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Sample records for applications bla process

  1. Function impairing mutations in blaZ and blaR genes of penicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tasara, T; Cernela, N; Stephan, R

    2013-06-01

    Molecular based approaches have gained increasing importance in routine mastitis diagnostics for typing and antibiotic resistance testing of Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 78 S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk 10 of them harbored blaZ, blaI and blaR genes. Although 5 strains were phenotypically resistant to penicillin, the other 5 (all belonging the clonal complex 8) were penicillin susceptible. PCR amplification confirmed the presence of the blaZ, blaR and blaI genes in all 5 strains. Sequencing of these genes uncovered a 29 base deletion within the blaZ gene in all these strains that causes a translational frame shift, which is predicted to induce abrogation of BlaZ expression. Additionally single nucleotide insertions and deletions were detected in blaR of 3 strains. These insertions cause translation reading frame shifts and premature stop codons that are predicted to induce expression of truncated BlaR proteins. Using the genetically altered blaZ genes detected as targets, a real-time PCR system for detecting CC8 associated blaZ positive S. aureus strains that still remain susceptible to penicillin was developed. Such strains are part of detection challenges that must be considered in routine application of genotypic resistance testing of bovine mastitis S. aureus.

  2. US biosimilar pathway unlikely to be used: developers will opt for a traditional BLA filing.

    PubMed

    Wiatr, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    In March 2010, the US passed the healthcare reform bill, including The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, which established an abbreviated Biologic License Application (aBLA) pathway for the approval of biosimilars. The aBLA pathway may never be used. At the "Business of Biosimilars" meeting in Boston in September, developers of both innovator and generic biologics as well as representatives from the scientific, regulatory, and legal communities noted that, because of unclear requirements for clinical data and the need for public disclosure of proprietary data, manufacturers of generic biologics are unlikely to take advantage of the aBLA process, opting instead for a standard Biologic License Application (BLA). The implications of an unusable biosimilars pathway in the US dampen our already soft outlook for biosimilars. Companies will still develop follow-on biologics, but approved compounds will behave as new branded drugs. Biosimilars in the US are therefore not likely to lead to aggressive pricing, but will more likely mirror current situations where several similar biologics are available. For example, the interferon (IFN) β-1a products Avonex® and Rebif®, and Betaseron® (IFN β-1b) have all enjoyed >10% price increases for the last several years in spite of their clinical similarities. inThought reiterates its outlook for generic erosion of a typical biologic that projects a loss of revenue of 30% over 5 years compared to the 90% revenue loss for a typical branded small molecule.

  3. First description of bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48), bla(OXA-181) producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in Romania.

    PubMed

    Székely, Edit; Damjanova, Ivelina; Jánvári, Laura; Vas, Krisztina E; Molnár, Szabolcs; Bilca, Doina V; Lőrinczi, Lilla K; Tóth, Akos

    2013-12-01

    We report the first isolation and characterization of several Enterobacteriaceae strains harboring bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48) and/or bla(OXA-181) genes in a Romanian emergency teaching hospital. Between January 2010 and September 2012 nine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were identified. The bla(NDM-1) gene was present in two Enterobacter cloacae strains, an Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. One of these K. pneumoniae strains also harbored the bla(OXA-181) gene. Three other K. pneumoniae strains and one Serratia marcescens carried bla(OXA-48).

  4. Rapid and simple identification of carbapenemase genes, bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups, in Gram-negative bacilli by in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Srisrattakarn, Arpasiri; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Charoensri, Nicha; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Saenjamla, Pimjai; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Daduang, Jureerut; Chanawong, Aroonwadee

    2017-07-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates by carbapenemase production are being reported globally with increasing frequency, leading to limited therapeutic options. We therefore developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (LAMP-HNB) for rapid confirmation of bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups. Sixty-two Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. isolates carrying various carbapenemase genes (28 bla NDM-1, 9 bla IMP-14a, 2 bla IMP-48, 1 bla IMP-1, 1 bla IMP-4, 1 bla IMP-9, 1 bla IMP-15, 4 bla VIM-2, 1 bla VIM-1, 1 bla IMP-14a & bla VIM-2, 7 bla KPC-2, 3 bla OXA-48 and 3 bla OXA-181) and 37 non-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates as confirmed by the PCR methods were included. Bacterial DNA was extracted by a simple boiling method. The LAMP-HNB method for each target gene was carried out using a set of six primers under isothermal condition at 65 °C in an ordinary water bath within 60 min and visual measurement of reaction by the change from violet to sky blue. This method had high efficiency (100% sensitivity and specificity) for identifying the bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups compared with the PCR method. The HNB is easy to prepare, inexpensive and provides reliable results. Therefore, this method could be used as a confirmatory carbapenemase test in routine laboratory or for epidemiological purposes.

  5. Detection of blaIMP4 and blaNDM1 harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a university hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hamzan, Nurul Izzati; Yean, Chan Yean; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (bla KPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians. PMID:25765342

  6. Escherichia coli of sequence type 3835 carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Yang, Ping; Xie, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2015-07-21

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 μg/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and belonged to ST3835. bla NDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (bla CMY-42) and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12). bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. bla CMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and bla CTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). bla CMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of bla CMY-42 was due to the transposition of ISEcp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of bla NDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of bla NDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China.

  7. Biochemical characterization of beta-lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Materon, Isabel C; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer beta-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities.

  8. Biochemical Characterization of β-Lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Materon, Isabel C.; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M.; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer β-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities. PMID:12760895

  9. Rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cancan; Zheng, Fen; Rui, Yongyu

    2014-12-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes. Six oligonucleotides, including outer, inner, and loop primers, were designed for eight distinct regions in each target gene. Two qualitative criteria were used to evaluate LAMP reactions: visual inspection of color change and real-time detection of fluorescence change. The lower detection limit was 10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction for real-time detection and 100 CFU per reaction for visual inspection for each gene. Two hundred twenty-two carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (including 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 Acinetobacter sp., and 22 Enterobacteriaceae) were tested by LAMP assay. At the same time, these isolates were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. In these clinical isolates, the results of 11 strains with blaNDM, 11 strains with blaKPC, 11 strains with blaVIM, and 2 strains with blaIMP obtained using LAMP assays were concordant with conventional PCR. The LAMP method reported here may be a useful and powerful tool for rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria.

  10. Rapid discrimination of blaIMP-1, blaIMP-6, and blaIMP-34 using a multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Shizuo; Ohge, Hiroki; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Stealth-type carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to almost all β-lactams except imipenem is emerging in Japan. This resistance is mediated by specific variants of the metallo-β-lactamases (blaIMP-6 or blaIMP-34) that differs by one amino acid from the common variant blaIMP-1. We developed an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR assay enabling rapid, sequence independent, identification of these variants.

  11. Real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of carbapenemase genes (bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Jèssica; Royo, Elena; Balcázar, José Luis; Borrego, Carles M

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have developed real-time PCR assays using SYBR Green chemistry to detect all known alleles of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like carbapenemase genes in water, sediment, and biofilm samples collected from hospital and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and rivers receiving chronic WWTP discharges. The amplification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48 DNA was linear over 7 log dilutions (R (2) between 0.995 and 0.997) and showing efficiencies ranging from 92.6% to 100.3%. The analytical sensitivity indicated that the reaction for bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes was able to detect 35, 16, and 19 copy numbers per assay, respectively. The three carbapenemase genes were detected in hospital effluents, whereas only the bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in biofilm and sediment samples collected from wastewater-impacted rivers. The detection of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in different matrices suggests that carbapenem-resistant bacteria occur in both planktonic and benthic habitats thus expanding the range of resistance reservoirs for last-resort antibiotics. We believe that these real-time PCR assays would be a powerful tool for the rapid detection and quantification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in complex environmental samples.

  12. Tissue localization and regulation by juvenile hormone of human allergen Bla g 4 from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Gore, J C; Redding, K O; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D; Schal, C

    2005-01-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), produces several potent protein aeroallergens, including Bla g 4, a approximately 20 kDa lipocalin. RT-PCR, Northern analyses and in situ hybridization showed that Bla g 4 is expressed only in the adult male reproductive system. Western blotting and ELISA with rBla g 4 antiserum detected immunoreactivity in the utricles and the conglobate gland, but not in other tissues of the male reproductive system. The Bla g 4 protein content of males increased from adult emergence to day 14, but during copulation Bla g 4 was depleted in the male and transferred to the female within the spermatophore. Topical application of juvenile hormone III stimulated Bla g 4 production by both conglobate gland and utricles.

  13. Investigation of Signal Transduction Routes within the Sensor/Transducer Protein BlaR1 of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Staude, Michael W.; Frederick, Thomas E.; Natarajan, Sivanandam V.; Wilson, Brian D.; Tanner, Carol E.; Ruggiero, Steven T.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane antibiotic sensor/signal transducer protein BlaR1 is part of a cohort of proteins that confer β-lactam antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1–3). Specifically, BlaR1 regulates the inducible expression of β-lactamases that hydrolytically destroy β–lactam antibiotics. The resistance phenotype starts with β-lactam antibiotic acylation of the BlaR1 extracellular domain (BlaRS). The acylation activates the cytoplasmic protease domain through an obscure signal-transduction mechanism. Here, we compare protein dynamics of apo versus antibiotic-acylated BlaRS using NMR. Our analyses reveal inter-residue interactions that relay acylation-induced perturbations within the antibiotic-binding site to the transmembrane helix regions near the membrane surface. These are the first insights into the process of signal transduction by BlaR1. PMID:25658195

  14. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lesa R; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-07-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. Accession numbers: The atomic coordinates and the structure factors have been deposited to the Protein Data Band under accession codes: 4N7C for native Bla g 4 and 4N7D for the Se-Met Bla g 4 structure.

  15. Elimination of antibiotic-resistance bacterium and its associated/dissociative blaTEM-1 and aac(3)-II antibiotic-resistance genes in aqueous system via photoelectrocatalytic process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Yin, Hongliang; Li, Guiying; Liu, Hongli; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung; Zhao, Huijun

    2017-08-23

    The ubiquity of antibiotic-resistance bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) in various environmental matrices is a potential threat to human and ecological health. Therefore, the inactivation of ARB E. coli S1-23 and the elimination of its associated ARGs, blaTEM-1 and aac(3)-II, were investigated using the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) process. Results indicate that the ARB E. coli S1-23 (1 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1)) and its ARGs (extracellular and intracellular) could be fully inactivated within 10 and 16 h PEC treatment, respectively. In contrast, photocatalytic (PC) and electrochemical (EC) treatments displayed no obvious effect; however, ARG-containing DNA extracted from E. coli S1-23, which was used as a model for dissociative naked ARGs, could be completely decomposed within a few minutes through these three treatments. Further analyses, including PCR, AFM and HPLC, proved that the structural integrity and surface topography of naked ARGs are damaged during treatment and can be completely eliminated. Furthermore, there is no generation of cytosine, guanine, adenine or thymine intermediates during the PEC, PC, and EC treatments. This study is the first report to propose the PEC treatment as a promising method for complete decomposition of ARB and ARGs in aqueous systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1) were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%), followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST), the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and the extraordinary

  17. IncH-Type Plasmid Harboring blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, and qnrB4 Genes Recovered from Animal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Andreas; Nordmann, Patrice; Bonnin, Rémy A.; Millemann, Yves; Eikmeyer, Felix G.; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The whole sequence of plasmid pENVA carrying the extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-15 was determined. It was identified from a series of clonally related Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 274 strains recovered from companion animals. This plasmid was 253,984 bp in size and harbored, in addition to blaCTX-M-15, a large array of genes encoding resistance to many antibiotic molecules, including β-lactams (blaTEM-1, blaDHA-1), aminoglycosides (aacA2, aadA1), tetracycline (tetA), quinolones (qnrB4), trimethoprim (dfrA15), and sulfonamides (two copies of sul1). In addition, genes encoding resistance to mercury, tellurium, nickel, and quaternary compounds were identified. It also carried genes encoding DNA damage protection and mutagenesis repair and a locus for a CRISPR system, which corresponds to an immune system involved in protection against bacteriophages and plasmids. Comparative analysis of the plasmid scaffold showed that it possessed a structure similar to that of only a single plasmid, which was pNDM-MAR encoding the carbapenemase NDM-1 and identified from human K. pneumoniae isolates. Both plasmids possessed two replicons, namely, those of IncFIB-like and IncHIB-like plasmids, which were significantly different from those previously characterized. The blaCTX-M-15 gene, together with the other antibiotic resistance genes, was part of a large module likely acquired through a transposition process. We characterized here a new plasmid type carrying the blaCTX-M-15 gene identified in a K. pneumoniae isolate of animal origin. The extent to which this plasmid type may spread efficiently and possibly further enhance the dissemination of blaCTX-M-15 among animal and human isolates remains to be determined. PMID:24752252

  18. Quantifying Nonspecific TEM β-Lactamase (blaTEM) Genes in a Wastewater Stream▿

    PubMed Central

    Lachmayr, Karen L.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Ford, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    To control the antibiotic resistance epidemic, it is necessary to understand the distribution of genetic material encoding antibiotic resistance in the environment and how anthropogenic inputs, such as wastewater, affect this distribution. Approximately two-thirds of antibiotics administered to humans are β-lactams, for which the predominant bacterial resistance mechanism is hydrolysis by β-lactamases. Of the β-lactamases, the TEM family is of overriding significance with regard to diversity, prevalence, and distribution. This paper describes the design of DNA probes universal for all known TEM β-lactamase genes and the application of a quantitative PCR assay (also known as Taqman) to quantify these genes in environmental samples. The primer set was used to study whether sewage, both treated and untreated, contributes to the spread of these genes in receiving waters. It was found that while modern sewage treatment technologies reduce the concentrations of these antibiotic resistance genes, the ratio of blaTEM genes to 16S rRNA genes increases with treatment, suggesting that bacteria harboring blaTEM are more likely to survive the treatment process. Thus, β-lactamase genes are being introduced into the environment in significantly higher concentrations than occur naturally, creating reservoirs of increased resistance potential. PMID:18997031

  19. Prevalence of blaNDM, blaPER, blaVEB, blaIMP, and blaVIM Genes among Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Two Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Fatemeh; Noori, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein; Karimi, Abdollah; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Alimehr, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of blaNDM, blaPER, blaVEB, blaIMP, and blaVIM type genes among A. baumannii isolates from hospitalized patients in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. The frequency of MBL (metallo-beta-lactamase) and ESBL (extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase) producers was evaluated by CDDT. The β-lactamases genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Results. The resistance of A. baumannii isolates against tested antibiotics was as follows: 103 (95.4%) to ceftazidime, 108 (100%) to cefotaxime, 105 (95.7%) to cefepime, 99 (91.7%) to imipenem, 99 (91.7%) to meropenem, 87 (80.6%) to amikacin, 105 (97.2%) to piperacillin, 100 (92.6%) to ciprofloxacin, 103 (95.4%) to piperacillin/tazobactam, 44 (40.7%) to gentamicin, 106 (98.1%) to ampicillin/sulbactam, 106 (98.1%) to co-trimoxazole, 87 (80.6%) to tetracycline, and 1 (1.8%) to colistin. Using combined disk diffusion test, 91 (84.2%) and 86 (86.86%) were ESBL and MBL producers, respectively. The prevalence of blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, blaIMP-1, and blaVIM-1 genes was 71 (78.03%), 36 (39.5%), 3 (3.48%), and 15 (17.44%), respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs-producing A. baumannii strains detected in this study is a major concern and highlights the need of infection control measures. PMID:25133013

  20. Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe the results of a molecular epidemiological survey of 15 carbapenemase-encoding genes from a recent collection of clinical isolates. The most salient findings revealed that (i) 60% of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes, (ii) the blaDIM-1 gene that has only been reported in...

  1. Co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ramoul, Abir; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane; Amiri, Sabrina; Dekhil, Mazouz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in an Algerian hospital. A total of 43 imipenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 were identified using API 20NE and were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and Etest methods. Carbapenemase activity was detected using microbiological tests and PCR. Genetic transfer of the blaNDM-1 gene was performed by conjugation using sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as recipient strain. Clonal relationships were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using partial sequences of the csuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 43 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (>32μg/mL). The strains harboured blaOXA-23, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-58 and/or blaOXA-24 genes. Co-existence of blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 was detected in two isolates and one isolate, respectively. NDM-1 plasmid transfer to E. coli J53 was successful only for one of the three strains harbouring both blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58. The phylogenetic tree obtained from concatenation of the partial sequences of csuE and blaOXA-51 showed that there was no genetic relationship between the isolates and the blaNDM-1 resistance gene. Here we report for the first time the co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 along with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in recent clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Northeast Algeria. These findings re-emphasise the dissemination and rapid spread of blaNDM-1 carbapenemase genes in multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii isolates in Algeria.

  2. Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing bla IMP-1 and bla VIM-1 in Qazvin and Alborz educational hospitals, Iran.

    PubMed

    Peymani, Amir; Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Mohammadi Ghanbarlou, Mahdi; Najafipour, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent opportunistic pathogen in health care associated infections that is highly resistant to the majority of β-lactams. The aims of this study were to access the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of P. aeruginosa isolated from educational hospitals of Qazvin and Alborz provinces, to determine the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among carbapenem non-susceptible isolates by combined disk (CD) method, and to detect the bla IMP, bla VIM, bla SIM, bla GIM, bla SPM and bla NDM-1-MBL genes. In this cross-sectional study, 300 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different clinical specimens in two provinces of Qazvin and Alborz hospitals, Iran. After identification of isolates by standard laboratory methods, antimicrobial susceptibility was done against 17 antibiotics according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guideline. CD method was carried out for detection of MBLs and the presence of bla IMP, bla VIM, bla SIM, bla GIM, bla NDM-1 and bla SPM-genes was further assessed by PCR and sequencing methods. In this study, 107 (35.66%) isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem and/or meropenem among those 56 (52.3%) isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producer. Twenty-four of 56 (42.85%) MBL-positive isolates were confirmed to be positive for MBL-encoding genes in which 14 (25%) and 10 (17.85%) isolates carried bla IMP-1 and bla VIM-1 genes either alone or in combination. Three (5.35%) isolates carried bla IMP and bla VIM genes, simultaneously. Considering the moderate prevalence and clinical importance of MBL-producing isolates, rapid identification and use of appropriate infection control (IC) measures are necessary to prevent further spread of infections by these resistant organisms.

  3. Guanidinium chloride denaturation of the dimeric Bacillus licheniformis BlaI repressor highlights an independent domain unfolding pathway

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis 749/I BlaI repressor is a prokaryotic regulator that, in the absence of a β-lactam antibiotic, prevents the transcription of the blaP gene, which encodes the BlaP β-lactamase. The BlaI repressor is composed of two structural domains. The 82-residue NTD (N-terminal domain) is a DNA-binding domain, and the CTD (C-terminal domain) containing the next 46 residues is a dimerization domain. Recent studies have shown the existence of the monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric forms of BlaI in solution. In the present study, we analyse the equilibrium unfolding of BlaI in the presence of GdmCl (guanidinium chloride) using different techniques: intrinsic and ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-l-sulphonic acid) fluorescence, far- and near-UV CD spectroscopy, cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the intact NTD and CTD were purified after proteolysis of BlaI by papain, and their unfolding by GdmCl was also studied. GdmCl-induced equilibrium unfolding was shown to be fully reversible for BlaI and for the two isolated fragments. The results demonstrate that the NTD and CTD of BlaI fold/unfold independently in a four-step process, with no significant co-operative interactions between them. During the first step, the unfolding of the BlaI CTD occurs, followed in the second step by the formation of an ‘ANS-bound’ intermediate state. Cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments suggest that the dissociation of the dimer into two partially unfolded monomers takes place in the third step. Finally, the unfolding of the BlaI NTD occurs at a GdmCl concentration of approx. 4 M. In summary, it is shown that the BlaI CTD is structured, more flexible and less stable than the NTD upon GdmCl denaturation. These results contribute to the characterization of the BlaI dimerization domain (i.e. CTD) involved in the induction process. PMID:15285720

  4. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  5. ISAba825 controls the expression of the chromosomal bla(OXA-51-like) and the plasmid borne bla(OXA-58) gene in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the USA.

    PubMed

    Lopes, B S; Al-Hassan, L; Amyes, S G B

    2012-11-01

    Four non-repetitive, clonally related (ST114), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in the USA were examined to understand the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance including screening for the presence of an insertion sequence upstream of the bla(OXA-51-like) gene, which could be involved in the control and expression of the antibiotic-resistance gene. We observed that the main mechanisms of carbapenem resistance were the result of the over-expression of the bla(OXA-58-like) and the bla(OXA-65) gene, both of which had the presence of ISAba825 upstream of the genes. The importance of this element was shown by isolating plasmid-cured isogenic strains that had lost the plasmid with the ISAba825-bla(OXA-58-like) genes but during that same process also lost the chromosomal ISAba825 element present upstream of the bla(OXA-65) gene. A 16-fold decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration of imipenem and an eight-fold decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration of meropenem were seen in the isogenic strains that lost the plasmid. The study presents the first report of ISAba825 simultaneously governing the bla(OXA-65) gene and the bla(OXA-58-like) gene expression and also highlights the importance of this element in carbapenem-sensitive isogenic strains, which were once carbapenem resistant.

  6. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  7. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  8. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine

    PubMed Central

    Offermann, Lesa R.; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, Jayaraman; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-01-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. PMID:24769496

  9. Information Processing Applications: Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia. Div. of Vocational-Technical and Adult Education Services.

    This guide is intended to serve as a resource for business education instructors who are teaching a course in information processing for the automated office. The following topics are covered: program goals, student learning objectives for production applications, an introduction to production applications, a curriculum outline, student learning…

  10. Word Processing Applications for Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recio, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates computer software containing applications for learning Japanese as a second language. Presents overview of software available for Japanese word processing applications, lists publications that are good sources of information on Japanese computer topics, and includes a directory of distributors. (eight references) (Author/CK)

  11. Prevalence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bora, Arijit; Hazarika, Naba Kumar; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi N; Sarma, Jayanta Biswa; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. A total of 270 E. coli and 219 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered during the period between August 2009 and July 2010. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Screening and phenotypic confirmatory test for ESBL production were performed using standard disc diffusion methods. Each of the initial ESBL screening test isolate was investigated for the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gene-specific primers. Phenotypic confirmatory test able to detect ESBL production in 73.58% of E. coli and 67.24% of K. pneumoniae. However, PCR amplification showed the presence of one or more ESBL genes in each of the initial ESBL screening positive isolate. Among three ESBL genotypes, the most prevalent genotype was found to be blaCTX-M in E. coli (88.67%) and blaTEM in K. pneumoniae (77.58%) ESBL producing isolates. Majority of ESBL producing isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. This study constituted a primer report on high prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae and denotes the need of more extensive studies on these antibiotic genes to determine the magnitude of the problem of antibiotic resistance exiting in this locality.

  12. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  13. Complete Sequencing of Plasmids Containing blaOXA-163 and blaOXA-48 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Peirano, Gisele; Sebra, Robert; Lynch, Tarah; Anson, Luke; Kasarskis, Andrew; Motyl, Mary R; Crook, Derrick W; Pitout, Johann D

    2016-11-01

    OXA-48-like enzymes have emerged as important extended-spectrum β-lactamases/carbapenemases in Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131). We report the structures of the first fully sequenced blaOXA-163 plasmid and of two other blaOXA-48 plasmids in this lineage. blaOXA-163 was located on a 71-kb IncN plasmid with other resistance genes. blaOXA-48 was present on IncL/M plasmids, genetically similar to other blaOXA-48 plasmid sequences, and consistent with interspecies/interlineage spread. The presence of blaOXA-48-like genes on epidemic plasmids in ST131 is of concern. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the blaOXA-436- and blaNDM-1-Harboring Shewanella putrefaciens SA70 Isolate.

    PubMed

    Potter, Robert F; D'Souza, Alaric W; Wallace, Meghan A; Shupe, Angela; Patel, Sanket; Gul, Danish; Kwon, Jennie H; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, C A; Dantas, Gautam

    2017-07-20

    We sequenced a carbapenem-resistant Shewanella putrefaciens isolate cultured from the sink handle of a Pakistan hospital room. Assembly annotation indicates that the isolate has a chromosomal blaOXA-436 carbapenemase and a plasmid-borne blaNDM-1 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Shewanella species harboring blaNDM. Copyright © 2017 Potter et al.

  15. Rapid and simultaneous detection of blaKPC and blaNDM by use of multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Michael; Kwak, Yoon I; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil; McGann, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of carbapenem nonsusceptibility among clinically important species is of global concern. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying carbapenem nonsusceptibility is critical for epidemiological investigations. In this report, we describe a real-time PCR-based assay capable of simultaneously detecting blaKPC and blaNDM, two of the most important carbapenemases, directly from culture in less than 90 min. The assay was validated with blaKPC- and blaNDM-carrying clinical isolates and demonstrated 100% concordance with the Carba NP test.

  16. Citrobacter freundii carrying blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1: characterization by whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Espedido, Björn; Feng, Yu; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-07-28

    A carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii strain WCHCF65 was recovered from hospital sewage and was characterized by genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. The strain carried nine genes encoding β-lactamases including two carbapenemase genes, blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2. blaNDM-1 was carried on an IncX3 plasmid, which was identical to a plasmid found in a local Escherichia coli, suggesting interspecies horizontal transfer. blaKPC-2 was bracketed by two copies of insertion sequence ISKpn19, which could form a composite transposon with the potential to mobilize blaKPC-2, on a new type of plasmid. The coexistence of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 conferred higher levels of resistance to carbapenems compared with blaNDM-1 or blaKPC-2 alone. The coexistence of these carbapenemase genes, on two different plasmids, in one strain may allow new genetic platforms to be generated to mediate their spread.

  17. Clinical Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baylyi Strain Coharboring blaSIM-1 and blaOXA-23 from China ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhihui; Du, Xiaoxing; Wang, Li; Yang, Qing; Fu, Yiqi; Yu, Yunsong

    2011-01-01

    blaSIM-1 and blaOXA-23 were codetected in clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baylyi strain NB09A30. Both of carbapenemase genes were located on a large plasmid (ca. 360 kb). blaSIM-1 was found as a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron identical to that determined in Acinetobacter sp. isolates from South Korea. The genetic structure of blaOXA-23 in NB09A30 was different from that in the prevalent Acinetobacter baumannii of clonal complex 92 (CC92) from the same hospital. PMID:21876057

  18. Characterization of a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 476 carrying both bla KPC-2 and bla IMP-4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cao, W; Zhu, X; Chen, Z; Li, L; Zhang, B; Wang, B; Tian, L; Wang, F; Liu, C; Sun, Z

    2012-08-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has recently spread rapidly throughout China. In this study, we characterized a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolate that produced both KPC-2 and IMP-4 type carbapenemases. A clinical isolate of K. pneumoniae, resistant to both meropenem and imipenem, was recovered from a urine sample. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and Etest (bioMérieux, France). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for gene type analysis. bla (KPC) and the encoding genes of ESBLs and plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced. Plasmids were analyzed by transformation, enzyme restriction and Southern blot. PCR analysis revealed that the isolate was simultaneously carrying bla (KPC-2), bla (IMP-4), bla (TEM-1), and bla (OKP-B) genes. MLST assigned the isolate to a novel sequence type, ST476. bla (KPC-2)-harbouring plasmids of the isolate and comparative strains had similar EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps, while IMP-4-harbouring plasmids had variable HindIII restriction maps. Coexistence of bla (KPC-2) and bla (IMP-4) was probably due to bla (IMP-4)-harbouring plasmid transmission into KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae (ST476). The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses both therapeutic and infection control problems.

  19. Emergence of blaKPC carbapenemase genes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Sally R; Ginn, Andrew N; Wiklendt, Agnieszka M; Ellem, Justin; Wong, Jenny S J; Ingram, Paul; Guy, Stephen; Garner, Sarah; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2015-02-01

    blaKPC genes encoding resistance to carbapenems are increasingly widely reported and are now endemic in parts of several countries, but only one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate carrying blaKPC-2 had previously been reported in Australia, in 2010. Here we characterised this isolate, six additional K. pneumoniae and one Escherichia coli carrying blaKPC and another K. pneumoniae lacking blaKPC, all isolated in Australia in 2012. Seven K. pneumoniae belonged to clonal complex (CC) 292, associated with blaKPC in several countries. Five with blaKPC-2 plus the isolate lacking a blaKPC gene were sequence type 258 (ST258) and the seventh was the closely related ST512 with blaKPC-3. The eighth K. pneumoniae isolate, novel ST1048, and the E. coli (ST131) also carried blaKPC-2. blaKPC genes were associated with the most common Tn4401a variant, which gives the highest levels of expression, in all isolates. The ST258 isolates appeared to share a similar set of plasmids, with IncFIIK, IncX3 and ColE-type plasmids identified in most isolates. All K. pneumoniae isolates had a characteristic insertion in the ompK35 gene resulting in a frameshift and early termination, but only the ST512 isolate had a GlyAsp insertion in loop 3 of OmpK36 that may contribute to increased resistance. The clinical epidemiology of blaKPC emergence in Australia thus appears to reflect the global dominance of K. pneumoniae CC292 (and perhaps E. coli ST131). Some, but not all, patients carrying these isolates had previously been hospitalised outside Australia, suggesting multiple discrete importation events of closely related strains, as well as undetected nosocomial spread.

  20. Investigation of signal transduction routes within the sensor/transducer protein BlaR1 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Staude, Michael W; Frederick, Thomas E; Natarajan, Sivanandam V; Wilson, Brian D; Tanner, Carol E; Ruggiero, Steven T; Mobashery, Shahriar; Peng, Jeffrey W

    2015-03-03

    The transmembrane antibiotic sensor/signal transducer protein BlaR1 is part of a cohort of proteins that confer β-lactam antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [Fisher, J. F., Meroueh, S. O., and Mobashery, S. (2005) Chem. Rev. 105, 395-424; Llarrull, L. I., Fisher, J. F., and Mobashery, S. (2009) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4051-4063; Llarrull, L. I., Toth, M., Champion, M. M., and Mobashery, S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 38148-38158]. Specifically, BlaR1 regulates the inducible expression of β-lactamases that hydrolytically destroy β-lactam antibiotics. The resistance phenotype starts with β-lactam antibiotic acylation of the BlaR1 extracellular domain (BlaRS). The acylation activates the cytoplasmic protease domain through an obscure signal transduction mechanism. Here, we compare protein dynamics of apo versus antibiotic-acylated BlaRS using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our analyses reveal inter-residue interactions that relay acylation-induced perturbations within the antibiotic-binding site to the transmembrane helix regions near the membrane surface. These are the first insights into the process of signal transduction by BlaR1.

