Science.gov

Sample records for applications bla process

  1. Development of a multiplex PCR system and its application in detection of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, James O; Zhang, Qingmeng; Huang, Ying; Yan, Huo; Su, Lijie; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Wenli; Zhao, Jizi; Cai, Wenhui; Li, Wenjing; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Yang; Song, Wuqi; Chen, Xiaobei; Fu, Yingmei; Zhang, Fengmin

    2015-12-01

    Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics through β-lactamase production by Enterobacteriaceae continues to burden the health-care sector worldwide. Traditional methods for detection of β-lactamases are time-consuming and labor-intensive and newer methods with varying capabilities continue to be developed. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) system for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes and to apply it in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains. To do this, we used group-specific PCR primers in singleplex reactions followed by optimization into multiplex reactions. Specificity and sensitivity of the M-PCR were then evaluated using 58 reference strains before its application to detect bla group genes in 203 clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains. PCR amplicons were sequenced to determine the β-lactamase subtypes. The M-PCR system exhibited 100% specificity and sensitivity. In all, 83.7% of K. pneumoniae and 89.8% of E. coli clinical strains harbored bla group genes with 46.9%, 40.1%, 15.0%, 21.1% and 6.1% of K. pneumoniae having blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes, respectively, whereas 12.2%, 77.6%, 22.4%, 36.7% and 8.2% of E. coli had blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes, respectively. BlaSHV-1, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-27, blaSHV-33, blaSHV-144, blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135, blaOXA-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-9, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-55, blaCTX-M-65 and blaCTX-M-104 were detected. In conclusion, the M-PCR system was efficient and versatile with an advantage of simultaneously detecting all the targeted bla group genes. Hence, it is a potential candidate for developing M-PCR kits for the screening of these genes for clinical or epidemiological purposes. PMID:26104141

  2. US biosimilar pathway unlikely to be used: developers will opt for a traditional BLA filing.

    PubMed

    Wiatr, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    In March 2010, the US passed the healthcare reform bill, including The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, which established an abbreviated Biologic License Application (aBLA) pathway for the approval of biosimilars. The aBLA pathway may never be used. At the "Business of Biosimilars" meeting in Boston in September, developers of both innovator and generic biologics as well as representatives from the scientific, regulatory, and legal communities noted that, because of unclear requirements for clinical data and the need for public disclosure of proprietary data, manufacturers of generic biologics are unlikely to take advantage of the aBLA process, opting instead for a standard Biologic License Application (BLA). The implications of an unusable biosimilars pathway in the US dampen our already soft outlook for biosimilars. Companies will still develop follow-on biologics, but approved compounds will behave as new branded drugs. Biosimilars in the US are therefore not likely to lead to aggressive pricing, but will more likely mirror current situations where several similar biologics are available. For example, the interferon (IFN) β-1a products Avonex® and Rebif®, and Betaseron® (IFN β-1b) have all enjoyed >10% price increases for the last several years in spite of their clinical similarities. inThought reiterates its outlook for generic erosion of a typical biologic that projects a loss of revenue of 30% over 5 years compared to the 90% revenue loss for a typical branded small molecule. PMID:21222498

  3. Prevalence of bla NDM, bla PER, bla VEB, bla IMP, and bla VIM Genes among Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Two Hospitals of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Fatemeh; Noori, Maryam; Hashemi, Ali; Goudarzi, Hossein; Karimi, Abdollah; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Alimehr, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bla NDM, bla PER, bla VEB, bla IMP, and bla VIM type genes among A. baumannii isolates from hospitalized patients in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. The frequency of MBL (metallo-beta-lactamase) and ESBL (extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase) producers was evaluated by CDDT. The β -lactamases genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Results. The resistance of A. baumannii isolates against tested antibiotics was as follows: 103 (95.4%) to ceftazidime, 108 (100%) to cefotaxime, 105 (95.7%) to cefepime, 99 (91.7%) to imipenem, 99 (91.7%) to meropenem, 87 (80.6%) to amikacin, 105 (97.2%) to piperacillin, 100 (92.6%) to ciprofloxacin, 103 (95.4%) to piperacillin/tazobactam, 44 (40.7%) to gentamicin, 106 (98.1%) to ampicillin/sulbactam, 106 (98.1%) to co-trimoxazole, 87 (80.6%) to tetracycline, and 1 (1.8%) to colistin. Using combined disk diffusion test, 91 (84.2%) and 86 (86.86%) were ESBL and MBL producers, respectively. The prevalence of bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, bla IMP-1, and bla VIM-1 genes was 71 (78.03%), 36 (39.5%), 3 (3.48%), and 15 (17.44%), respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs-producing A. baumannii strains detected in this study is a major concern and highlights the need of infection control measures.

  4. Detection of blaIMP4 and blaNDM1 harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a university hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hamzan, Nurul Izzati; Yean, Chan Yean; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (bla KPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians. PMID:25765342

  5. Rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cancan; Zheng, Fen; Rui, Yongyu

    2014-12-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes. Six oligonucleotides, including outer, inner, and loop primers, were designed for eight distinct regions in each target gene. Two qualitative criteria were used to evaluate LAMP reactions: visual inspection of color change and real-time detection of fluorescence change. The lower detection limit was 10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction for real-time detection and 100 CFU per reaction for visual inspection for each gene. Two hundred twenty-two carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (including 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 Acinetobacter sp., and 22 Enterobacteriaceae) were tested by LAMP assay. At the same time, these isolates were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. In these clinical isolates, the results of 11 strains with blaNDM, 11 strains with blaKPC, 11 strains with blaVIM, and 2 strains with blaIMP obtained using LAMP assays were concordant with conventional PCR. The LAMP method reported here may be a useful and powerful tool for rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria. PMID:25000338

  6. Rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cancan; Zheng, Fen; Rui, Yongyu

    2014-12-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes. Six oligonucleotides, including outer, inner, and loop primers, were designed for eight distinct regions in each target gene. Two qualitative criteria were used to evaluate LAMP reactions: visual inspection of color change and real-time detection of fluorescence change. The lower detection limit was 10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction for real-time detection and 100 CFU per reaction for visual inspection for each gene. Two hundred twenty-two carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (including 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 Acinetobacter sp., and 22 Enterobacteriaceae) were tested by LAMP assay. At the same time, these isolates were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. In these clinical isolates, the results of 11 strains with blaNDM, 11 strains with blaKPC, 11 strains with blaVIM, and 2 strains with blaIMP obtained using LAMP assays were concordant with conventional PCR. The LAMP method reported here may be a useful and powerful tool for rapid detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in bacteria.

  7. Drug-resistant gene of blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chenggong; Yang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We distinguished the four alleles of OXA subgroups from 339 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii using Polymerase Chain Reaction, and investigated distributions of OXA subgroups in clinical isolated strains. A total of 196 Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from the Central Hospital of Zhumadian between 2010 and 2014. Amplification of OXA genes, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-58, were performed by PCR. Patients with Acinetobacter baumannii were selected from ICU, pneumology, emergency and cerebral surgery, accounting for 33.67%, 17.86%, 16.33% and 32.14%, respectively. Most strains showed resistance to different classes of agents, especially in ceftazidime, piperacillin, cefepime, nitrofurantoin and ertapenem. Multiplex PCR results showed, out of the 339 isolated strains, 164 (48.38%) were blaOXA-51, 157 (46.31%) were blaOXA-23, 18 (5.31%) were blaOXA-58, and no strain for blaOXA-24. 143 (47.67%) strains of blaOXA-51, 143 (47.67%) strains of blaOXA-23, and 14 (4.66%) strains of blaOXA-58 showed multidrug-resistant. In conclusion, our study found that OXA-51 and OXA-23 were the main mechanisms of resistant or sensitivity to carbapenems.

  8. Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the results of a molecular epidemiological survey of 15 carbapenemase-encoding genes from a recent collection of clinical isolates. The most salient findings revealed that (i) 60% of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes, (ii) the blaDIM-1 gene that has only been reported in...

  9. Co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ramoul, Abir; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane; Amiri, Sabrina; Dekhil, Mazouz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in an Algerian hospital. A total of 43 imipenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 were identified using API 20NE and were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and Etest methods. Carbapenemase activity was detected using microbiological tests and PCR. Genetic transfer of the blaNDM-1 gene was performed by conjugation using sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as recipient strain. Clonal relationships were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using partial sequences of the csuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 43 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (>32μg/mL). The strains harboured blaOXA-23, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-58 and/or blaOXA-24 genes. Co-existence of blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 was detected in two isolates and one isolate, respectively. NDM-1 plasmid transfer to E. coli J53 was successful only for one of the three strains harbouring both blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58. The phylogenetic tree obtained from concatenation of the partial sequences of csuE and blaOXA-51 showed that there was no genetic relationship between the isolates and the blaNDM-1 resistance gene. Here we report for the first time the co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 along with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in recent clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Northeast Algeria. These findings re-emphasise the dissemination and rapid spread of blaNDM-1 carbapenemase genes in multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii isolates in Algeria. PMID:27530856

  10. Aeromonas spp. simultaneously harbouring bla(CTX-M-15), bla(SHV-12), bla(PER-1) and bla(FOX-2), in wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Samanić, Ivica; Fredotović, Zeljana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Jutronić, Marinka; Puizina, Jasna

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas species are becoming renowned as emerging pathogens by increasingly giving rise to a wide spectrum of food and waterborne infections in humans. Another worrisome feature of aeromonads is the growing frequency of antibiotic resistance as a consequence of their prominent diversity in terms of resistance determinants. This study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern, prevalence and characterization of acquired β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC cephalosporinases, as well as the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons, in Aeromonas isolates from wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the eastern coast of Adriatic Sea, Croatia. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were further screened by PCR for genes encoding AmpC (bla(FOX), bla(CMY), bla(MOX), bla(LAT), bla(BIL), bla(DHA), bla(ACC), bla(MIR), bla(ACT)), ESBLs (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(PER), bla(VEB), bla(GES/IBC), bla(OXA)) and integrases (intI1, intI2, intI3). Location of bla genes was characterized by plasmid DNA fingerprinting and Southern blot hybridization. Plasmids carrying ESBL genes were investigated for transferability by conjugation and PCR-based replicon typed. Out of 147 Aeromonas isolates recovered, 30 (20%) demonstrated multiple resistance profile, with co-resistance most frequently detected against penicillins, piperacillin/sulbactam and tetracycline. ESBL-encoding genes were detected in 21 (13 Aeromonas caviae and 8 Aeromonas hydrophila) isolates, with bla(CTX-M-15) gene identified in 19 and bla(SHV-12) in 12 isolates. Among them, 10 isolates simultaneously harboured bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(SHV-12), while 3 isolates additionally carried an AmpC β-lactamase bla(FOX-2) gene. bla(PER-1) gene was identified in a single isolate also harbouring the bla(CTX-M-15) gene. While bla(SHV-12) was chromosomally

  11. Aeromonas spp. simultaneously harbouring bla(CTX-M-15), bla(SHV-12), bla(PER-1) and bla(FOX-2), in wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Samanić, Ivica; Fredotović, Zeljana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Jutronić, Marinka; Puizina, Jasna

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas species are becoming renowned as emerging pathogens by increasingly giving rise to a wide spectrum of food and waterborne infections in humans. Another worrisome feature of aeromonads is the growing frequency of antibiotic resistance as a consequence of their prominent diversity in terms of resistance determinants. This study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern, prevalence and characterization of acquired β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC cephalosporinases, as well as the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons, in Aeromonas isolates from wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the eastern coast of Adriatic Sea, Croatia. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were further screened by PCR for genes encoding AmpC (bla(FOX), bla(CMY), bla(MOX), bla(LAT), bla(BIL), bla(DHA), bla(ACC), bla(MIR), bla(ACT)), ESBLs (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(PER), bla(VEB), bla(GES/IBC), bla(OXA)) and integrases (intI1, intI2, intI3). Location of bla genes was characterized by plasmid DNA fingerprinting and Southern blot hybridization. Plasmids carrying ESBL genes were investigated for transferability by conjugation and PCR-based replicon typed. Out of 147 Aeromonas isolates recovered, 30 (20%) demonstrated multiple resistance profile, with co-resistance most frequently detected against penicillins, piperacillin/sulbactam and tetracycline. ESBL-encoding genes were detected in 21 (13 Aeromonas caviae and 8 Aeromonas hydrophila) isolates, with bla(CTX-M-15) gene identified in 19 and bla(SHV-12) in 12 isolates. Among them, 10 isolates simultaneously harboured bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(SHV-12), while 3 isolates additionally carried an AmpC β-lactamase bla(FOX-2) gene. bla(PER-1) gene was identified in a single isolate also harbouring the bla(CTX-M-15) gene. While bla(SHV-12) was chromosomally

  12. Citrobacter freundii carrying blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1: characterization by whole genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenjing; Espedido, Björn; Feng, Yu; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii strain WCHCF65 was recovered from hospital sewage and was characterized by genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. The strain carried nine genes encoding β-lactamases including two carbapenemase genes, blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2. blaNDM-1 was carried on an IncX3 plasmid, which was identical to a plasmid found in a local Escherichia coli, suggesting interspecies horizontal transfer. blaKPC-2 was bracketed by two copies of insertion sequence ISKpn19, which could form a composite transposon with the potential to mobilize blaKPC-2, on a new type of plasmid. The coexistence of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 conferred higher levels of resistance to carbapenems compared with blaNDM-1 or blaKPC-2 alone. The coexistence of these carbapenemase genes, on two different plasmids, in one strain may allow new genetic platforms to be generated to mediate their spread. PMID:27465241

  13. Characterization of a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 476 carrying both bla KPC-2 and bla IMP-4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Cao, W; Zhu, X; Chen, Z; Li, L; Zhang, B; Wang, B; Tian, L; Wang, F; Liu, C; Sun, Z

    2012-08-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has recently spread rapidly throughout China. In this study, we characterized a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolate that produced both KPC-2 and IMP-4 type carbapenemases. A clinical isolate of K. pneumoniae, resistant to both meropenem and imipenem, was recovered from a urine sample. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and Etest (bioMérieux, France). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for gene type analysis. bla (KPC) and the encoding genes of ESBLs and plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced. Plasmids were analyzed by transformation, enzyme restriction and Southern blot. PCR analysis revealed that the isolate was simultaneously carrying bla (KPC-2), bla (IMP-4), bla (TEM-1), and bla (OKP-B) genes. MLST assigned the isolate to a novel sequence type, ST476. bla (KPC-2)-harbouring plasmids of the isolate and comparative strains had similar EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps, while IMP-4-harbouring plasmids had variable HindIII restriction maps. Coexistence of bla (KPC-2) and bla (IMP-4) was probably due to bla (IMP-4)-harbouring plasmid transmission into KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae (ST476). The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses both therapeutic and infection control problems. PMID:22271301

  14. ): laser processing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke-Begemann, T.; Meinertz, J.; Weichenhain-Schriever, R.; Ihlemann, J.

