping a well or multilevel sampler until one or more purge criteria have been met. A record of frequent water-quality measurements from a monitoring site can indicate changes in ground-water quality and can provide a context for the interpretation of laboratory data from discrete samples. Robowell also can communicate data and system performance through a remote communication link. Remote access to ground-water data enables the user to monitor conditions and optimize manual sampling efforts. Six Robowell prototypes have successfully monitored ground-water quality during all four seasons of the year under different hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The U.S. Geological Survey is seeking partners for research with robust and economical water-quality monitoring instruments designed to measure contaminants of concern in conjunction with the application and commercialization of the Robowell technology. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the Internet at URL http://ma.water.usgs.gov/automon/.

  15. Instream water use in the United States: water laws and methods for determining flow requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton L.; Doerksen, Harvey R.

    1987-01-01

    the conterminous United States consists of about 12,000 miles of maintained waterways, over which about 500 million tons of cargo is carried each year (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1988, p. 16). Although not so widely practiced in recent years, streams have been used to dispose of raw waste products from homes, communities, and factories. This use has been discouraged by law and public policy because of public health concerns and the damage it causes to the environment. Beginning in the mid-1960's, other instream uses gained new prominence in the water-resources arena-the assertion of a legal right to a free-flowing stream for biological, recreational, and esthetic purposes. These uses themselves, however, are not new. Riverine habitat always has produced fish, and the beauty of flowing water always has evoked a strong sense of esthetic appreciation. What is new is the emerging legitimacy and awareness of these noneconomic uses under State and Federal laws and regulations. In the past, environmental uses of flowing water were ignored, for the most part, under a long-standing legal tradition that favored offstream uses and certain instream uses that had a strong economic basis. The history of instream-flow policy debate really concerns those recently recognized types of interim uses. Although the more transitional water uses have been protected by law, the recognition of other in stream uses has resulted in substantial changes in State water laws. Although methods for determining the volume of water needed for most traditional water uses are relatively straight-forward and well-established, methods for determining water requirements for the in stream uses have been developed only recently and are continuing to evolve. Water laws that have favored the more traditional water uses, the inherent nature of conflict between instream and offstream water uses, and the special kinds of technological and philosophical problems posed by the "newer" types of instream uses are

  16. Rapid column heating method for subcritical water chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fogwill, Michael O; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2007-01-19

    A novel resistive heating method is presented for subcritical water chromatography (SWC) that provides higher column heating rates than those conventionally obtained from temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) convection ovens. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, SWC employs column heating to achieve gradient elution. As such, the rate at which the mobile phase is heated directly impacts the magnitude of such gradients applied in SWC. Data from the current study demonstrate that the maximum column heating rate attainable in a typical SWC apparatus (i.e. using a GC convection oven) is around 10 degrees C/min, even at instrument oven settings of over three times this value. Conversely, by wrapping the separation column with ceramic insulation and a resistively heated wire, the column heating rates are increased five-fold. As a result, elution times can be greatly decreased in SWC employing gradients. Separations of standard alcohol test mixtures demonstrate that the retention time of the latest eluting component decreases by 35 to 50% using the prototype method. Additionally, solute retention times in this mode deviate by less than 1% RSD over several trials, which compares very well to those obtained using a conventional GC convection oven. Results suggest that the developed method can be a useful alternative heating technique in SWC.

  17. Application of the Conditioned Reverse Path Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, L.

    2003-01-01

    The conditioned reverse path (CRP) method has been applied to identify the non-linear behaviour of a beam-like structure, both ends clamped, one with a non-linear stiffness characteristic. The same method was already successfully applied to the identification of another COST benchmark, known as the VTT non-linear suspension. This benchmark shows the enhancements of the technique, now applied to a real multi-degree-of-freedom (mdof) system, with single-point excitation subject to bending modes; the non-linearity is acting on one end of the beam in terms of displacements. The CRP technique is based on the construction of a hierarchy of uncorrelated response components in the frequency domain, allowing the estimation of the coefficients of the non-linearities away from the location of the applied excitation and also the identification of the linear dynamic compliance matrix when the number of excitations is smaller than the number of response locations.