  1. [Identification and expression of blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-24].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zi-Zhong; Zhu, De-Mei; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Ying-Yuan

    2004-09-02

    To identify the ESBL gene and the prevalence in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from Huashan Hospital, Shanghai. Isolates were confirmed as an ESBL producing strain by double-disk synergy test and NCCLS Confirmatory Test. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by standard agar dilution procedure on Mueller-Hinton agar. To determine whether the resistance was transferable, the conjugation experiment was performed; plasmids were isolated from clinical isolates and transcojugants. The partial bla(gene) of ESBL producing isolates and their transcojugants were detected by PCR using universal primers for TEM, SHV, CTX-M-1group, Toho-1group, CTX-M-13group respectively. The entire bla(CTX-M-13) group were amplified by PCR using the primers outside the Open Reading Frame (ORF) of CTX-M-13group beta-lactamases; the PCR products of entire bla(CTX-M-13)group were cloned into vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into the recipient strain for expression; the PCR products were also directly sequenced and analyzed; the clinical isolates of ESBL producers were detected by PFGE. ESBL producers were resistant to most beta-lactams and non-beta-lactams. Most transconjugants were obtained at frequency of 10(-4) approximately 10(-5) and resistance to non-beta-lactams was cotransferred with the ESBL activity to the transconjugant. A plasmid of about > 23.1 kb was obtained from each tansconjugant by plasmid extraction. Partial gene amplification products of CTX-M-13 group gene were obtained from isolates and their transconjugants. The bla(CTX-M-13)group from 4 transconjugants were identified as bla(CTX-M-14), and other six were bla(CTX-M-24); those ESBLs were mediated by plasmids (> 23.1 kb); the transformants producing CTX-M-14 or CTX-M-24 were resistant to most beta-lactams, which were much more resistant to cefotaxime than to ceftazidine; PFGE patterns of those isolates were different. clinical isolate of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella

  2. Fact sheet for Applicants Intergovernmental Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When submitting your application for Federal assistance, please observe the following steps pertaining to the intergovernmental review process. This is the Fact sheet for Applicants Intergovernmental Review Process.

  3. Characterization of the blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes and the novel blaKPC-15 gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongguo; Hou, Wei; Chen, Jiayu; Mou, Yonghua; Yang, Linjun; Yang, Liqin; Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Meiyun

    2014-07-01

    Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenem were analysed by PCR, PFGE, gene mapping, plasmid conjugation and Southern blot hybridization using a blaKPC probe. In addition to the frequently reported blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes, a novel blaKPC-15 gene was identified in one of the isolates. The results of plasmid analysis and Southern blot hybridization revealed that the three blaKPC genes were located on transferable plasmids exhibiting three different patterns. The patterns A, B and C were observed in the genetic makeup of each individual plasmid, and all three structures contained ISKpn6-like and ISKpn8 transposons. The results of the gene mapping and hybridization experiments performed with the blaKPC probe demonstrated that the plasmids harboured the three genes at approximately the 85.0, 54.0 and 73.0 kb positions. The study concluded that carbapenem resistance in the three isolates was primarily due to the production of carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase.

  4. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  5. [blaTEM, blaSHV y blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacterias isolated from patients with hospital-acquired infections].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Militza; Rodríguez, Eliosmar; Antón, Karen; Silva, Suyin; Navarro, Jhonilys; Lastra, Loriannys; Salazar, Elsa; Alonso, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to identify the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates, collected between September and November 2005. In addition to third-generation cephalosporin resistance, the isolates also showed resistance to chloramphenicol (59.2%), amikacin (37.0%) and gentamicin (40.7%), and demonstrated sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem. Nine strains were capable of transferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance, as well as the production of ESBL. In the clinical isolates, the genes blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected, being more prevalent the types blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-5 blaSHV-5-2a and blaCTX-M-1; while in the trans-conjugated only blaTEM-1, blaSHV-5 y blaSHV-5-2awere found. In total, seven types of genes were identified, five of which were codifying genes for ESBL-type enzymes. This demonstrates that in the hospital center, resistance to third-generation cephalosporin is mediated by several enzymes.

  6. Occurrence of co-existing bla VIM-2 and bla NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Deepjyoti; Dhar, Debadatta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Sharma, Gauri Dutt; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2016-05-06

    bla VIM-2 harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported worldwide and considered as the most prevalent metallo-β-lactamase after NDM which are found horizontally transferable and mostly associated with integron gene cassettes. The present study investigates the genetic background, transmission dynamics as well as stability of bla VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa harbor bla NDM-1 as well which were collected from October 2012 to September 2013. Two P. aeruginosa strains harboring bla VIM-2 along with bla NDM-1 were isolated from Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India. Genetic environment of these resistance determinants was determined and transferability was checked by transformation and conjugation assay which was further confirmed by Southern hybridization. Replicon typing was performed to determine the incompatibility group of the resistant plasmid and their stability was checked by serial passage method. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined and their clonal relatedness was checked by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. bla VIM-2 was found to be horizontally transferable through an Inc F type plasmid of approximately 30 kb in size. bla VIM-2 was found to be associated with integron gene cassette and was flanked by two different types of cassette arrays. Both the isolates were co-harboring bla NDM-1 which was carried within Inc N type of plasmid with an approximate 24 kb in size and associated with ISAba125 in their upstream region. Reduced susceptibility rate as well as high MIC range was observed in case of wild strains and transformants carrying bla VIM-2 and bla NDM-1. The detection of this co-existence of multiple carbapenem resistance genes in this part of world is worrisome and further investigation is required in order to trace the source and to initiate proper treatment option.

  7. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and activities of an aerospace technology transfer group are outlined and programs in various stages of progress are described including the orbital tube flaring device, infrared proximity sensor for robot positioning, laser stripping magnet wire, infrared imaging as welding process tracking system, carbide coating of cutting tools, nondestructive fracture toughness testing of titanium welds, portable solar system for agricultural applications, and an anerobic methane gas generator.

  8. Manufacturing Process Applications Team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Manufacturing Process Applications Team concerning the promotion of joint Industry/Federal Agency/NASA funded research and technology operating plan (RTOP) programs are reported. Direct transfers occurred in cutting tools, laser wire stripping, soldering, and portable X-ray unit technology. TROP program funding approval was obtained for the further development of the cutting tool Sialon and development of an automated nondestructive fracture toughness testing system.

  9. Novel β-Lactamase blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae.

    PubMed

    Andreis, Sabrina N; Perreten, Vincent; Schwendener, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S. arlettae. Furthermore, a GenBank search revealed more unique potential β-lactamases in Staphylococcus species. IMPORTANCE Penicillins are an important group of antibiotics used to treat various types of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. So far, the blaZ gene was the only known β-lactamase gene in staphylococci. However, other putative β-lactamases were identified, and one of them was shown to be a novel functional β-lactamase encoded by blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae, further limiting treatment options.

  10. Novel β-Lactamase blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Sabrina N.; Schwendener, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S. arlettae. Furthermore, a GenBank search revealed more unique potential β-lactamases in Staphylococcus species. IMPORTANCE Penicillins are an important group of antibiotics used to treat various types of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. So far, the blaZ gene was the only known β-lactamase gene in staphylococci. However, other putative β-lactamases were identified, and one of them was shown to be a novel functional β-lactamase encoded by blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae, further limiting treatment options. PMID:28497118

  11. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  12. Direct detection of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles by multiplex-touchdown PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, M-Y; Geng, J-L; Chen, Y-J; Song, Y; Sun, M; Liu, H-Z; Hu, C-J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and ESBL(Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase)-producing bacteria are the most important resistant pathogens in sepsis. In this study, a new multiplex-touchdown PCR method (MT-PCR) was developed to detect rapidly and simultaneously the presence of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles. The technique showed a sensitivity of 10(3 ) CFU ml(-1) for mecA detection and of 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) for other genes, and 100% specificity in the detection of all genes. All genes were detected in the spiked blood culture bottles artificially contaminated with reference strains. Three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), two methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) and 32 ESBL-producing bacteria, were isolated from the clinical blood culture specimens in 48 h by standard microbiological procedures. The corresponding genes were detected directly in the three MRSA, two MRSE and 29 ESBL-producing bacteria from the clinical blood culture specimens in 4 h by MT-PCR assay. None of the blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in three other bottles with ESBL-producing bacteria because of other ESBL genotypes in the pathogens. Likewise, all bottles proven negative by culture remained negative by PCR. The proposed method was rapid, sensitive and specific, and was able to directly detect the genes of MRS and ESBL-producing bacteria from the blood culture bottles. Many studies on the development of PCR for the detection of resistance genes have already been published, including multiplex PCR methods. However, cross-amplification reactions can be a major concern in multiplex PCR methods. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific multiplex-touchdown PCR assay for simultaneous detection of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles, cross-amplification was absent and false-positive results were not obtained. © 2016 The

  13. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii Harboring bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1) and bla(OXA-23) genes by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyung Sun; Lee, Jae Myun; Yoon, Sang Sun; Yong, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A rapid and sensitive test to detect CRPA and CRAB is required for appropriate antibiotic treatment. We optimized a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect the presence of bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23), which are critical components for carbapenem resistance. Two sets of primers, inner and outer primers, were manually designed as previously described. The LAMP buffer was optimized (at 2mM MgSO₄) by testing different concentrations of MgSO₄. The optimal reaction temperature and incubation time were determined by using a gradient thermocycler. Then, the optimized bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23) LAMP reactions were evaluated by using 120 P. aeruginosa and 99 A. baumannii clinical isolates. Only one strain of the 100 CRPA isolates harbored bla(IMP-1), whereas none of them harbored bla(VIM-2). These results indicate that the acquisition of bla(VIM-2) or bla(IMP-1) may not play a major role in carbapenem resistance in Korea. Fifty two strains of the 75 CRAB isolates contained bla(OXA-23), but none contained bla(VIM-2) and bla(IMP-1) alleles. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of LAMP for the diagnosis of CRPA and CRAB.

  14. pRMH760, a precursor of A/C₂ plasmids carrying blaCMY and blaNDM genes.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of plasmids in the repA/C2 group carrying genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins (bla(CMY)) or to carbapenems (bla(NDM)) and cephalosporins (bla(CMY)), the sequence of plasmid pRMH760 that lacks the β-lactamase genes was determined and compared to all available A/C2 plasmid sequences. pRMH760 is 170.6 kb and carries several antibiotic resistance genes in a 45.1 kb complex transposon structure located upstream of the rhs gene. In plasmid pR148, the closest relative of pRMH760, the antibiotic resistance island is in the same position but the resistance genes differ. pRMH760 also contains a deletion in the rhs gene. Sequenced A/C2 plasmids containing bla(CMY) or bla(CMY) and bla(NDM) have backbones closely related to the pRMH760/pR148 backbone, and they include resistance islands in the same location, indicating that they arose from a plasmid related to pRMH760/pR148. However, the gene content of this resistance island differs in each case, and the island family was designated ARI-A. The bla(NDM) gene is within ARI-A. The ISEcp1-bla(CMY) fragment is located elsewhere and is always in the same location, consistent with a single acquisition event. Plasmids containing only bla(CMY) carry a second resistance island, designated ARI-B, which includes the sul2 gene and a variable set of further resistance genes. Nine A/C2 plasmids that were not of this type (type 1) were found to have a similar backbone that can be simply distinguished by the presence of two exchanged regions and two insertions. Antibiotic resistance islands in type 2 plasmids are in different locations and have different structures.

  15. Laser applications in wood processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.

    1993-08-01

    Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Application processing. 1942.104 Section 1942.104... § 1942.104 Application processing. (a) General. Prospective applicants should request assistance by... application is filed to discuss eligibility and Rural Development requirements and processing...

  17. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  18. ISCR2, Another Vehicle for blaVEB Gene Acquisition▿

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, Laurent; Mugnier, Pauline D.; Toleman, Mark A.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Rapoport, Melina J.; Petroni, Alejandro; Nordmann, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaVEB-1, identified worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is associated with either class 1 integrons or repeated elements. We report here the first association of blaVEB-1a with the insertion sequence ISCR2 in six Acinetobacter species isolates recovered from Argentina. That genetic structure was likely at the origin of the mobilization of this ESBL gene. PMID:19704129

  19. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the ISAba1-bla OXA-23,51 and ISAba1-bla ADC-7 genes in Monteria, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pedro; Mattar, Salim

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/bla OXA-23, ISAba1/bla OXA-51 and ISAba1/bla ADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2-7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried bla OXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the bla ADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1/ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Characteristics of Various blaPER Genes in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lianyan; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Fangfang; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    We describe the genetic characteristics and possible transmission mechanism of blaPER in 25 clinical Gram-negative bacilli in Shanghai. blaPER, including blaPER-1, blaPER-3, and blaPER-4, was located chromosomally or in different plasmids. Tn1213 harboring blaPER-1 was first identified in two Proteus mirabilis isolates in China. The other blaPER variants were preceded by an ISCR1 element inside the complex class 1 integron associated with IS26, Tn21, Tn1696, and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element. PMID:27067315

  1. Microsystem for signal processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenstein, B.; Froehlich, K.-J.; Hentschel, D.; Reppe, G.

    2005-05-01

    Acoustic monitoring of technological processes requires methods that eliminate noise as much as possible. Sensor-near signal evaluation can contribute substantially. Frequently, a further necessity exists to integrate the measuring technique in the monitored structure. The solution described contains components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization, algorithms for data reduction, and digital communication. The core component is a digital signal processor (DSP). Digital signal processors perform the algorithms necessary for filtering, down sampling, FFT computation and correlation of spectral components particularly effective. A compact, sensor-near signal processing structure was realized. It meets the Match-X standard, which as specified by the German Association for Mechanical and Plant Engineering (VDMA) for development of micro-technical modules, which can be combined to applicaiton specific systems. The solution is based on AL2O3 ceramic components including different signal processing modules as ADC, as well as memory and power supply. An arbitrary waveform generator has been developed and combined with a power amplifier for piezoelectric transducers in a special module. A further module interfaces to these transducers. It contains a multi-channel preamplifier, some high-pass filters for analog signal processing and an ADC-driver. A Bluetooth communication chip for wireless data transmission and a DiscOnChip module are under construction. As a first application, the combustion behavior of safety-relevant contacts is monitored. A special waveform up to 5MHz is produced and sent to the monitored object. The resulting signal form is evaluated with special algorithms, which extract significant parameters of the signal, and transmitted via CAN-bus.

  2. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.

  3. Rapid and direct real-time detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Kohner, Peggy C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K; Patel, Robin

    2013-11-01

    We assessed the performance of a duplex real-time PCR assay for bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) performed directly (D-PCR) on perianal and perirectal swabs and stool. Spiked specimens and 126 clinical surveillance swabs (comprising a sensitivity panel of 46 perirectal double swabs previously determined to be culture positive for bla(KPC)-PCR-positive Enterobacteriaceae and a specificity panel of 80 perianal swabs from patients at risk of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [CPE] colonization) were studied. For the surveillance swabs, D-PCR was compared to PCR after broth enrichment (BE-PCR) and two culture-based methods: the HardyCHROM ESBL agar (HC-A) and the CDC screening (CDC-A) methods. PCR was performed on morphologically distinct colonies that were isolated by culture. All of the initial PCR testing was done without extraction using a simple lysis procedure. The analytical sensitivities of D-PCR for bla(KPC) were 9 CFU/μl (for swabs) and 90 CFU/μl (for stool), and for bla(NDM), it was 1.9 CFU/μl (for both swabs and stool). In the clinical sensitivity panel, D-PCR and BE-PCR were initially positive for bla(KPC) in 41/46 (89.1%) and 43/46 (93.5%) swabs, respectively. The swabs that were initially negative by D-PCR (n = 5) and BE-PCR (n = 3) were visibly stool soiled; all swabs were bla(KPC) positive upon repeat testing after lysate extraction. The CDC-A and HC-A yielded bla(KPC)-positive Enterobacteriaceae from 36/46 (78.3%) and 35/46 (76.1%) swabs, respectively (sensitivities of D-PCR/BE-PCR postextraction of soiled specimens versus HC-A, P = 0.0009, and versus CDC-A, P = 0.0016). All swabs in the specificity panel were negative for CPE by all four methods. D-PCR allows for the timely detection of bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) carriage with excellent sensitivity when specimens visibly soiled with stool undergo preparatory extraction.

  4. Rapid and Direct Real-Time Detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from Surveillance Samples

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the performance of a duplex real-time PCR assay for blaKPC and blaNDM performed directly (D-PCR) on perianal and perirectal swabs and stool. Spiked specimens and 126 clinical surveillance swabs (comprising a sensitivity panel of 46 perirectal double swabs previously determined to be culture positive for blaKPC-PCR-positive Enterobacteriaceae and a specificity panel of 80 perianal swabs from patients at risk of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [CPE] colonization) were studied. For the surveillance swabs, D-PCR was compared to PCR after broth enrichment (BE-PCR) and two culture-based methods: the HardyCHROM ESBL agar (HC-A) and the CDC screening (CDC-A) methods. PCR was performed on morphologically distinct colonies that were isolated by culture. All of the initial PCR testing was done without extraction using a simple lysis procedure. The analytical sensitivities of D-PCR for blaKPC were 9 CFU/μl (for swabs) and 90 CFU/μl (for stool), and for blaNDM, it was 1.9 CFU/μl (for both swabs and stool). In the clinical sensitivity panel, D-PCR and BE-PCR were initially positive for blaKPC in 41/46 (89.1%) and 43/46 (93.5%) swabs, respectively. The swabs that were initially negative by D-PCR (n = 5) and BE-PCR (n = 3) were visibly stool soiled; all swabs were blaKPC positive upon repeat testing after lysate extraction. The CDC-A and HC-A yielded blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae from 36/46 (78.3%) and 35/46 (76.1%) swabs, respectively (sensitivities of D-PCR/BE-PCR postextraction of soiled specimens versus HC-A, P = 0.0009, and versus CDC-A, P = 0.0016). All swabs in the specificity panel were negative for CPE by all four methods. D-PCR allows for the timely detection of blaKPC and blaNDM carriage with excellent sensitivity when specimens visibly soiled with stool undergo preparatory extraction. PMID:23966498

  5. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  6. 45 CFR 800.301 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 800.301 Section 800.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM Application and Contracting Procedures § 800.301 Application process. (a)...

  7. 7 CFR 1485.13 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application process. 1485.13 Section 1485.13.... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.13 Application process. (a) General application requirements. CCC will periodically publish a Notice in the Federal Register that it is accepting...

  8. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  9. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  10. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  11. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  12. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  13. 49 CFR 624.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 624.5 Section 624.5..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.5 Application process. (a) FTA shall publish a... recipient's fleet management plan; (4) The applicant's ability to implement the project and facilities...

  14. 10 CFR 1021.215 - Applicant process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant process. 1021.215 Section 1021.215 Energy... Decisionmaking § 1021.215 Applicant process. (a) This section applies to actions that involve application to DOE... disclosure statement in accordance with 40 CFR 1506.5(c), as discussed in § 1021.312(b)(4) of this part. DOE...

  15. 7 CFR 1709.114 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost Grant Program § 1709.114 Application process. The RUS will request applications for high energy cost grants on a competitive basis by... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1709.114 Section...

  16. Wide dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Ten bla(KPC-2)-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded bla(AmpC) and bla(OXA-50) genes and the acquired bla(KPC-2) gene. In most cases, the bla(KPC-2) genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing bla(KPC-2) are disseminating in Colombia.

  17. Wide Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing β-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene in Colombia▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Ten blaKPC-2-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded blaAmpC and blaOXA-50 genes and the acquired blaKPC-2 gene. In most cases, the blaKPC-2 genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing blaKPC-2 are disseminating in Colombia. PMID:21844315

  18. Occurrence of blaNDM-1 & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Balvinder; Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Sandhu, Harkiran Kaur; Appannanavar, Suma B.; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases is increasingly being reported worldwide. This study was conducted to know the occurrence of important carbapenem resistance encoding genes in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) causing complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI), and to look at the genetic diversity of these isolates. Methods: The study was carried out on 166 consecutive carbapenem resistant uropathogens (CRU) isolated from cases with CUTI during 2008 and 2012. Carbapenemase production was characterized phenotypically and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, and blaNDM-1. BOX- PCR was done on 80 randomly selected isolates for molecular typing. Results: The blaVIM gene was present in 34 (43.6%), blaIMP in five (6.4%) and none of the isolates from 2008 had blaNDM-1 or blaKPC genes. Among the isolates from 2012, blaNDM-1 gene was present in 47 (53.4%), blaVIM in 19 (24.4%), blaIMP in one (1.1%) and none had blaKPC. There were nine isolates during the two years which had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases; while 66 did not have any of the genes tested. Of the 80 isolates subjected to BOX-PCR, 58 could be used for analysis and showed, presence of multiple clusters of carbapenem resistant isolates and absence of a single dominant clone. Interpretation & conclusions: The blaNDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The blaKPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time. PMID:26458351

  19. Occurrence of blaNDM-₁ & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Balvinder; Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Sandhu, Harkiran Kaur; Appannanavar, Suma B; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases is increasingly being reported worldwide. This study was conducted to know the occurrence of important carbapenem resistance encoding genes in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) causing complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI), and to look at the genetic diversity of these isolates. The study was carried out on 166 consecutive carbapenem resistant uropathogens (CRU) isolated from cases with CUTI during 2008 and 2012. Carbapenemase production was characterized phenotypically and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect bla VIM , bla IMP , bla KPC , and bla NDM-1 . BOX- PCR was done on 80 randomly selected isolates for molecular typing. The bla VIM gene was present in 34 (43.6%), bla IMP in five (6.4%) and none of the isolates from 2008 had bla NDM-1 or bla KPC genes. Among the isolates from 2012, bla NDM-1 gene was present in 47 (53.4%), bla VIM in 19 (24.4%), bla IMP in one (1.1%) and none had bla KPC . There were nine isolates during the two years which had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases; while 66 did not have any of the genes tested. Of the 80 isolates subjected to BOX-PCR, 58 could be used for analysis and showed, presence of multiple clusters of carbapenem resistant isolates and absence of a single dominant clone. The bla NDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The bla KPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time.

  20. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results:K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China.

  1. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results: K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China. PMID:28210248

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla NDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-09-01

    Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla NDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ≥8 μg/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of bla NDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B.

  3. GPU applications for data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Aleksandrov, Andrey; Tioukov, Valeri

    2015-12-31

    Modern experiments that use nuclear photoemulsion imply fast and efficient data acquisition from the emulsion can be performed. The new approaches in developing scanning systems require real-time processing of large amount of data. Methods that use Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) computing power for emulsion data processing are presented here. It is shown how the GPU-accelerated emulsion processing helped us to rise the scanning speed by factor of nine.

  4. Information Processing Theory: Classroom Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, John R.; Charlesworth, John R., Jr.

    The information processing model, a theoretical framework of how humans think, reason, and learn, views human cognitive functioning as analogous to the operation of a computer. This paper uses the increased understanding of the information processing model to provide teachers with suggestions for improving the teaching-learning process. Major…

  5. Worldwide diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Truong, HaVy; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wisell, Karin T; Carmeli, Yehuda; Gales, Ana C; Venezia, Shiri Navon; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniaeisolates that produce carbapenemases (KPCs) are rapidly disseminating worldwide. To determine their genetic background, we investigated 16 blaKPC-2-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates from 5 countries. The isolates were multidrug resistant, possessed the blaKPC-2 gene, and differed by additional Beta-lactamase content. They harbored a naturally chromosome-encoded bla gene (blaSHV-1 [12.5%], blaSHV-11 [68.7%], or blaOKP-AVB [18.8%]) and several acquired and plasmid-encoded genes (blaTEM-1 [81.3%], blaCTX-M-2 [31.3%], blaCTX-M-12 [12.5%], blaCTX-M-15 [18.7%], and blaOXA-9 [37.5%]). The blaKPC-2 gene was always associated with 1 of the Tn4401 isoforms (a, b, or c). Tn4401 was inserted on different-sized plasmids that belonged to different incompatibility groups. Several blaKPC-containing K. pneumoniae clones were found: 9 different pulsotypes with 1 major (sequence type 258) and 7 minor distinct allelic profiles. Different clones harboring different plasmids but having identical genetic structure, Tn4401, could be at the origin of the worldwide spread of this emerging resistance gene.

  6. Thermoforming - Its Processes and Applications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-01

    Thermoforming was one of the earliest methods of fabricating thermoplastic materials. With the advent of injection molding, most people felt... thermoforming offered little, if any, future or growth potential. Thermoforming was generally regarded as a relatively inexpensive way of making a small...thermoplastic fabrication field. The applications in which thermoforming of plastic sheet is used are many and varied Some of the applications are

  7. Materials and processes control for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and processes control relative to space applications is discussed. The components of a total material and process control system are identified, contamination control issues are listed, and recommendations are made.

  8. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  9. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  10. 8 CFR 207.2 - Applicant processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.2 Applicant processing. (a) Forms. Each applicant who seeks admission as a refugee shall submit an individual Form I-590 (Registration for Classification as Refugee). Additionally, each applicant 14 years...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.503 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits must submit a completed application and report of acreage identifying the geographic location and... fruit crops were a direct result of the applicable disaster, as set forth in § 1416.2....

  12. The attenuation of cockroach allergy by DNA vaccine encoding cockroach allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Yuan, Jingdong; Zhou, Yixuan; Yang, Jun; James, Alan W; Nair, Usha; Shu, Xiji; Liu, Wei; Kanangat, Siva; Yoo, Tai June

    2012-01-01

    Bla g 2 is one of the most potent cockroach allergens. No effective treatment or vaccination strategies are yet available. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of Bla g 2 DNA vaccination in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. C57/BL6 mice were given Bla g 2 DNA vaccine prior to sensitization with recombinant Bla g 2 (rBla g 2) antigens, followed by nebulized rBla g 2 challenge. Bla g 2 vaccine could express at both transcriptional and translational levels in mammalian cells. Moreover, Bla g 2 vaccine significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell infiltrate and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and markedly decreased allergen-induced inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and Bla g 2-specific IgE in serum upon challenge with rBla g 2. Importantly, Bla g 2 vaccine could induce the production of antigen-specific IFN-γ and downregulated Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Thus, DNA vaccination showed protective efficacy against a clinically relevant allergen, Bla g 2.

  13. Transition of blaOXA-58-like to blaOXA-23-like in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in Southern China: An 8-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiyuan; He, Yi; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yuemei; Wu, Jinsong; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals has been increasing worldwide. This study aims to investigate the carbapenemase genes and the clonal relatedness among A. baumannii clinical isolates in a Chinese hospital. Methods Carbapenemase genes and the upstream locations of insertion sequences were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Results A total of 231 nonduplicate carbapenemase gene-harboring A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Shenzhen People’s Hospital, were investigated between 2002 and 2009. blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-40-like, and ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like were identified in 119, 107, 1, and 4 isolates, respectively. IS1008-ΔISAba3, ISAba3, and ISAba1 were detected upstream of the blaOXA-58-like gene in 69, 35, and 3 isolates, respectively. All blaOXA-23-like genes but one had an upstream insertion of ISAba1. blaOXA-58-like was the most common carbapenemase gene in A.baumannii before 2008, thereafter blaOXA-23-like became rapidly prevalent and replaced blaOXA-58-like in 2009. The majority of blaOXA-58-like-carrying isolates showed lower level of resistance to imipenem and meropenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml), compared with the majority of blaOXA-23-like-carrying isolates (MICs, 16 μg/ml to 64 μg/ml for both imipenem and meropenem). All 231 blaOXA carbapenemase gene-harboring isolates belonged to 14 PFGE types (A–N), and three dominant clones A, J, and H accounted for 43.3%, 42.0%, and 8.2% of the tested isolates, respectively. Clone A (sequence type ST92/ST208) with blaOXA-58-like was the most prevalent before 2008. Clone H (ST229) with blaOXA-23-like became striking between 2007 and 2008. Clone J (ST381) with blaOXA-23-like rapidly spread and replaced clones A and H in 2009. Conclusion This study is the first to

  14. Parallel processing for control applications

    SciTech Connect

    Telford, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    Parallel processing has been a topic of discussion in computer science circles for decades. Using more than one single computer to control a process has many advantages that compensate for the additional cost. Initially multiple computers were used to attain higher speeds. A single cpu could not perform all of the operations necessary for real time operation. As technology progressed and cpu's became faster, the speed issue became less significant. The additional processing capabilities however continue to make high speeds an attractive element of parallel processing. Another reason for multiple processors is reliability. For the purpose of this discussion, reliability and robustness will be the focal paint. Most contemporary conceptions of parallel processing include visions of hundreds of single computers networked to provide 'computing power'. Indeed our own teraflop machines are built from large numbers of computers configured in a network (and thus limited by the network). There are many approaches to parallel configfirations and this presentation offers something slightly different from the contemporary networked model. In the world of embedded computers, which is a pervasive force in contemporary computer controls, there are many single chip computers available. If one backs away from the PC based parallel computing model and considers the possibilities of a parallel control device based on multiple single chip computers, a new area of possibilities becomes apparent. This study will look at the use of multiple single chip computers in a parallel configuration with emphasis placed on maximum reliability.

  15. Future applications of simulators in process control

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, F.; Wysor, W.

    1997-03-21

    Future applications of simulators in process control will see activities with high return on investment in areas such as concurrent engineering, hardware-in-the-loop controller testing, process fault detection, and Internet-retrievable simulation models and tools. These applications are based on advancing technology in the field of simulation technology. In this paper, the advancing technology will be reviewed, and projections to future uses of simulators in process control will be made.

  16. Computer image processing: Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

  17. Effects of Optogenetic inhibition of BLA on Sleep Brief Optogenetic Inhibition of the Basolateral Amygdala in Mice Alters Effects of Stressful Experiences on Rapid Eye Movement Sleep.

    PubMed

    Machida, Mayumi; Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick Bs, Mairen E; Hallum Bs, Olga; Sutton Bs, Amy M; Lonart, György; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-04-01

    Stressful events can directly produce significant alterations in subsequent sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep (REM); however, the neural mechanisms underlying the process are not fully known. Here, we investigated the role of the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) in regulating the effects of stressful experience on sleep. We used optogenetics to briefly inhibit glutamatergic cells in BLA during the presentation of inescapable footshock (IS) and assessed effects on sleep, the acute stress response, and fear memory. c-Fos expression was also assessed in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both regions involved in coping with stress, and in brain stem regions implicated in the regulation of REM. Compared to control mice, peri-shock inhibition of BLA attenuated an immediate reduction in REM after IS and produced a significant overall increase in REM. Moreover, upon exposure to the shock context alone, mice receiving peri-shock inhibition of BLA during training showed increased REM without altered freezing (an index of fear memory) or stress-induced hyperthermia (an index of acute stress response). Inhibition of BLA during REM under freely sleeping conditions enhanced REM only when body temperature was high, suggesting the effect was influenced by stress. Peri-shock inhibition of BLA also led to elevated c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and mPFC and differentially altered c-Fos activity in the selected brain stem regions. Glutamatergic cells in BLA can modulate the effects of stress on REM and can mediate effects of fear memory on sleep that can be independent of behavioral fear.