    2014-10-01

    Substoichiometric silicon oxide SiOx with x < 2 in form of evaporated or sputtered thin films offers a versatile material basis for laser ablation techniques such as film patterning, laser-induced forward transfer, or laser-induced backside dry etching. Applications in the field of (micro-) optics are favoured strongly by the fact that SiOx can be oxidised to UV-transparent SiO2 by thermal treatment (furnace or laser annealing). On the other hand, with x ≈ 1, SiOx exhibits an absorption coefficient of >105 cm-1 in the deep UV below 250 nm, comparable to strongly absorbing polymers such as polyimide. This enables precise ablation with, e.g., excimer lasers at moderate fluences. For example, UV-transparent diffractive elements or phase masks are made by laser patterning of an appropriate SiOx film and subsequent oxidation to SiO2. Modifications of the basic film ablation process lead to novel surface topographies such as blister or cup arrays with potential non-optical applications, e.g., in micro-/nanofluidics.

  15. Characterization of the blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes and the novel blaKPC-15 gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongguo; Hou, Wei; Chen, Jiayu; Mou, Yonghua; Yang, Linjun; Yang, Liqin; Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Meiyun

    2014-07-01

    Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenem were analysed by PCR, PFGE, gene mapping, plasmid conjugation and Southern blot hybridization using a blaKPC probe. In addition to the frequently reported blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes, a novel blaKPC-15 gene was identified in one of the isolates. The results of plasmid analysis and Southern blot hybridization revealed that the three blaKPC genes were located on transferable plasmids exhibiting three different patterns. The patterns A, B and C were observed in the genetic makeup of each individual plasmid, and all three structures contained ISKpn6-like and ISKpn8 transposons. The results of the gene mapping and hybridization experiments performed with the blaKPC probe demonstrated that the plasmids harboured the three genes at approximately the 85.0, 54.0 and 73.0 kb positions. The study concluded that carbapenem resistance in the three isolates was primarily due to the production of carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase. PMID:24713357

  16. pRMH760, a precursor of A/C₂ plasmids carrying blaCMY and blaNDM genes.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of plasmids in the repA/C2 group carrying genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins (bla(CMY)) or to carbapenems (bla(NDM)) and cephalosporins (bla(CMY)), the sequence of plasmid pRMH760 that lacks the β-lactamase genes was determined and compared to all available A/C2 plasmid sequences. pRMH760 is 170.6 kb and carries several antibiotic resistance genes in a 45.1 kb complex transposon structure located upstream of the rhs gene. In plasmid pR148, the closest relative of pRMH760, the antibiotic resistance island is in the same position but the resistance genes differ. pRMH760 also contains a deletion in the rhs gene. Sequenced A/C2 plasmids containing bla(CMY) or bla(CMY) and bla(NDM) have backbones closely related to the pRMH760/pR148 backbone, and they include resistance islands in the same location, indicating that they arose from a plasmid related to pRMH760/pR148. However, the gene content of this resistance island differs in each case, and the island family was designated ARI-A. The bla(NDM) gene is within ARI-A. The ISEcp1-bla(CMY) fragment is located elsewhere and is always in the same location, consistent with a single acquisition event. Plasmids containing only bla(CMY) carry a second resistance island, designated ARI-B, which includes the sul2 gene and a variable set of further resistance genes. Nine A/C2 plasmids that were not of this type (type 1) were found to have a similar backbone that can be simply distinguished by the presence of two exchanged regions and two insertions. Antibiotic resistance islands in type 2 plasmids are in different locations and have different structures.

  17. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  18. ISCR2, another vehicle for bla(VEB) gene acquisition.

    PubMed

    Poirel, Laurent; Mugnier, Pauline D; Toleman, Mark A; Walsh, Timothy R; Rapoport, Melina J; Petroni, Alejandro; Nordmann, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene bla(VEB-1), identified worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is associated with either class 1 integrons or repeated elements. We report here the first association of bla(VEB-1a) with the insertion sequence ISCR2 in six Acinetobacter species isolates recovered from Argentina. That genetic structure was likely at the origin of the mobilization of this ESBL gene.

  19. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  20. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines. PMID:26644466

  1. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  2. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients. PMID:27217349

  3. Information Processing Theory: Classroom Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, John R.; Charlesworth, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Utilizes the information processing model of human memory to provide teachers with suggestions for improving the teaching-learning process. Briefly explains and specifies applications of major theoretical concepts: attention, active learning, meaningfulness, organization, advanced organizers, memory aids, overlearning, automatically, and…

  4. First Report of bla(IMP-8) in Raoultella planticola.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Sung-Pin; Wang, Jann-Tay; Liang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Pei-Shan; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Two carbapenem-resistant Raoultella planticola clinical isolates were isolated from patients with pneumonia and Port-A catheter-related bacteremia, respectively, in Taiwan. These isolates remained susceptible to fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and colistin. Though the two isolates had the same antibiogram, plasmidic carbapenemase blaIMP-8, class 1 integron cassette (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2), and qnrB2, they had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, plasmid sizes, and outer membrane protein loss profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaIMP-8 found in R. planticola. Interestingly, blaIMP-8 is the most common carbapenemase found in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. In the literature, carbapenemase genes in R. planticola in each country were also found in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the same country.

  5. Wide Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing β-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene in Colombia▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Ten blaKPC-2-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded blaAmpC and blaOXA-50 genes and the acquired blaKPC-2 gene. In most cases, the blaKPC-2 genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing blaKPC-2 are disseminating in Colombia. PMID:21844315

  6. Occurrence of blaNDM-1 & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Balvinder; Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Sandhu, Harkiran Kaur; Appannanavar, Suma B.; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases is increasingly being reported worldwide. This study was conducted to know the occurrence of important carbapenem resistance encoding genes in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) causing complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI), and to look at the genetic diversity of these isolates. Methods: The study was carried out on 166 consecutive carbapenem resistant uropathogens (CRU) isolated from cases with CUTI during 2008 and 2012. Carbapenemase production was characterized phenotypically and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, and blaNDM-1. BOX- PCR was done on 80 randomly selected isolates for molecular typing. Results: The blaVIM gene was present in 34 (43.6%), blaIMP in five (6.4%) and none of the isolates from 2008 had blaNDM-1 or blaKPC genes. Among the isolates from 2012, blaNDM-1 gene was present in 47 (53.4%), blaVIM in 19 (24.4%), blaIMP in one (1.1%) and none had blaKPC. There were nine isolates during the two years which had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases; while 66 did not have any of the genes tested. Of the 80 isolates subjected to BOX-PCR, 58 could be used for analysis and showed, presence of multiple clusters of carbapenem resistant isolates and absence of a single dominant clone. Interpretation & conclusions: The blaNDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The blaKPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time. PMID:26458351

  7. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  8. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  9. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  10. 7 CFR 4284.510 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....510 Application processing. (a) Applications. USDA will solicit applications on a competitive basis by... organizations receiving the assistance, and the transferability of its Cooperative development strategy...

  11. Characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes (blaA and blaB) in Yersinia intermedia and Y. frederiksenii

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Shilpi; Mallik, Sarita; Sharma, Sachin; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of β-lactamases in Y. enterocolitica has been reported to vary with serovars, biovars and geographical origin of the isolates. An understanding of the β-lactamases in other related species is important for an overall perception of antibiotic resistance in yersiniae. The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes in strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii, isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources in India. Results The enzymes, Bla-A (a constitutive class A penicillinase) and Bla-B (an inducible class C cephalosporinase) were found to be present in all the clinical and non-clinical strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii by double disc diffusion method. The results showed differential expression of Bla-A as indicated by presence/absence of synergy whereas expression of Bla-B was quite consistent. The presence of these enzymes was also reflected in the high minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC50 (126–1024 mg/L) and MIC90 (256–1024 mg/L) of β-lactam antibiotics against these species. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed heterogeneity in both blaA and blaB genes of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii. The blaA gene of Y. intermedia shared significant sequence identity (87–96%) with blaA of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 4. The sequence identity of blaA of Y. frederiksenii with these biovars was 77–79%. The sequence identity of blaB gene of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii was more (85%) with that of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 2 compared to other species viz., Y. bercovieri, Y. aldovae and Y. ruckeri. Isoelectric focusing data further revealed that both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii produced Bla-A (pI 8.7) and "Bla-B like" (pI 5.5–7.1) enzymes. Conclusion Both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii showed presence of blaA and blaB genes and unequivocal expression of the two β-lactamases. Limited heterogeneity was detected in bla

  12. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  13. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and activities of an aerospace technology transfer group are outlined and programs in various stages of progress are described including the orbital tube flaring device, infrared proximity sensor for robot positioning, laser stripping magnet wire, infrared imaging as welding process tracking system, carbide coating of cutting tools, nondestructive fracture toughness testing of titanium welds, portable solar system for agricultural applications, and an anerobic methane gas generator.

  14. Manufacturing Process Applications Team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Manufacturing Process Applications Team concerning the promotion of joint Industry/Federal Agency/NASA funded research and technology operating plan (RTOP) programs are reported. Direct transfers occurred in cutting tools, laser wire stripping, soldering, and portable X-ray unit technology. TROP program funding approval was obtained for the further development of the cutting tool Sialon and development of an automated nondestructive fracture toughness testing system.

  15. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  16. blaCTX-M-1/9/1 Hybrid Genes May Have Been Generated from blaCTX-M-15 on an IncI2 Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lanping; He, Dandan; Lv, Luchao; Liu, Wuling; Chen, Xiaojie; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Three hybrid CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-64, CTX-M-123, and CTX-M-132, with N and C termini matching CTX-M-1 group enzymes and centers matching CTX-M-9 group enzymes, have been identified. The hybrid gene sequences suggested recombination between blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14, the two most common blaCTX-M variants worldwide. However, blaCTX-M-64 and blaCTX-M-123 are found in an ISEcp1-blaCTX-M transposition unit with a 45-bp “spacer,” rather than the 48 bp usually associated with blaCTX-M-15, and 112 bp of IncA/C plasmid backbone. This is closer to the context of blaCTX-M-55, which has one nucleotide difference from blaCTX-M-15, on IncI2 plasmid pHN1122-1. Here, we characterized an IncI2 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-15 with a 45-bp spacer (pHNY2-1) by complete sequencing and also sequenced IncI2 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-64 (pHNAH46-1) or blaCTX-M-132 (pHNLDH19) and an IncI1 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-123 (pHNAH4-1). pHNY2-1 has the same ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-IncA/C insertion as pHN1122-1, pHNAH46-1, and pHNLDH19, and all four plasmid backbones are almost identical. pHNAH4-1 (IncI1 sequence type 108 [ST108]) carries a transposition unit that includes a 2,720-bp fragment of the IncI2 backbone, suggesting ISEcp1-mediated transfer of blaCTX-M-IncA/C-IncI2 to an IncI1 plasmid. All three hybrid blaCTX-M genes may have resulted from recombination between blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 with a 45-bp spacer on an IncI2 plasmid. Five additional Escherichia coli isolates of different sequence types from different provinces, farms, and/or animals had blaCTX-M-64 on a pHNAH46-1-like IncI2 plasmid and 9 had blaCTX-M-123 on a pHNAH4-1-like IncI1 ST108 plasmid. Thus, epidemic IncI plasmids may be responsible for the spread of blaCTX-M-64 and blaCTX-M-123 between different animals and different locations in China. PMID:25987615

  17. Successful treatment of a Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla OXA-48 , bla VIM-2 , bla CMY-2 and bla SHV- with high dose combination of imipenem and amikacin.

    PubMed

    Hajjej, Zied; Gharsallah, Hedi; Naija, Habiba; Boutiba, Ilhem; Labbene, Iheb; Ferjani, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of 58-year-old man with septic shock due to Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) bloodstream infections (BSI) who was successfully treated with a high dose association of amikacin and imipenem combined with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). A Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) was isolated from the catheter culture and from two blood samples, drawn from the catheter before removal and from a peripheral vein. The Kp was intermediate to Amikacin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and was resistant to all other antibiotics including Imipenem (MIC = 4 μg/ml), Colistin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and Tigecycline (MIC = 4 μg/ml) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published in 2011. PCR amplification and sequencing verified the presence of blaOXA-48, blaVIM-2, blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-1 genes. Amikacin was given at a dose of 30 mg/kg (2.5 g) in a 30 min infusion and the dose of imipenem was increased to 1 g every 6 h despite patient's altered renal function (Creatinine Clearance = 25 ml/min). To avoid amikacin nephrotoxicity and to allow the use of high doses of imipenem, continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) (blood flow, 200 ml/h; dialysate, 1000 ml/h; ultrafiltrate, 2000 ml/h) was initiated 1 h after the start of the amikacin infusion and continued thereafter. The patient improved hemodynamically and norepinephrine was stopped five days after antibiotherapy adaptation. PMID:27051575

  18. Successful treatment of a Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla OXA-48 , bla VIM-2 , bla CMY-2 and bla SHV- with high dose combination of imipenem and amikacin.