  18. Domain adaptive boosting method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jie; Miao, Zhenjiang

    2015-03-01

    Differences of data distributions widely exist among datasets, i.e., domains. For many pattern recognition, nature language processing, and content-based analysis systems, a decrease in performance caused by the domain differences between the training and testing datasets is still a notable problem. We propose a domain adaptation method called domain adaptive boosting (DAB). It is based on the AdaBoost approach with extensions to cover the domain differences between the source and target domains. Two main stages are contained in this approach: source-domain clustering and source-domain sample selection. By iteratively adding the selected training samples from the source domain, the discrimination model is able to achieve better domain adaptation performance based on a small validation set. The DAB algorithm is suitable for the domains with large scale samples and easy to extend for multisource adaptation. We implement this method on three computer vision systems: the skin detection model in single images, the video concept detection model, and the object classification model. In the experiments, we compare the performances of several commonly used methods and the proposed DAB. Under most situations, the DAB is superior.

  19. Method and apparatus for acoustic imaging of objects in water

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2005-01-25

    A method, system and underwater camera for acoustic imaging of objects in water or other liquids includes an acoustic source for generating an acoustic wavefront for reflecting from a target object as a reflected wavefront. The reflected acoustic wavefront deforms a screen on an acoustic side and correspondingly deforms the opposing optical side of the screen. An optical processing system is optically coupled to the optical side of the screen and converts the deformations on the optical side of the screen into an optical intensity image of the target object.

  20. Transferable ab Initio Dipole Moment for Water: Three Applications to Bulk Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M

    2016-03-03

    We recently reported a second-generation, ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS) for water and applied it successfully to the IR spectrum of liquid water at 300 K. Here the transferability of this DMS is demonstrated in three applications. One is the distribution of monomer dipole moments, considering two definitions, and effective atomic charges of liquid water at 300 K and also for a model of ice Ih at 0 K. The second one is a calculation of the dielectric constant of liquid water at 280, 300, 320, 340, 360 K, and the third one is correcting the intensities of the IR spectrum of liquid water at 300 K, obtained using the q-TIP4P/F potential, bringing them into much improved agreement with experiment. For the purpose of obtaining statistical ensembles we use molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P+E3B water model developed by Skinner and co-workers. The average monomer dipole moments for 300 K water and 0 K ice Ih are 2.94 and 3.54 D, respectively, in good agreement with literature values. Effective monomer charge distributions are derived from the monomer dipoles and give average values of -1.02 e for O and 0.51 e for H in liquid water, which are also in agreement with values reported from experiment. The calculated dielectric constant of liquid water at the above five temperatures is compared to experiment and is roughly 10-15% lower than experiment.

  1. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2012-04-09

    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  2. COMPLEX VARIABLE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD: APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.; Yen, C.C.; Guymon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM) is used to approximate several potential problems where analytical solutions are known. A modeling result produced from the CVBEM is a measure of relative error in matching the known boundary condition values of the problem. A CVBEM error-reduction algorithm is used to reduce the relative error of the approximation by adding nodal points in boundary regions where error is large. From the test problems, overall error is reduced significantly by utilizing the adaptive integration algorithm.

  3. High performance concentration method for viruses in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Andreas; Pei, Lu; Elsässer, Dennis; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2015-09-15

    According to the risk assessment of the WHO, highly infectious pathogenic viruses like rotaviruses should not be present in large-volume drinking water samples of up to 90 m(3). On the other hand, quantification methods for viruses are only operable in small volumes, and presently no concentration procedure for processing such large volumes has been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate a procedure for processing viruses in-line of a drinking water pipeline by ultrafiltration (UF) and consecutive further concentration by monolithic filtration (MF) and centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF) of viruses to a final 1-mL sample. For testing this concept, the model virus bacteriophage MS2 was spiked continuously in UF instrumentation. Tap water was processed in volumes between 32.4 m(3) (22 h) and 97.7 m(3) (72 h) continuously either in dead-end (DE) or cross-flow (CF) mode. Best results were found by DE-UF over 22 h. The concentration of MS2 was increased from 4.2×10(4) GU/mL (genomic units per milliliter) to 3.2×10(10) GU/mL and from 71 PFU/mL to 2×10(8) PFU/mL as determined by qRT-PCR and plaque assay, respectively.