  18. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

  19. Image processing applications in NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) can be defined as a technique or collection of techniques that permits one to determine some property of a material or object without damaging the object. There are a large number of such techniques and most of them use visual imaging in one form or another. They vary from holographic interferometry where displacements under stress are measured to the visual inspection of an objects surface to detect cracks after penetrant has been applied. The use of image processing techniques on the images produced by NDE is relatively new and can be divided into three general categories: classical image enhancement; mensuration techniques; and quantitative sensitometry. An example is discussed of how image processing techniques are used to nondestructively and destructively test the product throughout its life cycle. The product that will be followed is the microballoon target used in the laser fusion program. The laser target is a small (50 to 100 ..mu..m - dia) glass sphere with typical wall thickness of 0.5 to 6 ..mu..m. The sphere may be used as is or may be given a number of coatings of any number of materials. The beads are mass produced by the millions and the first nondestructive test is to separate the obviously bad beads (broken or incomplete) from the good ones. After this has been done, the good beads must be inspected for spherocity and wall thickness uniformity. The microradiography of the glass, uncoated bead is performed on a specially designed low-energy x-ray machine. The beads are mounted in a special jig and placed on a Kodak high resolution plate in a vacuum chamber that contains the x-ray source. The x-ray image is made with an energy less that 2 keV and the resulting images are then inspected at a magnification of 500 to 1000X. Some typical results are presented.

  20. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... processing. (a) The material submitted with the application should include the Preliminary Engineering Report... writing by the State Program Official of the reasons why the request was not favorably considered...

  1. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... processing. (a) The material submitted with the application should include the Preliminary Engineering Report... writing by the State Program Official of the reasons why the request was not favorably considered...

  2. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  3. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  4. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  5. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  6. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  7. 8 CFR 207.2 - Applicant processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicant processing. 207.2 Section 207.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADMISSION OF REFUGEES... a refugee. (b) Medical examination. Each applicant shall submit to a medical examination as...

  8. 8 CFR 207.2 - Applicant processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicant processing. 207.2 Section 207.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADMISSION OF REFUGEES... a refugee. (b) Medical examination. Each applicant shall submit to a medical examination as...

  9. 8 CFR 207.2 - Applicant processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicant processing. 207.2 Section 207.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADMISSION OF REFUGEES... a refugee. (b) Medical examination. Each applicant shall submit to a medical examination as...

  10. 7 CFR 1416.703 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.703 Application process. (a) A complete application... geographic location and number of acres in the disaster-affected stand of claimed trees, bushes, and vines according to part 718 of this title; (3) A written estimate of the number of acres of trees, bushes or...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits must submit a completed application and report of acreage identifying the geographic... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible fruit and vegetable crops were a direct...

  12. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits must submit a completed application and report of acreage identifying the geographic... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible fruit and vegetable crops were a direct...

  13. 36 CFR 230.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application process. 230.3 Section 230.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program § 230.3 Application...

  14. 36 CFR 230.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application process. 230.3 Section 230.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program § 230.3 Application...

  15. 36 CFR 230.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application process. 230.3 Section 230.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program § 230.3 Application...

  16. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.9 Application process. (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published as available for application for use to assist the homeless shall not be available for any other purpose for a period of 60 days beginning on the date of publication. Any representative of the homeless interested...

  17. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.9 Application process. (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published as available for application for use to assist the homeless shall not be available for any other purpose for a period of 60 days beginning on the date of publication. Any representative of the homeless interested...

  18. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.9 Application process. (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published as available for application for use to assist the homeless shall not be available for any other purpose for a period of 60 days beginning on the date of publication. Any representative of the homeless interested...

  19. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.9 Application process. (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published as available for application for use to assist the homeless shall not be available for any other purpose for a period of 60 days beginning on the date of publication. Any representative of the homeless interested...

  20. 45 CFR 800.301 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 800.301 Section 800.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI... of applications. Without regard to section 6101(b)-(d) of title 41, United States Code, or any...

  1. The Charter School Application Process. Policy Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The authority to open and establish a charter school should be granted only to applicants that have a sound plan for, and demonstrate the capacity to operate, a quality, high-functioning public charter school. This policy guide discusses the following: (1) Background on the Charter School Application Process; (2) Key Considerations for…

  2. Demystifying and Deconstructing the College Application Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jeanita W.

    2008-01-01

    While benefits of college matriculation are well-established, the portal controlling access to higher education is the institutional application. The bulk of the college application process takes place during a student's senior or 12th-grade year; however, parents and caregivers of high school students need to know that the quest for college…

  3. EDExpress, 2000-2001: Application Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This trainee workbook, to accompany a one-day workshop at the Student Financial Assistance (SFA) University, is intended for individuals who are processing student financial aid applications using electronic methods such as EDExpress (Electronic Data Exchange) or FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) Express. The first section of the…

  4. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Wheat Quality Program § 1413.106 Application process. (a) To apply for DWQP payment, the producer must... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was applied...

  5. Development and evaluation of a novel universal β-lactamase gene subtyping assay for blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M using clinical and livestock-associated Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Lena Marie; Dahms, Carmen; Becker, Karsten; Kramer, Axel; Kaase, Martin; Mellmann, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli is globally an increasing problem in public healthcare. Understanding the spread of plasmid-mediated ESBL genes is of great importance in elucidating their molecular epidemiology. However, differentiation of subtypes and alleles is frequently hampered by the lack of comprehensive diagnostic tools. We therefore developed a novel universal blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M subtyping assay based on PCR and Sanger sequencing that results in large amplicons of >700 bp, enabling differentiation of bla alleles as precisely as possible. The assay was established using 10 reference strains with known bla genotypes that represent all examined primer groups and 101 uncharacterized ESBL-producing E. coli of clinical and livestock-associated origins from different German regions. All isolates were tested in parallel with established blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M subtyping assays for the respective β-lactamases and their alleles. The novel assay yielded equal (n = 92) or better (n = 47) subtyping results compared with established subtyping methods and reliably detected all expected enzymes in the reference strains. Overall, the occurring enzymes could be differentiated into groups representing one (n = 9), two (n = 5) or three (n = 4) highly similar alleles. Moreover, ESBL and non-ESBL allelic variants of blaSHV and blaTEM occurring in the same isolate were distinguished reliably. We established a highly discriminatory assay for the subtyping of clinically important ESBL genes that can easily be used in epidemiological analyses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Identifying ionic interactions within a membrane using BLaTM, a genetic tool to measure homo- and heterotypic transmembrane helix-helix interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schanzenbach, Christoph; Schmidt, Fabian C.; Breckner, Patrick; Teese, Mark G.; Langosch, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of integral membrane protein complexes is frequently supported by transmembrane domain (TMD) interactions. Here, we present the BLaTM assay that measures homotypic as well as heterotypic TMD-TMD interactions in a bacterial membrane. The system is based on complementation of β-lactamase fragments genetically fused to interacting TMDs, which confers ampicillin resistance to expressing cells. We validated BLaTM by showing that the assay faithfully reports known sequence-specific interactions of both types. In a practical application, we used BLaTM to screen a focussed combinatorial library for heterotypic interactions driven by electrostatic forces. The results reveal novel patterns of ionizable amino acids within the isolated TMD pairs. Those patterns indicate that formation of heterotypic TMD pairs is most efficiently supported by closely spaced ionizable residues of opposite charge. In addition, TMD heteromerization can apparently be driven by hydrogen bonding between basic or between acidic residues. PMID:28266525

  7. Processing and applications of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1994-09-01

    Iron aluminides are well known for their resistance to high- temperature sulfidizing and oxidizing environments. In order to take advantage of their excellent corrosion resistance, several methods for their processing have been identified. Issues with melting and processing are discussed detail. Effects of grain size and melting practice on low-temperature ductility are also presented. Many applications for iron aluminides are described.

  8. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring blaKPC-3 and blaVIM-2 from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Bottoni, Carlo; Grimaldi, Alessandro; Segatore, Bernardetta; Celenza, Giuseppe; Mariani, Maurizio; Bellio, Pierangelo; Frascaria, Patrizia; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2013-02-01

    The frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae is increasing in Italian hospitals and poses an emerging threat to the management of infections in hospitalized patients. In this study, we report a detailed molecular characterization of a K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP1/11 isolate from the decubitus ulcer of a hospitalized patient with a serious infection. K. pneumoniae KP1/11 produces KPC-3 and VIM-2 β-lactamases. The bla(KPC-3) gene is harbored in a large plasmid in a complex structure of Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401a. The chromosomal DNA of K. pneumoniae harbored also 2 class 1 integrons with different variable regions: 1) orfD-aacA8; 2) aacA29-bla(VIM-2).

  9. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Biotech unit operations are often characterized by a large number of inputs (operational parameters) and outputs (performance parameters) along with complex correlations amongst them. A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product, and has anywhere from 15 to 30 such unit operations in series. The aforementioned parameters can impact process performance and product quality and also interact amongst each other. Chemometrics presents one effective approach to gather process understanding from such complex data sets. The increasing use of chemometrics is fuelled by the gradual acceptance of quality by design and process analytical technology amongst the regulators and the biotech industry, which require enhanced process and product understanding. In this article, we review the topic of chemometrics applications in biotech processes with a special focus on recent major developments. Case studies have been used to highlight some of the significant applications.

  10. Rapid and simultaneous detection of genes encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Scott A; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil; Patel, Robin

    2013-04-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min.

  11. Co-Carriage of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Hospital Infections from India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Deepjyoti; Dhar Chanda, Debadatta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Chakravarty, Atanu; Sharma, Gauri Dutt; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Global spread of KPC poses to be a serious threat complicating treatment options in hospital settings. The present study investigates the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of India. The study isolates were collected from different wards and clinics of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India, from 2012-2013. The presence of blaKPC was confirmed by genotypic characterization followed by sequencing. Cloning of the blaKPC-2 gene was performed and the genetic environment of this gene was characterized as well. Transferability of the resistance gene was determined by transformation assay and Southern hybridization. Additionally, restriction mapping was also carried out. Two isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to harbor blaKPC-2, were resistant towards aminoglycosides, quinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination. In both the isolates, the resistance determinant was associated with class 1 integron and horizontally transferable. Both the isolates were co-harboring blaNDM-1. The first detection of this integron mediated blaKPC-2 coexisting with blaNDM-1 in P. aeruginosa from India is worrisome, and further investigation is required to track the gene cassette mediated blaKPC-2 in terms of infection control and to prevent the spread of this gene in hospitals as well as in the community.

  12. Regulation of the beta-lactamase BlaL of Streptomyces cacaoi: the product of the blaB regulatory gene is an internal membrane-bound protein.

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, J; Joris, B; Van Beeumen, J; Brasseur, R; Dusart, J

    1995-01-01

    The beta-lactamase-encoding gene blaL, cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi in Streptomyces lividans, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. This regulation has been shown to depend on the products of two open reading frames, ORF1 (blaA) and ORF2 (blaB) [Lenzini, Magdalena, Fraipont, Joris, Matagne and Dusart (1992) Mol. Gen. Genet. 235, 41-48]. BlaA belongs to the LysR family of transcription activators, whereas BlaB shares some features with the penicillin-recognizing proteins. BlaB has now been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for antibody preparation. Immunoblotting of cell-fractionated materials from S. cacaoi showed that BlaB is attached to the internal face of the cytoplasmic membrane. It could not be released by high salt concentrations or EDTA, but only by protease treatment. Under the assay conditions, BlaB did not act as a penicillin-binding protein, a beta-lactamase, a D-amino-peptidase or a target in a phosphorylation step. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7575447

  13. Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Genes Encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Scott A.; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min. PMID:23345290

  14. Team Training Applications of Voice Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    Springfield, Virginia 22151 / 00 © Final Report ©LEVEL ^ TEAM TRAINING APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Beverly A. Popeika C. Mazie Knerr... processing technology to train voice communication-based tasks. At the same time, automated speech generation and recognition can enhance adaptive...pronunciation and radio terminology training, and analyzing vocabularies that have high-risk levels for voice processing technology . VDC acts as a peer

  15. Demystifying the NIH Grant Application Process

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Karina M.; Gill, Thomas M.; Brown, Arleen F.; Zerzan, Judy; Elmore, Joann G.

    2007-01-01

    The process of applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for grant funding can be daunting. The objective of this article is to help investigators successfully navigate the NIH grant application process. We focus on the practical aspects of this process, which are commonly learned through trial and error. Our target audience is generalist faculty and fellows who are applying for NIH funding to support their career development or a clinical research project. PMID:17687616

  16. Identification and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli blaSHV genes in a Chinese teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Guangjian; Li, Ailing; Zong, Li; Dong, Zhaoguang; Lu, Junwan; Zhang, Kaibo; Cheng, Cong; Chang, Qingli; Wu, Xiuying; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Xianneng; Ding, Li; Zheng, Haixiao; Yu, Junping; Ying, Jun; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Peizhen; Li, Kewei; Wu, Songquan; Bao, Qiyu; Wang, Junrong

    2017-02-05

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly reside in human intestine and most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes cause serious food poisoning. This study identified and molecularly characterized blaSHV genes from 490 E. coli strains with multi-drug resistance in a hospital population. PCR and molecular cloning and southern blot were performed to assess functions and localizations of this resistant E. coli gene and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was utilized to demonstrate the clonal relatedness of the positive E. coli strains. The data showed that 4 of these 490 E. coli strains (4/499, 0.8%) carried blaSHV genes that included EC D2485 (blaSHV-5), EC D2487 (blaSHV-5), EC D2684 (blaSHV-11) and EC D2616 (blaSHV-195, a novel blaSHV). Analysis of blaSHV open-reading frame showed that blaSHV-5 had a high hydrolysis activity to the broad-spectrum penicillin (ampicillin or piperacillin), ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam. blaSHV-195 and blaSHV-11 had similar resistant characteristics with high hydrolysis activities to ampicillin and piperacillin, but low activities to cephalosporins. Moreover, the two blaSHV-5 genes were located on a transferable plasmid (23kb), whereas the other two blaSHV variants (blaSHV-11 and blaSHV-195) seemed to be located in the chromosomal material. Both EC D2485 and EC D2487 clones isolated in 2010 had the same DNA finger printing profile and they might be the siblings of clonal dissemination. The data from the current study suggest that the novel blaSHV and clonal dissemination may be developed, although blaSHV genes were infrequently identified in this hospital population. The results of the work demonstrate the necessity for molecular surveillance in tracking blaSHV-producing strains in large teaching hospital settings and emphasize the need for epidemiological monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Process analytical applications of Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for new approaches to understand the chemical and physical phenomena that occur during pharmaceutical unit operations. Obtaining real-time information from processes opens new perspectives for safer and more efficient manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular level insight into processing, and therefore it is a future process analytical tool. In this review, different applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of process analysis of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are summarized. In addition, pitfalls associated with interfacing to the process environment and challenges within data management are discussed.

  18. IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 from German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Un, Sunjin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Kim, Chung-ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-09-01

    Bla g 6, a German cockroach allergen, shows homology to muscle protein troponin C. It contains four calcium-binding domains at amino acid (aa) residues 20-30, 56-67, 96-107, and 132-143, and its immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity is dependent upon calcium ion level. However, the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 have not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze the IgE binding epitopes from the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. The full-length of three Bla g 6 isoallergens (Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301) and five peptide fragments (P1: aa 1-111, P2: aa 1-95, P3: aa 33-111, P4: aa 80-151, and P5: aa 33-151) of Bla g 6.0101 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on 24 patients' sera that adjusted the final concentration 10 mM of CaCl(2) to determine the IgE activities of Bla g 6. Eight sera (33.3%), 9 sera (37.5%), and 11 sera (45.8%) showed IgE reactivity to Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301, respectively. Among the sera from the positive IgE reactivity, three patients' sera were selected and the IgE reactivity was measured by ELISA with the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. Based on IgE responses, one patient's serum exhibited the strongest IgE reactivity. We assumed that the aa between 96-151 residues, including the calcium binding domains III and IV, would be important for IgE binding. These results may provide information that will yield safe diagnostic methods and immunotherapeutics.

  19. Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Lionberger, Robert A; Raw, Andre S; D'Costa, Rosario; Wu, Huiquan; Hussain, Ajaz S

    2004-02-23

    Crystallizations of pharmaceutical active ingredients, particularly those that posses multiple polymorphic forms, are among the most critical and least understood pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Many process and product failures can be traced to a poor understanding and control of crystallization processes. The Food and Drug Administration's process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is a collaborative effort with industry to introduce new and efficient manufacturing technologies into the pharmaceutical industry. PAT's are systems for design, analysis, and control of manufacturing processes. They aim to assure high quality through timely measurements of critical quality and performance attributes of raw materials, in-process materials, and final products. Implementation of PAT involves scientifically based process design and optimization, appropriate sensor technologies, statistical and information tools (chemometrics), and feedback process control strategies working together to produce quality products. This review introduces the concept of PAT and discusses its application to crystallization processes through review of several case studies. A variety of in situ analytical methods combined with chemometric tools for analysis of multivariate process information provide a basis for future improvements in modeling, simulation, and control of crystallization processes.

  20. Applicant Perspectives on the Otolaryngology Residency Application Process.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew; Pingree, Christian; Laury, Adrienne M; Bowe, Sarah N

    2017-08-01

    It has been nearly 25 years since medical students were queried regarding their perspectives on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residency selection. Understanding this viewpoint is critical to improving the current application process. To evaluate the perceptions of 2016 OHNS residency applicants regarding the application process and offer suggestions for reform. In this cross-sectional study of anonymous online survey data, a 14-question survey was designed based on resources obtained from a computerized PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar database search of the English language from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015, was conducted using the following search terms: (medical student OR applicant) AND (application OR match) AND otolaryngology. The survey was administered to 2016 OHNS residency applicants to examine 4 primary areas: current attitudes toward the match, effect of the new Otolaryngology Program Directors Organization personal statement mandate, sources of advice and information, and suggestions for improvement. In January 2016, an email was sent to 100 program directors asking them to distribute the survey to current OHNS applicants at their institution. One follow-up reminder email was sent in February 2016. A link to the survey was posted on the Otomatch.com homepage on January 28, 2016, with the last response received on March 28, 2016. Survey responses regarding the residency application process. A total of 150 of 370 residency applicants (40.5%) responded to the survey. Of these, 125 respondents (90.6%) noted applying to programs in which they had no specific interest simply to improve their chances of matching. Applicants intended to apply to more programs than they actually did (63.6 vs 60.8; r = 0.19; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.40). Program directors advised fewer applications than other sources; however, 58 respondents (38.7%) did not receive advice from a program director. A total of 121 respondents (80.7%) found online program

  1. Detection of blaPER-1 & blaOxa10 among imipenem resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients hospitalized in Shiraz Burn Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Amir; Bazargani, Abdollah; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important Gram negative opportunistic bacteria which causes infection among burn patients. Resistance to the antibiotics in this group of bacteria is increased due to the activity of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) genes. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of two genes (blaPER-1 & blaOxa10) related β-lactamase genes among imipenem resistance clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: From May 2010 to March 2011, 270 P. aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized burned patients’ wounds in Shiraz Burn Hospital, were tested for Imipenem resistance by disk diffusion method. Presence of ESBLs exo-enzyme, blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 genes were also evaluated in the resistant isolate. Results: 210 (77.7%) of 270 P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem. blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 were detected among 168 (80.0%) of imipenem resistant isolates. Furthermore, 160 (76.2%) of them had blaOxa10 gene and 84 (40.0%) of them had blaPER-1 while 63 (30.0%) resistant isolates contained both genes simultaneously. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of blaPER-1 and blaOxa10 genes in hospitalized burn patients in south west of Iran. Therefore, it’s highly recommended to perform such tests routinely to evaluate the resistance pattern in order to better antibiotic selection in the burned patients. PMID:26644867

  2. Genetic properties of blaCTX-M and blaPER β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Nakhaei; Beidokhti, Mehrdad Hashemi; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Ghahraman, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): blaCTX-M and blaPER are two genes that encode class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and can be responsible for therapeutic problems. This study was carried out to evaluate the molecular properties of these genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction digestion and sequencing. Materials and Methods: During six months, starting from January 2012, one hundred clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected from urinary samples. The ESBL-producing isolates were detected by phenotypic confirmation test. After plasmid extraction, blaPER and blaCTX-M genes were detected using PCR by specific primers. The blaCTX-M PCR products were digested with Taq1, and two of the blaCTX-M genes were sequenced. Results: Phenotypic tests showed that 27 (27%) isolates were ESBL producers with the highest frequency for Klebsiella pneumoniae (47.4%) and Escherichia coli (17.9%). Twenty six (26%) of Enterobacteriaceae isolates harbored the blaCTX-M gene, and none of them had blaPER. The restriction analysis of PCR products showed that all blaCTX-M amplified products had the same patterns. Both sequenced bacteria were CTX-M-15 type ESBL carriers. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the blaCTX-M-15 gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolates for the first time in Mashhad, Iran. High degrees of associated resistance to co-trimoxazole and gentamicin were found in ESBL producers. Therefore, an integrated and regular management of antibiotic prescription need to be trained in our society. PMID:24967067

  3. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting.

  4. [Application and obstacles of ANAMMOX process].

    PubMed

    Jin Rencun; Zhang, Zhengzhe; Ji, Yuxin; Chen, Hui; Guo, Qiong; Zhou, Yuhuang; Wu, Conghui; Jin, Rencun

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX), as its essential advantages of high efficiency and low cost, is a promising novel biological nitrogen elimination process with attractive application prospects. Over the past two decades, many processes based on the ANAMMOX reaction have been continuously studied and applied to practical engineering, with the perspective of reaching 100 full-scale installations in operation worldwide by 2014. Our review summarizes various forms of ANAMMOX processes, including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX, completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite, oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification, denitrifying ammonium oxidation, aerobic deammonification, simultaneous partial nitrification, ANAMMOX and denitrification, single-stage nitrogen removal using ANAMMOX and partial nitritation. We also compare the operating conditions for one-stage and two-stage processes and summarize the obstacles and countermeasures in engineering application of ANAMMOX systems, such as moving bed biofilm reactor, sequencing batch reactor and granular sludge reactor. Finally, we discuss the future research and application direction, which should focus on the optimization of operating conditions and applicability of the process to the actual wastewater, especially on automated control and the impact of special wastewater composition on process performance.

  5. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  6. Predominance of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates carrying blaIMP and blaVIM metallo-β-lactamases in a major hospital in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toval, Francisco; Guzmán-Marte, Anel; Madriz, Vivian; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; García, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the molecular basis of the resistance to carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from a tertiary-level health facility in San José, Costa Rica. A total of 198 non-duplicated isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. The production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), the presence of MBL encoding genes (blaIMP, blaVIM and blaGIM-1) and the occurrence of these genes within class 1 integrons were investigated. In addition, an ERIC2 PCR fingerprinting method was used to elucidate the distribution of the detected MBL genes within the strain collection. Of the 198 isolates tested, 125 (63.1 %) were categorized as carbapenem-resistant. The majority (88.8 %) of the carbapemen-resistant isolates also showed resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Among the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 102 (81.6 %) showed MBL activity. Strikingly, both blaIMP and blaVIM genes were simultaneously detected in most (94.1 %) of the 102 MBL producers. Five carbapenem-resistant MBL producers were positive only for blaIMP genes. Almost 70 % of the isolates examined harboured the intI1 gene, accompanied by the sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 136 (99 %) and 122 (89 %) isolates, respectively. The majority (94.4 %) of the carbapenem-resistant isolates carried the intI1 gene, in contrast to 26 % of the carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Ninety-three out of 96 (96.9 %) isolates carrying both blaIMP and blaVIM genes also harboured the intI1, sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes. Gene cassettes from carbapenem-susceptible and MBL-negative carbapenem-resistant isolates encoded aminoglycoside-resistance enzymes (aadA2, aadA4 and aadA6) as well as orfD and qacF genes. RAPD analysis distributed 126 of the isolates in 29 clusters. Eighty of the 90 blaIMP (+) blaVIM (+) isolates were sorted into 16

  7. Emergence of blaNDM-7–Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Moussounda, Mesmin; Diene, Seydina M.; Dos Santos, Sandra; Goudeau, Alain; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa remain rare and assess mostly blaOXA-48–producing isolates from Mediterranean countries and South Africa. We identified blaNDM-7–producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon in 2016. The isolates contained blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids that were unusual and similar to the one described in a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae SZ04 isolate from China. PMID:28098536

  8. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of blaKPC, blaNDM and/or blaVIM, and blaOXA-48 from Perirectal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Fahle, Gary A.; Kemp, Margaret A.; Jassem, Agatha N.; Dekker, John P.; Frank, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all blaKPC), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (CT) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in CT values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU blaKPC Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, CT values for blaKPC were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, CT values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 CT values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a CT cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, CT values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management. PMID:26338860

  9. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of bla(KPC), bla(NDM) and/or bla(VIM), and bla(OXA)-48 from Perirectal Swabs.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna F; Fahle, Gary A; Kemp, Margaret A; Jassem, Agatha N; Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all bla(KPC)), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (C(T)) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in C(T) values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU bla(KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, C(T) values for bla(KPC) were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, C(T) values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 C(T) values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a C(T) cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, C(T) values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Industrial applications of process imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, David M.; Sunshine, Gregg; Rosen, Lou; Jochen, Ed

    2001-02-01

    Process imaging is the art of visualizing events inside closed industrial processes. Image processing is the art of mathematically manipulating digitized images to extract quantitative information about such processes. Ongoing advances in camera and computer technology have made it feasible to apply these abilities to measurement needs in the chemical industry. To illustrate the point, this paper describes several applications developed at DuPont, where a variety of measurements are based on in-line, at-line, and off-line imaging. Application areas include compounding, melt extrusion, crystallization, granulation, media milling, and particle characterization. Polymer compounded with glass fiber is evaluated by a patented radioscopic (real-time X-ray imaging) technique to measure concentration and dispersion uniformity of the glass. Contamination detection in molten polymer (important for extruder operations) is provided by both proprietary and commercial on-line systems. Crystallization in production reactors is monitored using in-line probes and flow cells. Granulation is controlled by at-line measurements of granule size obtained from image processing. Tomographic imaging provides feedback for improved operation of media mills. Finally, particle characterization is provided by a robotic system that measures individual size and shape for thousands of particles without human supervision. Most of these measurements could not be accomplished with other (non-imaging) techniques.

  11. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A.; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C.; Klinzing, David C.; Daroy, Maria Luisa G.; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1. PMID:27032000

  12. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C; Klinzing, David C; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1.

  13. Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility and the Prevalence of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 Genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pongpech, Pintip; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Lokpichart, Somchai; Srifuengfung, Somporn; Sonprasert, Suthatta

    2017-03-24

    We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of the blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in Thailand. The isolates were tested using the disk diffusion method, and 100% of 370 isolates were found susceptible to cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. Some of the isolates were resistant to penicillin (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (88.0%), ofloxacin (97.4%), or tetracycline (89.1%). Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae accounted for 83.8% of isolates, with 70.0% of these further identified as penicillinase-producing plus tetracycline resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin are not recommended for treatment because of the high prevalence (89.7%) of multidrug resistant gonococci. A study of genes controlling enzyme of beta-lactamase production (blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135) was performed using mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR method and DNA sequencing. Beta-lactamase positive N. gonorrhoeae carried blaTEM-1 (69.6%) and blaTEM-135 (30.4%), indicating that there is a significant increase and spread of blaTEM-135 among gonococci in Thailand.

  14. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  15. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 12a.9 Section 12a.9 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO..., such as meals, shelter, job training, and counseling. (ii) Need. The demand for the program and the...

  16. 7 CFR 4284.910 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application processing. 4284.910 Section 4284.910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grants §...

  17. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... processing. (a) The material submitted with the application should include the Preliminary Engineering Report, population and median household income of the area to be served, description of project, and nature of emergency that caused the problem(s) being addressed by the project. The documentation must clearly...

  18. Application of electrohydrodynamic phenomena to space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) unit separation, liquid handling/control, and mixing are introduced to industrial chemists and metallurgists, working on specific zero-gravity processes. Previously proposed zero-gravity applications of EHD are presented along with the prominent electrohydrodynamical force effects.

  19. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  20. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  1. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  2. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  3. 48 CFR 819.7108 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7108 Application process. (a... assistance; (7) Criteria for evaluation of the protégé's developmental success; (8) A plan addressing how...

  4. High Incidence of Escherichia coli Strains Coharboring mcr-1 and blaNDM from Chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Tao; Song, Feng-Jing; Zou, Ming; Zhang, Qi-Di; Shan, Hu

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying mcr-1-blaNDM from a chicken farm in China. Of the 78 E. coli isolates, 21 clonally unrelated isolates carried mcr-1-blaNDM Diverse IncI2 plasmids disseminated mcr-1, while the dissemination of blaNDM was mediated by diverse IncB/O plasmids. More striking was the colocalization of resistance genes mcr-1 and blaNDM-4 in an IncHI2/ST3 plasmid, which might pose a great challenge for public health. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler); Chassay, R. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment.

  6. Automation of Space Processing Applications Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosmer, W. E.; Neau, O. T.; Poe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Program is examining the effect of weightlessness on key industrial materials processes, such as crystal growth, fine-grain casting of metals, and production of unique and ultra-pure glasses. Because of safety and in order to obtain optimum performance, some of these processes lend themselves to automation. Automation can increase the number of potential Space Shuttle flight opportunities and increase the overall productivity of the program. Five automated facility design concepts and overall payload combinations incorporating these facilities are presented.

  7. New trends of radiation processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1996-03-01

    Major fields of radiation processing applications are: polymeric materials, food processing, sterilization of medical products and environmental conservation. There are about 200 60Co gamma irradiation facilities and 700 electron beam accelerators, mainly for commercial purposes, throughout the world. Radiation cross-linking and grafting techniques of polymeric materials have been providing many unique products including heat materials, heat shrinkable materials, curing of coatings and battery separators. Extensive studies have been devoted to the development of bio-medical materials using radiation processing to prepare bio-compatible materials and controlled release of drugs. New wound dressings have been successfully developed in Poland and Israel for commercial clinical use.

  8. Space Processing Applications Rocket project SPAR III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presented the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarized the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies.