    PubMed

    Hajjej, Zied; Gharsallah, Hedi; Naija, Habiba; Boutiba, Ilhem; Labbene, Iheb; Ferjani, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of 58-year-old man with septic shock due to Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) bloodstream infections (BSI) who was successfully treated with a high dose association of amikacin and imipenem combined with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). A Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) was isolated from the catheter culture and from two blood samples, drawn from the catheter before removal and from a peripheral vein. The Kp was intermediate to Amikacin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and was resistant to all other antibiotics including Imipenem (MIC = 4 μg/ml), Colistin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and Tigecycline (MIC = 4 μg/ml) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published in 2011. PCR amplification and sequencing verified the presence of blaOXA-48, blaVIM-2, blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-1 genes. Amikacin was given at a dose of 30 mg/kg (2.5 g) in a 30 min infusion and the dose of imipenem was increased to 1 g every 6 h despite patient's altered renal function (Creatinine Clearance = 25 ml/min). To avoid amikacin nephrotoxicity and to allow the use of high doses of imipenem, continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) (blood flow, 200 ml/h; dialysate, 1000 ml/h; ultrafiltrate, 2000 ml/h) was initiated 1 h after the start of the amikacin infusion and continued thereafter. The patient improved hemodynamically and norepinephrine was stopped five days after antibiotherapy adaptation.

  19. 13 CFR 500.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 500.205... AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An original application and three copies must be received by the Board no later than 5...

  20. Epidemic Plasmid Carrying blaCTX-M-15 in Klebsiella penumoniae in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chao; Li, Xiao-qiang; Zong, Zhi-yong; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the local epidemiology of Klebsiella penumoniae carrying blaCTX-M-15 in southern China and to characterize the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15. Methods PCR and DNA sequencing were used to detect and characterize the genetic contexts of blaCTX-M-15. The clonal relatedness of isolates carrying blaCTX-M-15 was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Conjugative plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15 were obtained by mating and were further subject to restriction analysis and replicon typing. Results A total of 47CTX-M-15 ESBL-producing isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from nine hospitals in China from October 2007 to October 2008. Isolates were clustered into various clonal groups. The local spread of blaCTX-M-15 was mainly mediated by one major conjugative plasmid as determined by S1-PFGE and restriction analysis. A 90-kb plasmid belonging to incompatible group FII was the major carrier of blaCTX-M-15 in K. pneumoniae. Except blaTEM-1, the resistance genes such as blaSHV, blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, qnrB, qnrS, aac(3)-II, and aac(6′)-Ib were not found in the plasmid. In the comparing of conjugative gene sequence, it is 100% identical with the plasmid pKF3–94, which was found in K. pneumonia from Zhejiang province of china previously. Conclusions blaCTX-M-15 was prevalent in K. pneumonia of southern China. The dissemination of blaCTX-M-15 appeared to be due to the horizontal transfer of a 90-kb epidemic plasmid. PMID:23382815

  1. Robotic vision. [process control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. S.; Wilf, J. M.; Cunningham, R. T.; Eskenazi, R.

    1979-01-01

    Robotic vision, involving the use of a vision system to control a process, is discussed. Design and selection of active sensors employing radiation of radio waves, sound waves, and laser light, respectively, to light up unobservable features in the scene are considered, as are design and selection of passive sensors, which rely on external sources of illumination. The segmentation technique by which an image is separated into different collections of contiguous picture elements having such common characteristics as color, brightness, or texture is examined, with emphasis on the edge detection technique. The IMFEX (image feature extractor) system performing edge detection and thresholding at 30 frames/sec television frame rates is described. The template matching and discrimination approach to recognize objects are noted. Applications of robotic vision in industry for tasks too monotonous or too dangerous for the workers are mentioned.

  2. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting. PMID:27436392

  3. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  4. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 400.205 Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process....

  5. 45 CFR 1634.7 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 1634.7 Section 1634.7 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.7 Application process. (a) The Corporation shall set a date for... opportunity, after filing the notice of intent to compete, to complete the application process....

  6. 45 CFR 1634.7 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application process. 1634.7 Section 1634.7 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.7 Application process. (a) The Corporation shall set a date for... opportunity, after filing the notice of intent to compete, to complete the application process....

  7. 45 CFR 1634.7 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 1634.7 Section 1634.7 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.7 Application process. (a) The Corporation shall set a date for... opportunity, after filing the notice of intent to compete, to complete the application process....

  8. 45 CFR 1634.7 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 1634.7 Section 1634.7 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.7 Application process. (a) The Corporation shall set a date for... opportunity, after filing the notice of intent to compete, to complete the application process....

  9. Beta-Lactamase Repressor BlaI Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Morgan A.; Haste, Nina M.; Meharena, Hiruy S.; Olson, Joshua; Gallo, Richard L.; Nizet, Victor; Kristian, Sascha A.

    2015-01-01

    BlaI is a repressor of BlaZ, the beta-lactamase responsible for penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Through screening a transposon library in S. aureus Newman for susceptibility to cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, we discovered BlaI as a novel cathelicidin resistance factor. Additionally, through integrational mutagenesis in S. aureus Newman and MRSA Sanger 252 strains, we confirmed the role of BlaI in resistance to human and murine cathelidicin and showed that it contributes to virulence in human whole blood and murine infection models. We further demonstrated that BlaI could be a target for innate immune-based antimicrobial therapies; by removing BlaI through subinhibitory concentrations of 6-aminopenicillanic acid, we were able to sensitize S. aureus to LL-37 killing. PMID:26305782

  10. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of bla(KPC), bla(NDM) and/or bla(VIM), and bla(OXA)-48 from Perirectal Swabs.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna F; Fahle, Gary A; Kemp, Margaret A; Jassem, Agatha N; Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all bla(KPC)), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (C(T)) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in C(T) values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU bla(KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, C(T) values for bla(KPC) were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, C(T) values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 C(T) values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a C(T) cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, C(T) values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management. PMID:26338860

  11. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A.; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C.; Klinzing, David C.; Daroy, Maria Luisa G.; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1. PMID:27032000

  12. 24 CFR 1003.401 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application process. 1003.401... Grants § 1003.401 Application process. (a) Letter to proceed. The Area ONAP may issue the applicant a... activities do not alter environmental conditions and are for temporary or permanent improvements limited...

  13. 24 CFR 1003.401 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application process. 1003.401... Grants § 1003.401 Application process. (a) Letter to proceed. The Area ONAP may issue the applicant a... activities do not alter environmental conditions and are for temporary or permanent improvements limited...

  14. 7 CFR 1485.13 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1485.13 Section 1485.13.... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.13 Application process. (a) General application requirements. CCC will periodically publish a Notice in the Federal Register that it is accepting...

  15. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL LINE RELOCATION AND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  16. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL LINE RELOCATION AND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  17. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL LINE RELOCATION AND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  18. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL LINE RELOCATION AND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  19. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  20. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  1. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  2. 13 CFR 400.205 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 400.205 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.205 Application process. (a) Application process. An... “Application for Steel Guarantee Loan”; (2) The information required for the completion of Form...

  3. 49 CFR 80.7 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 80.7 Section 80.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.7 Application process. (a) Public and private applicants for credit assistance under this...

  4. 7 CFR 760.1105 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 760.1105 Section 760.1105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) Participants must submit to FSA: (1) A completed application in accordance with §...

  5. 7 CFR 1709.114 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1709.114 Section 1709.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. The RUS will request applications for high energy cost grants on a competitive basis...

  6. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  7. 14 CFR 1300.16 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1300.16 Section 1300.16 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... § 1300.16 Application process. (a) Applications are to be submitted by the borrower. Borrowers may...

  8. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.103 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.103 Section 1416.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.103 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to...

  10. 7 CFR 760.907 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 760.907 Section 760.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) To apply for 2005-2007 LIP, submit a completed application to the...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.103 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1416.103 Section 1416.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.103 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to...

  12. 45 CFR 800.301 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 800.301 Section 800.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM Application and Contracting Procedures § 800.301 Application process. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1709.114 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1709.114 Section 1709.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. The RUS will request applications for high energy cost grants on a competitive basis...

  14. 7 CFR 1416.103 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application process. 1416.103 Section 1416.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.103 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to...

  15. 7 CFR 760.1105 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application process. 760.1105 Section 760.1105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) Participants must submit to FSA: (1) A completed application in accordance with §...

  16. 7 CFR 1416.103 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application process. 1416.103 Section 1416.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.103 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to...

  17. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  18. 45 CFR 800.301 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 800.301 Section 800.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM Application and Contracting Procedures § 800.301 Application process. (a)...

  19. 7 CFR 1416.103 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application process. 1416.103 Section 1416.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.103 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to...

  20. 7 CFR 760.1105 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 760.1105 Section 760.1105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) Participants must submit to FSA: (1) A completed application in accordance with §...

  1. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  2. 24 CFR 1003.401 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application process. 1003.401 Section 1003.401 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... Grants § 1003.401 Application process. (a) Letter to proceed. The Area ONAP may issue the applicant...

  3. 49 CFR 80.7 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 80.7 Section 80.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.7 Application process. (a) Public and private applicants for credit assistance under this...

  4. 7 CFR 760.907 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 760.907 Section 760.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) To apply for 2005-2007 LIP, submit a completed application to the...

  5. 38 CFR 60.15 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.15 Application process. (a) Obtaining and submitting the application. VA Form 10-0408A is the application for Fisher House and other temporary lodging. Applications... House lodging, to the Fisher House Manager at the VA health care facility of jurisdiction. (2) For...

  6. 38 CFR 60.15 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.15 Application process. (a) Obtaining and submitting the application. VA Form 10-0408A is the application for Fisher House and other temporary lodging. Applications... House lodging, to the Fisher House Manager at the VA health care facility of jurisdiction. (2) For...

  7. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application process. 581.9 Section... implementing regulations. The applicant must state that it will not discriminate on the basis of race, color... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant...

  8. blaNDM-5 carried by an IncX3 plasmid in Escherichia coli sequence type 167.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Xie, Yi; Feng, Ping; Zong, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    bla(NDM-)5 was found in Escherichia coli strain 0215 from a Chinese patient without travel history. Genomic sequencing and conjugation experiments were performed. Strain 0215 belonged to sequence type 167 (ST167) and had other resistance determinants, including bla(TEM-135), bla(CTX-M-14), and aac(6')-Ib. bla(NDM-5) was carried by a 47-kb self-transmissible IncX3 plasmid and was in a complex genetic context similar to that of bla(NDM-1) on IncX3 plasmids. IncX3 plasmids might have emerged as a common vehicle mediating the spread of bla(NDM).

  9. 7 CFR 1416.703 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.703 Application process. (a) A complete application for 2005 Hurricane TAP benefits and related supporting documentation must be submitted to the...

  10. GPU applications for data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Aleksandrov, Andrey; Tioukov, Valeri

    2015-12-31

    Modern experiments that use nuclear photoemulsion imply fast and efficient data acquisition from the emulsion can be performed. The new approaches in developing scanning systems require real-time processing of large amount of data. Methods that use Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) computing power for emulsion data processing are presented here. It is shown how the GPU-accelerated emulsion processing helped us to rise the scanning speed by factor of nine.

  11. Information Processing Theory: Classroom Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, John R.; Charlesworth, John R., Jr.

    The information processing model, a theoretical framework of how humans think, reason, and learn, views human cognitive functioning as analogous to the operation of a computer. This paper uses the increased understanding of the information processing model to provide teachers with suggestions for improving the teaching-learning process. Major…

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from a New York City Hospital Belonging to Sequence Type 258 and Carrying blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-4

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M.; Mills, Janet C.; Jones, Ronald N.; Soave, Rosemary; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Schuetz, Audrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Among 69 of 139 (49.6%) carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae carrying blaKPC, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae was also positive for blaVIM. The isolate belonged to sequence type 258 (ST258) and carried blaKPC-2 on a copy of Tn4401a and blaVIM-4 on a class 1 integron. Genes were located on distinct plasmids belonging to Inc types A/C and FII. Elevated expression of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC (acrA, 15.3 times) and reduced expression of outer membrane protein genes ompK35 and ompK37 (0.16 and 0.081 times, respectively) associated with various amino acid alterations on OmpK37 were observed. The presence of two carbapenemases in ST258 K. pneumoniae is of great concern due to the ability of this organism to widely disseminate. PMID:26729504

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas sp. Strain Carrying blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2 Carbapenemase Genes from Hospital Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiyi; Wu, Wenjing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain WCHP16 recovered from hospital sewage in West China Hospital, Chengdu, China was found to carry two carbapenemase genes blaIMP-25 and blaVIM-2. Here, we report its 5.7-Mb draft genome sequence, comprising 141 contigs and an average 59.53% G+C content. The genome contained 5,504 coding sequences and 67 tRNA genes. PMID:27795238

  14. Investigation of genetic diversity of the bla(SHV) gene and development of an oligonucleotide microarray to detect mutations in the bla(SHV) gene.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Sheng, Haihui; Zeng, Xainting; Yan, Jufen; Li, Haiyan; Xiao, Huasheng; Li, Xiaokun; Yang, Shulin

    2012-12-01

    SHV β-lactamases, including SHV extended-spectrum β-lactamases, are widespread throughout the world, and confer a broad spectrum of resistance to antibiotic drugs. Mutations ranging from single base-pair substitutions to small deletions within bla(SHV) often result in diminished activity and an increased susceptibility to β-lactamase inhibitors. Here, we collected 1,320 clinical isolates from three hospitals in Shanghai. We developed a novel oligonucleotide microarray to detect mutations in the bla(SHV) gene, and validated the array data by direct sequencing. Sixty-two of the 1,320 isolates carried the bla(SHV) gene. The genotypes of these 62 isolates were successfully called by the microarray and were consistent with the genotypes identified by bidirectional sequencing. Sixteen different bla(SHV) alleles were identified. The SHV-1 variant was the most frequent (32.26%), followed by SHV-11 (27.42%) and SHV-12 (25.81%). Of the 62 isolates, 12 contained two different bla(SHV) alleles. Our microarray significantly facilitated the identification of bla(SHV) variants, which makes it an attractive option for the detection of SHV variants in clinical laboratories. PMID:22897109

  15. Molecular cloning of Mu d(bla lacZ) transcriptional and translational fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, B L

    1987-01-01

    The vector pBW2 was made to selectively clone chimeric plasmids with chromosomal Mu d(bla lacZ) transcriptional or translational fusions. It was tetracycline resistant and had the carboxyl-terminal end of bla distal to its PstI site. Because ligation of PstI-digested chromosomal DNA of a Mu d(bla lacZ) insertion with pBW2 restored bla, ampicillin-resistant chimeric plasmids were selectable. These plasmids had the Mu d bla amino terminus and simultaneously acquired other Mu d sequences including lacZ, the chromosomal fusion joint, and the DNA adjacent to the nearest chromosomal PstI site. The plasmid pBW2 was useful in the molecular cloning of several psi and pho::lacZ(Mu d) fusions, as well as chromosomal genes located near Mu d insertions. PMID:3032905

  16. β-Lactam Resistance Genes: Characterization, Epidemiology, and First Detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry in Brazil-Brazil Ministry of Agriculture's Pathogen Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Fernanda Marques; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Oliveira, Vinicius Gomes Sales; Gaspari, Marcus Vinicius; Dos Santos, Amaury; de Freitas, Josinete Barros; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread in nature; however, human infections occur mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, specially poultry and eggs. In Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) oversees food production in general, with the goal of preventing transmission of pathogens through the food chain. In 2004, MAPA initiated a program to monitor and control levels of Salmonella in poultry during slaughter. This study analyzes isolates from MAPA's program for β-lactam resistance and the resistance genes involved, as well as the geographic distributions of potentially clonal populations of resistant isolates within Brazil. Initially, 1,939 Salmonella spp. isolated between 2004 and 2011 were examined. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and 100 isolates resistant or intermediate to ampicillin and ceftriaxone were screened initially for the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPSA, blaCMY-1, and blaCMY-2 genes. There were 55 isolates whose resistance genes were not identified by this panel and these isolates are the subject of this report. These 55 isolates were differentiated into 31 distinct ribogroups, with multiple β-lactam resistance genes, including AmpC blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaCTX-M-14. Isolates carrying variants of blaCTX-M were identified in three geographic regions. Salmonella carrying particular genetic variants of blaCTX-M and belonging to the same ribogroup were identified from multiple poultry slaughtering facilities. In some instances, these presumptive clonal-related isolates were from facilities over 300 miles apart, indicating potential clonal spread between two geographic regions. This is the first report of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella in Brazil.