  4. Remote sensing applications in water resources management by the California Department of Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of applying imagery from high altitude aircraft and satellites sensors to water management in California was evaluated. Results from seven applications studies comparing the costs of using high altitude imagery for various purposes to the costs of using conventional data sources, reveal the high altitude imagery to be more cost effective in six cases and equal to conventional data sources in one case. These results also reveal that the imagery provides a level of quality not generally achievable with uncorrected conventional imagery. Although satellite application studies are not yet complete, preliminary results indicate that some definite possibilities exist for employing satellite imagery on an operational basis within the next few years.

  5. A review of droplet resonators: Operation method and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Hanyang; Zhao, Liyuan; Wu, Bing; Liu, Shuangqiang; Liu, Yongjun; Yang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Droplet resonators hold promise as a special class of optical cavities for numerous applications in micro-optical. Owing to liquid surface tension, droplet resonators possess nearly perfect spherical geometry and exceptionally smooth surfaces that prompt more and more meritorious applications to be exploit. Herein, we survey two typical operation methods of the droplet resonators, passive and active droplet resonator. Besides, droplet applications as high-performance lasers and sensors have been discussed. Although these applications have brought us tremendous value, the research for droplet resonators are still in its infancy, added potential application and intrinsic investigation of the droplet resonators should be developed in the future work.

  6. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  7. 77 FR 35367 - Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... November 22 and 28, 2011, the Colorado Water Quality Control Division, the Colorado Division of Water... Energy Regulatory Commission Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Silt Water Conservancy District. e. Name of Project:...

  8. Endothelial cell micropatterning: Methods, effects, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deirdre E.J.; Hinds, Monica T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of flow on endothelial cells have been widely examined for the ability of fluid shear stress to alter cell morphology and function; however, the effects of endothelial cell morphology without flow have only recently been observed. An increase in lithographic techniques in cell culture spurred a corresponding increase in research aiming to confine cell morphology. These studies lead to a better understanding of how morphology and cytoskeletal configuration affect the structure and function of the cells. This review examines endothelial cell micropatterning research by exploring both the many alternative methods used to alter endothelial cell morphology and the resulting changes in cellular shape and phenotype. Micropatterning induced changes in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organization, mechanical properties, and cell functionality. Finally, the ways these cellular manipulation techniques have been applied to biomedical engineering research, including angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue engineering, is discussed. PMID:21761242

  9. Formulation and application of Russell's method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the numerical technique of Russell's momentum approach can be derived by using Hamilton's principle and Vance's numerical scheme. It results in a set of first order differnce equations for solving the angular velocities. The numerical examples show that the method is reliable. The algorithm is modified next to perform the analysis of N-body systems with closed loop topology. To increase the formulation flexibility, the equations of motion are represented by using Cartesian coordinates and Lagrange multipliers. The algorithm consists of two parts, Vance's scheme and an unconstrained minimization. The Vance's scheme is used to find the angular velocities, and the unconstrained minimization is applied to provide the correct angular displacements. The proposed scheme is further extended to find the design sensitivity of an N-body system with closed loop configuration, and to carry out the design optimization as well. The numerical example of a small-scaled mechanical system is presented to verify the proposed formulation.

  10. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  11. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.

  12. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).

  13. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  14. Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dorris, Stephen E.; Bose, Arun C.; Stiegel, Gary J.; Lee, Tae-Hyun

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

  15. Boundary work for implementing adaptive management: A water sector application.

    PubMed

    Adem Esmail, Blal; Geneletti, Davide; Albert, Christian

    2017-03-24

    Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i.e. personal expertise, single, and multiple communities of expertise. Our empirical results confirm boundary work has been crucial for the three types of knowledge use. For enlightenment and decision-support, effective interaction among knowledge producers and users was achieved through diverse boundary work practices, including joint agenda setting, and sharing of data and expertise. This initial boundary work eased subsequent knowledge co-production for decision-support and negotiations, in combination with stepping up of cooperation between relevant actors, suitable legislation and pressure for problem solving. Our analysis highlighted the temporal dimension matters - building trust around enlightenment first, and then using this as a basis for managing knowledge co-production for decision-, and negotiation support. We reconfirmed that boundary work is not a single time achievement, rather is a dynamic process, and we emphasized the importance of key actors driving the process, such as water utilities. Our results provide a rich case study of how strategic boundary work can facilitate knowledge co-production for adaptive management in the water sector. The boundary work practices employed here could also be transferred to other cases. Water utilities, as intermediaries between providers and beneficiaries of the important water-related ecosystem service of clean water provision, can indeed serve