  9. Spacecraft Electrical Connector Selection and Application Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannello, Chris; Davis, Mitchell I; Kichak, Robert A.; Slenski, George

    2009-01-01

    This assessment was initiated by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) after a number of recent "high profile" connector problems, the most visible and publicized of these being the problem with the Space Shuttle's Engine Cut-Off System cryogenic feed-thru connector. The NESC commissioned a review of NASA's connector selection and application processes for space flight applications, including how lessons learned and past problem records are fed back into the processes to avoid recurring issues. Team members were primarily from the various NASA Centers and included connector and electrical parts specialists. The commissioned study was conducted on spacecraft connector selection and application processes at NASA Centers. The team also compared the NASA spacecraft connector selection and application process to the military process, identified recent high profile connector failures, and analyzed problem report data looking for trends and common occurrences. The team characterized NASA's connector problem experience into a list of top connector issues based on anecdotal evidence of a system's impact and commonality between Centers. These top issues are as follows, in no particular rank order: electrically shorted, bent and/or recessed contact pins, contact pin/socket contamination leading to electrically open or intermittencies, connector plating corrosion or corrosion of connector components, low or inadequate contact pin retention forces, contact crimp failures, unmated connectors and mis-wiring due to workmanship errors during installation or maintenance, loose connectors due to manufacturing defects such as wavy washer and worn bayonet retention, damaged connector elastomeric seals and cryogenic connector failure. A survey was also conducted of SAE Connector AE-8C1 committee members regarding their experience relative to the NASA concerns on connectors. The most common responses in order of occurrence were contact retention, plating issues, worn-out or damaged

  10. blaNDM-1 Carriage on IncR Plasmid in Enterobacteriaceae Strains.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Erika; Gužvinec, Marija; Butić, Iva; Krešić, Sanja; Crnek, Sandra Šestan; Tambić, Arjana; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Mazzariol, Annarita

    2016-03-01

    Four NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains (three Klebsiella pneumoniae and one Citrobacter koseri) were isolated between 2009 and 2011 through a nationwide surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia to study the molecular genetic background of blaNDM and the responsible plasmid types. Phenotypically, the clinical strains proved to be multidrug resistant. All strains remained susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. The clinical strains harbored variable antibiotic resistance determinants, notably, blaNDM-1, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-12, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-9, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-4, qnrB1, and aac(6')Ib-cr in different combinations. Two K. pneumoniae belonged to sequence type ST15 and one strain to ST16. As for the plasmid types, C. koseri and one of the ST15 K. pneumoniae carried IncR, and the second ST15 K. pneumoniae carried IncR and colE. The K. pneumoniae ST16 strain hosted A/C and colE plasmids. The blaNDM-1 gene was detected on conjugative high-molecular-weight plasmids, namely, A/C and IncR types. It is noteworthy that this is the first description of K. pneumoniae ST16 expressing NDM-1 in Europe. Remarkably, our study underscores the importance of the IncR plasmid as a reservoir of multidrug resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the IncR plasmid carrying blaNDM-1 in C. koseri is reported for the first time.

  11. Dissemination of bla OXA-370 gene among several Enterobacteriaceae species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magagnin, C M; Rozales, F P; Antochevis, L; Nunes, L S; Martins, A S; Barth, A L; Sampaio, J M; Zavascki, A P

    2017-05-30

    OXA-370 is a recently described OXA-48 variant that has only been described in a few Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of OXA-370-producing isolates in carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae recovered from 28 hospitals from Brazil. Real-time PCR was used to determine the presence of bla NDM-1, bla KPC-2, bla VIM-type, bla GES-type, bla OXA-48-like, and bla IMP-type genes. A total of 4,451 Enterobacteriaceae were screened. The gene bla OXA-48-like was detected in 74 (2.5%) isolates, mostly of Enterobacter spp. (44.6% E. cloacae and 2.7% E. aerogenes) and Klebsiella spp. (31.1% K. pneumoniae and 6.7% K. oxytoca), followed by Escherichia coli, (6.7%), Morganella morganii, (2.7%), Citrobacter freundii (1.3%), Proteus mirabilis (1.3%), Providencia stuartii (1.3%), and Serratia spp. (1.3%). These isolates were from five hospitals, 67 (90.5%) from the hospital where the bla OXA-370 was first described. Sequencing of bla OXA-48-like was performed in 52 isolates, including E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. coli, and C. freundii; all presenting 100% identity with bla OXA-370. PFGE revealed the presence of distinct clones among K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, K. oxytoca, and E. coli. Susceptibility rates to meropenem, imipenem, and ertapenem among OXA-370-producing isolates were 92.3%, 78.8%, 7.7% respectively; the MIC50 /MIC90 were 0.38/2 mg/L and 1/3 mg/L for meropenem and imipenem respectively. Overall, antimicrobial susceptibility analysis suggests that OXA-370 lacks carbapenemase activity. Our study demonstrated that the bla OXA-370 gene is disseminated among several Enterobacteriaceae species and clones, indicating a high potential for dissemination.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  13. Stochastic MPC with applications to process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, I.; Millán, P.; Quevedo, D.; Rubio, F. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control formulation for Networked Control Systems subject to independent and identically distributed delays and packet dropouts. The design takes into account the presence of a communication network in the control loop, resorting to a buffer at the actuator side to store and consistently apply delayed control sequences when fresh control inputs are not available. The proposed approach uses a statistical description of transmissions to optimise the expected future control performance conditioned upon the current system state, previously calculated control packets and transmission acknowledgements. Experimental studies using a quadruple tank process illustrate the applicability of the method to process control.

  14. Image processing applications for geologic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.; Blusson, A.; Carrere, V.; Nguyen, T.; Rabu, Y.

    1985-03-01

    The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data. In each case, the additional mapping information provided relative to the particular treatment is evaluated. The goal is to provide the geologist with a range of processing techniques adapted to specific mapping problems.

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from a New York City Hospital Belonging to Sequence Type 258 and Carrying blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-4.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Mills, Janet C; Jones, Ronald N; Soave, Rosemary; Jenkins, Stephen G; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2016-01-04

    Among 69 of 139 (49.6%) carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae carrying blaKPC, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae was also positive for blaVIM. The isolate belonged to sequence type 258 (ST258) and carried blaKPC-2 on a copy of Tn4401a and blaVIM-4 on a class 1 integron. Genes were located on distinct plasmids belonging to Inc types A/C and FII. Elevated expression of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC (acrA, 15.3 times) and reduced expression of outer membrane protein genes ompK35 and ompK37 (0.16 and 0.081 times, respectively) associated with various amino acid alterations on OmpK37 were observed. The presence of two carbapenemases in ST258 K. pneumoniae is of great concern due to the ability of this organism to widely disseminate.

  16. The establishment of a duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid and simultaneous detection of blaNDM and blaKPC genes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fen; Sun, Jingjing; Cheng, Cancan; Rui, Yongyu

    2013-10-22

    The latest threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria corresponds to the emergence of carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers. Rapid molecular detection is essential to limit their spread. In this study, a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that was specific for the detection of blaNDM and blaKPC with the same limit of detection of ten plasmid copies was developed. The assay was linear over eight log dilutions for blaNDM (R2 = 0.971; slope, -3.273) and blaKPC (R2 = 0.992; slope, -2.997) with efficiencies of 102% and 115%, respectively. The assay was validated with 157 clinical isolates and showed 100% concordance with conventional PCR. The excellent performance of the duplex PCR assay makes it a powerful tool for surveillance of the carbapenemases NDM and KPC.

  17. [Distribution of blaOXA genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakkı; Aşık, Gülşah; Karakeçe, Engin; Oksüz, Lütfiye; Yağcı, Server; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Atasoy, Ali Rıza; Koçoğlu, Esra; Gül, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Köksal Çakırlar, Fatma; Seyrek, Adnan; Berktaş, Mustafa; Gültepe, Bilge; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the most important agent of nosocomial infections within the Acinetobacter genus. This gram-negative coccobacillus is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics used in antimicrobial therapy, and capable of developing resistance including carbapenems. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) kit for OXA subgroups in A.baumannii, and to investigate the distribution of OXA subgroups in A.baumannii strains isolated from geographically different regions of Turkey. A total of 834 A.baumannii clinical isolates collected from different state and university medical centers in 13 provinces (Afyonkarahisar, Ankara, Bolu, Elazig, Erzurum, Isparta, Istanbul, Kahramanmaras, Konya, Sakarya, Van) between 2008-2011, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and automated systems [Vitek2 (bioMerieux, ABD) and Phoenix (BD Diagnostic, MD)]. The susceptibility profiles of the isolates were studied with automated systems and standard disc diffusion method. All samples were subjected to qPCR to detect blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. A conventional PCR method was also used to detect blaOXA-24-like gene. The resistance rates observed during the study period were as follows: 96.8% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 86.8% for ciprofloxacin, 74.7% for gentamicin, 71.7% for amikacin, 73.5% for cefaperozone-sulbactam, 72.1% for imipenem and 73% for meropenem. Six hundred and two (72.2 %) isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Colistin was found to be the most effective antibiotic against A.baumannii isolates with 100% susceptibility rate. All isolates were positive for blaOXA-51-like, however blaOXA-24-like gene could not be demonstrated in any isolate. Total positivity rates of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes were found as 53.7% and 12.5%, respectively, while these rates were 74.4% and 17.3% in carbapenem-resistant isolates

  18. Identification of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Emphasis on New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in Bandar Abbas, South of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Saeed; Ansari, Maryam; Faridi, Forogh; Azad, Mohsen; Davoodian, Parivash; Javadpour, Sedigheh; Farahani, Abbas; Douzandeh Mobarrez, Banafsheh; Karmostaji, Afsaneh

    2017-10-03

    The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae especially blaNDM-1-carrying isolates is a great concern worldwide. In this study we describe the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in three teaching hospitals at Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. A total of 170 nonduplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method. PCR was carried out for detection of carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaOXA-48, and blaOXA-181) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaGES, and blaPER). Clonal relatedness of blaNDM-1-positive isolates was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Tigecycline was the most effective antimicrobial agent with 96.5% susceptibility. In addition, 6.5% of the isolates were carbapenem resistant. BlaNDM-1 was identified in four isolates (isolate A-D) and all of them were multidrug-resistant. MLST revealed that blaNDM-1-positive isolates were clonally related and belonged to two distinct clonal complexes, including sequence type (ST) 13 and ST 392. In addition to blaNDM-1, isolate A coharbored blaSHV-11, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM-1, isolate B harbored blaSHV-11 and blaCTX-M-15, and isolates C and D contained both blaSHV-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Our results indicate that NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST 13 and ST 392 are disseminated in our region. Moreover, one of our major concerns is that these isolates may be more prevalent in the near future. Tracking and urgent intervention is necessary for control and prevention of these resistant isolates.

  19. Occurrence of blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M and mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Well Water in rural China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pan; Bi, Zhenwang; Nilsson, Maud; Zheng, Beiwen; Berglund, Björn; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Börjesson, Stefan; Li, Xuewen; Chen, Baoli; Yin, Hong; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2017-01-23

    We report on co-existence of mcr-1 and blaCTX-M in multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli belonging to the ST10 complex, isolated from well water in rural China. Raoultella ornithinolytica with blaKPC-2 was also detected in the well water from the same area. This study shows that genes coding for resistance to last resort antibiotics are present in wells in rural China, indicating a potential source for antibiotic resistance.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas sp. Strain Carrying blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2 Carbapenemase Genes from Hospital Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiyi; Wu, Wenjing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain WCHP16 recovered from hospital sewage in West China Hospital, Chengdu, China was found to carry two carbapenemase genes blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2. Here, we report its 5.7-Mb draft genome sequence, comprising 141 contigs and an average 59.53% G+C content. The genome contained 5,504 coding sequences and 67 tRNA genes. PMID:27795238

  1. BLA to vHPC Inputs Modulate Anxiety-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Beyeler, Anna; Seo, Changwoo; Leppla, Christopher A.; Wildes, Craig P.; Tye, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) have both been implicated in mediating anxiety-related behaviors, but the functional contribution of BLA inputs to the vHPC has never been directly investigated. Here we show that activation of BLA-vHPC synapses acutely and robustly increased anxiety-related behaviors, while inhibition of BLA-vHPC synapses decreased anxiety-related behaviors. We combined optogenetic approaches with in vivo pharmacological manipulations and ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to dissect the local circuit mechanisms, demonstrating that activation of BLA terminals in the vHPC provided monosynaptic, glutamatergic inputs to vHPC pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, BLA inputs exerted polysynaptic, inhibitory effects mediated by local interneurons in the vHPC that may serve to balance the circuit locally. These data establish a role for BLA-vHPC synapses in bidirectionally controlling anxiety-related behaviors in an immediate, yet reversible, manner and a model for the local circuit mechanism of BLA inputs in the vHPC. PMID:23972595

  2. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  3. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  4. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type class A carbapenemase genes on novel chromosomal integrative elements and plasmids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Davidson, Ross; Delport, Johannes A; Fuller, Jeff; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Levett, Paul; Roscoe, Diane L; Willey, Barbara M; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-02-21

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species, however blaNMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwiggii Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A (n=10), IMI-1 (n=5), and IMI-9 (n=2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements, EcloIMEXs, located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, blaIMI-5 and blaIMI-6, were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A/IMI-type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential.

  5. β-Lactam Resistance Genes: Characterization, Epidemiology, and First Detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry in Brazil-Brazil Ministry of Agriculture's Pathogen Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Fernanda Marques; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Oliveira, Vinicius Gomes Sales; Gaspari, Marcus Vinicius; Dos Santos, Amaury; de Freitas, Josinete Barros; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread in nature; however, human infections occur mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, specially poultry and eggs. In Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) oversees food production in general, with the goal of preventing transmission of pathogens through the food chain. In 2004, MAPA initiated a program to monitor and control levels of Salmonella in poultry during slaughter. This study analyzes isolates from MAPA's program for β-lactam resistance and the resistance genes involved, as well as the geographic distributions of potentially clonal populations of resistant isolates within Brazil. Initially, 1,939 Salmonella spp. isolated between 2004 and 2011 were examined. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and 100 isolates resistant or intermediate to ampicillin and ceftriaxone were screened initially for the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPSA, blaCMY-1, and blaCMY-2 genes. There were 55 isolates whose resistance genes were not identified by this panel and these isolates are the subject of this report. These 55 isolates were differentiated into 31 distinct ribogroups, with multiple β-lactam resistance genes, including AmpC blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaCTX-M-14. Isolates carrying variants of blaCTX-M were identified in three geographic regions. Salmonella carrying particular genetic variants of blaCTX-M and belonging to the same ribogroup were identified from multiple poultry slaughtering facilities. In some instances, these presumptive clonal-related isolates were from facilities over 300 miles apart, indicating potential clonal spread between two geographic regions. This is the first report of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella in Brazil.

  6. Hospital sewage water - a reservoir for variants of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) and ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shadab; Khan, Asad U

    2017-09-05

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a threat to public health. Hospital sewage is generally unexplored, having a potential for harbouring bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections. Hence, we initiated this study to monitor NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital sewage water. We detected 32 isolates with blaNDM variants, 17 Escherichia coli, 8 Citrobacter freundii, 4 Shigella boydii, 2 Citrobacter braakii, and 1 Citrobacter farmeri in hospital sewage water, showing resistance to all antibiotics except colistin. All isolates carried blaNDM (of which nine were blaNDM-1, eleven blaNDM-4, ten blaNDM-5, and two blaNDM-7), blaCMY variants (one blaCMY-2, three blaCMY-4, five blaCMY-6, eleven blaCMY-42, two blaCMY-86, and two blaCMY-139) in 24 isolates, blaOXA-type (blaOXA-1 in seventeen isolates, and blaOXA-48 in three isolates), blaCTX-M in 19 isolates and/or ampC in 9 isolates on conjugative plasmid of IncFIA, IncFIB, IncFIC, IncP, IncY, IncHI1 and IncI1 types. In Escherichia coli, coexistence of blaNDM-1 with blaCMY-6 and blaCMY-139, blaNDM-4 with blaCMY-6, blaCMY-42, and blaCMY-86, blaNDM-5 with blaCMY-6 and blaCMY-42, and blaNDM-7 with blaCMY-6, were observed. Identification of NDM-5-producing Shigella boydii and NDM-7-producing Citrobacter freundii and detection of association of blaNDM-4 and blaOXA-48 in Citrobacter braakii and Citrobacter farmeri. Class 1 integron was also found on the plasmid. ISAba125 and bleomycin genes were found surrounding all blaNDM variants. The emergence and dissemination of blaNDM variants in the hospital sewage water is a matter of concern, creating an endemic scenario, leading to the level of an outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Availability of underlayer application to EUV process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Hitoshi; Fonseca, Carlos; Iwao, Fumiko; Marumoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Kyoungyong; Park, Cheol-Hong; Park, Chang-Min; Na, Hai-Sub; Koh, Cha-Won; Cho, Hanku

    2011-04-01

    EUV lithography is one of the most promising technologies for the fabrication of beyond 30nm HP generation devices. However, it is well-known that EUV lithography still has significant challenges. A great concern is the change of resist material for EUV resist process. EUV resist material formulations will likely change from conventional-type materials. As a result, substrate dependency needs to be understood. TEL has reported that the simulation combined with experiments is a good way to confirm the substrate dependency. In this work the application of HMDS treatment and SiON introduction, as an underlayer, are studied to cause a footing of resist profile. Then, we applied this simulation technique to Samsung EUV process. We will report the benefit of this simulation work and effect of underlayer application. Regarding the etching process, underlayer film introduction could have significant issues because the film that should be etched off increases. For that purpose, thinner films are better for etching. In general, thinner films may have some coating defects. We will report the coating coverage performance and defectivity of ultra thin film coating.

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica and Photorhabdus asymbiotica β-lactamases BlaA are exported by the twin-arginine translocation pathway.

    PubMed

    Schriefer, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Schmid, Franz X; Schmid, Annika; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In general, β-lactamases of medically important Gram-negative bacteria are Sec-dependently translocated into the periplasm. In contrast, β-lactamases of Mycobacteria spp. (BlaC, BlaS) and the Gram-negative environmental bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (L2) and Xanthomonas campestris (Bla(XCC-1)) have been reported to be secreted by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system. Yersinia enterocolitica carries 2 distinct β-lactamase genes (blaA and blaB) encoding BlaA(Ye) and the AmpC-like β-lactamase BlaB, respectively. By using the software PRED-TAT for prediction and discrimination of Sec from Tat signal peptides, we identified a functional Tat signal sequence for Yersinia BlaA(Ye). The Tat-dependent translocation of BlaA(Ye) could be clearly demonstrated by using a Y. enterocolitica tatC-mutant and cell fractionation. Moreover, we could demonstrate a unique unusual temperature-dependent activity profile of BlaA(Ye) ranging from 15 to 60 °C and a high 'melting temperature' (T(M)=44.3°) in comparison to the related Sec-dependent β-lactamase TEM-1 (20-50°C, T(M)=34.9 °C). Strikingly, the blaA gene of Y. enterocolitica is present in diverse environmental Yersinia spp. and a blaA homolog gene could be identified in the closely related Photorhabdus asymbiotica (BlaA(Pa); 69% identity to BlaA(Ye)). For BlaA(Pa) of P. asymbiotica, we could also demonstrate Tat-dependent secretion. These results suggest that Yersinia BlaA-related β-lactamases may be the prototype of a large Tat-dependent β-lactamase family, which originated from environmental bacteria.

  9. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor.

  10. The spread of bla OXA-48 and bla OXA-244 carbapenemase genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. isolated in Moscow, Russia.

    PubMed

    Fursova, Nadezhda K; Astashkin, Eugeny I; Knyazeva, Anastasia I; Kartsev, Nikolay N; Leonova, Ekaterina S; Ershova, Olga N; Alexandrova, Irina A; Kurdyumova, Natalia V; Sazikina, Svetlana Yu; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-11-02

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a great problem of healthcare worldwide. Study of the spread for bla OXA-48-like genes coding epidemically significant carbapenemases among hospital pathogens is important for the regional and global epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. Antibacterial resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 95) from 54 patients, P. mirabilis (n = 32) from 20 patients, Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 6) from four patients, and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4) from four patients were collected from January, 2013 to October, 2014 in neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute, Moscow. Characteristics of the isolates were done using susceptibility tests, PCR detection of the resistance genes, genotyping, conjugation, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Major strains under study were multi drug resistant (MDR), resistant to three or more functional classes of drugs simultaneously-98.9 % K. pneumoniae, 100 % P. mirabilis, one E. aerogenes isolate, and one E. cloacae isolate. Molecular-genetic mechanism of MDR in K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis isolates were based on carrying of epidemic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M-15 gene (87.2 and 90.6 % accordingly), carbapenemase bla OXA-48-like gene (55.3 and 23.3 % accordingly), and class 1 (54.8 and 31.3 % accordingly) and class 2 (90.6 % P. mirabilis) integrons. The bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae were collected during whole two-year surveillance period, while P. mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. carrying bla OXA-48-like genes were detected only after four and 18 months after the research start, respectively. The bla OXA-48-like gene acquisition was shown for P. mirabilis isolates collected from five patients and for E. cloacae isolate collected from one patient during their stay in the ICU, presumably from bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae. The source of the bla OXA-244 gene acquired by E

  11. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase genes, bla IMP-1, bla VIM-2 and bla SPM-1 in imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Rahimzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    Carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious cause of nosocomial infections. The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) genes. 236 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from teaching hospitals of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences during a period of 9 months in 2012. These strains were identified using conventional microbiological tests. The susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics were assessed using disk diffusion test. The IMP-EDTA combination disk phenotypic test was performed for detection of MBL producing strains. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect MBL genes, bla IMP-1, bla VIM-2 and bla SPM-1 in imipenem resistant strains. Out of 236 examined isolates, 122 isolates (51.4%) were resistant to imipenem. The IMP-EDTA combination test showed that among 122 imipenem resistant strains, 110 strains (90%) were phenotipically MBL producers. Additionally, the results of PCR method showed that 2 strains (1.6%) and 67strains (55%) of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates contained bla VIM-2 and bla IMP-1 genes respectively. No SPM-1gene was found in the examined samples. Resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem due to MBL enzymes is increasing in Ahavaz. Because of clinical significance of this kind of resistance, rapid detection of MBL producing strains and followed by appropriate treatment is necessary to prevent the spreading of these organisms.

  12. Applications of Colour Processing In Optical Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. V.; Connolly, C.

    1986-11-01

    Humans are endowed with the facility to perceive colour. This not only provides an additional aesthetic dimension but also helps perform visual tasks efficiently. There are many occupations, including inspection, not open to those with defective colour vision. Todays machine vision systems are virtually all colour-blind. Yet there are applications where colour is intrinsic. Consider for example the inspection and grading of fruit, vegetables, biscuits and other food products. Consider also the widespread use of colour coding for wiring and components in the electrical and electronic industries. Automatic optical inspection of such things cannot be done without relating to colour. There are other applications where colour is not directly relevant but the additional information provided can help simplify and speed up the processing task. This paper reviews the nature of colour, relating the psychophysical aspects of colour perception and the physical properties of available sensors to the needs of an automatic inspection system. The theory of colour perception is based on the tri-stimulus theory which says that any colour may be matched using appropriate proportions of three primary colours. Although later experiments have suggested human colour perception is more complex, most electronic video sensors employ a three colour system. Usually the red, green and blue primary components are derived and may be used directly as sensory inputs to a vision system. However the primary representation of colour is not the most efficient means of encoding nor is it the most useful basis for interpretive processing. The R,G and B primary signals may be simply transformed into a new coordinate system where one of the axes represents true object colour or hue. Using this new colour space simplifies processing. These ideas are illustrated by an inspection example. The colour coded wires of a European power cable are identified to ensure that a power plug is safely wired. For this

  13. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results are summarized for six materials science experiments conducted during the second space processing applications rocket mission flown by NASA. The individual experiments discussed are: (1) solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic; (2) feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams; (3) direct observation of dendrite remelting and macrosegregation in castings; (4) agglomeration in immiscible liquids; (5) casting dispersion - strengthened composites at zero gravity; and (6) solidification behavior of Al-In alloys under zero gravity conditions.

  14. 20 CFR 655.23 - Receipt and processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt and processing of applications. 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.23 Receipt and processing of applications. (a) Filing date. Applications... complete. Incomplete applications shall not be accepted for processing or assigned a receipt date, but...

  15. 47 CFR 1.926 - Application processing; initial procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Procedures § 1.926 Application processing; initial procedures. Applications are assigned file numbers and service codes in order to facilitate processing. Assignment of a file number to an application... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application processing; initial procedures. 1...

  16. Space processing applications rocket project. SPAR 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, R. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) VIII Final Report contains the engineering report prepared at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the three reports from the principal investigators. These reports also describe pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication, and testing, all of which are expected to contribute immeasurably to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the eighth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled Glass Formation Experiment SPAR 74-42/1R, Glass Fining Experiment in Low-Gravity SPAR 77-13/1, and Dynamics of Liquid Bubbles SPAR Experiment 77-18/2.

  17. Processes and applications of electrostatic fiber formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Gregory C.

    2008-12-01

    'Electrospinning' is an electrohydrodynamic jetting process that enables the production of continuous fibers, tubes and wires with diameters as small as 10 nm. The process itself is dependent upon electrostatic interactions such as charge-charge repulsion and charge-field interaction. The interplay of charge repulsion, viscoelasticity and surface tension gives rise to interesting electrohydrodynamic phenomena that challenge fundamental understanding as well as practical implementation and quality control in the final fibers. The morphology and diameter of these fibers can be understood and controlled through manipulation of fluid properties and operating parameters. The fibers thus produced are illustrative of nanotechnology in a 1-dimensional form, and have inspired considerable activity in the research community into their potential applications. Proposed uses range from high performance filtration media and membranes, to sensors and actuators, to medical devices and drug delivery vehicles. Two examples, tissue scaffold engineering and superhydrophobicity, are illustrated here.

  18. Space processing applications rocket project. SPAR 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassay, R. P.

    1984-06-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) VIII Final Report contains the engineering report prepared at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the three reports from the principal investigators. These reports also describe pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication, and testing, all of which are expected to contribute immeasurably to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the eighth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled Glass Formation Experiment SPAR 74-42/1R, Glass Fining Experiment in Low-Gravity SPAR 77-13/1, and Dynamics of Liquid Bubbles SPAR Experiment 77-18/2.

  19. Complete sequence of a conjugative incn plasmid harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Doi, Yohei

    2014-11-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

  20. Complete Sequence of a Conjugative IncN Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. PMID:25182636

  1. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains carrying the bla(OxA-23) and the bla(GES-11) genes in a neonatology center in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Charfi-Kessis, Karama; Mansour, Wejdene; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Mastouri, Maha; Nordmann, Patrice; Aouni, Mahjoub; Poirel, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant and difficult-to-treat Acinetobacter baumannii may be responsible for nosocomial infections. The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) of the GES type possessing a carbapenemase activity has been increasingly reported worldwide in A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms of two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered in a neonatology center in the center-east of Tunisia. Two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates were recovered. The first isolate co-harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene and the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene. Analyses of the genetic location indicated that the blaGES-11 gene was plasmid located (Gr6). However, the blaOxA-23 gene was located on the chromosome. The second strain had only the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene, which was plasmid located. This study showed the first description of the GES-type β-lactamase in A. baumannii in Tunisia.

  2. Molecular characterization of newly emerged blaKPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Ngan, Grace; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T P; Teo, Jeanette

    2012-02-01

    In Asia, bla(KPC) detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four bla(KPC-2)-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). bla(KPC-2) was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Newly Emerged blaKPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Grace; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T. P.; Teo, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    In Asia, blaKPC detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four blaKPC-2-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). blaKPC-2 was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates. PMID:22116160

  4. Plasmid carriage of bla NDM-1 in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lim S; Toleman, Mark A; Weeks, Janis L; Howe, Robin A; Walsh, Timothy R; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan K

    2014-07-01

    NDM-1 probably emerged in Acinetobacter species prior to its dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae, and NDM-1-like enzymes are increasingly reported in Acinetobacter species. Here, we report on the genetic context of blaNDM-1 in the earliest known NDM-1-producing organisms, clinical isolates of Acinetobacter from India in 2005. These strains harbor blaNDM-1 plasmids of different sizes. The gene is associated with the remnants of the Tn125 transposon normally associated with blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter spp. The transposon has been disrupted by the IS26 insertion and subsequent movement events.

  5. First Description of Shigella sonnei Harboring blaCTX-M-55 Outside Asia.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jeannete; Ortega-Paredes, David; Barba, Pedro

    2016-12-28

    Shigella sonnei harboring blaCTX-M-55 was isolated outside of Asia for the first time. The blaCTX-M-55 gene was found to be downstream of ISEcp-1 and located in a ~130 kb conjugative plasmid belonging to the I1 incompatibility group. The strain was recovered from a 7-year-old Ecuadorian girl with watery diarrhea who had not travelled abroad. Recent local data describe the emergence of blaCTX-M-55 and other variants typically found in Asia in the Andean Region, suggesting that increased travel of humans and trade relationships with Asian countries are influencing the current Ecuadorian bacterial resistance situation.

  6. 7 CFR 1781.12 - Preapplication and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.12 Preapplication and application processing. (a) WS and RCD loans... and assembled in accordance with applicable RUS Instruction 1780. (b) Watershed advances. Applications...

  7. 7 CFR 1781.12 - Preapplication and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.12 Preapplication and application processing. (a) WS and RCD loans... and assembled in accordance with applicable RUS Instruction 1780. (b) Watershed advances. Applications...

  8. 7 CFR 1781.12 - Preapplication and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.12 Preapplication and application processing. (a) WS and RCD loans... and assembled in accordance with applicable RUS Instruction 1780. (b) Watershed advances. Applications...

  9. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Sandra; Feng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components.

  10. Application of Glass Transition in Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Devi, Apramita; Singh, K K; Bosco, S J D; Mohite, Ashish M

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of glass transition has been employed to food products to study their stability. It can be applied as an integrated approach along with water activity and physical and chemical changes in food in processing and storage to determine the food stability. Also associated with the changes during agglomeration crystallization, caking, sticking, collapse, oxidation reactions, nonenzymatic browning, and microbial stability of food system. Various techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, etc. have been developed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of food system. Also, various theories have been applied to explain the concept of Tg and its relation to changes in food system. This review summarizes the understanding of concept of glass transition, its measurement, and application in food technology.