  17. 8 CFR 207.2 - Applicant processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.2 Applicant processing. (a) Forms. Each applicant who seeks admission as a refugee shall submit an individual Form I-590 (Registration for Classification as Refugee). Additionally, each applicant 14 years...

  18. 8 CFR 207.2 - Applicant processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.2 Applicant processing. (a) Forms. Each applicant who seeks admission as a refugee shall submit an individual Form I-590 (Registration for Classification as Refugee). Additionally, each applicant 14 years...

  19. 7 CFR 1720.6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... application to the Secretary; (2) The application is screened by RUS pursuant to 7 CFR 1720.7(a) of this part... the selection criteria set forth in 7 CFR 1720.7(b) of this part; (4) If RUS provisionally approves... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1720.6 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 624.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 624.5 Section 624.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.5 Application process. (a) FTA shall publish...

  1. 49 CFR 624.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 624.5 Section 624.5..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.5 Application process. (a) FTA shall publish a... proposed project is a transportation control measure in an approved State Implementation Plan; (2)...

  2. 49 CFR 624.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 624.5 Section 624.5..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.5 Application process. (a) FTA shall publish a... proposed project is a transportation control measure in an approved State Implementation Plan; (2)...

  3. 49 CFR 624.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 624.5 Section 624.5..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.5 Application process. (a) FTA shall publish a... proposed project is a transportation control measure in an approved State Implementation Plan; (2)...

  4. 49 CFR 624.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application process. 624.5 Section 624.5..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.5 Application process. (a) FTA shall publish a... proposed project is a transportation control measure in an approved State Implementation Plan; (2)...

  5. 48 CFR 819.7108 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 819.7108 Section 819.7108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7108 Application process....

  6. 7 CFR 760.405 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 760.405 Section 760.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... process. (a) In addition to submitting an application for payment at the appropriate time, a producer...

  7. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.403 Section 1416.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.503 Section 1416.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.503 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to...

  9. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application process. 240.63 Section 240.63 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY DEPARTURE... process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the application must...

  10. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application process. 1416.403 Section 1416.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing...

  11. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START FELLOWS PROGRAM § 1311.3 Application process. An individual who wishes to obtain...

  12. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application process. 1416.403 Section 1416.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing...

  13. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1416.503 Section 1416.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.503 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to...

  14. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application process. 1416.403 Section 1416.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing...

  15. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application process. 1416.503 Section 1416.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.503 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to...

  16. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application process. 1416.503 Section 1416.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.503 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to...

  17. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START FELLOWS PROGRAM § 1311.3 Application process. An individual who wishes to obtain...

  18. 7 CFR 1717.161 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Government loans according to the standards in 7 CFR 1710.112 and 1710.113, respectively, and in other RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1717.161 Section 1717.161... Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.161 Application process. (a) Borrowers are responsible for...

  19. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1416.403 Section 1416.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing...

  20. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START FELLOWS PROGRAM § 1311.3 Application process. An individual who wishes to obtain...

  1. 7 CFR 1717.161 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Government loans according to the standards in 7 CFR 1710.112 and 1710.113, respectively, and in other RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1717.161 Section 1717.161... Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.161 Application process. (a) Borrowers are responsible for...

  2. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application process. 240.63 Section 240.63 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY DEPARTURE... process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the application must...

  3. Graphics applications utilizing parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of research conducted to develop a parallel graphic application algorithm to depict the numerical solution of the 1-D wave equation, the vibrating string. The research was conducted on a Flexible Flex/32 multiprocessor and a Sequent Balance 21000 multiprocessor. The wave equation is implemented using the finite difference method. The synchronization issues that arose from the parallel implementation and the strategies used to alleviate the effects of the synchronization overhead are discussed.

  4. Future applications of simulators in process control

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, F.; Wysor, W.

    1997-03-21

    Future applications of simulators in process control will see activities with high return on investment in areas such as concurrent engineering, hardware-in-the-loop controller testing, process fault detection, and Internet-retrievable simulation models and tools. These applications are based on advancing technology in the field of simulation technology. In this paper, the advancing technology will be reviewed, and projections to future uses of simulators in process control will be made.

  5. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

  6. Image processing applications in NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) can be defined as a technique or collection of techniques that permits one to determine some property of a material or object without damaging the object. There are a large number of such techniques and most of them use visual imaging in one form or another. They vary from holographic interferometry where displacements under stress are measured to the visual inspection of an objects surface to detect cracks after penetrant has been applied. The use of image processing techniques on the images produced by NDE is relatively new and can be divided into three general categories: classical image enhancement; mensuration techniques; and quantitative sensitometry. An example is discussed of how image processing techniques are used to nondestructively and destructively test the product throughout its life cycle. The product that will be followed is the microballoon target used in the laser fusion program. The laser target is a small (50 to 100 ..mu..m - dia) glass sphere with typical wall thickness of 0.5 to 6 ..mu..m. The sphere may be used as is or may be given a number of coatings of any number of materials. The beads are mass produced by the millions and the first nondestructive test is to separate the obviously bad beads (broken or incomplete) from the good ones. After this has been done, the good beads must be inspected for spherocity and wall thickness uniformity. The microradiography of the glass, uncoated bead is performed on a specially designed low-energy x-ray machine. The beads are mounted in a special jig and placed on a Kodak high resolution plate in a vacuum chamber that contains the x-ray source. The x-ray image is made with an energy less that 2 keV and the resulting images are then inspected at a magnification of 500 to 1000X. Some typical results are presented.

  7. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains carrying the bla(OxA-23) and the bla(GES-11) genes in a neonatology center in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Charfi-Kessis, Karama; Mansour, Wejdene; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Mastouri, Maha; Nordmann, Patrice; Aouni, Mahjoub; Poirel, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant and difficult-to-treat Acinetobacter baumannii may be responsible for nosocomial infections. The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) of the GES type possessing a carbapenemase activity has been increasingly reported worldwide in A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms of two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered in a neonatology center in the center-east of Tunisia. Two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates were recovered. The first isolate co-harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene and the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene. Analyses of the genetic location indicated that the blaGES-11 gene was plasmid located (Gr6). However, the blaOxA-23 gene was located on the chromosome. The second strain had only the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene, which was plasmid located. This study showed the first description of the GES-type β-lactamase in A. baumannii in Tunisia.

  8. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  10. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  12. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits... proof that the losses and expenses incurred to eligible citrus crops were a direct result of...

  13. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Wheat Quality Program § 1413.106 Application process. (a) To apply for DWQP payment, the producer must... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was...

  14. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Wheat Quality Program § 1413.106 Application process. (a) To apply for DWQP payment, the producer must... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was...

  15. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Wheat Quality Program § 1413.106 Application process. (a) To apply for DWQP payment, the producer must... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was...

  16. 7 CFR 1413.106 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Wheat Quality Program § 1413.106 Application process. (a) To apply for DWQP payment, the producer must... crop year in which the fungicide was applied to a crop of durum wheat. (c) A complete application... number and location of acres planted to durum wheat on which an eligible fungicide was...

  17. 47 CFR 54.1005 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 54.1005 Section 54.1005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL... design, construction, deployment, and maintenance. The applicant shall indicate whether the...

  18. 47 CFR 54.1005 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 54.1005 Section 54.1005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL....g., network design, construction, deployment, and maintenance. The applicant shall indicate...

  19. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... how the projects and activities will improve the cost effectiveness of fuel procured. (2) Applicant... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application process. 1709.210 Section 1709.210... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program §...

  20. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... how the projects and activities will improve the cost effectiveness of fuel procured. (2) Applicant... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application process. 1709.210 Section 1709.210... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program §...

  1. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and to... Application process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and to... Application process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and to... Application process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  4. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and to... Application process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension... person supplying that information to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and to... Application process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  6. EDExpress, 2000-2001: Application Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This trainee workbook, to accompany a one-day workshop at the Student Financial Assistance (SFA) University, is intended for individuals who are processing student financial aid applications using electronic methods such as EDExpress (Electronic Data Exchange) or FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) Express. The first section of the…

  7. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.4 Application process. (a) An entity... this section. (c) The introduction shall include: (1) An explanation of the need for the food aid in...) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that details the amount of any...

  8. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.4 Application process. (a) An entity... this section. (c) The introduction shall include: (1) An explanation of the need for the food aid in...) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that details the amount of any...

  9. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.4 Application process. (a) An entity... this section. (c) The introduction shall include: (1) An explanation of the need for the food aid in...) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget that details the amount of any...

  10. Demystifying and Deconstructing the College Application Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jeanita W.

    2008-01-01

    While benefits of college matriculation are well-established, the portal controlling access to higher education is the institutional application. The bulk of the college application process takes place during a student's senior or 12th-grade year; however, parents and caregivers of high school students need to know that the quest for college…

  11. Processing and applications of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1994-09-01

    Iron aluminides are well known for their resistance to high- temperature sulfidizing and oxidizing environments. In order to take advantage of their excellent corrosion resistance, several methods for their processing have been identified. Issues with melting and processing are discussed detail. Effects of grain size and melting practice on low-temperature ductility are also presented. Many applications for iron aluminides are described.

  12. Applications Of Image Processing In Criminalistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krile, Thomas F.; Walkup, John F.; Barsallo, Adonis; Olimb, Hal; Tarng, Jaw-Horng

    1987-01-01

    A review of some basic image processing techniques for enhancement and restoration of images is given. Both digital and optical approaches are discussed. Fingerprint images are used as examples to illustrate the various processing techniques and their potential applications in criminalistics.

  13. Incompatibility group P-1 bla+ plasmids do not increase penicillin resistance of Pseudomonas acidovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, D L; Warren, R A

    1979-01-01

    Incompatibility group P-1 plasmids with the bla+ genotype were transferred from various Escherichia coli strains to Pseudomonas acidovorans strain 29. When resistance to ampicillin was used as the criterion, none of these plasmids appeared able to express their Bla+ phenotype in this host. When the plasmids were subsequently transferred back from these ampicillin-sensitive P. acdiovorans transcipients to E. coli strains, it was found that the Bla+ phenotype was again expressed. Although beta-lactamase was not detected in cultures of P. acidovorans transcipients, macroiodometric determinations of beta-lactamase activity made on broken cell suspensions revealed that beta-lactamase was indeed synthesized. It was concluded that P. acidovorans strain 29 allows expression of the bla gene within the cell but that this organism is unable to excrete the enzyme. PMID:383693

  14. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Biotech unit operations are often characterized by a large number of inputs (operational parameters) and outputs (performance parameters) along with complex correlations amongst them. A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product, and has anywhere from 15 to 30 such unit operations in series. The aforementioned parameters can impact process performance and product quality and also interact amongst each other. Chemometrics presents one effective approach to gather process understanding from such complex data sets. The increasing use of chemometrics is fuelled by the gradual acceptance of quality by design and process analytical technology amongst the regulators and the biotech industry, which require enhanced process and product understanding. In this article, we review the topic of chemometrics applications in biotech processes with a special focus on recent major developments. Case studies have been used to highlight some of the significant applications.

  15. Expansive spread of IncI1 plasmids carrying blaCMY-2 amongst Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Seah, Kwee Yong; Coleman, Lyndall; Sartor, Anna; Derrington, Petra; Heney, Claire; Faoagali, Joan; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of urinary tract infections. One of the most common antibiotic classes used to treat such infections is the β-lactams, including cephalosporins. Resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins can be caused by production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases. The most commonly reported AmpC β-lactamase in E. coli is CMY-2. Plasmid-mediated CMY-2 has been frequently reported in E. coli and Salmonella sp. from food-producing animals. This study aimed to elucidate the molecular characteristics of clinical E. coli isolates carrying plasmids encoding CMY-2. A total of 67 CMY-2-producing E. coli were characterised by clonal analysis and phylogenetic typing. Characterisation of the plasmids carrying blaCMY-2 included replicon typing, plasmid profiling, plasmid transferability and sequencing of the blaCMY-2 genetic environment. As a result, E. coli producing CMY-2 was found to be highly polyclonal. The majority of CMY-2-producing E. coli belonged to phylogenetic group D. IncI1 plasmids were predominant among those carrying blaCMY-2 (96%). Restriction analysis revealed a single IncI1 plasmid carrying blaCMY-2 to be predominant and present in different clones of E. coli. IS1294-ISEcp1 complex or ISEcp1 that was truncated by IS1294 was the predominant insertion sequence upstream of blaCMY-2. The homogeneous genetic environment of blaCMY-2 observed among different strains of E. coli strongly suggests horizontal transfer of this IncI1, blaCMY-2-carrying plasmid. In summary, horizontal plasmid transfer plays a major role in the spread of blaCMY-2 in E. coli. PMID:25052868

  16. Demystifying the NIH grant application process.

    PubMed

    Berg, Karina M; Gill, Thomas M; Brown, Arleen F; Zerzan, Judy; Elmore, Joann G; Wilson, Ira B

    2007-11-01

    The process of applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for grant funding can be daunting. The objective of this article is to help investigators successfully navigate the NIH grant application process. We focus on the practical aspects of this process, which are commonly learned through trial and error. Our target audience is generalist faculty and fellows who are applying for NIH funding to support their career development or a clinical research project. PMID:17687616

  17. Selected applications and processing techniques for LTCC.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Krueger, Daniel S.; Sandoval, Charles E.