  16. A review on chitosan-based flocculants and their applications in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ran; Li, Haijiang; Huang, Mu; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin

    2016-05-15

    In recent years, the use of chitosan and its derivatives as flocculants in water treatment has received considerable attention due to their many advantages, including their widespread availability, environmental friendliness, biodegradability, and prominent structural features. However, it is a significant strategy for selection and design of the high-performance materials on the basis of their structure-activity relationships. Here we describe several of the chemical modification methods commonly used to prepare chitosan-based flocculants. These methods allow convenient control and adjustment of the structures of the obtained materials to meet the different practical requirements. The influence of structural elements of the chitosan-based flocculants on their flocculation properties are emphasized in this review by examining different flocculation mechanisms and their applications in the treatment of various wastewaters containing different pollutants (insoluble suspended colloids but also dissolved matters). Above all, the chitosan-based flocculants with proper structures by precise structure control bear great application potentials in water treatment.

  17. On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

  18. Application of short-term water demand prediction model to Seoul.

    PubMed

    Joo, C N; Koo, J Y; Yu, M J

    2002-01-01

    To predict daily water demand for Seoul, Korea, the artificial neural network (ANN) was used. For the cross correlation, the factors affecting water demand such as maximum temperature, humidity, and wind speed as natural factors, holidays as a social factor and daily demand 1 day before were used. From the results of learning using various hidden layers and units in order to establish the structure of optimal ANN, the case of 3 hidden layers and numbers of unit with the same number of input factors showed the best result and, therefore, it was applied to seasonal water demand prediction. The performance of ANN was compared with a multiple regression method. We discuss the representation ability of the model building process and the applicability of the ANN approach for the daily water demand prediction. ANN provided reasonable results for time series prediction.

  19. [Application of the method of one-day learning in a Morris water maze to analyse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory trace recall 24 hours later, after learning].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsenyev, G N; Bukhgolts, O I; Marchenko, V G; Puchkova, A N

    2014-01-01

    The proposed model of a one-day spatial learning is of interest in research of how sleep influences the hippocamp-dependent memory consolidation. We have studied the influence of a one-day total sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation in hooded rats after a one-day learning in the Morris water maze according to Feldman et al. [2010] protocol. According to it rats had to find a submerged platform that was alternatively marked by a flag or completely invisible to an animal. In a previous study [Dorokhov et al., 2011] we have used another one-day learning protocol [Frick et al., 2000] and Wistar rats and have demonstrated a large interindividual variance in learning parameters and sleep deprivation effects on memory consolidation. In this study we confirm previously acquired results on negative impact of sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation on the results of one-day learning we are using for the first time an evaluation of the time spent by an animal in the area of the platform placement and corresponding areas in the other quadrants of the water maze.

  20. Water-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles via a biphasic solvothermal reaction method.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rajneesh; Drbohlavova, Jana; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2013-12-01

    A biphasic solvothermal reaction method has been used for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). In this method, hydrolysis and nucleation occur at the interface of organic phase (titanium (IV) n-propoxide and stearic acid dissolved in toluene) and water phase (tert-butylamine dissolved in water) resulting in the nucleation of the stearic acid-capped TiO2 NPs. These NPs are hydrophilic due to hydrophobic stearic acid ligands and could be dispersed in toluene, but not in water. These stearic acid-capped TiO2 NPs were surface-modified with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in order to make them water soluble. The resultant TiO2 NPs were easily redispersed in water without any noticeable aggregation. The Rietveld profile fitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the TiO2 NPs revealed highly crystalline anatase structure. The average crystallite size of TiO2 NPs was calculated to be 6.89 nm, which agrees with TEM results. These results have important implications for the use of TiO2 in biomedical, environmental, and industrial applications.