  11. Application of molecular modeling to biological processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrey, Alfred H.; Famini, George R.; Wick, Charles

    1993-07-01

    Detailed understanding of the molecular basis for biological processes is now available through computational modeling techniques. Advances in computational algorithms and technology allow applications to large biological macromolecules and permits the study of such problems as binding mechanisms, chemical reactivity, structural and conformational effects, and simulations of molecular motions. Recent crystallographic data provides access to detailed structural information that allows analysis and comparison of various computational techniques. Preliminary semiempirical studies on N-acetylneuraminic acid are presented as an example of computational studies on binding mechanisms. N-acetylneuraminic acid is a substituted carbohydrate, which is a recognition site for binding of proteins (i.e., cholera toxin). These calculations provide some insight into electronic effects on bin in a crystal complex and the effect of the molecular charge on hydrogen bonding the crystal complex.

  12. 43 CFR 3922.10 - Application processing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Application Processing... process for a competitive oil shale lease is as follows: (1) The applicant nominating the tract...

  13. 43 CFR 3922.10 - Application processing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Application Processing... process for a competitive oil shale lease is as follows: (1) The applicant nominating the tract...

  14. 43 CFR 3922.10 - Application processing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING Application Processing... process for a competitive oil shale lease is as follows: (1) The applicant nominating the tract...

  15. 43 CFR 3922.10 - Application processing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Application Processing... process for a competitive oil shale lease is as follows: (1) The applicant nominating the tract...

  16. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for... accordance with the provisions of § 90.173. (c) Phase II applications for authorization on all non-Government...

  17. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.53 Processing of applications. (a) The applicant shall serve a copy of the application,...

  18. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.53 Processing of applications. (a) The applicant shall serve a copy of the application,...

  19. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.53 Processing of applications. (a) The applicant shall serve a copy of the application,...

  20. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.53 Processing of applications. (a) The applicant shall serve a copy of the application,...

  1. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.53 Processing of applications. (a) The applicant shall serve a copy of the application,...

  2. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  3. 24 CFR 599.201 - Initiation of application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Initiation of application process... Renewal Communities § 599.201 Initiation of application process. (a) Federal Register notice. To initiate the nomination process for Renewal Communities, HUD will publish a notice inviting applications for...

  4. Spread and exchange of bla NDM-1 in hospitalized neonates: role of mobilizable genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Mitra, S; Chattopadhyay, P; Som, T; Mukherjee, S; Basu, S

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the mobilizable elements associated with bla NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from septicaemic neonates at a NICU in India, during December, 2008-2011. An attempt was also made to understand whether there was a pattern in the temporal acquisition of bla NDM-1 within the unit. Transferability of carbapenem resistance was tested by conjugation and transformation. Plasmid types and addiction systems were analysed. The genetic background of bla NDM-1 and association with class 1 integron were evaluated by PCR mapping. RFLP was carried out to discriminate plasmids of same incompatibility group. Transfer of carbapenem resistance was successful in 13/15 cases. bla NDM-1 was associated with different plasmid scaffolds (IncFII, IncL/M, IncN, IncR, IncHIB-M/FIB-M), IncF type being the prevalent one. Addiction systems ccdAB and hok/sok were associated with transferable plasmids. Genetic structures surrounding bla NDM-1 showed its association with at least a remnant of ISAba125 at its 5'-end. The spread of NDM-1 was not related to class 1 integron which possessed resistance determinants against trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA1, dfrA5), streptomycin (aadA2, aacA4), and rifampicin (arr-3). RFLP showed that three isolates possessed the same FII/FIIs plasmid; two of these three isolates were from a single neonate, implying interspecies transfer of bla NDM-1. The predominance of FII plasmids and ISAba125 along with bla NDM-1 was noted, but no specific pattern in the temporal acquisition of mobile genetic elements could be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to inform the in-vivo interspecies plasmid transfer event of bla NDM-1 in a neonate.

  5. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  6. Evaluation of LAMP assay using phenotypic tests and conventional PCR for detection of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes among carbapenem-resistant clinical Gram-negative isolates.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Rachana; Vanjari, Lavanya; Ede, Nagapriyanka; Gungi, Akhila; Soory, Amarendranath; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2013-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant pathogens cause infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and cost-effective detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in comparison with conventional PCR and existing phenotypic methods. A total of 60 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates [Escherichia coli (15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22), Acinetobacter baumannii (23)] were screened for the presence of carbapenemases (bla(KPC) and bla(NDM-1)) using phenotypic methods such as the modified Hodge test (MHT) and combined disc test (CDT) and molecular methods such as conventional PCR and LAMP assay. In all, 47/60 isolates (78.3%) were MHT positive while 48 isolates were positive by CDT [46.6% positive with EDTA, 30% with 3' aminophenylboronic acid (APB) plus EDTA and 1.6% with APB alone]. Isolates showing CDT positivity with EDTA or APB contained bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes, respectively. bla(NDM-1) was present as a lone gene in 28 isolates (46.7%) and present together with the bla(KPC) gene in 19 isolates (31.7%). Only one E. coli isolate had a lone bla(KPC) gene. The LAMP assay detected either or both bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes in four isolates that were missed by conventional PCR. Neither gene could be detected in 12 (20%) isolates. The LAMP assay has greater sensitivity, specificity and rapidity compared to the phenotypic methods and PCR for the detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC). With a turnaround time of only 2-3 h, the LAMP assay can be considered a point-of-care assay.

  7. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yasufumi; Pitout, Johann D D; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A; Motyl, Mary R; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade.

  8. Biochemical Characterization of PER-2 and Genetic Environment of blaPER-2▿

    PubMed Central

    Power, Pablo; Di Conza, José; Rodríguez, María Margarita; Ghiglione, Bárbara; Ayala, Juan A.; Casellas, José María; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    PER-2 was the first detected and the second most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase in clinical pathogens isolated in Argentina and was also reported only in other South American countries. Citrobacter freundii 33587 was isolated in 1999 in Buenos Aires and was resistant to all tested β-lactams except cephamycins and carbapenems. The strain produced both plasmid-borne TEM-1 and PER-2 (pI 5.4), which could be transferred by conjugation. By PCR screening, thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and DNA sequencing, we detected an ISPa12/IS1387a insertion sequence upstream of blaPER-2, previously reported as also being associated with blaPER-1. The presence of similar structures upstream of blaPER-1 and blaPER-2 suggests a common origin and mobilization. Compared to blaPER-1 genes, an additional putative promoter for blaPER-2 was found. PER-2 kinetic analysis showed its high hydrolysis efficiencies toward both CTX and CAZ (kcat/Km, 0.76 and 0.43 μM−1·s−1, respectively). PMID:17438050

  9. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Pitout, Johann D.D.; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A.; Motyl, Mary R.; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade. PMID:27767006

  10. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determinations are necessary, and what is required from them. Rural Development should assist the applicant as... discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,...

  11. Electron Beam Applications in Chemical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Dragusin, M.; Radoiu, M.; Moraru, R.; Oproiu, C.; Cojocaru, G.; Margarit, C.

    1997-05-01

    Our recent results in the field of polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation are presented. Two types of polymeric flocculants and three hydrogels are described. The effects of radiation absorbed dose and chemical composition of the irradiated solutions upon the polymeric materials characteristics are discussed. The required absorbed dose levels to produce the polymeric flocculants are in the range of 0.4 kGy to 1 kGy, and 4 kGy to 12 kGy for hydrogels. Experimental results obtained by testing polymeric flocculants with waste water from food industry are given. Plymeric materials processing was developed on a pilot small scale level with a 0.7 kW and 5.5 MeV linac built in Romania. A new facility for application of combined electron beam and microwave irradiation in the field of polymeric materials preparation is presently under investigation. Preliminary results have demonstrated that some polymeric flocculants characteristics, such as linearity, were improved by using combined electron beam and microwave irradiation. Also, the absorbed dose levels decreases in comparison with those required when only electron beam irradiation was used.

  12. 13 CFR 500.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-2500, Washington, DC 20230. Applications which have been provided to a delivery service on or before... review if the Applicant can document that the application was provided to the delivery service with... Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form “Environmental Assessment...

  13. Application of Complex Fluids in Lignocellulose Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo Lugo, Carlos A.

    Complex fluids such as emulsions, microemulsions and foams, have been used for different applications due to the multiplicity of properties they possess. In the present work, such fluids are introduced as effective media for processing lignocellulosic biomass. A demonstration of the generic benefits of complex fluids is presented to enhance biomass impregnation, to facilitate pretreatment for fiber deconstruction and to make compatible cellulose fibrils with hydrophobic polymers during composite manufacture. An improved impregnation of woody biomass was accomplished by application of water-continuous microemulsions. Microemulsions with high water content, > 85%, were formulated and wood samples were impregnated by wicking and capillary flooding at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Formulations were designed to effectively impregnate different wood species during shorter times and to a larger extent compared to the single components of the microemulsions (water, oil or surfactant solutions). The viscosity of the microemulsions and their interactions with cell wall constituents in fibers were critical to define the extent of impregnation and solubilization. The relation between composition and formulation variables and the extent of microemulsion penetration in different woody substrates was studied. Formulation variables such as salinity content of the aqueous phase and type of surfactant were elucidated. Likewise, composition variables such as the water-to-oil ratio and surfactant concentration were investigated. These variables affected the characteristics of the microemulsion and determined their effectiveness in wood treatment. Also, the interactions between the surfactant and the substrate had an important contribution in defining microemulsion penetration in the capillary structure of wood. Microemulsions as an alternative pretreatment for the manufacture of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was also studied. Microemulsions were applied to pretreat lignin

  14. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  15. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  16. First report of blaNDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian war.

    PubMed

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Mallat, Hassan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been observed worldwide. We describe the first detection of A. baumannii carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in Lebanon, isolated from Syrian patients wounded during the civil war. Four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated in 2012 in the Tripoli Government Hospital, Lebanon, from civilians wounded during the Syrian war, were analysed. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing, and resistance to carbapenems was confirmed by Etest. The presence of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-143-like, and blaNDM was investigated by PCR. Clonal relationships were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing. All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene and were negative for other tested carbapenemases. They all belonged to the sequence type 85 and formed a single cluster by PFGE. Finally, blaOXA-51-like gene sequencing revealed the presence of the blaOXA-94 variant in all four isolates. These findings show that Syria constitutes a reservoir for NDM-1-producing bacteria. These results also highlight the need for effective measures to stop the threatening spread of such strains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactivity of German cockroach allergen, Bla g 2, peptide fragments to IgE antibodies in patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeseok; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Shin, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Myung-hee; Gantulaga, Darambazar; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    Bla g 2 is a cockroach allergen of great importance. This study was conducted to identify IgE-binding epitope(s) of Bla g 2 using the recombinant protein technique. Approximately 50% of tested sera showed IgE reactivity to Pichia-expressed Bla g 2 (PrBla g 2) and E. coli-expressed Bla g 2 (ErBla g 2). Only 5.3% of serum samples showed stronger reactivity to PrBla g 2 than ErBla g 2, indicating that serum was reactive to conformational or carbohydrate epitopes. The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 2 were produced in E. coli. All fragments showed IgE-binding activity to the cockroach-allergy patients' sera. Specifically, peptide fragments of amino acid residue 1-75 and 146-225 appeared to be important for IgE-binding. The information about the IgE-binding epitope of Bla g 2 can aid in the diagnosis and treatment for cockroach allergies.

  18. Dissemination of metallo-β-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Egypt: mutation in blaVIM-4.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shaeky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from Suez Canal University Hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic and genotypic screening for MBLs were performed on 147 isolates of P. aeruginosa. MICs were determined by agar dilution method for carbapenem that was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem. MBL genes were detected by multiplex and monoplex PCR for P. aeruginosa-harbored plasmids. Mutation profile of sequenced MBL genes was screened using online software Clustal Omega. Out of 147 P. aeruginosa, 39 (26.5%) were carbapenem-resistant isolates and 25 (64%) were confirmed to be positive for MBLs. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa toward polymyxin B and norfloxacin was 99% and 88%, respectively. Identification of collected isolates by API analysis and constructed phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA showed that the isolates were related to P. aeruginosa species. The frequency of blaGIM-1, blaSIM-1, and blaSPM-1 was 52%, 48%, and 24%, respectively. BlaVIM and blaIMP-like genes were 20% and 4% and the sequences confirm the isolate to be blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-4, and blaIMP-1. Three mutations were identified in blaVIM-4 gene. Our study emphasizes the high occurrence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa-producing MBL enzymes. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and characterization of hybrid blaCTX-M among Escherichia coli isolates from livestock and other animals.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Liu, Melissa Chun-Jiao; Lo, Wai-U; Lai, Eileen Ling-Yi; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Law, Oi-Kwan; Chow, Kin-Hung

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated 248 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 2012 to 2013 for hybrid blaCTX-M genes. blaCTX-M genes were detected in 228 isolates of which 14 isolates were hybrid blaCTX-M positive (6 blaCTX-M-123, 6 blaCTX-M-64, and 2 blaCTX-M-132). The 14 hybrid blaCTX-M-carrying isolates (8 from chickens, 2 each from pigs and cattle, 1 each from dog and rodent) were genetically diverse. All but 2 hybrid blaCTX-M were carried on IncI1 (5 blaCTX-M-123) and IncI2 (6 blaCTX-M-64 and one blaCTX-M-132) plasmids. Our IncI1 and IncI2 plasmids had pHNAH4-1-like and pHN1122-1-like restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, respectively. Genetic relatedness of the plasmids to pHNAH4-1 and pHN1122-1 were confirmed by complete sequencing of 3 plasmids, pCTXM123_C0996, pCTXM64_C0967, and pCTXM132_P0421. Plasmids closely related to pHNAH4-1 and pHN1122-1 and carrying different blaCTX-M alleles have been reported from multiple geographic areas in China previously. The findings highlighted the wide dissemination of hybrid blaCTX-M variants in different parts of China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 19 CFR 142.43 - Line Release application approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management. The Office of Information and Technology will review the application and will notify the port... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line Release application approval process. 142.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.43 Line Release application...

  1. 19 CFR 142.43 - Line Release application approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Management. The Office of Information and Technology will review the application and will notify the port... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Line Release application approval process. 142.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.43 Line Release application...

  2. 19 CFR 142.43 - Line Release application approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Management. The Office of Information and Technology will review the application and will notify the port... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line Release application approval process. 142.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.43 Line Release application...

  3. 19 CFR 142.43 - Line Release application approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management. The Office of Information and Technology will review the application and will notify the port... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line Release application approval process. 142.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.43 Line Release application...

  4. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  5. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  6. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  7. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  8. 47 CFR 73.4017 - Application processing: Commercial FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application processing: Commercial FM stations... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4017 Application processing: Commercial FM stations. See Report and Order, MM Docket 84-750, FCC 85-125, adopted March 4,...

  9. On some applications of diffusion processes for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfu, S.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a new algorithm inspired by the properties of diffusion processes for image filtering. We show that purely nonlinear diffusion processes ruled by Fisher equation allows contrast enhancement and noise filtering, but involves a blurry image. By contrast, anisotropic diffusion, described by Perona and Malik algorithm, allows noise filtering and preserves the edges. We show that combining the properties of anisotropic diffusion with those of nonlinear diffusion provides a better processing tool which enables noise filtering, contrast enhancement and edge preserving.

  10. Prevalence of bla(PenA) and bla(OXA) in Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Patients at Sappasitthiprasong Hospital and Their Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Panya, Marutpong; Thirat, Suthinee; Wanram, Surasak; Panomket, Pawana; Nilsakul, Jiraporn

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a causative agent of melioidosis. Ceftazidime is the preferred drug of choice for treatment. However, the motility rate is high in endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility tofour different antimicrobial agents and to detect the β-lactamase genes in B. pseudomallei isolates from patients admitted to Sappasitthiprasong Hospital. 85 B. pseudomallei isolates from patients admitted to Sappasitthiprasong Hospital between November 2010 and May 2011 were determined for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of bla(penA) and bla(OXA) in β-lactamase genes. Almost all of the clinical isolates ofB. pseudomallei were susceptible to ceftazidime and imipenem. Cefatzidime MIC was ≤ 1-16 μg/ml and imipenem MIC was ≤ 1-4 μg/ml. The real-time PCR revealed that more than 90% of B. pseudomallei isolates carried bla(PenA) and bla(OXA). Although the clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei were susceptible to ceftazidime and imipenem, this study showed B. pseudomallei had a gene that produced beta-lactamase enzyme and may be poorly effective in the use of beta-lactam drugs.

  11. 8 CFR 223.2 - Application and processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., REFUGEE TRAVEL DOCUMENTS, AND ADVANCE PAROLE DOCUMENTS § 223.2 Application and processing. (a) Application. An applicant must submit an application for a reentry permit, refugee travel document, or advance... or conditional permanent resident. (2) Refugee travel document. (i) Except as provided in...

  12. 8 CFR 223.2 - Application and processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., REFUGEE TRAVEL DOCUMENTS, AND ADVANCE PAROLE DOCUMENTS § 223.2 Application and processing. (a) Application. An applicant must submit an application for a reentry permit, refugee travel document, or advance... or conditional permanent resident. (2) Refugee travel document. (i) Except as provided in...

  13. Industrial application of semantic process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espen Ingvaldsen, Jon; Atle Gulla, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Process mining relates to the extraction of non-trivial and useful information from information system event logs. It is a new research discipline that has evolved significantly since the early work on idealistic process logs. Over the last years, process mining prototypes have incorporated elements from semantics and data mining and targeted visualisation techniques that are more user-friendly to business experts and process owners. In this article, we present a framework for evaluating different aspects of enterprise process flows and address practical challenges of state-of-the-art industrial process mining. We also explore the inherent strengths of the technology for more efficient process optimisation.

  14. 76 FR 59863 - Application and Approval Process for New Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... process for new educational programs that qualify for student financial assistance under title IV of the... September 27, 2011 Part V Department of Education 34 CFR Part 600 Application and Approval Process for New... Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 600 RIN 1840-AD10 Application and Approval Process...

  15. 33 CFR 148.209 - How is the application processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the application processed? 148.209 Section 148.209 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... application processed? The Commandant (CG-5), in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator, processes...

  16. 33 CFR 148.209 - How is the application processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is the application processed? 148.209 Section 148.209 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... application processed? The Commandant (CG-5), in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator, processes...

  17. The application of intelligent process control to space based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, G. Steve

    1990-01-01

    The application of Artificial Intelligence to electronic and process control can help attain the autonomy and safety requirements of manned space systems. An overview of documented applications within various industries is presented. The development process is discussed along with associated issues for implementing an intelligence process control system.

  18. 24 CFR 200.45 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing of applications. 200.45... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.45 Processing of... the local HUD Office, the SAMA/Feasibility letter stage of processing can be combined with the firm...

  19. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the... that have not been selected for further processing will be submitted initially to the panel for review...

  20. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  1. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  2. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  3. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  4. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  5. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that the applicant has had a significant decline in the quantity or quality of potable water or an acute shortage of potable water, or that such a decline or shortage is imminent, and that the proposed... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.21 Application...

  6. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... submit electronic applications. (b) Required forms. The grant application will use the Standard... electronic versions of the forms in compliance with the instructions in the grant announcement. (c) Narrative... project and addressing the following elements. The form, contents, and order of the narrative proposal...

  7. Laser Material Processing for Microengineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helvajian, H.

    1995-01-01

    The processing of materials via laser irradiation is presented in a brief survey. Various techniques currently used in laser processing are outlined and the significance to the development of space qualified microinstrumentation are identified. In general the laser processing technique permits the transferring of patterns (i.e. lithography), machining (i.e. with nanometer precision), material deposition (e.g., metals, dielectrics), the removal of contaminants/debris/passivation layers and the ability to provide process control through spectroscopy.

  8. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that details the amount of any sale... deficits, and any other required items set forth on the FAS Web site at http://www.fas.usda.gov. (6)...

  9. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that details the amount of any sale... deficits, and any other required items set forth on the FAS Web site at http://www.fas.usda.gov. (6)...

  10. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that details the amount of any sale... deficits, and any other required items set forth on the FAS Web site at http://www.fas.usda.gov. (6)...

  11. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... targeted country; (3) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that... considering statistics on poverty levels, food deficits, and any other required items set forth on the FAS...

  12. Self-contained exothermic applicator and process

    DOEpatents

    Koehmstedt, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    An adhesive resin application system which requires no external heating apparatus, and which is operative in the absence of a reactive atmosphere, is disclosed. The system provides its own heat by employing an adhesive material containing reactants which react exothermally when electrically ignited. After ignition of the reactants, sufficient heat energy is liberated by the exothermic reaction either to plasticize a thermoplastic resin or to cure a thermosetting resin and therby bond together two closely spaced objects. This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 489,006, filed Apr. 27, 1983, which is a continuation-in-part of application, Ser. No. 929,120, filed July 28, 1978, both now abandoned.

  13. DHPG activation of group 1 mGluRs in BLA enhances fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague–Dawley rats enhances freezing normally supported by a weak footshock. This effect of DHPG was blocked when it was co-infused with either the general group 1 mGluR1 antagonist, (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5 dicarboxylic acid (AIDA), or with the selective mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP). These results support previous findings by Rodrigues and colleagues that mGluR5s in the lateral region of the amygdala make an import contribution to fear conditioning. More importantly, they support the general ideas embedded in the concept of metaplasticity, as per Abraham, and the synaptic-tagging hypothesis per Frey and Morris—that the processes that specify the content of experience can be experimentally separated from those needed to acquire the memory. PMID:19553379

  14. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination.

  15. Complete sequences of two plasmids in a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella oxytoca isolate from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Wen; Wang, Jann-Tay; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liao, Tsai-Lien; Lai, Jui-Fen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chen, Ying-Tsong; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-08-01

    Genetic determinants of a bla(NDM-1)-positive, multidrug-resistant bacterial isolate that caused active infection was investigated by DNA sequencing. Two plasmids, pKOX_NDM1 and pKOX-R1, were identified for the Klebsiella oxytoca strain E718. Sequence annotation revealed a bla(NDM-1) gene in pKOX_NDM1 and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers (bla(CTX-M-3) and blaSHV-12) and a wide array of resistance genes in pKOX-R1. These findings highlight the difficulty in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and the potential danger of emerging resistant enterobacteria.

  16. blaCTX-M-2 Is Located in an Unusual Class 1 Integron (In35) Which Includes Orf513

    PubMed Central

    Arduino, Sonia M.; Roy, Paul H.; Jacoby, George A.; Orman, Betina E.; Pineiro, Silvia A.; Centron, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Examination of the blaCTX-M-2 gene in plasmid pMAR-12 by sequencing and PCR analysis revealed that the bla gene and the surrounding DNA, which is closely related (99% homology) to the Kluyvera ascorbata chromosomal DNA that contains the blaKLUA-1 gene, are located in a complex sul1-type integron, termed In35, that includes Orf513. It is possible that blaCTX-M-2 was acquired by plasmid pMAR-12 through an uncharacterized recombinational event in which Orf513 could be involved. PMID:12069995

  17. First report of the bla(OXA-58) gene in a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Deuseli Quaresma de; Santos, Kátia Regina Netto Dos; Pereira, Eliezer Menezes; Schuenck, Ricardo Pinto; Mendonça-Souza, Cláudia Rezende Vieira de; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona de

    2011-05-01

    Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among nonfermentative Gram-negative isolates. This study aimed to report the detection of bla(OXA-58) gene in multiresistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from inpatients in a public hospital. Polymerase chain reaction tests were performed to detect the bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and bla(OXA-51-like) genes. The bla(OXA-58) and bla(OXA-23) genes were detected in one and three isolates, respectively. Sequencing of the bla(OXA-58-like) amplicon revealed 100% identity with the A. baumannii bla(OXA-58) gene listed in the GenBank database. This is the first report of an OXA-58-producing A. baumannii isolate in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Applications of Biocatalysis to Industrial Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, John T.

    1999-12-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed chemistry (biocatalysis) is widely used across many industry sectors in large-scale processes. The possibility of environmentally friendly chemical reactions carried out under mild conditions with high degrees of selectivity has proved attractive in developing manufacturing processes. A number of such reactions are discussed in the industrial context with examples of a variety of reaction types. All processes presented have been implemented in the production of commercial products and provide a feel for the versatility of this technology.

  19. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... as financial statements, audits, or copies of organizational documents or existing debt instruments... processing, environmental issues must be considered. This should provide flexibility to consider alternatives...

  20. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by spreading the sewage sludge on the soil surface, incorporating or injecting the sewage sludge into soil, or spraying the sewage sludge. Because sewage sludge disposal practices (e.g., landfilling) are becoming less available and more costly, and because of the increasing desire to beneficially reuse waste residuals whenever possible, land application is increasingly chosen as a sewage sludge use or disposal practice. Approximately 33 percent of the 5.4 million dry metric tons of sewage sludge generated annually in the United States at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) is land applied. Of the sewage sludge that is land applied, approximately 67% is land applied on agricultural lands, 3% on forest lands, approximately 9% on reclamation sites, and 9% on public contact sites; 12% is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (Federal Register, Vol. 58, No. 32, February 19, 1993). In addition, approximately 8.6 billion gallons of domestic septage is generated annually. Land application of sewage sludge has been practiced in many countries for centuries so that the nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) and organic matter in sewage sludge can be beneficia

  1. The hand surgery fellowship application process: expectations, logistics, and costs.

    PubMed

    Meals, Clifton; Osterman, Meredith

    2015-04-01

    To investigate expectations, logistics, and costs relevant to the hand surgery fellowship application process. We sought to discover (1) what both applicants and program directors are seeking, (2) what both parties have to offer, (3) how both parties collect information about each other, and (4) the costs incurred in arranging each match. We conducted on-line surveys of hand surgery fellowship applicants for appointment in 2015 and of current fellowship program directors. Sixty-two applicants and 41 program directors completed the survey. Results revealed applicants' demographic characteristics, qualifications, method of ranking hand fellowship programs, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, ultimate match status, and suggestions for change. Results also revealed program directors' program demographics, rationale for offering interviews and favorably ranking applicants, application-related logistical details, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, and suggestions for change. Applicants for hand surgery fellowship training are primarily interested in a potential program's academic reputation, emphasis on orthopedic surgery, and location. The typical, successfully matched applicant was a 30-year-old male orthopedic resident with 3 publications to his credit. Applicants rely on peers and Web sites for information about fellowships. Fellowship directors are primarily seeking applicants recommended by other experienced surgeons and with positive personality traits. The typical fellowship director offers a single year of orthopedic-based fellowship training to 2 fellows per year and relies on a common application and in-person interviews to collect information about applicants. Applicants appear to be more concerned than directors about the current state of the match process. Applicants and directors alike incur heavy costs, in both dollars and opportunity, to arrange each match. A nuanced

  2. THE NATURE AND APPLICATIONS OF PROCESS ANALYSIS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ultimate goal of the process analysis project is to produce a model of the technological capabilities of the economy as a whole. The purpose of...Characteristic of the process analysis approach is the use of detailed engineering data, modern computing techniques and high speed computing machines.

  3. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  4. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  5. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. Objectives In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Methods Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae. All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC (blaCMY and blaDHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Results A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). blaTEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound blaTEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae. blaSHV and Sul1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaAMPC, blaCMY, blaDHA, blaOXA-1, and blaOXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium

  6. blaTEM and vanA as indicator genes of antibiotic resistance contamination in a hospital-urban wastewater treatment plant system.

    PubMed

    Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Varela, Ana R; Schwartz, Thomas; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-12-01

    Four indicator genes were monitored by quantitative PCR in hospital effluent (HE) and in the raw and treated wastewater of the municipal wastewater treatment plant receiving the hospital discharge. The indicator genes were the class 1 integrase gene intI1, to assess the capacity of bacteria to be involved in horizontal gene transfer processes; blaTEM, one of the most widespread antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, associated with Enterobacteriaceae; vanA, an antibiotic resistance gene uncommon in the environment and frequent in clinical isolates; and marA, part of a locus related to the stress response in Enterobacteriaceae. Variation in the abundance of these genes was analysed as a function of the type of water, and possible correlations with cultivable bacteria, antimicrobial residue concentrations, and bacterial community composition and structure were analysed. HE was confirmed as an important source of blaTEM and vanA genes, and wastewater treatment showed a limited capacity to remove these resistance genes. The genes blaTEM and vanA presented the strongest correlations with culturable bacteria, antimicrobial residues and some bacterial populations, representing interesting candidates as indicator genes to monitor resistance in environmental samples. The intI1 gene was the most abundant in all samples, demonstrating that wastewater bacterial populations hold a high potential for gene acquisition.

  7. 7 CFR 1720.6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... statements of the guaranteed lender for the previous three years that have been audited by an independent certified public accountant, including any associated notes, as well as any interim financial statements and... pledged to assure the applicant's performance under, the guarantee agreement; (3) A statement by...

  8. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... application, a State must submit a description of the anticipated public and private benefits associated with... assessment of how those benefits outweigh the costs of the proposed project. The determination of such benefits shall be developed in consultation with the owner and user of the rail line being relocated or...

  9. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... application, a State must submit a description of the anticipated public and private benefits associated with... assessment of how those benefits outweigh the costs of the proposed project. The determination of such benefits shall be developed in consultation with the owner and user of the rail line being relocated or...

  10. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  11. 7 CFR 1822.271 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transportation, drainage, sanitation facilities, water supply available or planned, and access to essential services such as doctors, dentists, and hospitals. (9) If facilities such as water and sewage systems... supervisor determines that the applicant is eligible and the loan will be sound and proper, he should request...

  12. 7 CFR 1822.271 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transportation, drainage, sanitation facilities, water supply available or planned, and access to essential services such as doctors, dentists, and hospitals. (9) If facilities such as water and sewage systems... supervisor determines that the applicant is eligible and the loan will be sound and proper, he should request...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....63 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and...

  14. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension of Deportation or Special Rule... United States Code and to civil penalties under section 274C of the Act....

  15. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension of Deportation or Special Rule... United States Code and to civil penalties under section 274C of the Act....

  16. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....63 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and...

  17. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....63 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and...

  18. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....63 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and...

  19. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....63 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and...

  20. 10 CFR 1021.215 - Applicant process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the appropriate level and scope of any studies or environmental information that DOE may require to be... organizations interested in the proposed undertaking, in order that DOE can consult, as appropriate, with these... guidance describing the recommended level and scope of environmental information that applicants...

  1. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicant's service area cannot make cash contributions; or (ii) State statutes or local ordinances require... of time and become a user of the facility; and (ii) The owner agrees in writing to make a monthly... loan funds. However, the approval official may make an exception when interim financing is cost...

  2. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant's service area cannot make cash contributions; or (ii) State statutes or local ordinances require... of time and become a user of the facility; and (ii) The owner agrees in writing to make a monthly... loan funds. However, the approval official may make an exception when interim financing is cost...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant's service area cannot make cash contributions; or (ii) State statutes or local ordinances require... of time and become a user of the facility; and (ii) The owner agrees in writing to make a monthly... loan funds. However, the approval official may make an exception when interim financing is cost...