    2010-11-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic has proven itself in microelectronics, microsystems (including microfluidic systems), sensors, RF features, and various non-electronic applications. We will discuss selected applications and the processing associated with those applications. We will then focus on our recent work in the area of EMI shielding using full tape thickness features (FTTF) and sidewall metallization. The FTTF is very effective in applications with -150 dB isolation requirements, but presents obvious processing difficulties in full-scale fabrication. The FTTF forms a single continuous solid wall around the volume to be shielded by using sequential punching and feature-filling. We discuss the material incompatibilities and manufacturing considerations that need to be addressed for such structures and show preliminary implementations.

  18. Dissemination of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with new plasmid-borne blaOXA-72 in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The systemic surveillance of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) from multicenters in Taiwan revealed the emergence of isolates with blaOXA-72. This study described their genetic makeup, mechanism of spread, and contribution to carbapenem resistance. Methods Two hundred and ninety-one non-repetitive isolates of A. baumannii were collected from 10 teaching hospitals from different geographical regions in Taiwan from June 2007 to September 2007. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmid was extracted and digested by restriction enzymes, and subsequently analyzed by electrophoresis and Southern blot for blaOXA-72. The flanking regions of blaOXA-72 were determined by inverse PCR. The contribution of blaOXA-72 to imipenem MIC was determined by transforming plasmids carrying blaOXA-72 into imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii. Results Among 142 IRAB in Taiwan, 27 harbored blaOXA-72; 22 originated from Southern Taiwan, 5 from Central Taiwan, and none from Northern Taiwan. There were two major clones. The blaOXA-72 was identified in the plasmids of all isolates. Two genetic structures flanking plasmid-borne blaOXA-72 were identified and shared identical sequences in certain regions; the one described in previous literature was present in only one isolate, and the new one was present in the remaining isolates. Introduction of blaOXA-72 resulted in an increase of imipenem MIC in the transformants. The overexpression of blaOXA-72 mRNA in response to imipenem further supported the contribution of blaOXA-72. Conclusions In conclusion, isolates with new plasmid-borne blaOXA-72 were found to be disseminated successfully in Southern Taiwan. The spread of the resistance gene depended on clonal spread and dissemination of a new plasmid. BlaOXA-72 in these isolates directly led to their imipenem-resistance. PMID:23849336

  19. Functionally graded materials: Design, processing and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Kaysser, W.A.; Rabin, B.H.; Kawasaki, A.; Ford, R.G.

    1999-09-01

    In a Functionally Graded Material (FGM), the composition and structure gradually change over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. By applying the many possibilities inherent in the FGM concept, it is anticipated that materials will be improved and new functions for them created. A comprehensive description of design, modeling, processing, and evaluation of FGMs as well as their applications is covered in this book. The contents include: lessons from nature; graded microstructures; modeling and design; characterization of properties; processing and fabrication; applications; and summary and outlook.

  20. 48 CFR 519.7009 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... where these entities are not dominant in the company's current subcontractor base; and (6) Agreement... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 519.7009 Section 519.7009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES...

  1. Application of electrohydrodynamic phenomena to space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) unit separation, liquid handling/control, and mixing are introduced to industrial chemists and metallurgists, working on specific zero-gravity processes. Previously proposed zero-gravity applications of EHD are presented along with the prominent electrohydrodynamical force effects.

  2. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  3. 24 CFR 1003.401 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application process. 1003.401 Section 1003.401 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application processing. 4284.1010 Section 4284.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Agriculture Innovation Demonstration...

  5. 7 CFR 4284.910 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application processing. 4284.910 Section 4284.910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grants §...

  6. 48 CFR 819.7108 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7108 Application process. (a... evaluated on the extent to which the mentor plans to provide developmental assistance. Evaluations will... eligible as a SDVOSB or VOSB to participate in VA's Mentor-Protégé Program; (3) A description of the...

  7. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. 1709.210 Section 1709.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program §...

  8. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application process. 1709.210 Section 1709.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program §...

  9. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application processing. 4284.1010 Section 4284.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Agriculture Innovation Demonstration...

  10. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application processing. 4284.1010 Section 4284.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Agriculture Innovation Demonstration...

  11. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application processing. 4284.1010 Section 4284.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Agriculture Innovation Demonstration...

  12. 48 CFR 519.7009 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application process. 519...) Prime contractors interested in becoming a mentor firm must apply in writing by submitting the GSA Form... awarding GSA installation; (4) Data on total number and dollar value of subcontracts awarded under...

  13. 36 CFR 230.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application process. 230.3 Section 230.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program § 230.3...

  14. 36 CFR 230.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application process. 230.3 Section 230.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program § 230.3...

  15. 36 CFR 230.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application process. 230.3 Section 230.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program § 230.3...

  16. 45 CFR 1311.3 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application process. 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START FELLOWS PROGRAM §...

  17. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application process. 1416.503 Section 1416.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2006 EMERGENCY AGRICULTURAL DISASTER...

  18. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Processing applications. 1942.2 Section 1942.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.39... providing the services necessary to plan projects including design of facilities, environmental review and... of professional services required and at a fair and reasonable price. (ii) When project...

  20. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as financial statements, audits, or copies of organizational documents or existing debt instruments... agency under Public Law 103-354 will issue Form AD-622 inviting an application containing the following... processing, environmental issues must be considered. This should provide flexibility to consider...

  1. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler); Chassay, R. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment.

  2. Space Processing Applications Rocket project SPAR III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presented the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarized the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies.

  3. Automation of Space Processing Applications Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosmer, W. E.; Neau, O. T.; Poe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Program is examining the effect of weightlessness on key industrial materials processes, such as crystal growth, fine-grain casting of metals, and production of unique and ultra-pure glasses. Because of safety and in order to obtain optimum performance, some of these processes lend themselves to automation. Automation can increase the number of potential Space Shuttle flight opportunities and increase the overall productivity of the program. Five automated facility design concepts and overall payload combinations incorporating these facilities are presented.

  4. How to identify Raoultella spp. including R. ornithinolytica isolates negative for ornithine decarboxylase? The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene.

    PubMed

    Walckenaer, Estelle; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-12-01

    Although Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica were described more than 20 years ago, identifying them remains difficult. The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene for this identification was evaluated in comparison with that of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes in 35 Raoultella strains from different origins. Of the 26 strains previously identified as R. planticola by biochemical tests alone or in association with molecular methods, 21 harboured a bla gene with 99.8% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. ornithinolytica strains (bla(ORN) gene) and 5 harboured a bla gene with 99.2% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. planticola strains (bla(PLA) gene). The 9 isolates previously identified as R. ornithinolytica harboured a bla(ORN) gene. The bla gene-based identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA and rpoB sequencing. The 21 isolates newly identified as R. ornithinolytica had a test negative for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Molecular experiments suggested one copy of ODC-encoding gene in both ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and R. planticola strains and two copies in ODC-positive R. orninthinolytica strains. Analysis of the 35 bla genes allowed us (i) to confirm an identity of only 94% between the bla genes of the two Raoultella species while this identity was > 98% for rpoB and > 99% for 16S rDNA genes and (ii) to develop and successfully apply a bla PCR RFLP assay for Raoultella spp. identification. Overall, this study allowed us to discover ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and to provide a reliable Raoultella identification method widely available as not requiring sequencing equipment.

  5. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii by detection of the blaOXA-51-like carbapenemase gene intrinsic to this species.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; Woodford, Neil; Glover, Judith; Yarde, Susannah; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2006-08-01

    bla(OXA-51-like) was sought in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species in a multiplex PCR, which also detects bla(OXA-23-like) and class 1 integrase genes. All isolates that gave a band for bla(OXA-51-like) identified as A. baumannii. This gene was detected in each of 141 isolates of A. baumannii but not in those of 22 other Acinetobacter species.

  6. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination. PMID:27183358

  7. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination.

  8. Spacecraft Electrical Connector Selection and Application Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannello, Chris; Davis, Mitchell I; Kichak, Robert A.; Slenski, George

    2009-01-01

    This assessment was initiated by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) after a number of recent "high profile" connector problems, the most visible and publicized of these being the problem with the Space Shuttle's Engine Cut-Off System cryogenic feed-thru connector. The NESC commissioned a review of NASA's connector selection and application processes for space flight applications, including how lessons learned and past problem records are fed back into the processes to avoid recurring issues. Team members were primarily from the various NASA Centers and included connector and electrical parts specialists. The commissioned study was conducted on spacecraft connector selection and application processes at NASA Centers. The team also compared the NASA spacecraft connector selection and application process to the military process, identified recent high profile connector failures, and analyzed problem report data looking for trends and common occurrences. The team characterized NASA's connector problem experience into a list of top connector issues based on anecdotal evidence of a system's impact and commonality between Centers. These top issues are as follows, in no particular rank order: electrically shorted, bent and/or recessed contact pins, contact pin/socket contamination leading to electrically open or intermittencies, connector plating corrosion or corrosion of connector components, low or inadequate contact pin retention forces, contact crimp failures, unmated connectors and mis-wiring due to workmanship errors during installation or maintenance, loose connectors due to manufacturing defects such as wavy washer and worn bayonet retention, damaged connector elastomeric seals and cryogenic connector failure. A survey was also conducted of SAE Connector AE-8C1 committee members regarding their experience relative to the NASA concerns on connectors. The most common responses in order of occurrence were contact retention, plating issues, worn-out or damaged

  9. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  10. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  11. Initial Assessment of the Molecular Epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Laura J; Wright, Meredith S; De La Cadena, Elsa; Motoa, Gabriel; Hujer, Kristine M; Villegas, Maria V; Adams, Mark D; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    We report complete genome sequences of four blaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. The blaNDM-1 genes were located on 193-kb Inc FIA, 178-kb Inc A/C2, and 47-kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that these isolates belong to sequence type 10 (ST10) (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid in E. coli contained a novel complex transposon (Tn125 and Tn5393 with three copies of blaNDM-1) and a recombination "hot spot" for the acquisition of new resistance determinants. PMID:27067339

  12. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  13. Statistical Process Control In Photolithography Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Lois B.

    1987-04-01

    Recently there have been numerous papers, articles and books on the benefits and rewards of Statistical Process Control for manufacturing processes. Models are used that quite adequately describe methods appropriate for the factory situation where many discrete and identical items are turned out and where a limited number of parameters are inspected along the line. Photolithographic applications often require different statistical models from the usual factory methods. The difficulties encountered in getting started with SPC lie in determining: 1. what parameters should be tracked 2. what statistical model is appropriate for each of those parameters 3. how to use the models chosen. This paper describes three statistical models that, among them, account for most operations within a photolithographic manufacturing application. The process of determining which model is appropriate is described, along with the basic rules that may be used in making the determination. In addition, the application of each method is shown, and action instructions are covered. Initially the "x-bar, R" model is described. This model is the one most often found in off-the-shelf software packages, and enjoys wide applications in equipment tracking, besides general use process control. Secondly the "x, moving-R" model is described. This is appropriate where a series of measurements of the same parameter is taken on a single item, perhaps at different locations, such as in dimensional uniformity control for wafers or photomasks. In this case, each "x" is a single observation, or a number of measurements of a single observation, as opposed to a mean value taken in a sampling scheme. Thirdly a model for a Poisson distribution is described, which tends to fit defect density data, particulate counts, where count data is accumulated per unit or per unit time. The purpose of the paper is to briefly describe the included models, for those with little or no background in statistics, to enable them to

  14. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Avian Isolate from France Cocarrying the bla(VIM-1) and bla(VIM-4) Genes.

    PubMed

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Barraud, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Vittecoq, Marion; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    We describe here a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate producing both VIM-1 and VIM-4 carbapenemases. It was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern France. The blaVIM genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota.

  15. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Avian Isolate from France Cocarrying the bla(VIM-1) and bla(VIM-4) Genes.

    PubMed

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Barraud, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Vittecoq, Marion; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    We describe here a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate producing both VIM-1 and VIM-4 carbapenemases. It was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern France. The blaVIM genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota. PMID:26169421

  16. Suspension Plasma Spraying: Process Characteristics and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaßen, Robert; Kaßner, Holger; Mauer, Georg; Stöver, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) offers the manufacture of unique microstructures which are not possible with conventional powdery feedstock. Due to the considerably smaller size of the droplets and also the further fragmentation of these in the plasma jet, the attainable microstructural features like splat and pore sizes can be downsized to the nanometer range. Our present understanding of the deposition process including injection, suspension plasma plume interaction, and deposition will be outlined. The drawn conclusions are based on analysis of the coating microstructures in combination with particle temperature and velocity measurements as well as enthalpy probe investigations. The last measurements with the water cooled stagnation probe gives valuable information on the interaction of the carrier fluid with the plasma plume. Meanwhile, different areas of application of SPS coatings are known. In this paper, the focus will be on coatings for energy systems. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for modern gas turbines are one important application field. SPS coatings offer the manufacture of strain-tolerant, segmented TBCs with low thermal conductivity. In addition, highly reflective coatings, which reduce the thermal load of the parts from radiation, can be produced. Further applications of SPS coatings as cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and for photovoltaic (PV) applications will be presented.