  1. Water-assisted growth of graphene on carbon nanotubes by the chemical vapor deposition method.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian-Min; Dai, Ye-Jing

    2013-05-21

    Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with graphene has been proved to be a feasible method for improving the performance of graphene for some practical applications. This paper reports a water-assisted route to grow graphene on CNTs from ferrocene and thiophene dissolved in ethanol by the chemical vapor deposition method in an argon flow. A double injection technique was used to separately inject ethanol solution and water for the preparation of graphene/CNTs. First, CNTs were prepared from ethanol solution and water. The injection of ethanol solution was suspended and water alone was injected into the reactor to etch the CNTs. Thereafter, ethanol solution was injected along with water, which is the key factor in obtaining graphene/CNTs. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman scattering analyses confirmed that the products were the hybrid materials of graphene/CNTs. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of oxygen rich functional groups on the surface of the graphene/CNTs. Given the activity of the graphene/CNT surface, CdS quantum dots adhered onto it uniformly through simple mechanical mixing.

  2. Decomposition of water Raman stretching band with a combination of optimization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Dolenko, Tatiana; Patsaeva, Svetlana; Yuzhakov, Viktor

    2010-03-01

    In this study, an investigation of the behaviour of stretching bands of CH and OH groups of water-ethanol solutions at alcohol concentrations ranging from 0 to 96% by volume has been performed. A new approach to decomposition of the wide structureless water Raman band into spectral components based on modern mathematical methods of solution of inverse multi-parameter problems-combination of Genetic Algorithm and the method of Generalized Reduced Gradient-has been demonstrated. Application of this approach to decomposition of Raman stretching bands of water-ethanol solutions allowed obtaining new interesting results practically without a priori information. The behaviour of resolved spectral components of Raman stretching OH band in binary mixture with rising ethanol concentration is in a good agreement with the concept of clathrate-like structure of water-ethanol solutions. The results presented in this paper confirm existence of essential structural rearrangement in water-ethanol solutions at ethanol concentrations 20-30% by volume.

  3. Water-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles via a biphasic solvothermal reaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Rajneesh; Drbohlavova, Jana; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2013-12-01

    A biphasic solvothermal reaction method has been used for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). In this method, hydrolysis and nucleation occur at the interface of organic phase (titanium (IV) n-propoxide and stearic acid dissolved in toluene) and water phase ( tert-butylamine dissolved in water) resulting in the nucleation of the stearic acid-capped TiO2 NPs. These NPs are hydrophilic due to hydrophobic stearic acid ligands and could be dispersed in toluene, but not in water. These stearic acid-capped TiO2 NPs were surface-modified with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in order to make them water soluble. The resultant TiO2 NPs were easily redispersed in water without any noticeable aggregation. The Rietveld profile fitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the TiO2 NPs revealed highly crystalline anatase structure. The average crystallite size of TiO2 NPs was calculated to be 6.89 nm, which agrees with TEM results. These results have important implications for the use of TiO2 in biomedical, environmental, and industrial applications.

  4. Coordinating standards and applications for optical water quality sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.; Pellerin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Joint USGS-CUAHSI Workshop: In Situ Optical Water Quality Sensor Networks; Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 8-10 June 2011; Advanced in situ optical water quality sensors and new techniques for data analysis hold enormous promise for advancing scientific understanding of aquatic systems through measurements of important biogeochemical parameters at the time scales over which they vary. High-frequency and real-time water quality data also provide the opportunity for early warning of water quality deterioration, trend detection, and science-based decision support. However, developing networks of optical sensors in freshwater systems that report reliable and comparable data across and between sites remains a challenge to the research and monitoring community. To address this, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), convened a 3-day workshop to explore ways to coordinate development of standards and applications for optical sensors, as well as handling, storage, and analysis of the continuous data they produce.