  4. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recommendations in sufficient time for the District Director's use in preparing and issuing Form AD-622. (iv) Form AD-622 will be prepared by the District Director within forty-five (45) calendar days from receipt of... agency under Public Law 103-354 will issue Form AD-622 inviting an application containing the...

  5. 47 CFR 54.1005 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which it has made a public commitment to deploy 3G or better wireless service by December 31, 2012; and... project description that describes the network, identifies the proposed technology, demonstrates that the....g., network design, construction, deployment, and maintenance. The applicant shall indicate...

  6. 47 CFR 54.1005 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which it has made a public commitment to deploy 3G or better wireless service by December 31, 2012; and... project description that describes the network, identifies the proposed technology, demonstrates that the....g., network design, construction, deployment, and maintenance. The applicant shall indicate...

  7. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... included in this section. Past successes should be described in detail, with a focus on lessons learned...) “Application for Federal Assistance.” (2) “Budget Information—Non-Construction Programs.” (3) “Assurances—Non-Construction Programs.” (c) Proposal. Each proposal must contain the following elements. Additional elements...

  8. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... included in this section. Past successes should be described in detail, with a focus on lessons learned...) “Application for Federal Assistance.” (2) “Budget Information—Non-Construction Programs.” (3) “Assurances—Non-Construction Programs.” (c) Proposal. Each proposal must contain the following elements. Additional elements...

  9. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... included in this section. Past successes should be described in detail, with a focus on lessons learned...) “Application for Federal Assistance.” (2) “Budget Information—Non-Construction Programs.” (3) “Assurances—Non-Construction Programs.” (c) Proposal. Each proposal must contain the following elements. Additional elements...

  10. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... included in this section. Past successes should be described in detail, with a focus on lessons learned...) “Application for Federal Assistance.” (2) “Budget Information—Non-Construction Programs.” (3) “Assurances—Non-Construction Programs.” (c) Proposal. Each proposal must contain the following elements. Additional elements...

  11. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... included in this section. Past successes should be described in detail, with a focus on lessons learned...) “Application for Federal Assistance.” (2) “Budget Information—Non-Construction Programs.” (3) “Assurances—Non-Construction Programs.” (c) Proposal. Each proposal must contain the following elements. Additional elements...

  12. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  13. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was applied... fungicide was applied specifically to control Fusarium head blight, was planted; (4) Certification of the...

  14. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was applied... fungicide was applied specifically to control Fusarium head blight, was planted; (4) Certification of the...

  15. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was applied... fungicide was applied specifically to control Fusarium head blight, was planted; (4) Certification of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  17. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  18. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  19. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  20. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  1. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... send to HHS a written expression of interest in that property within 60 days after the property has been published in the Federal Register. (2) If a written expression of interest to apply for suitable... use by the homeless if: (i) No application or written expression of interest has been made under...

  2. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... send to HHS a written expression of interest in that property within 60 days after the property has been published in the Federal Register. (2) If a written expression of interest to apply for suitable... use by the homeless if: (i) No application or written expression of interest has been made under...

  3. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... send to HHS a written expression of interest in that property within 60 days after the property has been published in the Federal Register. (2) If a written expression of interest to apply for suitable... use by the homeless if: (i) No application or written expression of interest has been made under...

  4. 14 CFR 1300.16 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... current personal and corporate financial statements of any guarantors for the same period as required for... application is submitted, unless the guarantee and the underlying financial obligation is to be part of a bankruptcy court-certified reorganization plan; (6) Consolidated financial statements of the borrower for...

  5. 13 CFR 500.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required date and time. Applications will not be accepted via facsimile machine transmission or electronic...), unless the project is categorically excluded under § 500.206(b); (3) All Loan Documents that will be... § 500.201(c). (12) A report as to the Borrower's designation of the nature and value of project reserves...

  6. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the activities that would be implemented, with a brief statement of the objectives to be accomplished... outcomes that would enable FAS to measure the applicant's progress towards achieving the objectives of the... distributed without a disruptive impact upon production, prices and marketing of the same or like products in...

  7. Guidebook for solar process-heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzolare, R.; Mignon, G.; Campoy, L.; Luttmann, F.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for solar process heat in Arizona and some of the general technical aspects of solar, such as insolation, siting, and process analysis are explored. Major aspects of a solar plant design are presented. Collectors, storage, and heat exchange are discussed. Reducing hardware costs to annual dollar benefits is also discussed. Rate of return, cash flow, and payback are discussed as they relate to solar systems. Design analysis procedures are presented. The design cost optimization techniques using a yearly computer simulation of a solar process operation is demonstrated.

  8. Thermal spray coatings: New materials, processes and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, F.N.

    1985-01-01

    The major areas of thermal spray, including materials, equipment, processes, coatings and applications, are covered. Emphasis of the papers is on practical recommendations and solutions to present applications. The author provides information on linear gas mass controllers, metal sprayed coating systems, plasma sprayed coatings, thermal sprayed coatings in marine applications and for repairing equipment parts, and advances in arc coating technology.

  9. 7 CFR 3560.606 - Application requirements and processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements and processing. 3560.606 Section 3560.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... involved in the applicant's agricultural or aquacultural farming operations. (c) The applicant must...

  10. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application...

  11. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application...

  12. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application...

  13. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application...

  14. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application...

  15. 19 CFR 142.42 - Application for Line Release processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.42 Application for Line Release... importer filing its own entries (entry filer) must submit an application to the port director, signed by the entry filer, in a format described as a Line Release Data Loading Sheet. The application must...

  16. 19 CFR 142.42 - Application for Line Release processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.42 Application for Line Release... importer filing its own entries (entry filer) must submit an application to the port director, signed by the entry filer, in a format described as a Line Release Data Loading Sheet. The application must...

  17. 19 CFR 142.42 - Application for Line Release processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.42 Application for Line Release... importer filing its own entries (entry filer) must submit an application to the port director, signed by the entry filer, in a format described as a Line Release Data Loading Sheet. The application must...

  18. 19 CFR 142.42 - Application for Line Release processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.42 Application for Line Release... importer filing its own entries (entry filer) must submit an application to the port director, signed by the entry filer, in a format described as a Line Release Data Loading Sheet. The application must...

  19. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  20. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  1. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  2. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  3. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  4. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing...

  5. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing...

  6. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing...

  7. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing...

  8. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing...

  9. 12 CFR 926.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 926.5 Section 926.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.5 Housing associate application process....

  10. 12 CFR 1264.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 1264.5 Section 1264.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 1264.5 Housing associate application process. (a) Authority. The Banks...

  11. 12 CFR 1264.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 1264.5 Section 1264.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 1264.5 Housing associate application process. (a) Authority. The Banks...

  12. 12 CFR 1264.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 1264.5 Section 1264.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 1264.5 Housing associate application process. (a) Authority. The Banks...

  13. Solar concentrators for space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermit, J. H.; Ruff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study on the technological feasibility of using solar concentrators for crystal growth and zone refining in space has been performed. Previous studies related to the many aspects of the problem are reviewed. It was concluded from this effort that the technology for fabricating, orbiting, and deploying large solar concentrators has been developed. It was also concluded that the technological feasibility of space processing materials in the focal region of a solar concentrator depends primarily on two factors: (1) the ability of a solar concentrator to provide sufficient thermal energy for the process and (2) the ability of a solar concentrator to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the processes of interest. The study indicates that solar concentrators of reasonable dimensions can satisfactorily provide both of these factors. This study also indicates that solar concentrators are attractive for space processing from the viewpoint of system specific power and system flexibility.

  14. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  15. First identification of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua-Shin; Chen, Te-Li; Chen, Isaac Chun-Jen; Huang, Mu-Shun; Wang, Fu-Der; Fung, Chang-Phone; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2010-11-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is a novel type of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL). Enterobacteriaceae carrying this NDM-1 encoding gene, bla(NDM-1), have been identified worldwide. Bacteria carrying bla(NDM-1) are not only resistant to carbapenem, but also highly resistant to many classes of antibiotics, which indicate the importance of prompt identification of these bacteria and implementation of strict infection control measures to prevent their transmission. Here, we report the first identification and management of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla(NDM-1) in Taiwan, who returned from New Delhi where he had been hospitalized for a gun-shot injury.

  16. Initial Assessment of the Molecular Epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Laura J; Wright, Meredith S; De La Cadena, Elsa; Motoa, Gabriel; Hujer, Kristine M; Villegas, Maria V; Adams, Mark D; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    We report complete genome sequences of four blaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. The blaNDM-1 genes were located on 193-kb Inc FIA, 178-kb Inc A/C2, and 47-kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that these isolates belong to sequence type 10 (ST10) (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid in E. coli contained a novel complex transposon (Tn125 and Tn5393 with three copies of blaNDM-1) and a recombination "hot spot" for the acquisition of new resistance determinants.

  17. Initial Assessment of the Molecular Epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Laura J.; Wright, Meredith S.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Motoa, Gabriel; Hujer, Kristine M.; Villegas, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    We report complete genome sequences of four blaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. The blaNDM-1 genes were located on 193-kb Inc FIA, 178-kb Inc A/C2, and 47-kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that these isolates belong to sequence type 10 (ST10) (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid in E. coli contained a novel complex transposon (Tn125 and Tn5393 with three copies of blaNDM-1) and a recombination “hot spot” for the acquisition of new resistance determinants. PMID:27067339

  18. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection and classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (bla KPC) variants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, José R; Endimiani, Andrea; Rosenthal, Marnie E; Zhao, Yanan; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2011-02-01

    Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (bla(KPC)) have been reported, with KPC-2 (bla(KPC-2)) and KPC-3 (bla(KPC-3)) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of bla(KPC) variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described bla(KPC) variants (bla(KPC-2) to bla(KPC-11)). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each bla(KPC) variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with bla(KPC-3) and bla(KPC-2) identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel bla(KPC) variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments.

  19. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Myles B.C.; Schulten, Veronique; Oseroff, Carla; Paul, Sinu; Dullanty, Laura M.; Frazier, April; Belles, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Visness, Cynthia; Bacharier, Leonard; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Busse, Paula; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The allergenicity of several German cockroach (Bla-g) antigens at the level of IgE responses is well established. However less is known about the specificity of CD4+ TH responses, and whether differences exist in associated magnitude or cytokine profiles as a function of disease severity. Methods Proteomic and transcriptomic techniques have been employed to identify novel antigens recognized by allergen-specific T cells. To characterize different TH functionalities of allergen-specific T cells, ELISPOT assays with sets of overlapping peptides covering the sequences of known allergens and novel antigens were employed to measure release of IL-5, IFNγ, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-21. Results Using these techniques, we characterized TH responses in a cohort of adult Bla-g sensitized subjects, either with (n=55) or without (n=17) asthma, and non-sensitized controls (n=20). T cell responses were detected for ten known Bla-g allergens and an additional ten novel Bla-g antigens; representing in total a 5-fold increase in the number of antigens demonstrated to be targeted by allergen-specific T cells. Responses of sensitized individuals regardless of asthma status were predominantly TH2, but higher in patients with diagnosed asthma. In asthmatic subjects Bla-g 5, 9 and 11 were immunodominant while, in contrast, non-asthmatic sensitized subjects responded mostly to Bla-g 5, 4, and the novel antigen NBGA5. Conclusions Asthmatic and non-asthmatic cockroach sensitized individuals exhibit similar TH2 polarized responses. Compared to non-asthmatics, however, asthmatic individuals have responses of higher magnitude and different allergen specificity. PMID:26414909

  20. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  1. IgE-binding epitope analysis of Bla g 5, the German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung-Jin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chung-Ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-05-01

    Cockroach infestations have been linked with allergic diseases such as asthma in humans. Bla g 5, sigma class glutathione S-transferase (GST), is the major cockroach allergen which has the highest IgE response value of all cockroach allergens. Although several cockroach allergens have been identified and cloned, information regarding their B ell and T cell IgE-binding epitopes is limited. In order to analyze the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 5, full-length and five peptide fragments (A, 1-100 amino acid residue; B, 91-200; Ba, 1-125; Bb, 1-150; Bc, 1-175) were expressed. Twelve (37.5%) of 32 sera from cockroach-sensitized subjects showed positive IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 5 (rBla g 5). Six strong positive sera were selected for the epitope study. Recombinant proteins not containing 176-200 amino acid residues were unable to react to sera from cockroach sensitized individuals, suggesting that this region contains the IgE-binding epitope. Despite strong IgE reactivity to rBla g 5, the pooled serum from 5 cockroach-sensitized patients did not show IgE reactivity to all synthetic peptides consisting of 15 residues covering 161-200 amino acids. These results suggest the possibility that Bla g 5 may have a conformational epitope in the C-terminal region. GST is the important target for the development of vaccines and drugs against allergic diseases because of high cross-reactivity among insect species. This study will aid recombinant allergen research for immunotherapy of cockroach allergens and other insect allergens.

  2. Separation and confirmation of nine Enterobacteriaceae strains that carry the blaNDM-1 gene

    PubMed Central

    LI, TIAN-JIAO; LI, CHEN-XUE; CHENG, SHU-PING; WANG, XU-MING; FU, SHENG-MIAO; LI, XIAO-JUAN; HUANG, TAO; FU, HUI-QUN; LIN, SONG; LU, YE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm the existence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in clinics in Hainan province, China. Collected clinical bacterial isolates that were Enterobacteriaceae strains suspected of producing carbapenemase were used as experimental strains. Drug resistance to imipenem, meropenem and other antibacterial agents was tested. Imipenem/imipenem inhibitor (IP/IPI) E-testing was conducted to identify the bacterial strains that produced metallo-β-lactamases. The blaNDM-1 drug resistance gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and sequencing were conducted to identify the products. The species of the strains carrying the blaNDM-1 gene were determined using a biochemical identification system. Through the IP/IPI E-test, 21 of the 30 collected Enterobacteriaceae strains were found to be positive, indicating that 70% of the strains produced metallo-β-lactamases. Following blaNDM-1 gene PCR amplification, AGE and sequencing tests confirmed that nine of the strains carried the blaNDM-1 drug resistance gene. The biochemical identification system indicated that four of the strains were Klebsiella pneumoniae, two were Escherichia coli, two were Enterobacter cloacae and one was Enterobacter aerogenes. Drug susceptibility testing in vitro demonstrated that the strains were 100% resistant to a broad spectrum antibiotic plus lactamase inhibitor, cephalosporins and carbapenems. However, they had high sensitivity rates to polymyxin B and tigecycline of 100 and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity rate to amikacin was also high at 77.8%, whereas sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was moderate at rates of 44.4 and 33.3% respectively. This clinical study of Enterobacteriaceae strains that carry the blaNDM-1 gene in Hainan shows a bacterial tolerance that is different from that in previous studies, which requires further in-depth study. PMID:25780416

  3. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  4. Application specific ratings for lithography process filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toru; Tsuzuki, Shuichi

    2013-03-01

    The typical performance index of microelectronics-grade filter products is based upon mechanical sieving. However, adsorption also plays a critical role for reducing certain defects. To provide a more accurate metric, a complementary adsorption performance index is introduced for lithography process filters. In this study, heptylamine-substituted palladium nanoparticles were used to simulate the adsorptive characteristics of microbridge defect precursors. Adsorption kinetic parameters were calculated for Nylon 6,6 and HDPE filters that were challenged with the simulation particles. Nylon 6,6 media quantitatively demonstrated superior adsorptive retention characteristics. The new index is expected to guide both filter product development and filter recommendation for next generation lithography processes.

  5. Review and evaluation of space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Materials research in space which offers advantages in studying phenomena and preparing materials under conditions which cannot be realized in the gravity field of the Earth is discussed. Many techniques were developed to improve processing systems and reduce the effect of gravitationally induced restrictions. The space-based devices take advantage of a wide range of low-gravity facilities including drop towers and tubes, aircraft and sounding rocket parabolic trajectories, simple materials experiment accommodations in the Space Shuttle, and more complex capabilities in Spacelab. All these systems are used to produce novel materials and to study material processing under unique conditions.

  6. New Small Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Renata; Andrade, Leonardo Neves; Chandler, Michael; Varani, Alessandro de Mello; Darini, Ana Lúcia Costa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 244 from Brazil. The blaKPC-2 gene was detected in a new small plasmid, pBH6. Complete sequencing revealed that pBH6 was 3,652 bp long and included the Tn3 resolvase and Tn3 inverted repeat (IR), a partial copy of ISKpn6, and a putative ori region but no rep genes. pBH6 replicated stably into Escherichia coli strain DH10B and P. aeruginosa strain PAO.

  7. Partial excision of blaKPC from Tn4401 in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, José R; Jacobs, Michael R; Levi, Michael H; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2012-03-01

    We describe a novel Tn4401 variant (Tn4401d) in epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST258, from which a partial bla(KPC) fragment has been excised along with ISKpn7 and a partial tnpA fragment. Nested-PCR experiments confirmed that this region can be removed from distinct Tn4401 isoforms in both K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. This study highlights that the region surrounding bla(KPC) is undergoing recombination and that Tn4401 itself is heterogeneous and highly plastic.

  8. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems.

  9. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Avian Isolate from France Cocarrying the bla(VIM-1) and bla(VIM-4) Genes.

    PubMed

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Barraud, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Vittecoq, Marion; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    We describe here a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate producing both VIM-1 and VIM-4 carbapenemases. It was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern France. The blaVIM genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Avian Isolate from France Cocarrying the blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-4 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Compain, Fabrice; Barraud, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Vittecoq, Marion; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate producing both VIM-1 and VIM-4 carbapenemases. It was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern France. The blaVIM genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota. PMID:26169421

  11. Emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with class 1 integron carrying blaVIM-2 and blaVIM-4 in the University Clinical Hospital of Bialystok (northeastern Poland).

    PubMed

    Michalska-Falkowska, Anna; Sacha, Paweł Tomasz; Grześ, Henryk; Hauschild, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr; Ojdana, Dominika; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta Anna

    2017-07-11

    The effectiveness of carbapenems, considered as last-resort antimicrobials in severe infections, becomes compromised by bacterial resistance. The production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is the most significant threat to carbapenems activity among Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and type of MBLs genes in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strains, to identify the location of MBLs genes and to determine genetic relatedness between MBL-producers using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The first identified MBL-positive (with blaVIM genes) P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from patients hospitalized in the University Clinical Hospital of Bialystok in the period from September 2012 to December 2013. Variants of MBLs genes and variable integron regions were characterized by PCR and sequencing. PFGE was performed after digesting of bacterial genomes by XbaI enzyme. By MLST seven housekeeping genes were analyzed for the determination of sequence type (ST). Three strains carried the blaVIM-2 gene and one harbored the blaVIM-4 gene. The blaVIM genes resided within class 1 integrons. PCR mapping of integrons revealed the presence of four different cassette arrays. Genetic relatedness analysis by PFGE classified VIM-positive strains into four unrelated pulsotypes (A-D). MLST demonstrated the presence of four (ST 111, ST27, and ST17) different sequence type including one previously undescribed new type of ST 2342. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that VIM-positive strains were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and quinolones, intermediate to aztreonam, and susceptible only to colistin. Integrons mapping, PFGE, and MLST results may point to different origin of these strains and independent introduction into hospitalized patients.

  12. 7 CFR 1485.13 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; and (iv) A third-party must participate in such project through a written agreement with the MAP... multi-year basis; and (E) A certification and, if requested by CCC, a written explanation supporting the... organization's strategic planning process and identification of priority target markets, including a summary of...

  13. Spray Cooling Processes for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizito, John P.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports ongoing work to develop numerical and modeling tools used to design efficient and effective spray cooling processes and to determine characteristic non-dimensional parametric dependence for practical fluids and conditions. In particular, we present data that will delineate conditions towards control of the impingement dynamics of droplets upon a heated substrate germane to practical situations.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics - Applications in Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Kathol, Austin; Ziemian, Constance

    2012-11-01

    A new Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) exercise has been developed for the undergraduate introductory fluid mechanics course at Bucknell University. The goal is to develop a computational exercise that students complete which links the manufacturing processes course and the concurrent fluid mechanics course in a way that reinforces the concepts in both. In general, CFD is used as a tool to increase student understanding of the fundamentals in a virtual world. A ``learning factory,'' which is currently in development at Bucknell seeks to use the laboratory as a means to link courses that previously seemed to have little correlation at first glance. A large part of the manufacturing processes course is a project using an injection molding machine. The flow of pressurized molten polyurethane into the mold cavity can also be an example of fluid motion (a jet of liquid hitting a plate) that is applied in manufacturing. The students will run a CFD process that captures this flow using their virtual mold created with a graphics package, such as SolidWorks. The laboratory structure is currently being implemented and analyzed as a part of the ``learning factory''. Lastly, a survey taken before and after the CFD exercise demonstrate a better understanding of both the CFD and manufacturing process.

  15. Application of Process Modeling Tools to Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    NAVSEA Frank Waldman; LATTIX May 2011 APPLICATION OF PROCESS MODELING TOOLS TO SHIP DESIGN Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application of Process Modeling Tools to Ship Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...design teams – Long design schedules – Complicated acquisition procedures • We are applying commercial process modeling techniques for: – Better

  16. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  17. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  18. Clinical Performance of a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Detection of Certain blaKPC-Containing Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Drake, Steven K.; Weingarten, Rebecca A.; Frank, Karen M.; Dekker, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of blaKPC-containing organisms can significantly impact infection control and clinical practices, as well as therapeutic choices. Current molecular and phenotypic methods to detect these organisms, however, require additional testing beyond routine organism identification. In this study, we evaluated the clinical performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to detect pKpQIL_p019 (p019)—an ∼11,109-Da protein associated with certain blaKPC-containing plasmids that was previously shown to successfully track a clonal outbreak of blaKPC-pKpQIL-Klebsiella pneumoniae in a proof-of-principle study (A. F. Lau, H. Wang, R. A. Weingarten, S. K. Drake, A. F. Suffredini, M. K. Garfield, Y. Chen, M. Gucek, J. H. Youn, F. Stock, H. Tso, J. DeLeo, J. J. Cimino, K. M. Frank, and J. P. Dekker, J Clin Microbiol 52:2804–2812, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00694-14). PCR for the p019 gene was used as the reference method. Here, blind analysis of 140 characterized Enterobacteriaceae isolates using two protein extraction methods (plate extraction and tube extraction) and two peak detection methods (manual and automated) showed sensitivities and specificities ranging from 96% to 100% and from 95% to 100%, respectively (2,520 spectra analyzed). Feasible laboratory implementation methods (plate extraction and automated analysis) demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity. All p019-positive isolates (n = 26) contained blaKPC and were carbapenem resistant. Retrospective analysis of an additional 720 clinical Enterobacteriaceae spectra found an ∼11,109-Da signal in nine spectra (1.3%), including seven from p019-containing, carbapenem-resistant isolates (positive predictive value [PPV], 78%). Instrument tuning had a significant effect on assay sensitivity, highlighting important factors that must be considered as MALDI-TOF MS moves into applications beyond microbial identification. Using a large

  19. Clinical Performance of a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Detection of Certain blaKPC-Containing Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Drake, Steven K; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Frank, Karen M; Dekker, John P; Lau, Anna F

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of blaKPC-containing organisms can significantly impact infection control and clinical practices, as well as therapeutic choices. Current molecular and phenotypic methods to detect these organisms, however, require additional testing beyond routine organism identification. In this study, we evaluated the clinical performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to detect pKpQIL_p019 (p019)-an ∼11,109-Da protein associated with certain blaKPC-containing plasmids that was previously shown to successfully track a clonal outbreak of blaKPC-pKpQIL-Klebsiella pneumoniae in a proof-of-principle study (A. F. Lau, H. Wang, R. A. Weingarten, S. K. Drake, A. F. Suffredini, M. K. Garfield, Y. Chen, M. Gucek, J. H. Youn, F. Stock, H. Tso, J. DeLeo, J. J. Cimino, K. M. Frank, and J. P. Dekker, J Clin Microbiol 52:2804-2812, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00694-14). PCR for the p019 gene was used as the reference method. Here, blind analysis of 140 characterized Enterobacteriaceae isolates using two protein extraction methods (plate extraction and tube extraction) and two peak detection methods (manual and automated) showed sensitivities and specificities ranging from 96% to 100% and from 95% to 100%, respectively (2,520 spectra analyzed). Feasible laboratory implementation methods (plate extraction and automated analysis) demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity. All p019-positive isolates (n = 26) contained blaKPC and were carbapenem resistant. Retrospective analysis of an additional 720 clinical Enterobacteriaceae spectra found an ∼11,109-Da signal in nine spectra (1.3%), including seven from p019-containing, carbapenem-resistant isolates (positive predictive value [PPV], 78%). Instrument tuning had a significant effect on assay sensitivity, highlighting important factors that must be considered as MALDI-TOF MS moves into applications beyond microbial identification. Using a large blind

  20. Zeolite membrane application in hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.

    1988-06-01

    Zeolites are of great importance in hydrocarbon processing either as adsorbents or catalysts. This paper presents a research since 1973 about the transformation of zeolite into membrane zeolite, that dramatically contributes to the free world of peace and prosperity. Commercial and organic membranes are of two categories: anisotropic membrane, e.g. cellulose acetate, and composite membrane, e.g. plasma {und in}-{und situ} polymerization on polysulfone support. Zeolite membrane belongs to the latter category, zeolite {und in}-{und situ} hydrothermalization on porous glass. Basically zeolite membrane is consisted of three groups: (1) eight-oxygen ring window, zeolite A, (2) ten-oxygen ring window, Pentasil, and (3) twelve-oxygen ring window, Faujasite. The technology of zeolite membrane synthesis and subsequent treatment is almost transferred from the one applied to powder zeolites. Zeolite membrane is expected to play a major role in the field of hydrocarbon processing, that is, PSA, Distillation/Extraction, and Catalytic Reactions.

  1. Fibonacci lattices application for furnace processes control

    SciTech Connect

    Khavkin, Y.; Maktin, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Universal structures formed during the fuel oxidizer and combustion mixing process are characterized by the Fibonacci gold ratio. This paper will demonstrate how the gold ratio can be used for control action in combustion. The combustion character in furnace apparatuses is in large part dependent on a reagent motion regime. In general, there are three such regimes: lamina (L), lamina-preturbulent or quasi-periodic (LPT) and turbulent-mixing (TM). Compound structures are absent from the L-regime and are characterized by a low Reynolds number Re. As Re increases the periodic regime remains consistent but one frequency process appears. The LPT and TM regimes are independent of material physical carriers and are characterized by the universal relationship of the oscillate frequencies, the so-called ``golden sections`` F*{sup n}, where F* is the gold ratio (F* = 1.618...) and n is the integer such that the degree of mixing is in proportion to n.

  2. Radiographic image processing for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Martin J.; Kinsella, Timothy E.; Bartels, Keith A.; Light, Glenn M.

    1998-03-01

    One advantage of working with digital images is the opportunity for enhancement. While it is important to preserve the original image, variations can be generated that yield greater understanding of object properties. It is often possible to effectively increase dynamic range, improve contrast in regions of interest, emphasize subtle features, reduce background noise, and provide more robust detection of faults. This paper describes and illustrates some of these processes using real world examples.

  3. Space Processing Application Rocket project, SPAR 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler); Schaefer, D. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Post flight results and analysis are presented on the following experiments: 'Agglomeration in Immiscible Liquids', 'Contained Polycrystalline Solidification in Low G', 'The Direct Observation of Dendrite Remelting and Macrosegregation in Casting', and 'Uniform Dispersion by Crystallization'. An engineering report on the performance of the SPAR Black Brant rocket is also included. Much useful data and information were accumulated for directing and developing experimental techniques and investigations toward an expanding commercially beneficial program of materials processing in the coming shuttle era.

  4. Applications of Parallel Processing in Configuration Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Ppchuraman; Hager, James O.; Biedron, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the recent progress made towards developing an efficient and user-friendly parallel environment for routine analysis of large CFD problems. The coarse-grain parallel version of the CFL3D Euler/Navier-Stokes analysis code, CFL3Dhp, has been ported onto most available parallel platforms. The CFL3Dhp solution accuracy on these parallel platforms has been verified with the CFL3D sequential analyses. User-friendly pre- and post-processing tools that enable a seamless transfer from sequential to parallel processing have been written. Static load balancing tool for CFL3Dhp analysis has also been implemented for achieving good parallel efficiency. For large problems, load balancing efficiency as high as 95% can be achieved even when large number of processors are used. Linear scalability of the CFL3Dhp code with increasing number of processors has also been shown using a large installed transonic nozzle boattail analysis. To highlight the fast turn-around time of parallel processing, the TCA full configuration in sideslip Navier-Stokes drag polar at supersonic cruise has been obtained in a day. CFL3Dhp is currently being used as a production analysis tool.

  5. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  6. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Jian-Feng; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-09-01

    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence. A bla(NDM-1)-positive C. freundii with high resistance to carbapenems was separated from a clinical patient suffering from a urinary tract infection. S1 nuclease-based plasmid analysis followed by Southern blot hybridization, a conjugation experiment and electrotransformation confirmed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a plasmid. High-throughput sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmid (pCFNDM-CN) showed that it was a 54 kb IncX-type plasmid and contained a backbone region and a variable region with two β-lactamase genes (bla(NDM-1) and bla(SHV-12)). The NDM-1 composite transposon in the variable region was surrounded by IS26 and IS5-truncated ISAba125, and shared a high sequence similarity to the bla(NDM-1) surrounding structure in Acinetobacter spp. Our research suggested that the NDM-1 composite transposon might play an essential role in mobilization of the bla(NDM-1) gene from Acinetobacter spp. to Enterobacteriaceae.

  7. Genomic Characteristics of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Australia and Their blaNDM Genetic Contexts.

    PubMed

    Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L; Kennedy, Karina; Ingram, Paul R; Bursle, Evan; Sidjabat, Hanna E

    2015-10-19

    blaNDM has been reported in different Enterobacteriaceae species and on numerous plasmid replicon types (Inc). Plasmid replicon typing, in combination with genomic characteristics of the bacterial host (e.g., sequence typing), is used to infer the spread of antimicrobial resistance determinants between genetically unrelated bacterial hosts. The genetic context of blaNDM is heterogeneous. In this study, we genomically characterized 12 NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Australia between 2012 and 2014: Escherichia coli (n = 6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2) and Providencia rettgeri (n = 1). We describe their blaNDM genetic contexts within Tn125, providing insights into the acquisition of blaNDM into Enterobacteriaceae. IncFII-type (n = 7) and IncX3 (n = 4) plasmids were the most common plasmid types found. The IncHI1B (n = 1) plasmid was also identified. Five different blaNDM genetic contexts were identified, indicating four particular plasmids with specific blaNDM genetic contexts (NGCs), three of which were IncFII plasmids (FII-A to -C). Of note, the blaNDM genetic context of P. rettgeri was not conjugative. Epidemiological links between our NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were established by their acquisition of these five particular plasmid types. The combination of different molecular and genetic characterization methods allowed us to provide insight into the spread of plasmids transmitting blaNDM.