  17. Availability of underlayer application to EUV process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Hitoshi; Fonseca, Carlos; Iwao, Fumiko; Marumoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Kyoungyong; Park, Cheol-Hong; Park, Chang-Min; Na, Hai-Sub; Koh, Cha-Won; Cho, Hanku

    2011-04-01

    EUV lithography is one of the most promising technologies for the fabrication of beyond 30nm HP generation devices. However, it is well-known that EUV lithography still has significant challenges. A great concern is the change of resist material for EUV resist process. EUV resist material formulations will likely change from conventional-type materials. As a result, substrate dependency needs to be understood. TEL has reported that the simulation combined with experiments is a good way to confirm the substrate dependency. In this work the application of HMDS treatment and SiON introduction, as an underlayer, are studied to cause a footing of resist profile. Then, we applied this simulation technique to Samsung EUV process. We will report the benefit of this simulation work and effect of underlayer application. Regarding the etching process, underlayer film introduction could have significant issues because the film that should be etched off increases. For that purpose, thinner films are better for etching. In general, thinner films may have some coating defects. We will report the coating coverage performance and defectivity of ultra thin film coating.

  18. Genomic Characteristics of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Australia and Their blaNDM Genetic Contexts.

    PubMed

    Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L; Kennedy, Karina; Ingram, Paul R; Bursle, Evan; Sidjabat, Hanna E

    2015-10-19

    blaNDM has been reported in different Enterobacteriaceae species and on numerous plasmid replicon types (Inc). Plasmid replicon typing, in combination with genomic characteristics of the bacterial host (e.g., sequence typing), is used to infer the spread of antimicrobial resistance determinants between genetically unrelated bacterial hosts. The genetic context of blaNDM is heterogeneous. In this study, we genomically characterized 12 NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Australia between 2012 and 2014: Escherichia coli (n = 6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2) and Providencia rettgeri (n = 1). We describe their blaNDM genetic contexts within Tn125, providing insights into the acquisition of blaNDM into Enterobacteriaceae. IncFII-type (n = 7) and IncX3 (n = 4) plasmids were the most common plasmid types found. The IncHI1B (n = 1) plasmid was also identified. Five different blaNDM genetic contexts were identified, indicating four particular plasmids with specific blaNDM genetic contexts (NGCs), three of which were IncFII plasmids (FII-A to -C). Of note, the blaNDM genetic context of P. rettgeri was not conjugative. Epidemiological links between our NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were established by their acquisition of these five particular plasmid types. The combination of different molecular and genetic characterization methods allowed us to provide insight into the spread of plasmids transmitting blaNDM.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain Carrying blaNDM-1 on a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna F.; Palmore, Tara N.; Frank, Karen M.; Segre, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae AATZP isolate cultured from a perirectal surveillance swab collected upon admission of a patient to the NIH Clinical Center in 2014. Genome sequencing of this isolate revealed three plasmids, including one carrying the blaNDM-1 gene encoding resistance to carbapenems. PMID:27417839

  20. Genomic Characteristics of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Australia and Their blaNDM Genetic Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Wailan, Alexander M.; Paterson, David L.; Kennedy, Karina; Ingram, Paul R.; Bursle, Evan

    2015-01-01

    blaNDM has been reported in different Enterobacteriaceae species and on numerous plasmid replicon types (Inc). Plasmid replicon typing, in combination with genomic characteristics of the bacterial host (e.g., sequence typing), is used to infer the spread of antimicrobial resistance determinants between genetically unrelated bacterial hosts. The genetic context of blaNDM is heterogeneous. In this study, we genomically characterized 12 NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Australia between 2012 and 2014: Escherichia coli (n = 6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2) and Providencia rettgeri (n = 1). We describe their blaNDM genetic contexts within Tn125, providing insights into the acquisition of blaNDM into Enterobacteriaceae. IncFII-type (n = 7) and IncX3 (n = 4) plasmids were the most common plasmid types found. The IncHI1B (n = 1) plasmid was also identified. Five different blaNDM genetic contexts were identified, indicating four particular plasmids with specific blaNDM genetic contexts (NGCs), three of which were IncFII plasmids (FII-A to -C). Of note, the blaNDM genetic context of P. rettgeri was not conjugative. Epidemiological links between our NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were established by their acquisition of these five particular plasmid types. The combination of different molecular and genetic characterization methods allowed us to provide insight into the spread of plasmids transmitting blaNDM. PMID:26482302

  1. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Jian-Feng; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-09-01

    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence. A bla(NDM-1)-positive C. freundii with high resistance to carbapenems was separated from a clinical patient suffering from a urinary tract infection. S1 nuclease-based plasmid analysis followed by Southern blot hybridization, a conjugation experiment and electrotransformation confirmed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a plasmid. High-throughput sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmid (pCFNDM-CN) showed that it was a 54 kb IncX-type plasmid and contained a backbone region and a variable region with two β-lactamase genes (bla(NDM-1) and bla(SHV-12)). The NDM-1 composite transposon in the variable region was surrounded by IS26 and IS5-truncated ISAba125, and shared a high sequence similarity to the bla(NDM-1) surrounding structure in Acinetobacter spp. Our research suggested that the NDM-1 composite transposon might play an essential role in mobilization of the bla(NDM-1) gene from Acinetobacter spp. to Enterobacteriaceae.

  2. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Jian-Feng; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-09-01

    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence. A bla(NDM-1)-positive C. freundii with high resistance to carbapenems was separated from a clinical patient suffering from a urinary tract infection. S1 nuclease-based plasmid analysis followed by Southern blot hybridization, a conjugation experiment and electrotransformation confirmed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a plasmid. High-throughput sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmid (pCFNDM-CN) showed that it was a 54 kb IncX-type plasmid and contained a backbone region and a variable region with two β-lactamase genes (bla(NDM-1) and bla(SHV-12)). The NDM-1 composite transposon in the variable region was surrounded by IS26 and IS5-truncated ISAba125, and shared a high sequence similarity to the bla(NDM-1) surrounding structure in Acinetobacter spp. Our research suggested that the NDM-1 composite transposon might play an essential role in mobilization of the bla(NDM-1) gene from Acinetobacter spp. to Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23741025

  3. Molten salt applications in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.

    2005-02-01

    The science of molten salt electrochemistry for electrowinning of reactive metals, such as calcium, and its in situ application in pyro-reduction has been described. Calcium electrowinning has been performed in a 5 10 wt% calcium oxide calcium chloride molten salt by the electrolytic dissociation of calcium oxide. This electrolysis requires the use of a porous ceramic sheath around the anode to keep the cathodically deposited calcium and the anodic gases separate. Stainless steel cathode and graphite anode have been used in the temperature range of 850 950 °C. This salt mixture is produced as a result of the direct oxide reduction (DOR) of reactive metal oxides by calcium in a calcium chloride bath. The primary purpose of this process is to recover the expensive calcium reductant and to recycle calcium chloride. Experimental data have been included to justify the suitability as well as limitations of the electrowinning process. Transport of oxygen ions through the sheath is found to be the rate controlling step. Under the constraints of the reactor design, a calcium recovery rate of approx. 150 g/h was achieved. Feasibility of a process to produce metals by pyrometallurgical reduction, using the calcium reductant produced electrolytically within the same reactor, has been shown in a hybrid process. Several processes are currently under investigation to use this electrowon calcium for in situ reduction of metal oxides.

  4. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results are summarized for six materials science experiments conducted during the second space processing applications rocket mission flown by NASA. The individual experiments discussed are: (1) solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic; (2) feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams; (3) direct observation of dendrite remelting and macrosegregation in castings; (4) agglomeration in immiscible liquids; (5) casting dispersion - strengthened composites at zero gravity; and (6) solidification behavior of Al-In alloys under zero gravity conditions.

  5. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  6. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  7. Increased Waterborne blaNDM-1 Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Seasonal Human Pilgrimages to the Upper Ganges River

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg–1)) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1)), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor’s wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  8. Space processing applications rocket project. SPAR 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, R. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) VIII Final Report contains the engineering report prepared at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the three reports from the principal investigators. These reports also describe pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication, and testing, all of which are expected to contribute immeasurably to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the eighth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled Glass Formation Experiment SPAR 74-42/1R, Glass Fining Experiment in Low-Gravity SPAR 77-13/1, and Dynamics of Liquid Bubbles SPAR Experiment 77-18/2.

  9. Sensing technologies for semiconductor process applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturralde, Armando

    1995-09-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing technology advances, there exists a need to review improvements in process monitoring and control. Some of these improvements may be possible by investigating and integrating advanced process sensors. Sensors typically provide information to equipment controllers for proper machine operation. Expanding this definition, a sensor could deliver quality information about the semiconductor product being manufactured. Sensors can provide effective manufacturing line operation, reduced cycle times, and improved product quality. Implementing advanced sensors can also reduce process variability, increase process stability, and provide many other benefits applicable to modern semiconductor production operation. In this paper, a review of the current literature on semiconductor process sensor technology is presented. Much of the literature discusses in-situ measurements for film thickness, particles, and/or other conditions which could affect the quality of the product. Instruments such as RGAs (Residual Gas Analyzers), in-situ film thickness monitors represent current and future advanced sensors. Prior to implementing sensors, it would be ideal to reduce the number of process measurements as much as possible to insure sensor effectiveness. It will be ideal to have working cost of ownership model in place to baseline operations and monitor improvements as sensors move into the production line. There are many new sensors available with highly improved performance, accuracy, and even built-in electronics. These sensors can replace or supplement existing equipment sensors to improve performance, reliability, and extend equipment life. With the increasing costs of maintaining capital equipment, successful implementation could mean substantial savings. These and many other implementation issues are also presented.

  10. Genetic Structure Associated with blaOXA-18, Encoding a Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum Oxacillinase▿

    PubMed Central

    Naas, Thierry; Namdari, Fatemeh; Bogaerts, Pierre; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The genetic environment of the blaOXA-18 gene encoding a peculiar clavulanic acid-inhibitable Ambler class D extended-spectrum β-lactamase was determined from the prototype OXA-18-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa MUS clinical isolate. An 8.2-kb genomic DNA fragment containing blaOXA-18 was cloned from P. aeruginosa MUS. Although most oxacillinases are located in integrons, blaOXA-18 lacked gene cassette-specific features. It was bracketed by two duplicated sequences containing ISCR19, a novel insertion sequence of the ISCR family of mobile elements; ΔintI1, a truncated integrase gene; and a truncated Δaac6′-Ib gene cassette. It is likely that ISCR19 was at the origin of the blaOXA-18 gene mobilization by a rolling-circle transposition event followed by homologous recombination. Furthermore, analysis of the cloned genomic DNA fragment revealed the presence of the integron-containing blaOXA-20 gene. Concomitantly, three P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, displaying a synergy image as determined by double-disk diffusion tests on cloxacillin-containing plates, were isolated from three patients hospitalized in different wards over a 9-month period at the Saint-Luc University hospital (Brussels, Belgium). These isolates were positive by PCR for blaOXA-18 and blaOXA-20 genes, genetically related to P. aeruginosa MUS as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and carried the same blaOXA-18/blaOXA-20-associated genetic structures. This report characterized the genetic elements likely at the origin of blaOXA-18 gene mobilization in P. aeruginosa and suggests the spread of oxacillin-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases in P. aeruginosa at the Saint-Luc University hospital of Brussels, Belgium. PMID:18663027

  11. First report of the blaVIM gene in environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp.

    PubMed

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical bacteria. However, in environmental isolates, few works have reported on these enzymes. In this study, we report for the first time two environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp. recovered from chrysanthemum plantations in Brazil containing blaVIM gene and producing MBLs.

  12. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  13. Identification of bla KPC-2 on different plasmids of three Morganella morganii isolates.

    PubMed

    Shi, D-S; Wang, W-P; Kuai, S-G; Shao, H-F; Huang, M

    2012-05-01

    Three Morganella morganii strains resistant to carbapenems were recovered from the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in our hospital. Carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were respectively detected by the modified Hodge test and the modified Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory test in all isolates. Amplification of whole-cell and plasmid DNAs extracted from isolates with primers specific for the bla (KPC) produced an amplicon confirmed to be bla (KPC-2) by sequence analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed that three isolates belonged to two closely related types. Plasmids electrophoresis and restriction analysis revealed that the bla (KPC-2) was located on different plasmids. The transfer of carbapenem resistance from the three original isolates to Escherichia coli EC600 was successful by conjugation. An examination of the outer membrane proteins showed a lack of a 38-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) compared with M. morganii susceptible to carbapenems. The production of KPC-2 and ESBLs, combined with OMP deficiency, resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance in the M. morganii strains. The genetic environment around bla (KPC-2) analysis revealed that this β-lactamase was located on the same mobile genetic elements which could transfer between different plasmids.

  14. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Sandra; Feng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components. PMID:24422590

  15. Application of Glass Transition in Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Devi, Apramita; Singh, K K; Bosco, S J D; Mohite, Ashish M

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of glass transition has been employed to food products to study their stability. It can be applied as an integrated approach along with water activity and physical and chemical changes in food in processing and storage to determine the food stability. Also associated with the changes during agglomeration crystallization, caking, sticking, collapse, oxidation reactions, nonenzymatic browning, and microbial stability of food system. Various techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, etc. have been developed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of food system. Also, various theories have been applied to explain the concept of Tg and its relation to changes in food system. This review summarizes the understanding of concept of glass transition, its measurement, and application in food technology.

  16. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Sandra; Feng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components.