  5. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  6. Application of the self-potential method in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey Ralston

    The self-potential (SP) method is a passive electrical tool that measures naturally occurring voltages created by fluid flow in earth materials. SP monitoring has proven to be a fast and inexpensive means for evaluating subsurface hydrology. This dissertation presents the results of three studies, demonstrating innovative use of the SP method for describing both historical and new hydrogeologic scenarios. The cumulative result encourages application of SP monitoring in a variety of situations, and demonstrates the unique ability of the SP method to describe the physical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. Three topics were investigated by means of SP monitoring: hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability intact rock, liquid CO2 flow through rock in support of carbon sequestration research, and seepage characterization at a remote moraine dam. In the case of hydraulic fracturing, SP observations responded to permeability variations prior to fracturing caused by dilatancy of microcracks at high pore pressure. An asymmetric spatial SP response was observed as injectate moved into aligned dilatant zones during pressurization, which in most cases revealed the impending crack geometry. SP measurements described the direction of crack propagation after initial fracturing due to strong anisotropic flow through the new fracture zone. During liquid CO 2 injection into reservoir rock, differences in the magnitude of the SP coupling coefficient (Cc) were observed for various stages of a CO 2 flood. The Cc was found to decrease by an order of magnitude as CO 2 replaced mobile water in the rock porosity, and the variation of the Cc during CO2 and water mixing was characterized. These results allow mapping of the various phase boundaries present during liquid CO 2 injection, and may contribute to the success of carbon sequestration. Finally, a preliminary description of the hydraulic regime at a remote moraine dam was obtained through analysis of SP and accompanying

  7. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  8. The role of technology in the past and future development of the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2005-12-01

    The doubly labelled water method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the energy demands of free-living animals and humans. It is based on the observation that, in the body, the oxygen in carbon dioxide is in complete isotope exchange equilibrium with the oxygen in body water. Hence, a label of isotopic oxygen in body water is eliminated by both respiratory CO(2) and water turnover, whereas a similarly introduced label of deuterium is eliminated only by water flux. The difference in isotope fluxes therefore permits estimation of CO(2) production, which is correlated to energy demands. The doubly labelled water method has been advanced predominantly by technological advances in mass spectrometry. Although it was first described in the 1950s, it was only used on small animals and in low numbers because the costs of the isotopes were a primary constraint. However, advances in mass spectrometry precision and accuracy in the 1980s made it possible to reduce the quantities of isotope used, and hence apply the method on humans, although still in small numbers. The advent of continuous flow inlets in the 1990s made possible the processing of samples in much larger numbers and the sample sizes of studies have expanded. Ironically, however, the technique is now under treat because of technological advances in another area (positron emission tomography), which has generated an enormous demand for (18)O and pushed up the price of isotopes. A continuation of this trend might drive prices to levels where sustained application of the method in human studies is questionable. Replacing determination of isotope enrichments currently performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with determinations made by stable isotope infrared laser spectrometry may be a technological advance that will get us out of this problem.

  9. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable.

  10. Applications of Computational Methods for Dynamic Stability and Control Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Spence, Angela M.

    2004-01-01

    Initial steps in the application o f a low-order panel method computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to the calculation of aircraft dynamic stability and control (S&C) derivatives are documented. Several capabilities, unique to CFD but not unique to this particular demonstration, are identified and demonstrated in this paper. These unique capabilities complement conventional S&C techniques and they include the ability to: 1) perform maneuvers without the flow-kinematic restrictions and support interference commonly associated with experimental S&C facilities, 2) easily simulate advanced S&C testing techniques, 3) compute exact S&C derivatives with uncertainty propagation bounds, and 4) alter the flow physics associated with a particular testing technique from those observed in a wind or water tunnel test in order to isolate effects. Also presented are discussions about some computational issues associated with the simulation of S&C tests and selected results from numerous surface grid resolution studies performed during the course of the study.

  11. Application of new physical chemical methods in soil ecological investigations.

    PubMed

    Motuzas, Algirdas; Vaisvalavicius, Rimantas; Prosycevas, Igoris

    2002-01-01

    The article discusses methodological investigations for the improvement and unification of soil testing in combination with the application of complex physico-chemical methods. An analytical procedure involving different extractions was used in order to determine the total and mobile amount of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc.) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in soil and its fine-dispersive fraction (< 0.005 mm). The average samples (effected upon by background pollution) of Calcari Epihypogleyic Luvisol, (Lvg-p-w-cc, FAO-Unesco, 1998) has been taken from the rotation field of the experimental station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture Subsequently, a fine-dispersive fraction was separated by a principle of peptization in distilled water. The investigation results obtained have shown a substantial dependence on the extractor used and the amount of fine-dispersive fraction in soil as well. It was found that the greatest reliability of the mobile heavy metal form is by using 1N CH3 COONH4 extractor and an HCl+HF mixture extractor for their total amount. Additionally, for the first time in Lithuania, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) it has been applied for the interpretation of soil chemical composition.