  8. Draft genome sequence of an Acinetobacter genomic species 3 strain harboring a bla(NDM-1) gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Cui, Yujun; Pu, Fei; Jiang, Guoqin; Zhao, Xiangna; Yuan, Yanting; Zhao, Wei; Li, Dongfang; Liu, Hui; Li, Yin; Liang, Ting; Xu, Li; Wang, Yan; Song, Qing; Yang, Jiyong; Liang, Long; Yang, Ruifu; Han, Li; Song, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of one Acinetobacter genomic species 3 strain, D499, which harbors the bla(NDM-1) gene. The total length of the assembled genome is 4,103,824 bp, and 3,896 coding sequences (CDSs) were predicted within the genome. A previously unreported bla(NDM-1)-bearing plasmid was identified in this strain.

  9. Application of simulation models for the optimization of business processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jašek, Roman; Sedláček, Michal; Chramcov, Bronislav; Dvořák, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the applications of modeling and simulation tools in the optimization of business processes, especially in solving an optimization of signal flow in security company. As a modeling tool was selected Simul8 software that is used to process modeling based on discrete event simulation and which enables the creation of a visual model of production and distribution processes.

  10. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  11. Increased Waterborne blaNDM-1 Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Seasonal Human Pilgrimages to the Upper Ganges River

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg–1)) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1)), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor’s wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  12. Applications of Wavelets to Radar Data Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    means that the computational complexity is of order n. The efficiency is the direct result of the simplicity of the wavelet transform process. The...I I Section 2.5 contains a detailed discussion of computational complexity . Figures 3.12 through 3.15 are plots of mean target extent deviation versus...Transform 15 2.5 The Computational Complexity of Wavelet 17 Transforms 3 RADAR METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS 20 3.0 Basic Radar System Operation 20 3.1 The

  13. Detection of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (Encoded by blaNDM-1 ) in Enterobacter aerogenes in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yong; Xiao, Wei-Qiang; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Pan, Jun; Xu, Qing-Xia

    2017-03-01

    The increase in blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae has become a major concern worldwide. In previous study, we investigated clonal dissemination and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenem in China. We carried out retrospective surveillance for blaNDM-1 among carbapenem-resistant enterobacter strains, which were isolated from patients at our hospital by bacterial strains selection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, species identification, and molecular detection of resistance gene. We found three blaNDM-1 -positive isolates which were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in clinical patients in China. The blaNDM-1 -positive Enterobacter aerogenes isolates were first found. It is important to mandate prudent usage of antibiotics and implement infection control measures to control the spread of these resistant blaNDM-1 -positive strains. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Industrial Applications Of Optical Signal Processing I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1988-04-01

    Optical technology has emerged as a viable solution to the growing demand to increase the throughput of high speed processors and computers. Although higher speed and denser integrated circuits are being developed, it appears that faster switching speeds in digital circuits will not provide an adequate solution to the bottleneck problem of computing systems for such tasks as real-time distortion-invariant pattern recognition and associative memory. Even supercomputers using new computing architectures and subnanosecond gate delays do not have sufficient speed for such real-time operations. Optical systems offer the advantages of inherent parallelism and high speed with superior interconnection capability, which allow for the processing of millions of simultaneous operations. The lack of electromagnetic interference in optics is ideally suited for neural network based proces-sors, which require a high degree of interconnectivity and global communications properties. Analog optical computers are particularly attractive for the processing of large stochastic data, while the more precise digital computers break down when confronted with such random problems. The immunity to electromagnetic interference can also be used advantageously in VLSI interconnections technology and board-to-board communications to reduce the pinout problem and to improve flexibility and performance. For these reasons, optical technology has become a major research and development effort at many industrial, government, and university laboratories both nationally and internationally.

  15. Food gels: gelling process and new applications.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2012-01-01

    Food gels are viscoelastic substances and several gelled products are manufactured throughout the world. The gelling agents in foods are usually polysaccharides and proteins. In food gels, the polymer molecules are not cross-linked by covalent bonds with the exception of disulphide bonds in some protein gels. Instead, the molecules are held together by a combination of weak inter-molecular forces like hydrogen bonds, electrostatic forces, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Polysaccharides including hydrocolloids are strongly hydrated in aqueous medium but they tend to have less ordered structures. The mechanism of gelation depends on the nature of the gelling agent(s) and on the conditions of gel formation like the temperature, the presence of ions, the pH, and the concentration of gelling agents, etc. Characterization of gels can be performed in several ways of which rheological measurements are frequently practiced. Multi-component or mixed gel system is an important area of interest in which two or more gelling components are simultaneously used to achieve certain specific structural and functional characteristics. We here discuss about the different gels and gelling agents, the characterization of gels, and the mechanism of gelation with an emphasis on mixed or multi-component gels that would have significant commercial applications.

  16. First Indian report of IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in Escherichia coli from bloodstream infection: potential for rapid dissemination.

    PubMed

    Devanga Ragupathi, N K; Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, D P; Gajendiran, R; Daniel, J L K; Walia, K; Veeraraghavan, B

    2017-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 is only infrequently observed. Self-transmissible plasmids carrying the blaNDM gene increase the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in developing countries. This study investigates the whole genome sequence of a blaNDM-7-positive Escherichia coli. The isolate was an extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer by combined disc diffusion test and carbapenemase producer by CarbaNP method. Sequencing results revealed the isolate as E. coli ST-167 with IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in addition to blaTEM-1 and blaCMY-42 genes. The identification of IncX3-blaNDM-7 combination is the first report in India where blaNDM-7 is known to cause higher resistance to carbapenems compared to its variants.

  17. 43 CFR 2804.19 - How will BLM process my Processing Category 6 application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consists of a work plan and a financial plan. (b) In processing your application, BLM will: (1) Determine the issues subject to analysis under NEPA; (2) Prepare a preliminary work plan; (3) Develop a preliminary financial plan, which estimates the reasonable costs of processing your application and...

  18. Maillard reaction and food processing. Application aspects.

    PubMed

    Chuyen, N V

    1998-01-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs widely in food and biological systems. This contribution reviews the relation between the Maillard reaction and food processing, particularly its contribution to flavor formation, antioxidative effects, desmutagenic activity and the improvement of protein functional properties. Proteins modified by glucose, and melanoidins are important components of foodstuffs while the reactions of amino acids or peptides with glucose or dicarbonyl compounds produce various kinds of flavor components. Melanoidins and Amadori rearrangement products play an important role in providing antioxidative effects, both in vitro and in vivo. Melanoidins also exhibit desmutagenic activity against carcinogenic compounds. Protein-polysaccharide conjugates, prepared by Maillard reaction at mild conditions, increase the emulsifying activity, as well as antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of the original proteins.

  19. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  20. Characterization of an anti-Bla g 1 scFv: epitope mapping and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Ankney, John A; Glesner, Jill; Khurana, Taruna; Edwards, Lori L; Pedersen, Lars C; Perera, Lalith; Slater, Jay E; Pomés, Anna; London, Robert E

    2014-06-01

    Bla g 1 is a major allergen from Blatella germanica and one of the primary allergens used to assess cockroach allergen exposure. The epitope of an anti-Bla g 1 scFv was mapped in order to better understand cross reactivity with other group 1 cockroach allergens and patient IgE epitopes. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of the scFv. The scFv epitope on Bla g 1 was located by alanine scanning site-directed mutagenesis and ELISA. Twenty-six rBla g 1-GST alanine mutants were evaluated for variations in binding to the scFv compared to the wild type allergen. Six mutants showed a significant difference in scFv binding affinity. These mutations clustered to form a discontinuous epitope mainly comprising two helices of Bla g 1. The allergen-scFv complex was modeled based on the results, and the epitope region was found to have low sequence similarity with Per a 1, especially among the residues identified as functionally important for the scFv binding to Bla g 1. Indeed, the scFv failed to bind Per a 1 in American cockroach extract. The scFv was unable to inhibit the binding of IgE antibodies from a highly cockroach allergic patient to Bla g 1. Based on the surface area of Bla g 1 occluded by the scFv, putative regions of patient IgE-Bla g 1 interactions can be inferred. This scFv could be best utilized as a capture antibody in an IgE detection ELISA, or to differentiate Bla g 1 from Per a 1 in environmental exposure assays.

  1. The novel structure of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has implications for allergenicity and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Pedersen, Lars C; Lih, Fred B; Glesner, Jill; Moon, Andrea F; Chapman, Martin D; Tomer, Kenneth B; London, Robert E; Pomés, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Sensitization to cockroach allergens is a major risk factor for asthma. The cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has multiple repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, but the fold of the protein and its biological function are unknown. We sought to determine the structure of Bla g 1, investigate the implications for allergic disease, and standardize cockroach exposure assays. nBla g 1 and recombinant constructs were compared by using ELISA with specific murine IgG and human IgE. The structure of Bla g 1 was determined by x-ray crystallography. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to examine the ligand-binding properties of the allergen. The structure of an rBla g 1 construct with comparable IgE and IgG reactivity to the natural allergen was solved by x-ray crystallography. The Bla g 1 repeat forms a novel fold with 6 helices. Two repeats encapsulate a large and nearly spherical hydrophobic cavity, defining the basic structural unit. Lipids in the cavity varied depending on the allergen origin. Palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids were associated with nBla g 1 from cockroach frass. One unit of Bla g 1 was equivalent to 104 ng of allergen. Bla g 1 has a novel fold with a capacity to bind various lipids, which suggests a digestive function associated with nonspecific transport of lipid molecules in cockroaches. Defining the basic structural unit of Bla g 1 facilitates the standardization of assays in absolute units for the assessment of environmental allergen exposure. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  3. Real-time detection of blaKPC in clinical samples and surveillance specimens.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Kathy A; Santiano, Kristine; Broekman, Ronit; Krafft, Catherine A; Voss, Barbara; Wang, Vivien; Hacek, Donna M; Usacheva, Elena A; Thomson, Richard B; Kaul, Karen L; Peterson, Lance R

    2011-09-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed targeting the bla(KPC) responsible for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-mediated carbapenem resistance and was validated for testing colonies or enrichment broth cultures. The assay accurately detects KPC-containing strains with high analytical specificity and sensitivity.

  4. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  5. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  6. Applications of Digital Image Processing 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. -C.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique, digital image velocimetry, is proposed for the measurement of instantaneous velocity fields of time dependent flows. A time sequence of single-exposure images of seed particles are captured with a high-speed camera, and a finite number of the single-exposure images are sampled within a prescribed period in time. The sampled images are then digitized on an image processor, enhanced, and superimposed to construct an image which is equivalent to a multiple exposure image used in both laser speckle velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. The superimposed image and a single-exposure Image are digitally Fourier transformed for extraction of information on the velocity field. A great enhancement of the dynamic range of the velocity measurement is accomplished through the new technique by manipulating the Fourier transform of both the single-exposure image and the superimposed image. Also the direction of the velocity vector is unequivocally determined. With the use of a high-speed video camera, the whole process from image acquisition to velocity determination can be carried out electronically; thus this technique can be developed into a real-time capability.

  7. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry.

  8. 75 FR 69871 - Homeowners Assistance Program-Application Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... they can be placed into three categories: Benefits, eligibility, or general. 1. Benefit comments: There were 16 comments relating to benefits. These comments concern: benefit percentage, government acquisition, short sale, closing costs, and application processing. a. Benefit percentage. Three...

  9. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  10. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  11. 32 CFR 881.4 - Processing the application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE MILITARY SERVICE AND DISCHARGE FOR CIVILIAN OR CONTRACTUAL GROUPS § 881.4 Processing the application. (a) Individual Service Review Board meets in closed session to consider the application,...

  12. 12 CFR 705.6 - Application and award processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... received by NCUA during an open period in which funds are available and NCUA has called for Applications... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN FUND ACCESS FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.6 Application and award processes... describe the loan and technical assistance grant programs for the period in which funds are available....

  13. 12 CFR 705.6 - Application and award processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... received by NCUA during an open period in which funds are available and NCUA has called for Applications... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN FUND ACCESS FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.6 Application and award processes... describe the loan and technical assistance grant programs for the period in which funds are available....

  14. Transposition of ISEcp1 modulates blaCTX-M-55-mediated Shigella flexneri resistance to cefalothin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfang; Song, Chunhua; Duan, Guangcai; Zhu, Jingyuan; Yang, Haiyan; Xi, Yuanlin; Fan, Qingtang

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover the mechanisms underlying Shigella flexneri resistance to cefalothin. In this study, a resistance-related S. flexneri isolate, S. flexneri YDC, was obtained from S. flexneri mel-1998023/zz pre-incubated with cefalothin at a dose of 0.5 × the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ISEcp1 coding element was identified upstream of bla(CTX-M-55) in S. flexneri YDC. To further determine the role of ISEcp1 in S. flexneri resistance, plasmids containing bla(CTX-M-55) recombinant with or without the ISEcp1 sequence were constructed and named as pCTX and pISECTX, respectively. It was shown that Escherichia coli DH5α(pISECTX) was resistant to all β-lactams tested. In contrast, E. coli DH5α(pCTX) was sensitive to all except β-lactams cefazolin and cefalothin. In addition, reverse transcription PCR showed that expression levels of bla(CTX-M-55) were higher in E. coli DH5α(pISECTX). The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) assay demonstrated that extended-spectrum β-lactamase was only positively detected in E. coli DH5α(pISECTX) but not in E. coli DH5α(pCTX). Taken together, these results suggest that the translocated ISEcp1 element upstream of bla(CTX-M-55) is required for overexpression of bla(CTX-M-55), leading to cephalosporin resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic structures at the origin of acquisition of the beta-lactamase bla KPC gene.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Cuzon, Gaelle; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Genetic structures surrounding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing Ambler class A bla KPC gene were characterized in several KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from the United States, Colombia, and Greece. The bla KPC genes were associated in all cases with transposon-related structures. In the K. pneumoniae YC isolate from the United States, the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene was located on a novel Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. Tn4401 was 10 kb in size, was delimited by two 39-bp imperfect inverted repeat sequences, and harbored, in addition to the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene, a transposase gene, a resolvase gene, and two novel insertion sequences, ISKpn6 and ISKpn7. Tn4401 has been identified in all isolates. However, two isoforms of this transposon were found: Tn4401a was found in K. pneumoniae YC and K. pneumoniae GR from the United States and Greece, respectively, and differed by a 100-bp deletion, located just upstream of the bla KPC-2 gene, compared to the sequence of Tn4401b, which was found in the Colombian isolates. In all isolates tested, Tn4401 was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication, the signature of a recent transposition event, and was inserted in different open reading frames located on plasmids that varied in size and nature. Tn4401 is likely at the origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC mobilization to plasmids and its further insertion into various-sized plasmids identified in nonclonally related K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates.

  16. Navigating the Grad School Application Process: A Training Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindlehurst, Garrett R.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple step-by-step guide for navigating the graduate school application process, a graduate student who's been through the ringer and a faculty advisor who knows the ropes offer advice to walk prospective grad students through the process of successfully entering graduate school. A repeat printing.

  17. 42 CFR 401.709 - The application process and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) Standard approval process: Meet the eligibility and operational and governance requirements... process: Meet the eligibility and operational and governance requirements, and fulfill all of the... quarter of additional data to the qualified entity. (f) Re-application. A qualified entity that is in...

  18. 42 CFR 401.709 - The application process and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) Standard approval process: Meet the eligibility and operational and governance requirements... process: Meet the eligibility and operational and governance requirements, and fulfill all of the... quarter of additional data to the qualified entity. (f) Re-application. A qualified entity that is in...

  19. 42 CFR 401.709 - The application process and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) Standard approval process: Meet the eligibility and operational and governance requirements... process: Meet the eligibility and operational and governance requirements, and fulfill all of the... quarter of additional data to the qualified entity. (f) Re-application. A qualified entity that is in...

  20. Descriptions of Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The experiments for all the Space Processing Applications Rocket experiments, including those flown on previous Space Processing flights as well as those under development for future flights are described. The experiment objective, rationale, approach, and results or anticipated results are summarized.

  1. Software Process Improvement Journey: IBM Australia Application Management Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    See Section 5.1.2) - Client Relationship Management ( CRM ) processes-specifically, Solution Design and Solution Delivery - Worldwide Project Management ...plex systems life-cycle management , rapid solutions development, custom development, package selection and implementation, maintenance, minor...CarnegieMellon ___ Software Engineering Institute Software Process Improvement Journey: IBM Australia Application Management Services Robyn Nichols

  2. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  3. Colistin-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 654 with blaNDM-1 Arrives in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mataseje, L. F.; Peirano, G.; Church, D. L.; Conly, J.; Mulvey, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes 3 different blaNDM-1 genetic platforms in 3 different species obtained from the same patient who was directly transferred to an institution in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, following a prolonged hospital stay in India. The blaNDM-1 in the Escherichia coli isolate was located on a 176-kb IncA/C plasmid contained within an ISCR1 region. The blaNDM-1 in the Providencia rettgeri isolate was located on a 117-kb IncT plasmid contained within Tn3000, while the blaNDM-1 in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was located on the chromosome within an ISCR3 region. This report highlights the plasticity of the genetic regions and environments associated with blaNDM-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. aeruginosa with blaNDM-1 identified in North America and the first report of blaOXA-181 in P. rettgeri. The P. aeruginosa isolate belonged to the international high-risk sequence type 654 clone and was nonsusceptible to colistin. This case emphasizes the need for the use of appropriate infection prevention and control measures and vigilant screening for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in patients with a history of travel to areas of endemicity, such as the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26824951

  4. Molecular Characterization by Using Next-Generation Sequencing of Plasmids Containing blaNDM-7 in Enterobacteriaceae from Calgary, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L.; Peirano, G.; Lynch, T.; Chavda, K. D.; Gregson, D. B.; Church, D. L.; Conly, J.; Kreiswirth, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 are relatively uncommon and had previously been described in Europe, India, the United States, and Japan. This study describes the characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae [n = 2], Escherichia coli [n = 2], Serratia marcescens [n = 1], and Enterobacter hormaechei [n = 1] isolates) with blaNDM-7 obtained from 4 patients from Calgary, Canada, from 2013 to 2014. The 46,161-bp IncX3 plasmids with blaNDM-7 are highly similar to other blaNDM-harboring IncX3 plasmids and, interestingly, showed identical structures within the different isolates. This finding may indicate horizontal transmission within our health region, or it may indicate contact with individuals from areas of endemicity within the hospital setting. Patients infected or colonized with bacteria containing blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids generate infection control challenges. Epidemiological and molecular studies are required to better understand the dynamics of transmission, the risk factors, and the reservoirs for bacteria harboring blaNDM-7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. marcescens and E. hormaechei with blaNDM-7. PMID:26643346

  5. Edible holography: the application of holographic techniques to food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begleiter, Eric

    1991-07-01

    Reports on current research efforts in the application of holographic techniques to food processing. Through a simple and inexpensive production process, diffractive and holographic effects of color, depth, and motion can be transferred to edible products. Processes are discussed which can provide a competitive advantage to the marketing of a diverse group of sugar and non-sugar-based consumable products, i.e. candies, chocolates, lollipops, snacks, cereals and pharmaceuticals. Techniques, applications, and products are investigated involving the shift from a chemical to a physical basis for the production of food coloring and decorating.

  6. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Wailan, Alexander M; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K; Sartor, Anna L; Williamson, Deborah A; Forde, Brian M; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Partridge, Sally R

    2016-07-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family.

  7. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K.; Sartor, Anna L.; Williamson, Deborah A.; Forde, Brian M.; Beatson, Scott A.; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. PMID:27114281

  8. Hydrolysis of Clavulanate by Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-Lactamase BlaC Harboring a Canonical SDN Motif

    PubMed Central

    Soroka, Daria; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Compain, Fabrice; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of β-lactams with clavulanate are currently being investigated for tuberculosis treatment. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a broad spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC, the success of this approach could be compromised by the emergence of clavulanate-resistant variants, as observed for inhibitor-resistant TEM variants in enterobacteria. Previous analyses based on site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC have led to the conclusion that this risk was limited. Here, we used a different approach based on determination of the crystal structure of β-lactamase BlaMAb of Mycobacterium abscessus, which efficiently hydrolyzes clavulanate. Comparison of BlaMAb and BlaC allowed for structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC and identification of the G132N substitution that was sufficient to switch the interaction of BlaC with clavulanate from irreversible inactivation to efficient hydrolysis. The substitution, which restored the canonical SDN motif (SDG→SDN), allowed for efficient hydrolysis of clavulanate, with a more than 104-fold increase in kcat (0.41 s−1), without affecting the hydrolysis of other β-lactams. Mass spectrometry revealed that acylation of BlaC and of its G132N variant by clavulanate follows similar paths, involving sequential formation of two acylenzymes. Decarboxylation of the first acylenzyme results in a stable secondary acylenzyme in BlaC, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the G132N variant. The SDN/SDG polymorphism defines two mycobacterial lineages comprising rapidly and slowly growing species, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the efficacy of β-lactam–clavulanate combinations may be limited by the emergence of resistance. β-Lactams active without clavulanate, such as faropenem, should be prioritized for the development of new therapies. PMID:26149997

  9. Hydrolysis of clavulanate by Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-lactamase BlaC harboring a canonical SDN motif.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Daria; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Compain, Fabrice; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Combinations of β-lactams with clavulanate are currently being investigated for tuberculosis treatment. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a broad spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC, the success of this approach could be compromised by the emergence of clavulanate-resistant variants, as observed for inhibitor-resistant TEM variants in enterobacteria. Previous analyses based on site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC have led to the conclusion that this risk was limited. Here, we used a different approach based on determination of the crystal structure of β-lactamase BlaMAb of Mycobacterium abscessus, which efficiently hydrolyzes clavulanate. Comparison of BlaMAb and BlaC allowed for structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC and identification of the G(132)N substitution that was sufficient to switch the interaction of BlaC with clavulanate from irreversible inactivation to efficient hydrolysis. The substitution, which restored the canonical SDN motif (SDG→SDN), allowed for efficient hydrolysis of clavulanate, with a more than 10(4)-fold increase in k cat (0.41 s(-1)), without affecting the hydrolysis of other β-lactams. Mass spectrometry revealed that acylation of BlaC and of its G(132)N variant by clavulanate follows similar paths, involving sequential formation of two acylenzymes. Decarboxylation of the first acylenzyme results in a stable secondary acylenzyme in BlaC, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the G(132)N variant. The SDN/SDG polymorphism defines two mycobacterial lineages comprising rapidly and slowly growing species, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the efficacy of β-lactam-clavulanate combinations may be limited by the emergence of resistance. β-Lactams active without clavulanate, such as faropenem, should be prioritized for the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. High Prevalence of BlaCTX-M Group Genes in Aeromonas dhakensis Isolated from Aquaculture Fish Species in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    YI, Seung-Won; CHUNG, Tae-Ho; JOH, Seong-Joon; PARK, Chul; PARK, Byoung-Yong; SHIN, Gee-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, blaTEM, blaOXA-B and blaCTX-M. In the results, the blaTEM-1 gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored blaOXA gene. In the case of blaCTX-M gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the blaCTX-M positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for blaCTX-M genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including blaCTX-M-33 from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health. PMID:25649940

  11. High prevalence of blaCTX-M group genes in Aeromonas dhakensis isolated from aquaculture fish species in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; Chung, Tae-Ho; Joh, Seong-Joon; Park, Chul; Park, Byoung-Yong; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B) and bla(CTX-M). In the results, the bla(TEM-1) gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored bla(OXA) gene. In the case of bla(CTX-M) gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the bla(CTX-M) positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for bla(CTX-M) genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including bla(CTX-M-33) from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health.

  12. On digital image processing technology and application in geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiugen; Xing, Ruonan; Liao, Na

    2014-04-01

    Digital image processing technique is an emerging science that emerging with the development of semiconductor integrated circuit technology and computer science technology since the 1960s.The article introduces the digital image processing technique and principle during measuring compared with the traditional optical measurement method. It takes geometric measure as an example and introduced the development tendency of digital image processing technology from the perspective of technology application.

  13. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  14. Functional characterization of Tn4401, a Tn3-based transposon involved in blaKPC gene mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    The carbapenemase gene bla(KPC), which is rapidly spreading worldwide, is located on a Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. In a transposition-conjugation assay, Tn4401 was able to mobilize bla(KPC-2) gene at a frequency of 4.4 × 10(-6)/recipient cell. A 5-bp target site duplication was evidenced upon each insertion without target site specificity. This study demonstrated that Tn4401 is an active transposon capable of mobilizing bla(KPC) genes at high frequency.

  15. First occurrence of blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from a clinical sample in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Gusatti, Carolina; Bertholdo, Lauren Martins; Otton, Letícia Muner; Marchetti, Desirée Padilha; Ferreira, Alessandra Einsfeld; Corção, Gertrudes

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii from clinical origin carrying the blaOXA-58 gene in Brazil. The isolate included in this study was from a patient during an outbreak in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2007. It was resistant to most of the beta-lactams tested, it has also the blaOXA-65 gene and the ISAbal sequence located upstream to both blaOXA genes detected and it has a MIC of imipenem of 64 μg/mL. PMID:24031824

  16. Interspecies Transfer of blaIMP-4 in a Patient with Prolonged Colonization by IMP-4-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Heney, Claire; George, Narelle M.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Paterson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    A patient was colonized by IMP-4-producing Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli strains for 7 months. IMP-4-producing E. cloacae strains were first and last isolated at day 33 and at 8 months after admission, respectively. IMP-4-producing E. coli strains were first and last isolated at days 88 and 181 after admission, respectively. The E. cloacae and E. coli isolates shared identical genetic features in terms of blaIMP-4, blaTEM-1, qnrB2, aacA4, HI2 plasmids, and ISCR1. This study shows the first prolonged colonization with in vivo interspecies transfer of blaIMP-4. PMID:25056334

  17. Characterization of blaCMY plasmids and their possible role in source attribution of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections.

    PubMed

    Folster, Jason P; Tolar, Beth; Pecic, Gary; Sheehan, Deborah; Rickert, Regan; Hise, Kelley; Zhao, Shaohua; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; McDermott, Patrick; Whichard, Jean M

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, identifying the source of these infections can be difficult. This is especially true for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, which is found in diverse agricultural niches. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are one of the primary treatment choices for complicated Salmonella infections. In Salmonella, ESC resistance in the United States is mainly mediated by blaCMY genes carried on various plasmids. In this study, we examined whether the characterization of blaCMY plasmids, along with additional information, can help us identify potential sources of infection by Salmonella, and used serotype Typhimurium as a model. In the United States, monitoring of retail meat, food animals, and ill persons for antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella is conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. In 2008, 70 isolates (70/581; 12.0%) (34 isolates from retail meat, 23 food animal, and 13 human) were resistant to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for blaCMY and 59/70 (84.3%) of these genes were plasmid encoded. PCR-based replicon typing identified 42/59 (71.2%) IncI1-blaCMY plasmids and 17/59 (28.8%) IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from chickens or chicken products with blaCMY plasmids primarily had IncI1-blaCMY plasmids (37/40; 92.5%), while all isolates from cattle had IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from humans had either IncA/C- blaCMY (n=8/12; [66.7%]) or IncI1- blaCMY (n=4/12 [33.3%]) plasmids. All of the IncI1-blaCMY plasmids were ST12 or were closely related to ST12. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (AST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were also compared and differences were identified between isolate sources. When the source of a Typhimurium outbreak or sporadic illness is unknown, characterizing the outbreak isolate's blaCMY plasmids, AST, and PFGE patterns may help identify it.

  18. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  19. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  20. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Alexander, Paul

    1996-03-01

    During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this paper, examples of specific applications in the areas of materials and food processing, transport in reactors and two-phase flow are discussed. One specific study, that of the internal structure of a packed column, is considered in detail. This example is reported to illustrate the extent of new, quantitative information of generic importance to many processing operations that can be obtained using NMR imaging in combination with image analysis.

  1. Review of computational fluid dynamics applications in biotechnology processes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C; Malhotra, D; Rathore, A S

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is well established as a tool of choice for solving problems that involve one or more of the following phenomena: flow of fluids, heat transfer,mass transfer, and chemical reaction. Unit operations that are commonly utilized in biotechnology processes are often complex and as such would greatly benefit from application of CFD. The thirst for deeper process and product understanding that has arisen out of initiatives such as quality by design provides further impetus toward usefulness of CFD for problems that may otherwise require extensive experimentation. Not surprisingly, there has been increasing interest in applying CFD toward a variety of applications in biotechnology processing in the last decade. In this article, we will review applications in the major unit operations involved with processing of biotechnology products. These include fermentation,centrifugation, chromatography, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and freeze drying. We feel that the future applications of CFD in biotechnology processing will focus on establishing CFD as a tool of choice for providing process understanding that can be then used to guide more efficient and effective experimentation. This article puts special emphasis on the work done in the last 10 years.

  2. Agricultural and Food Processing Applications of Pulsed Power Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Koichi; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recent progress of agricultural and food processing applications of pulsed power is described in this paper. Repetitively operated compact pulsed power generators with a moderate peak power have been developed for the agricultural and the food processing applications. These applications are mainly based on biological effects and can be categorized as decontamination of air and liquid, germination promotion, inhabitation of saprophytes growth, extraction of juice from fruits and vegetables, and fertilization of liquid medium, etc. Types of pulsed power that have biological effects are caused with gas discharges, water discharges, and electromagnetic fields. The discharges yield free radicals, UV radiation, intense electric field, and shock waves. Biologically based applications of pulsed power are performed by selecting the type that gives the target objects the adequate result from among these agents or byproducts. For instance, intense electric fields form pores on the cell membrane, which is called electroporation, or influence the nuclei.

  3. Nosocomial dissemination of plasmids carrying blaTEM-24, blaDHA-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qnrA6 in Providencia spp. strains isolated from a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Chihi, Hela; Bourouis, Amel; Ayari, Khaoula; Ferjani, Mustapha; Moussa, Mohamed Ben; Belhadj, Omrane

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the emergence of IncA/C conjugative plasmids harboring blaTEM-24, blaDHA-1, qnrA6, and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes among Providencia spp. isolates recovered in 2008 in Tunisia. The double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in 2 Providencia stuartii and 5 Providencia rettgeri. These ESBLs were coresistant to cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, and sulfonamides but remained susceptible to imipenem. Three β-lactamases TEM-2, TEM-24, and DHA-1 were detected. blaTEM-24, blaDHA-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qnrA6 genes were successfully transferred to Escherichia coli strain HB101, and they were found located on the conjugatifs IncA/C plasmids. Genetic relatedness showed similar and different patterns among P. stuartii and P. rettgeri strains, respectively.