  17. Molecular Characterization by Using Next-Generation Sequencing of Plasmids Containing blaNDM-7 in Enterobacteriaceae from Calgary, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L.; Peirano, G.; Lynch, T.; Chavda, K. D.; Gregson, D. B.; Church, D. L.; Conly, J.; Kreiswirth, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 are relatively uncommon and had previously been described in Europe, India, the United States, and Japan. This study describes the characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae [n = 2], Escherichia coli [n = 2], Serratia marcescens [n = 1], and Enterobacter hormaechei [n = 1] isolates) with blaNDM-7 obtained from 4 patients from Calgary, Canada, from 2013 to 2014. The 46,161-bp IncX3 plasmids with blaNDM-7 are highly similar to other blaNDM-harboring IncX3 plasmids and, interestingly, showed identical structures within the different isolates. This finding may indicate horizontal transmission within our health region, or it may indicate contact with individuals from areas of endemicity within the hospital setting. Patients infected or colonized with bacteria containing blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids generate infection control challenges. Epidemiological and molecular studies are required to better understand the dynamics of transmission, the risk factors, and the reservoirs for bacteria harboring blaNDM-7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. marcescens and E. hormaechei with blaNDM-7. PMID:26643346

  18. Colistin-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 654 with blaNDM-1 Arrives in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mataseje, L. F.; Peirano, G.; Church, D. L.; Conly, J.; Mulvey, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes 3 different blaNDM-1 genetic platforms in 3 different species obtained from the same patient who was directly transferred to an institution in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, following a prolonged hospital stay in India. The blaNDM-1 in the Escherichia coli isolate was located on a 176-kb IncA/C plasmid contained within an ISCR1 region. The blaNDM-1 in the Providencia rettgeri isolate was located on a 117-kb IncT plasmid contained within Tn3000, while the blaNDM-1 in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was located on the chromosome within an ISCR3 region. This report highlights the plasticity of the genetic regions and environments associated with blaNDM-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. aeruginosa with blaNDM-1 identified in North America and the first report of blaOXA-181 in P. rettgeri. The P. aeruginosa isolate belonged to the international high-risk sequence type 654 clone and was nonsusceptible to colistin. This case emphasizes the need for the use of appropriate infection prevention and control measures and vigilant screening for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in patients with a history of travel to areas of endemicity, such as the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26824951

  19. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  20. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application and review process... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  1. High prevalence of blaCTX-M group genes in Aeromonas dhakensis isolated from aquaculture fish species in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; Chung, Tae-Ho; Joh, Seong-Joon; Park, Chul; Park, Byoung-Yong; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B) and bla(CTX-M). In the results, the bla(TEM-1) gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored bla(OXA) gene. In the case of bla(CTX-M) gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the bla(CTX-M) positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for bla(CTX-M) genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including bla(CTX-M-33) from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health.

  2. Hydrolysis of Clavulanate by Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-Lactamase BlaC Harboring a Canonical SDN Motif

    PubMed Central

    Soroka, Daria; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Compain, Fabrice; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of β-lactams with clavulanate are currently being investigated for tuberculosis treatment. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a broad spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC, the success of this approach could be compromised by the emergence of clavulanate-resistant variants, as observed for inhibitor-resistant TEM variants in enterobacteria. Previous analyses based on site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC have led to the conclusion that this risk was limited. Here, we used a different approach based on determination of the crystal structure of β-lactamase BlaMAb of Mycobacterium abscessus, which efficiently hydrolyzes clavulanate. Comparison of BlaMAb and BlaC allowed for structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC and identification of the G132N substitution that was sufficient to switch the interaction of BlaC with clavulanate from irreversible inactivation to efficient hydrolysis. The substitution, which restored the canonical SDN motif (SDG→SDN), allowed for efficient hydrolysis of clavulanate, with a more than 104-fold increase in kcat (0.41 s−1), without affecting the hydrolysis of other β-lactams. Mass spectrometry revealed that acylation of BlaC and of its G132N variant by clavulanate follows similar paths, involving sequential formation of two acylenzymes. Decarboxylation of the first acylenzyme results in a stable secondary acylenzyme in BlaC, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the G132N variant. The SDN/SDG polymorphism defines two mycobacterial lineages comprising rapidly and slowly growing species, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the efficacy of β-lactam–clavulanate combinations may be limited by the emergence of resistance. β-Lactams active without clavulanate, such as faropenem, should be prioritized for the development of new therapies. PMID:26149997

  3. Hydrolysis of clavulanate by Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-lactamase BlaC harboring a canonical SDN motif.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Daria; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Compain, Fabrice; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Combinations of β-lactams with clavulanate are currently being investigated for tuberculosis treatment. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a broad spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC, the success of this approach could be compromised by the emergence of clavulanate-resistant variants, as observed for inhibitor-resistant TEM variants in enterobacteria. Previous analyses based on site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC have led to the conclusion that this risk was limited. Here, we used a different approach based on determination of the crystal structure of β-lactamase BlaMAb of Mycobacterium abscessus, which efficiently hydrolyzes clavulanate. Comparison of BlaMAb and BlaC allowed for structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC and identification of the G(132)N substitution that was sufficient to switch the interaction of BlaC with clavulanate from irreversible inactivation to efficient hydrolysis. The substitution, which restored the canonical SDN motif (SDG→SDN), allowed for efficient hydrolysis of clavulanate, with a more than 10(4)-fold increase in k cat (0.41 s(-1)), without affecting the hydrolysis of other β-lactams. Mass spectrometry revealed that acylation of BlaC and of its G(132)N variant by clavulanate follows similar paths, involving sequential formation of two acylenzymes. Decarboxylation of the first acylenzyme results in a stable secondary acylenzyme in BlaC, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the G(132)N variant. The SDN/SDG polymorphism defines two mycobacterial lineages comprising rapidly and slowly growing species, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the efficacy of β-lactam-clavulanate combinations may be limited by the emergence of resistance. β-Lactams active without clavulanate, such as faropenem, should be prioritized for the development of new therapies. PMID:26149997

  4. Isolation of Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-3 genes recovered from a hospital Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Pignanelli, Salvatore; Vollaro, Adriana; Esposito, Matilde; Iula, Vita Dora; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata Amy; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes has recently emerged as an important hospital pathogen. In this study, we showed the emergence of E. aerogenes isolates carrying the blaKPC gene in patients colonized by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Two multiresistant E. aerogenes isolates were recovered from bronchial aspirates of two patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit at the "Santa Maria della Scaletta" Hospital, Imola. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed the high resistance to carbapenems and double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of KPC and AmpC production. Other investigation revealed that ESBL and blaKPC genes were carried on the conjugative pKpQIL plasmid. This is a relevant report in Italy that describes a nosocomial infection due to the production of KPC beta-lactamases by an E. aerogenes isolate in patients previously colonized by K. pneumoniae carbapenem-resistant. In conclusion, it's necessary a continuous monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains for the detection of any KPC-producing bacteria that could expand the circulation of carbapenem-resistant pathogens.

  5. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the reasons why the request was not favorably considered. The notification to the applicant will state... discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,...

  6. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the reasons why the request was not favorably considered. The notification to the applicant will state... discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,...

  7. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the reasons why the request was not favorably considered. The notification to the applicant will state... discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,...

  8. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... needed and generally try to develop and maintain a cooperative working relationship with the applicant... applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act. The Federal...

  9. Electron Beam Applications in Chemical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Dragusin, M.; Radoiu, M.; Moraru, R.; Oproiu, C.; Cojocaru, G.; Margarit, C.

    1997-05-01

    Our recent results in the field of polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation are presented. Two types of polymeric flocculants and three hydrogels are described. The effects of radiation absorbed dose and chemical composition of the irradiated solutions upon the polymeric materials characteristics are discussed. The required absorbed dose levels to produce the polymeric flocculants are in the range of 0.4 kGy to 1 kGy, and 4 kGy to 12 kGy for hydrogels. Experimental results obtained by testing polymeric flocculants with waste water from food industry are given. Plymeric materials processing was developed on a pilot small scale level with a 0.7 kW and 5.5 MeV linac built in Romania. A new facility for application of combined electron beam and microwave irradiation in the field of polymeric materials preparation is presently under investigation. Preliminary results have demonstrated that some polymeric flocculants characteristics, such as linearity, were improved by using combined electron beam and microwave irradiation. Also, the absorbed dose levels decreases in comparison with those required when only electron beam irradiation was used.

  10. Complete Nucleotide Sequences of blaKPC-4- and blaKPC-5-Harboring IncN and IncX Plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D.; Fraimow, Henry S.; Mediavilla, José R.; Melano, Roberto G.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens. blaKPC, commonly located on Tn4401, is found in Gram-negative bacterial strains, with the two most common variants, blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3, identified in plasmids with diverse genetic backgrounds. In this study, we examined blaKPC-4- and blaKPC-5-bearing plasmids recovered from two K. pneumoniae strains, which were isolated from a single New Jersey hospital in 2005 and 2006, respectively. IncN plasmid pBK31551 is 84 kb in length and harbors blaKPC-4, blaTEM-1, qnrB2, aac(3)-Ib, aph(3′)-I, qacF, qacEΔ1, sul1, and dfrA14, which confer resistance to β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, quaternary ammonium compounds, and co-trimoxazole. The conserved regions within pBK31551 are similar to those of other IncN plasmids. Surprisingly, analysis of the Tn4401 sequence revealed a large IS110- and Tn6901-carrying element (8.3 kb) inserted into the istA gene, encoding glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance, alcohol dehydrogenase, and S-formylglutathione hydrolase. Plasmid pBK31567 is 47 kb in length and harbors blaKPC-5, dfrA5, qacEΔ1, and sul1. pBK31567 belongs to a novel IncX subgroup (IncX5) and possesses a highly syntenic plasmid backbone like other IncX plasmids; however, sequence similarity at the nucleotide level is divergent. The blaKPC-5 gene is carried on a Tn4401 element and differs from the genetic environment of blaKPC-5 described in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain P28 from Puerto Rico. This study underscores the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant plasmids involved in the spread of blaKPC genes and highlights the mobility and plasticity of Tn4401. Comparative genomic analysis provides new insights into the evolution and dissemination of KPC plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups. PMID:23114770

  11. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  12. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  13. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application Requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  14. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  15. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application Requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  16. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application Requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  17. 45 CFR 12a.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... property by public auction. (b) Application Requirements. Upon receipt of an expression of interest, DHFP... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must... information in the possession of HUD, GSA, or the landholding agency. (9) Local government notification....

  18. 7 CFR 1599.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.4... explanation of the need for food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would... about the applicant's past food aid projects; (5) Methods that the applicant proposes to use to...

  19. 7 CFR 1599.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.4... explanation of the need for food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would... about the applicant's past food aid projects; (5) Methods that the applicant proposes to use to...

  20. 7 CFR 1599.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.4... explanation of the need for food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would... about the applicant's past food aid projects; (5) Methods that the applicant proposes to use to...

  1. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.4 Application... need for the food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would address... targeted country; (3) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget...

  2. 7 CFR 1599.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.4... explanation of the need for food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would... about the applicant's past food aid projects; (5) Methods that the applicant proposes to use to...

  3. 7 CFR 1599.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.4... explanation of the need for food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would... about the applicant's past food aid projects; (5) Methods that the applicant proposes to use to...

  4. 7 CFR 1499.4 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.4 Application... need for the food aid in the targeted country and how the applicant's proposed activities would address... targeted country; (3) Information about the applicant's past food aid projects; and (4) A budget...

  5. 24 CFR 581.9 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... implementing regulations. The applicant must state that it will not discriminate on the basis of race, color... the requirements of 45 CFR 12.9. (7) Historic preservation. Where applicable, the applicant must..., as specified in 45 CFR part 12. (c) Scope of evaluations. Due to the short time frame imposed...

  6. Application of Complex Fluids in Lignocellulose Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo Lugo, Carlos A.

    Complex fluids such as emulsions, microemulsions and foams, have been used for different applications due to the multiplicity of properties they possess. In the present work, such fluids are introduced as effective media for processing lignocellulosic biomass. A demonstration of the generic benefits of complex fluids is presented to enhance biomass impregnation, to facilitate pretreatment for fiber deconstruction and to make compatible cellulose fibrils with hydrophobic polymers during composite manufacture. An improved impregnation of woody biomass was accomplished by application of water-continuous microemulsions. Microemulsions with high water content, > 85%, were formulated and wood samples were impregnated by wicking and capillary flooding at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Formulations were designed to effectively impregnate different wood species during shorter times and to a larger extent compared to the single components of the microemulsions (water, oil or surfactant solutions). The viscosity of the microemulsions and their interactions with cell wall constituents in fibers were critical to define the extent of impregnation and solubilization. The relation between composition and formulation variables and the extent of microemulsion penetration in different woody substrates was studied. Formulation variables such as salinity content of the aqueous phase and type of surfactant were elucidated. Likewise, composition variables such as the water-to-oil ratio and surfactant concentration were investigated. These variables affected the characteristics of the microemulsion and determined their effectiveness in wood treatment. Also, the interactions between the surfactant and the substrate had an important contribution in defining microemulsion penetration in the capillary structure of wood. Microemulsions as an alternative pretreatment for the manufacture of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was also studied. Microemulsions were applied to pretreat lignin

  7. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  8. First Report of Complete Sequence of a blaNDM-13-Harboring Plasmid from an Escherichia coli ST5138 Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jingnan; Qi, Xiuqin; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Zhou; Chen, Yuehui; Guo, Yinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Tang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Zengqiang; Hu, Longhua; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2016-01-01

    Since the first report of blaNDM-1, 16 blaNDM variants have been identified among Gram-negative bacteria worldwide. Recently, a novel blaNDM variant, blaNDM-13, was identified in the chromosome of an ST101 Escherichia coli isolate from Nepal. Here we first reported plasmid-mediated blaNDM-13 in a carbapenem-resistant E. coli ST5138 clinical isolate associated with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection from China. blaNDM-13 and blaSHV-12 coexisted on the a ~54 Kb self-transferable plasmid. Compared with NDM-1, NDM-13, NDM-3, and NDM-4 had two amino acid substitutions (D95N and M154L), one amino acid substitution (D95N) and one amino acid substitutions (M154L), respectively. Complete plasmid sequencing showed that blaNDM-13-harboring plasmid (pNDM13-DC33) was highly similar to the blaNDM-1-harboring IncX3 plasmid pNDM-HN380, a common blaNDM-harboring vector circulating in China. In accordance with the structure of pNDM-HN380, pNDM13-DC33 consists of a 33-kb backbone encoding plasmid replication (repB), stability partitioning, and transfer (tra, trb, and pil) functions, and a 21-kb antimicrobial resistance region with high GC content between umuD and mpr genes. In conclusion, the present study is the first report of a plasmid-encoded blaNDM-13 and the complete sequence of a blaNDM-13-harboring plasmid (pNDM13-DC33). blaNDM-13 maybe originate from blaNDM-1 located on a pNDM-HN380-like plasmid by sequential mutations.

  9. 5 CFR 1655.10 - Loan application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... described in paragraph (b) of this section may use the TSP Web site to submit a loan application and obtain... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan application process. 1655.10 Section... application process. (a) Any participant may apply for a loan by submitting a completed TSP loan...