  12. Investigation of Supercritical Water Phenomena for Space and Extraterrestrial Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.; Fisher, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The cost of carrying or resupplying life support resources for long duration manned space exploration missions such as a mission to Mars is prohibitive and requires the development of suitable recycling technologies. Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) has been identified as an attractive candidate for these extended missions because (i) pre-drying of wet waste streams is not required, (ii) product streams are relatively benign, microbially inert, and easily reclaimed, (iii) waste conversion is complete and relatively fast, and (iv) with proper design and operation, reactions can be self-sustaining. Initial work in this area at NASA was carried out at the Ames Research Center in the 1990 s with a focus on understanding the linkages between feed stock preparation (i.e., particle size and distribution) of cellulosic based waste streams and destruction rates under a range of operating temperatures and pressures. More recently, work in SCWO research for space and extra-terrestrial application has been performed at NASA s Glenn Research Center where various investigations, with a particular focus in the gravitational effects on the thermo-physical processes occurring in the bulk medium, have been pursued. In 2010 a collaborative NASA/CNES (the French Space Agency) experiment on the critical transition of pure water was conducted in the long duration microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). A follow-on experiment, to study the precipitation of salt in sub-critical, trans-critical and supercritical water is scheduled to be conducted on the ISS in 2013. This paper provides a brief history of NASA s earlier work in SCWO, discusses the potential for application of SCWO technology in extended space and extraterrestrial missions, describes related research conducted on the ISS, and provides a list of future research activities to advance this technology in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial applications.

  13. Field Evaluation of a Semiautomated Method for Rapid and Simple Analysis of Recreational Water Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Anglès d'Auriac, Marc B.; Roberts, Hildegarde; Shaw, Terri; Sirevåg, Reidun; Hermansen, Leonila Fajardo; Berg, James D.

    2000-01-01

    An early warning system using a rapid enzymatic semiautomated method suitable for fecal coliform detection in recreational waters within 8 h was developed further and evaluated in this study. This rapid method was compared to the standard method followed in the United Kingdom. We used 1,011 samples originating from 206 different locations in Wales. When we assessed the presence or absence of fecal coliforms, targeting very low levels of contamination, we obtained 83.9% agreement between the rapid method and the lauryl sulfate broth-membrane filtration technique, whereas direct confirmation of the samples processed by the rapid method showed 89.3% agreement. Environmental enzymatic background activity was found to be the main limiting factor for this method. Owing to a specific and integrated handling of the results by the software of the instrument, the percentage of false-positive results (a consequence of enzymatic background) was successfully limited to 2.9% by the direct confirmation evaluation. However, 7.8% false-negative results due to “late-growers” had to be accepted in order to produce results within a working day. At present, the method can be used in a more conservative way to assess the environmental threshold of 100 CFU of fecal coliforms per 100 ml in recreational waters. The implications of our findings with regard to the applicability of rapid enzymatic methods are discussed. PMID:11010890

  14. Illustrated structural application of universal first-order reliability method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1994-01-01

    The general application of the proposed first-order reliability method was achieved through the universal normalization of engineering probability distribution data. The method superimposes prevailing deterministic techniques and practices on the first-order reliability method to surmount deficiencies of the deterministic method and provide benefits of reliability techniques and predictions. A reliability design factor is derived from the reliability criterion to satisfy a specified reliability and is analogous to the deterministic safety factor. Its application is numerically illustrated on several practical structural design and verification cases with interesting results and insights. Two concepts of reliability selection criteria are suggested. Though the method was developed to support affordable structures for access to space, the method should also be applicable for most high-performance air and surface transportation systems.

  15. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  16. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  17. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  18. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  19. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  20. 78 FR 22540 - Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division's Technical Support Center (TSC)...