  4. Process and quality control for automotive laser welding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Overmeyer, L.; Schumacher, J.

    1996-12-31

    Laser welding applications using CO{sub 2} and Nd:YAG-Lasers are of growing importance for the production of car bodies. Especially for parts influencing the safety of the product, it would be advantageous to control the welding result which is, in practical applications, influenced by many process parameters. In this paper, an innovative process monitoring and quality control system with a closed loop control of the laser output power will be described, which is based on monitoring and evaluating the light emission from the welding process. In contrast to systems which have been developed in the past, the sensors which detect the light emission were integrated into the beam guidance system for CO{sub 2} lasers, and into the laser source for Nd:YAG lasers. The optical set-up of this system, together with the automatic detection of welding failures, will be described, and the results of the system for industrial applications will be evaluated.

  5. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  6. Multivariate statistical monitoring and diagnosis with applications in semiconductor processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Hongyu

    Modern chemical processes generate a tremendous amount of measurement data that could be used for process monitoring. Deviation of the process measurements from the specifications could indicate an abnormal condition. It is important to have an effective technique to detect, identify and correct the fault. Because of the correlation of the sensor data, multivariate statistical methods are preferred for process monitoring. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, many processes have been monitored in a univariate and off-line fashion. Due to the increasing complexity and shrinking feature size of integrated circuits, real-time monitoring by analysis of tool measurements is required to detect and classify faults. This dissertation focuses on developing process monitoring techniques and applications in plasma etching and rapid thermal annealing processes. While principal component analysis (PCA) has found wide application in process monitoring, slow and normal changes often occur in real processes, which lead to false alarms for a fixed-model approach. Recursive PCA is proposed for adaptive process monitoring. Two algorithms are developed to update the model efficiently. Although it is relatively easy to detect a fault, fault identification is a more complicated task. A combined index is first proposed for fault detection and identification. It is shown that the identification result is more accurate than other existing methods. The methods are applied in monitoring a rapid thermal annealing process. Plasma etching is one of the most important processes. It is considered one of the yield limiter because of the occurrence of frequent faults. Tight process monitoring is therefore required to detect the process endpoint and faults. This research uses optical emission spectroscopy sensors to collect high-resolution spectra data. PCA is used to analyze the data for the purpose of low-open area endpoint detection and fault detection. New methods are developed for

  7. Complete nucleotide sequences of blaKPC-4- and blaKPC-5-harboring IncN and IncX plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Fraimow, Henry S; Mediavilla, José R; Melano, Roberto G; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens. bla(KPC), commonly located on Tn4401, is found in Gram-negative bacterial strains, with the two most common variants, bla(KPC-2) and bla(KPC-3), identified in plasmids with diverse genetic backgrounds. In this study, we examined bla(KPC-4)- and bla(KPC-5)-bearing plasmids recovered from two K. pneumoniae strains, which were isolated from a single New Jersey hospital in 2005 and 2006, respectively. IncN plasmid pBK31551 is 84 kb in length and harbors bla(KPC-4), bla(TEM-1), qnrB2, aac(3)-Ib, aph(3')-I, qacF, qacEΔ1, sul1, and dfrA14, which confer resistance to β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, quaternary ammonium compounds, and co-trimoxazole. The conserved regions within pBK31551 are similar to those of other IncN plasmids. Surprisingly, analysis of the Tn4401 sequence revealed a large IS110- and Tn6901-carrying element (8.3 kb) inserted into the istA gene, encoding glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance, alcohol dehydrogenase, and S-formylglutathione hydrolase. Plasmid pBK31567 is 47 kb in length and harbors bla(KPC-5), dfrA5, qacEΔ1, and sul1. pBK31567 belongs to a novel IncX subgroup (IncX5) and possesses a highly syntenic plasmid backbone like other IncX plasmids; however, sequence similarity at the nucleotide level is divergent. The bla(KPC-5) gene is carried on a Tn4401 element and differs from the genetic environment of bla(KPC-5) described in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain P28 from Puerto Rico. This study underscores the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant plasmids involved in the spread of bla(KPC) genes and highlights the mobility and plasticity of Tn4401. Comparative genomic analysis provides new insights into the evolution and dissemination of KPC plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups.

  8. Short communication: Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in colostrum from New Brunswick, Canada, dairy cows harbor blaCMY-2 and blaTEM resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Awosile, B B; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; VanLeeuwen, J; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Keefe, G; Heider, L C

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are colonized shortly after birth by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The role of dairy colostrum fed to calves as a potential source of MDR bacteria resistance genes has not been investigated. This study determined the recovery rate of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) E. coli in colostrum from cows. The ESC-R E. coli isolates were further investigated to determine their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern and the genes conferring ESC-R. Fresh colostrum was collected from 452 cows from 8 dairy herds in New Brunswick, Canada. The ESC-R E. coli was isolated from the colostrum by using the VACC agar, a selective media for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all the suspected ESC-R E. coli isolates using a commercial gram-negative broth microdilution method. Two multiplex PCR were conducted on all the suspected ESC-R E. coli isolates to determine the presence of the blaCTX-M (groups 1, 2, 9, and 8/25) blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM resistance genes. The ESC-R E. coli were detected in 20 (4.43%) of the colostrum samples. At least 1 ESC-R E. coli isolate was detected in 6 (75%) of the dairy herds. All ESC-R E. coli had MDR profiles based on minimum inhibitory concentration testing. No blaCTX-M groups genes were detected; however, the blaCMY-2 gene was detected in 9 or 20 (45%) and blaTEM was detected in 7 of 20 (35%) of the ESC-R E. coli. No ESC-R E. coli had both blaCMY-2 and blaTEM resistance genes. This is the first report of blaCMY-2 and blaTEM genes found in E. coli isolates cultured from dairy colostrum to our knowledge. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-3 genes recovered from a hospital Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Pignanelli, Salvatore; Vollaro, Adriana; Esposito, Matilde; Iula, Vita Dora; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata Amy; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes has recently emerged as an important hospital pathogen. In this study, we showed the emergence of E. aerogenes isolates carrying the blaKPC gene in patients colonized by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Two multiresistant E. aerogenes isolates were recovered from bronchial aspirates of two patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit at the "Santa Maria della Scaletta" Hospital, Imola. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed the high resistance to carbapenems and double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of KPC and AmpC production. Other investigation revealed that ESBL and blaKPC genes were carried on the conjugative pKpQIL plasmid. This is a relevant report in Italy that describes a nosocomial infection due to the production of KPC beta-lactamases by an E. aerogenes isolate in patients previously colonized by K. pneumoniae carbapenem-resistant. In conclusion, it's necessary a continuous monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains for the detection of any KPC-producing bacteria that could expand the circulation of carbapenem-resistant pathogens.

  10. Cascaded process model based control: packed absorption column application.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Anand; Jayaraman, Suresh Kumar; Sethuraman, Vijayalakshmi; Raul, Pramod R; Rhinehart, R Russell

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear, adaptive, process-model based control is demonstrated in a cascaded single-input-single-output mode for pressure drop control in a pilot-scale packed absorption column. The process is shown to be nonlinear. Control is demonstrated in both servo and regulatory modes, for no wind-up in a constrained situation, and for bumpless transfer. Model adaptation is demonstrated and shown to provide process insight. The application procedure is revealed as a design guide to aid others in implementing process-model based control.

  11. MarsSI: Martian surface Data processing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozac'h, L.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Loizeau, D.; Clenet, H.; Bultel, B.; Allemand, P.; Thollot, P.; Fernando, J.; Ody, A.; Harrison, S.

    2015-10-01

    We designed a distributed information system called MarsSI to manage orbital data from martian orbiters. The application easily and rapidly allows the user to process data from these orbiters and to download scientifically ready-to-use products of Mars surface. The application also allows DTM computation from CTX and HiRISE images. This application is open to the scientific community and can be found at this address: http://emars.univ-lyon1.fr The creation of an account is required, for that email Loïc Lozac'h : loic.lozach@univ-lyon1.fr

  12. Characterization of blaOXA-143 variants in Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter pittii.

    PubMed

    Zander, Esther; Bonnin, Rémy A; Seifert, Harald; Higgins, Paul G

    2014-05-01

    The acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase (OXA) OXA-143 has thus far been detected only in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize three OXA-143 variants: OXA-231 and OXA-253 from carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates and OXA-255 in a carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter pittii isolate originating from Brazil, Honduras, and the United States, respectively. The 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique identified the same transcription initiation site for all blaOXA-143-like genes and revealed differences in the putative promoter regions. However, all cloned OXA-143 variants conferred carbapenem resistance on A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and OXA-255 conferred carbapenem resistance on A. pittii SH024, which was correlated with blaOXA-255 gene expression. This is the first description of OXA-143-like outside A. baumannii. Detection of OXA-143-like in the United States and Honduras indicates its dissemination through the American continent.

  13. Potential Applications of Zeolite Membranes in Reaction Coupling Separation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Daramola, Michael O.; Aransiola, Elizabeth F.; Ojumu, Tunde V.

    2012-01-01

    Future production of chemicals (e.g., fine and specialty chemicals) in industry is faced with the challenge of limited material and energy resources. However, process intensification might play a significant role in alleviating this problem. A vision of process intensification through multifunctional reactors has stimulated research on membrane-based reactive separation processes, in which membrane separation and catalytic reaction occur simultaneously in one unit. These processes are rather attractive applications because they are potentially compact, less capital intensive, and have lower processing costs than traditional processes. Therefore this review discusses the progress and potential applications that have occurred in the field of zeolite membrane reactors during the last few years. The aim of this article is to update researchers in the field of process intensification and also provoke their thoughts on further research efforts to explore and exploit the potential applications of zeolite membrane reactors in industry. Further evaluation of this technology for industrial acceptability is essential in this regard. Therefore, studies such as techno-economical feasibility, optimization and scale-up are of the utmost importance.

  14. A Process Heat Application Using Parabolic Trough Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, İbrahim Halil; Söylemez, Mehmet Sait; Hayta, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    A pilot study has been performed based on a heat process application that is designed, installed and tested at Gaziantep University to establish the technical and economic feasibility of high temperature solar-assisted cooking process. The system has been designed to be satisfying the process conditions integrated with parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). It is primarily consists of the PTSC array, auxiliary heater, plate type heat exchanger, cooking system and water heating tanks. In the operation of the process heat application, the energy required to cook wheat (used as cooking material) has been supplied from solar energy which is transferred to heat transfer fluid (HTF) by heat exchanging units and finally discharged to water in order to produce bulgur. The performance parameters of the sub-systems and the process compatibility have been accomplished depending on the system operation. In addition that the system performance of the high temperature solar heat process has been presented and the recommendations on its improvement have been evaluated by performing an experimental study. As a result that the use of solar energy in process heat application has been projected and its contribution to economics view with respect to conventional cooking systems has been conducted.

  15. Research on data capture, processing, and application of ADS40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Miaozhong; Tu, Xinru

    2008-12-01

    ADS40 from Leica Geosystems is new-type airborne digital camera, which has aggregated worldwide focus in application fields of aerial photogrammetry and remote sensing nowadays, with its noticeable superiority in interpreting and mapping the comprehensive conditions of ground surface. At the same time, its special characteristics make the data processing some complicated. Based on the long-team research and the experiment on usage of ADS40, the paper presented the workflow in details including data capture, processing and application of ADS40, described some problem and exercise in practice.

  16. High-flux solar photon processes: Opportunities for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, J.I.; Coy, S.L.; Herzog, H.; Shorter, J.A.; Schlamp, M.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of this study was to identify new high-flux solar photon (HFSP) processes that show promise of being feasible and in the national interest. Electric power generation and hazardous waste destruction were excluded from this study at sponsor request. Our overall conclusion is that there is promise for new applications of concentrated solar photons, especially in certain aspects of materials processing and premium materials synthesis. Evaluation of the full potential of these and other possible applications, including opportunities for commercialization, requires further research and testing. 100 refs.

  17. First Report of Complete Sequence of a blaNDM-13-Harboring Plasmid from an Escherichia coli ST5138 Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jingnan; Qi, Xiuqin; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Zhou; Chen, Yuehui; Guo, Yinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Tang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Zengqiang; Hu, Longhua; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2016-01-01

    Since the first report of blaNDM-1, 16 blaNDM variants have been identified among Gram-negative bacteria worldwide. Recently, a novel blaNDM variant, blaNDM-13, was identified in the chromosome of an ST101 Escherichia coli isolate from Nepal. Here we first reported plasmid-mediated blaNDM-13 in a carbapenem-resistant E. coli ST5138 clinical isolate associated with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection from China. blaNDM-13 and blaSHV-12 coexisted on the a ~54 Kb self-transferable plasmid. Compared with NDM-1, NDM-13, NDM-3, and NDM-4 had two amino acid substitutions (D95N and M154L), one amino acid substitution (D95N) and one amino acid substitutions (M154L), respectively. Complete plasmid sequencing showed that blaNDM-13-harboring plasmid (pNDM13-DC33) was highly similar to the blaNDM-1-harboring IncX3 plasmid pNDM-HN380, a common blaNDM-harboring vector circulating in China. In accordance with the structure of pNDM-HN380, pNDM13-DC33 consists of a 33-kb backbone encoding plasmid replication (repB), stability partitioning, and transfer (tra, trb, and pil) functions, and a 21-kb antimicrobial resistance region with high GC content between umuD and mpr genes. In conclusion, the present study is the first report of a plasmid-encoded blaNDM-13 and the complete sequence of a blaNDM-13-harboring plasmid (pNDM13-DC33). blaNDM-13 maybe originate from blaNDM-1 located on a pNDM-HN380-like plasmid by sequential mutations. PMID:27790412

  18. The Enterprise Derivative Application: Flexible Software for Optimizing Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Richard C; Allgood, Glenn O; Knox, John R

    2008-11-01

    The Enterprise Derivative Application (EDA) implements the enterprise-derivative analysis for optimization of an industrial process (Allgood and Manges, 2001). It is a tool to help industry planners choose the most productive way of manufacturing their products while minimizing their cost. Developed in MS Access, the application allows users to input initial data ranging from raw material to variable costs and enables the tracking of specific information as material is passed from one process to another. Energy-derivative analysis is based on calculation of sensitivity parameters. For the specific application to a steel production process these include: the cost to product sensitivity, the product to energy sensitivity, the energy to efficiency sensitivity, and the efficiency to cost sensitivity. Using the EDA, for all processes the user can display a particular sensitivity or all sensitivities can be compared for all processes. Although energy-derivative analysis was originally designed for use by the steel industry, it is flexible enough to be applied to many other industrial processes. Examples of processes where energy-derivative analysis would prove useful are wireless monitoring of processes in the petroleum cracking industry and wireless monitoring of motor failure for determining the optimum time to replace motor parts. One advantage of the MS Access-based application is its flexibility in defining the process flow and establishing the relationships between parent and child process and products resulting from a process. Due to the general design of the program, a process can be anything that occurs over time with resulting output (products). So the application can be easily modified to many different industrial and organizational environments. Another advantage is the flexibility of defining sensitivity parameters. Sensitivities can be determined between all possible variables in the process flow as a function of time. Thus the dynamic development of the

  19. Sources of diversity of carbapenem resistance levels in Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaVIM-1.

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Tzouvelekis, L S; Tzelepi, E; Carattoli, A; Vatopoulos, A C; Tassios, P T; Miriagou, V

    2006-09-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the diversity of beta-lactam resistance phenotypes among isolates of a VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (VPKP) strain that is endemic in Greek hospitals. Five VPKP clinical isolates were studied. MICs of beta-lactams were determined by agar dilution. PFGE of XbaI-digested genomic DNA was used for typing. Profiles of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were determined by SDS-PAGE. Selected isolates were transformed with a plasmid encoding the Omp36K porin. beta-Lactamase activities were analysed by IEF and imipenem hydrolysis was assessed by spectrophotometry. VIM-1-encoding, self-transmissible plasmids were characterized by replicon typing, RFLP and hybridization with bla(VIM)- and IS26-specific probes. Characterization of integrons was performed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. Isolates exhibited highly similar PFGE patterns. Imipenem MICs were 2, 4, 16, 32 and 64 mg/L. The isolate with the highest imipenem MIC (Vipm-64) lacked a 36 kDa OMP. Expression of a cloned OmpK36 in this isolate reduced the imipenem MIC to susceptibility levels. Imipenem-hydrolysing activity was significantly higher in Vipm-16 as compared with the other isolates that expressed similar amounts of VIM-1. All isolates transferred beta-lactam resistance to Escherichia coli through conjugative, IncN plasmids that exhibited differences in the RFLP and hybridization patterns with bla(VIM)- and IS26-specific probes. The Vipm-16 plasmid, mediating the higher imipenem MICs among transconjugants, carried two copies of bla(VIM-1). Cloning and sequencing showed In-e541-like integrons truncated at the 5'CS by insertion of IS26 elements at two different positions. A VIM-1-producing strain of K. pneumoniae has evolved through OMP alterations and rearrangements in the bla(VIM-1)-carrying plasmid probably mediated by IS26, generating isolates with imipenem MICs ranging from susceptibility to resistance.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a blaOXA-58-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Isolated from a Mexican Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Oseguera, Ángeles; Castro-Jaimes, Semiramis; Salgado-Camargo, Abraham David; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Garza-González, Elvira; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of a blaOXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain, sampled from a Mexican hospital and not related to the international clones. PMID:28883144

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a blaOXA-58-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Isolated from a Mexican Hospital.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Oseguera, Ángeles; Castro-Jaimes, Semiramis; Salgado-Camargo, Abraham David; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Garza-González, Elvira; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Cevallos, Miguel Ángel

    2017-09-07

    In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of a blaOXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain, sampled from a Mexican hospital and not related to the international clones. Copyright © 2017 Pérez-Oseguera et al.

  2. 43 CFR 2884.17 - How will BLM process my Processing Category 6 application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... work plan and a financial plan. (b) In processing your application, BLM will: (1) Determine the issues subject to analysis under NEPA; (2) Prepare a preliminary work plan; (3) Develop a preliminary financial...) Your options for the timing of processing and monitoring fee payments; and (iv) Financial...

  3. Microchannel enzyme reactors and their applications for processing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2006-10-01

    Microreaction technology is an interdisciplinary field combining science and engineering. It has attracted the attention of researchers from different fields for the past few years, resulting in the development of several microreactors. Enzymes are one of the catalysts used in microreactors: they are useful for substance production in an environmentally friendly way and have high potential for analytical applications. However, few enzymatic processes have been commercialized because of problems with stability and the cost and efficiency of the reactions. Thus, there have been demands for innovation in process engineering, particularly for enzymatic reactions, and microreaction devices can serve as efficient tools for the development of enzyme processes. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of enzyme-immobilized microchannel reactors; fundamental techniques for micro enzyme-reactor design and important applications of this multidisciplinary technology in chemical processing are also included in our topics.

  4. Expression of blaA Underlies Unexpected Ampicillin-Induced Cell Lysis of Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Sun, Linlin; Dong, Yangyang; Chi, Xun; Zhu, Weiming; Qi, Shu-hua; Gao, Haichun

    2013-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis is a facultative anaerobic γ-proteobacterium possessing remarkably diverse respiratory capacities for reducing various organic and inorganic substrates. As a veteran research model for investigating redox transformations of environmental contaminants the bacterium is well known to be a naturally ampicillin-resistant microorganism. However, in this study we discovered that ampicillin has a significant impact on growth of S. oneidensis. Particularly, cell lysis occurred only with ampicillin at levels ranging from 0.49 to 6.25 µg/ml but not at 50 µg/ml. This phenotype is attributable to insufficient expression of the β-lactamase BlaA. The subsequent analysis revealed that the blaA gene is strongly induced by ampicillin at high (50 µg/ml), but not at low levels (2.5 µg/ml). In addition, we demonstrated that penicillin binding protein 5 (PBP5), the most abundant low molecular weight PBP (LMW PBP), is the only one relevant to β-lactam resistance under the tested conditions. This nonessential PBP, largely resembling its Escherichia coli counterpart in functionality, mediates expression of the blaA gene. PMID:23555975

  5. Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications 2 6. AUTHOC Steven M. Buc 7...summaries of the mineral availability, Cq prmarymetal refinement processeb, material costs in raw form and as finished shaped charge liners , relevant... liner materials. 94-11479 gI 14, SUBJECT TERMS iSt NUMBER OF PAGIS 13chrg wrhad :xplosively formed penetrators material R. PRCE COEV" processing

  6. Process mining techniques: an application to stroke care.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ronny; Schonenberg, Helen; Leonardi, Giorgio; Panzarasa, Silvia; Cavallini, Anna; Quaglini, Silvana; van der Aalst, Wil

    2008-01-01

    In a competitive health-care market, hospitals have to focus on ways to streamline their processes in order to deliver high quality care while at the same time reducing costs. To accomplish this goal, hospital managers need a thorough understanding of the actual processes. Diffusion of Information and Communication Technology tools within hospitals, such as electronic clinical charts, computerized guidelines and, more generally, decision support systems, make huge collections of data available, not only for data analysis, but also for process analysis. Process mining can be used to extract process related information (e.g., process models) from data, i.e., process mining describes a family of a-posteriori analysis techniques exploiting the information recorded in the event logs. This process information can be used to understand and redesign processes to become efficient high quality processes. In this paper, we apply process mining on two datasets for stroke patients and present the most interesting results. Above all, the paper demonstrates the applicability of process mining in the health-care domain.

  7. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  8. Distribution of allelic variants of the chromosomal gene bla OXA-114-like in Achromobacter xylosoxidans clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Traglia, German Matías; Almuzara, Marisa; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Papalia, Mariana; Galanternik, Laura; Radice, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Centrón, Daniela; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2013-11-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is increasingly being documented in cystic fibrosis patients. The bla(OXA-114) gene has been recognized as a naturally occurring chromosomal gene, exhibiting different allelic variants. In the population under study, the bla(OXA-114)-like gene was found in 19/19 non-epidemiological-related clinical isolates of A. xylosoxidans with ten different alleles including 1 novel OXA-114 variant.

  9. Complete Sequence of a blaOXA-48-Harboring IncL Plasmid from an Enterobacter cloacae Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    We report a 63,584-bp conjugative IncL plasmid (pUR17313-1) from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate, containing a blaOXA-48 gene. The plasmid sequence also carried important mobile genetic elements involved in the spread of antibiotic resistance, namely, the Tn1999.2 composite transposon, which enclosed blaOXA-48-, integrase-, and transposase-encoding genes. PMID:26383652

  10. Complete Sequence of a blaOXA-48-Harboring IncL Plasmid from an Enterobacter cloacae Clinical Isolate.

    PubMed

    Manageiro, Vera; Pinto, Margarida; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-09-17

    We report a 63,584-bp conjugative IncL plasmid (pUR17313-1) from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate, containing a blaOXA-48 gene. The plasmid sequence also carried important mobile genetic elements involved in the spread of antibiotic resistance, namely, the Tn1999.2 composite transposon, which enclosed blaOXA-48-, integrase-, and transposase-encoding genes. Copyright © 2015 Manageiro et al.

  11. IgE binding reactivity of peptide fragments of Bla g 4, a major German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang Hyun; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2009-03-01

    Cockroaches have been recognized as a major cause of asthma. Bla g 4 is one of the most important German cockroach allergens. The aim of this study is to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 4 (rBla g 4) in the sera of allergic patients and identify linear IgE binding epitope. For protein expression, full-length Bla g 4 (EF202172) was divided into 5 overlapping peptide fragments (E1: aa 1-100, E2: aa 34-77, E3: aa 74-117, E4: aa 114-156, and E5: aa 153-182). The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 4 was generated by PCR and over-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The IgE binding reactivities of the full-length and peptide fragments were measured by ELISA using 32 serum samples of cockroach allergy. The sera of 8 patients (25%) reacted with rBla g 4. Four sera (100%) showed IgE-binding reactivity to full-length and peptide fragment 4, and 2 sera (50%) reacted with peptide fragment 2. One (20%) serum reacted with peptide fragment 3. The results of ELISA using overlapping recombinant fragments indicated that the epitope region was located at amino acid sequences 34-73 and 78-113, and major IgE epitope of Bla g 4 was located at amino acid sequences 118-152 of C-terminal. B-cell epitope analysis of German cockroach allergen Bla g 4 could contribute to the strategic development of more specific and potentially efficacious immunotherapy.

  12. IgE-binding reactivity of peptide fragments of Bla g 1.02, a major German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Yi, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chung-Ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches cause allergic diseases and are closely linked with the development of asthma. Bla g 1 is one of the major allergen proteins produced by German cockroaches. It consists of tandem repeats of approximately 100 amino acids. The aim of the present study was to identify linear IgE-binding epitopes of Bla g 1.02. RT-PCR was used to clone a cDNA sequence encoding Bla g 1.02 (EF202179) which shared 98.6-99.8% identity with a previously reported Bla g 1.02 (AF072220). To investigate IgE binding regions, five separate but overlapping Bla g 1.02 peptide fragments (A: aa 1-111, B: aa 102-215, C: aa 206-299, D: aa 289-403, E: aa 394-491) were amplified and cloned. The full-length and five peptide fragments were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and E. coli, respectively, and their IgE binding reactivities were measured by ELISA using 37 serum samples isolated from cockroach-sensitized patients. The sera of 24 patients (64.9%) recognized the full-length Bla g 1.02 recombinant protein. Among 19 selected serum samples, 11 sera (57.9%) reacted to peptide fragment A, 5 sera (31.3%) to B, 4 sera (21.1%) to C, 9 sera (47.4%) to D, and 10 sera (52.6%) to peptide fragment E. IgE-binding epitopes are found to be distributed to each tandem repeat of Bla g 1. The combination of peptide fragments A, D, and E may able to detect all Bla g 1-sensitized subjects. We suggest that these peptide fragments may be useful in allergy diagnosis and the design of novel immunotherapeutics.

  13. The transferability of blaOXA-23 gene in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruno Silvester; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ismail, Muhammad A; Shibl, Atef M; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Forbes, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have been increasingly reported worldwide including Saudi Arabia and Egypt. We examined 64, non-repetitive, Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected in 2013 and 2014 from four different medical centres (two from Saudi Arabia and two from Egypt). All the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. The intI1 harbouring blaGES-11 and aac-6'-1b was detected in 19% (n=12) of the isolates. ISAba1 over-expression of blaADC gene was observed in 65% (n=42) of isolates. Of all the isolates 19% (n=12) had ISAba1 upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene, 69% (n=44) carried the blaOXA-23 gene within the Tn2006 structure, 8% (n=5) had blaOXA-24-like gene and 9% (n=6) harboured either blaVIM-2 or blaNDM-1 gene. Eighty nine percent (n=57) of isolates were resistant to imipenem and had an MIC of ≥8mg/L. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed the presence of 23 different PFGE. Three PFGE types were very widespread, ST236 (CC104) (PFGE type 1, n=15), ST208 (CC92) (PFGE type 2, n=10), ST884 (CC unassigned) (PFGE type 3, n=7) in and across all four medical centres. The blaOXA-23 gene was found to be present on a 60kb transferable plasmid in both PFGE type 1 and 2 but was absent in PFGE type 3. This is the first study to report on the emergence of ST236 in Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and spread of distinct carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clones belonging to ST884, ST945 and ST1096 in Saudi Arabia.

  14. An Application of Business Process Management to Health Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohsen M D

    2017-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to help health care facility managers and personnel identify significant elements of their facilities to address, and steps and actions to follow, when applying business process management to them. The ABPMP (Association of Business Process Management Professionals) life-cycle model of business process management is adopted, and steps from Lean, business process reengineering, and Six Sigma, and actions from operations management are presented to implement it. Managers of health care facilities can find in business process management a more comprehensive approach to improving their facilities than Lean, Six Sigma, business process reengineering, and ad hoc approaches that does not conflict with them because many of their elements can be included under its umbrella. Furthermore, the suggested application of business process management can guide and relieve them from selecting among these approaches, as well as provide them with specific steps and actions that they can follow. This article fills a gap in the literature by presenting a much needed comprehensive application of business process management to health care facilities that has specific steps and actions for implementation.

  15. 20 CFR 655.23 - Receipt and processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... representative as incomplete. (b) Processing. The CO will review complete applications for an absence of errors that would prevent certification and for compliance with the criteria for certification. The CO will... information. (1) If the CO determines that the employer has made all necessary attestations and...

  16. 32 CFR 903.4 - Application process and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRAINING AND SCHOOLS AIR FORCE ACADEMY PREPARATORY SCHOOL § 903.4 Application process and procedures. (a..., Suite 200, USAF Academy CO 80840-5025, no later than 31 January for admission the following summer. Those otherwise nominated to the Air Force Academy must complete all steps of admissions by 15 April. (b...

  17. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  18. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  19. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  20. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  1. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant Program-General...

  2. Industrial applications of electrolytic processes in the metal finishing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Wiaux, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    The applications of electrolytic processes in several sectors of the printed circuit, aeronautical and metal finishing industries have been under a large commercial development phase over the last ten years. Two major factors have favoured this development: the progress made in applied electrochemical engineering and the large increase in solid and liquid wastes management costs.

  3. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... accordance with § 1304.5) when: (1) TVA deems a hearing is necessary or appropriate in determining any...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... accordance with § 1304.5) when: (1) TVA deems a hearing is necessary or appropriate in determining any...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... accordance with § 1304.5) when: (1) TVA deems a hearing is necessary or appropriate in determining any...

  6. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  7. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  8. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  10. 49 CFR 1182.6 - Processing an opposed application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing an opposed application. 1182.6 Section 1182.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PURCHASE, MERGER, AND CONTROL OF MOTOR PASSENGER...

  11. Computer and control applications in a vegetable processing plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are many advantages to the use of computers and control in food industry. Software in the food industry takes 2 forms - general purpose commercial computer software and software for specialized applications, such as drying and thermal processing of foods. Many applied simulation models for d...

  12. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... official under current codes or ordinances; or (C) Were demolished due to damage or environmental... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application and review process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  13. Application Processing, 2003-2004. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide contains training materials for processing applications for student financial aid under the EDExpress system. Representatives of institutions of higher education receive training in the use of EDExpress software that allows the school to manage student financial aid records. The guide contains these sessions: (1) welcome and…

  14. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  15. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  16. 15 CFR 400.27 - Procedure for processing application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure for processing application. 400.27 Section 400.27 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Establishment and Modification of Zone...

  17. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.9...

  18. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.9...

  19. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... closed-loop biomass technologies based on prior year energy generation; (2) Calculate potential incentive... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  20. Application Processing, 2003-2004. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide contains training materials for processing applications for student financial aid under the EDExpress system. Representatives of institutions of higher education receive training in the use of EDExpress software that allows the school to manage student financial aid records. The guide contains these sessions: (1) welcome and…