  10. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Express consignment carrier application process... carrier application process. (a) Facility application. Requests for approval of an express consignment... the implementation thereof and must contain the information specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  11. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Express consignment carrier application process... carrier application process. (a) Facility application. Requests for approval of an express consignment... the implementation thereof and must contain the information specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  12. 7 CFR 1485.13 - Application process and strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application process and strategic plan. 1485.13... process and strategic plan. (a) General application requirements. CCC will periodically publish a Notice... justification and a strategic plan. (1) Basic applicant and program information. (i) All MAP and...

  13. 14 CFR § 1300.16 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process. § 1300.16 Section § 1300.16 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... § 1300.16 Application process. (a) Applications are to be submitted by the borrower. Borrowers may...

  14. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing the initial application. (a) The FAA...

  15. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing the initial application. (a) The FAA...

  16. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing the initial application. (a) The FAA...

  17. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing the initial application. (a) The FAA...

  18. The transferability of blaOXA-23 gene in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruno Silvester; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ismail, Muhammad A; Shibl, Atef M; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Forbes, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have been increasingly reported worldwide including Saudi Arabia and Egypt. We examined 64, non-repetitive, Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected in 2013 and 2014 from four different medical centres (two from Saudi Arabia and two from Egypt). All the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. The intI1 harbouring blaGES-11 and aac-6'-1b was detected in 19% (n=12) of the isolates. ISAba1 over-expression of blaADC gene was observed in 65% (n=42) of isolates. Of all the isolates 19% (n=12) had ISAba1 upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene, 69% (n=44) carried the blaOXA-23 gene within the Tn2006 structure, 8% (n=5) had blaOXA-24-like gene and 9% (n=6) harboured either blaVIM-2 or blaNDM-1 gene. Eighty nine percent (n=57) of isolates were resistant to imipenem and had an MIC of ≥8mg/L. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed the presence of 23 different PFGE. Three PFGE types were very widespread, ST236 (CC104) (PFGE type 1, n=15), ST208 (CC92) (PFGE type 2, n=10), ST884 (CC unassigned) (PFGE type 3, n=7) in and across all four medical centres. The blaOXA-23 gene was found to be present on a 60kb transferable plasmid in both PFGE type 1 and 2 but was absent in PFGE type 3. This is the first study to report on the emergence of ST236 in Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and spread of distinct carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clones belonging to ST884, ST945 and ST1096 in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Industrial application of semantic process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espen Ingvaldsen, Jon; Atle Gulla, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Process mining relates to the extraction of non-trivial and useful information from information system event logs. It is a new research discipline that has evolved significantly since the early work on idealistic process logs. Over the last years, process mining prototypes have incorporated elements from semantics and data mining and targeted visualisation techniques that are more user-friendly to business experts and process owners. In this article, we present a framework for evaluating different aspects of enterprise process flows and address practical challenges of state-of-the-art industrial process mining. We also explore the inherent strengths of the technology for more efficient process optimisation.

  20. Applications of membrane processes for in-process materials recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.; Thornton, R.F.; Shapiro, A.P.; Freshour, A.R.; El-Shoubary, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Zero discharge of wastes should be the ultimate goal of manufacturers. Waste reduction lowers costs and lessens liability associated with plant effluents. One approach toward this goal is elimination or minimization of wastes by in-process recycling of waste materials. We have examined opportunities for waste minimization for many equipment manufacturing plants and have evaluated membrane processes for in-process recycling. Membrane processes evaluated include vibrating membranes for suspended solid removal, ion exchange membranes for acid recovery, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for dissolved salt removal, microporous membranes for recycling of machining coolants, oil emulsions, alkaline cleaners and others. This paper presents several examples of evaluations of membrane processes for materials recycling in manufacturing plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 7 CFR 4284.510 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be provided, the expected impacts of that assistance, the sustainability of cooperative..., applicants should document future funding sources that will help achieve long-term sustainability of...

  2. 7 CFR 4284.510 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be provided, the expected impacts of that assistance, the sustainability of cooperative..., applicants should document future funding sources that will help achieve long-term sustainability of...

  3. 7 CFR 4284.510 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be provided, the expected impacts of that assistance, the sustainability of cooperative..., applicants should document future funding sources that will help achieve long-term sustainability of...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.510 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be provided, the expected impacts of that assistance, the sustainability of cooperative..., applicants should document future funding sources that will help achieve long-term sustainability of...

  5. Learning-induced changes in mPFC-BLA connections after fear conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement of fear.

    PubMed

    Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Maroun, Mouna

    2011-10-01

    The neural circuit linking the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has crucial roles in both the acquisition and the extinction of fear. However, the mechanism by which this circuit encodes fear and extinction remains unknown. In this study, we monitored changes in the magnitude of evoked field potentials (EFPs) in the mPFC-BLA and BLA-mPFC pathways following auditory fear conditioning and extinction, in freely moving rats. We report that extinction of fear is mediated by depression of the EFPs in the mPFC-BLA and by potentiation in the reciprocal pathway of BLA-mPFC. Interestingly, reinstatement of fear was associated with recovery of freezing and with reversal of the changes in EFPs that were observed following extinction in both pathways. The findings indicate that the mPFC-BLA circuit expresses differential changes following fear and extinction and point to dynamic and plastic changes underlying fear, extinction, and reinstatement. Manipulations targeting these different types of plasticity could constitute a therapeutic tool for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:21750582

  6. 7 CFR 1720.6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... application to the Secretary; (2) The application is screened by RUS pursuant to 7 CFR 1720.7(a) of this part... the selection criteria set forth in 7 CFR 1720.7(b) of this part; (4) If RUS provisionally approves... anticipates deriving from participating in the program; (4) A pro-forma cash flow projection or business...

  7. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.21 Application... emergency that caused the problem(s) being addressed by the project. The documentation must clearly show that the applicant has had a significant decline in the quantity or quality of potable water or...

  8. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.21 Application... emergency that caused the problem(s) being addressed by the project. The documentation must clearly show that the applicant has had a significant decline in the quantity or quality of potable water or...

  9. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.21 Application... emergency that caused the problem(s) being addressed by the project. The documentation must clearly show that the applicant has had a significant decline in the quantity or quality of potable water or...

  10. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.21 Application... emergency that caused the problem(s) being addressed by the project. The documentation must clearly show that the applicant has had a significant decline in the quantity or quality of potable water or...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  12. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  13. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  14. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  15. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of acres in the disaster-affected area, the inventory value before the hurricane, and the inventory value after the hurricane to their local FSA Service Center at the time an application for payment is... expenses incurred to eligible nursery crops were a direct result of the applicable hurricane during...

  16. 7 CFR 1485.13 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... through the UES Internet Web site, but are not required to do so. Applicants may apply to conduct a... contain: (A) The name, address, and Internet location of the home page of the applicant organization; (B... percentage of U.S. origin content by weight, exclusive of added water; (B) A description of the...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... architectural services in accordance with applicable State statutes or local requirements provided the State... applicant's service area cannot make cash contributions; or (ii) State statutes or local ordinances require... installation services will be available. These may be provided by the contractor installing the system,...

  18. The application of intelligent process control to space based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, G. Steve

    1990-01-01

    The application of Artificial Intelligence to electronic and process control can help attain the autonomy and safety requirements of manned space systems. An overview of documented applications within various industries is presented. The development process is discussed along with associated issues for implementing an intelligence process control system.

  19. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  20. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  4. 7 CFR 1781.12 - Preapplication and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.12 Preapplication and application processing. (a) WS and RCD loans... and assembled in accordance with applicable RUS Instruction 1780. (b) Watershed advances....

  5. 7 CFR 1781.12 - Preapplication and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.12 Preapplication and application processing. (a) WS and RCD loans... and assembled in accordance with applicable RUS Instruction 1780. (b) Watershed advances....

  6. 7 CFR 1781.12 - Preapplication and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.12 Preapplication and application processing. (a) WS and RCD loans... and assembled in accordance with applicable RUS Instruction 1780. (b) Watershed advances....

  7. Laser Material Processing for Microengineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helvajian, H.

    1995-01-01

    The processing of materials via laser irradiation is presented in a brief survey. Various techniques currently used in laser processing are outlined and the significance to the development of space qualified microinstrumentation are identified. In general the laser processing technique permits the transferring of patterns (i.e. lithography), machining (i.e. with nanometer precision), material deposition (e.g., metals, dielectrics), the removal of contaminants/debris/passivation layers and the ability to provide process control through spectroscopy.

  8. Self-contained exothermic applicator and process

    DOEpatents

    Koehmstedt, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    An adhesive resin application system which requires no external heating apparatus, and which is operative in the absence of a reactive atmosphere, is disclosed. The system provides its own heat by employing an adhesive material containing reactants which react exothermally when electrically ignited. After ignition of the reactants, sufficient heat energy is liberated by the exothermic reaction either to plasticize a thermoplastic resin or to cure a thermosetting resin and therby bond together two closely spaced objects. This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 489,006, filed Apr. 27, 1983, which is a continuation-in-part of application, Ser. No. 929,120, filed July 28, 1978, both now abandoned.

  9. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... project and addressing the following elements. The form, contents, and order of the narrative proposal... administering the grant project. (6) Budget. The application must include a pro forma operating budget for...

  10. 7 CFR 1778.21 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... acute shortage of potable water, or that such a decline or shortage is imminent, and that the proposed... applicant in accordance with 7 CFR part 11. ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.21...

  11. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Director will notify the applicant in writing of the reasons why the request was not favorably considered... basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age (provided that the...

  12. Characterization of blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates detected in different institutions in the Eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Endimiani, Andrea; Hujer, Andrea M.; Perez, Federico; Bethel, Christopher R.; Hujer, Kristine M.; Kroeger, Jennifer; Oethinger, Margret; Paterson, David L.; Adams, Mark D.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Hall, Gerri S.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Rice, Louis B.; Tenover, Fred C.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The emergence of blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) isolates is attracting significant attention. Outbreaks in the Eastern USA have created serious treatment and infection control problems. A comparative multi-institutional analysis of these strains has not yet been performed. Methods We analysed 42 KPC-Kp recovered during 2006–07 from five institutions located in the Eastern USA. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, analytical isoelectric focusing (aIEF), PCR and sequencing of bla genes, PFGE and rep-PCR were performed. Results By in vitro testing, KPC-Kp isolates were highly resistant to all non-carbapenem β-lactams (MIC90s ≥ 128 mg/L). Among carbapenems, MIC50/90s were 4/64 mg/L for imipenem and meropenem, 4/32 mg/L for doripenem and 8/128 for ertapenem. Combinations of clavulanate or tazobactam with a carbapenem or cefepime did not significantly lower the MIC values. Genetic analysis revealed that the isolates possessed the following bla genes: blaKPC-2 (59.5%), blaKPC-3 (40.5%), blaTEM-1 (90.5%), blaSHV-11 (95.2%) and blaSHV-12 (50.0%). aIEF of crude β-lactamase extracts from these strains supported our findings, showing β-lactamases at pIs of 5.4, 7.6 and 8.2. The mean number of β-lactamases was 3.5 (range 3–5). PFGE demonstrated that 32 (76.2%) isolates were clonally related (type A). Type A KPC-Kp isolates (20 blaKPC-2 and 12 blaKPC-3) were detected in each of the five institutions. rep-PCR showed patterns consistent with PFGE. Conclusions We demonstrated the complex β-lactamase background of KPC-Kp isolates that are emerging in multiple centres in the Eastern USA. The prevalence of a single dominant clone suggests that interstate transmission has occurred. PMID:19155227

  13. The Application of Computers to Library Technical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes computer applications to acquisitions and technical processing and reports in detail on Stanford's development work in automated technical processing. Author is Assistant Director for Bibliographic Operation, Stanford University Libraries. (JB)

  14. 19 CFR 128.13 - Application processing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY EXPRESS CONSIGNMENTS Administration § 128.13 Application processing fee. Each operator of an... reviewed and revised to reflect changes in processing expenses and any changes thereto will be published...

  15. Integrating Autonomic Grid Components and Process-Driven Business Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigold, Thomas; Aldinucci, Marco; Danelutto, Marco; Getov, Vladimir

    Today's business applications are increasingly process driven, meaning that the main application logic is executed by a dedicate process engine. In addition, component-oriented software development has been attracting attention for building complex distributed applications. In this paper we present the experiences gained from building a process-driven biometric identification application which makes use of Grid infrastructures via the Grid Component Model (GCM). GCM, besides guaranteeing access to Grid resources, supports autonomic management of notable parallel composite components. This feature is exploited within our biometric identification application to ensure real time identification of fingerprints. Therefore, we briefly introduce the GCM framework and the process engine used, and we describe the implementation of the application using autonomic GCM components. Finally, we summarize the results, experiences, and lessons learned focusing on the integration of autonomic GCM components and the process-driven approach.

  16. Streamlining the Title V application process

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.; DeCesar, R.

    1997-02-01

    Companies in some US states face 1997 deadlines to apply for permits required by Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Consultants assisting in the preparation of these applications for a variety of facilities have gleaned numerous cost-effective, time-saving approaches for performing the task. Some of the lessons that have been learned are given. Title V applications are often prepared by teams composed of members of a facility`s corporate environmental staff, plant environment staff, plant production staff and an outside consultant. Understanding the role of each team member and delineating lines of communication are keys to working efficiently. Because the focus is on demonstrating existing and future compliance, applicants should define at the outset which regulatory requirements apply to each emissions unit.

  17. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... items using Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1942-39, “Processing Check List..., “Processing Check List (Public Bodies),” or other checklist adopted for use in the State. The District... determining preapplications which should be referred to commercial lenders. A list of lender...

  18. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  19. 7 CFR 4284.910 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... narrative must include a detailed discussion of how the applicant meets the eligibility requirements. (5) Proposal Narrative. The narrative portion of the proposal must include, but is not limited to, the... benefit of the agricultural producer(s). (iv) Work Plan. The narrative must contain a description of...

  20. 7 CFR 1720.6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to 7 CFR 1720.7(a) of this part, to ascertain its threshold eligibility for the program; (3) RUS evaluates the application pursuant to the selection criteria set forth in 7 CFR 1720.7(b) of this part; (4... anticipates deriving from participating in the program; (4) A pro-forma cash flow projection or business...

  1. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  2. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and are subject to RUS concurrence. (1) Engineering and architectural services. (i) Applicants shall publicly announce all requirements for engineering and architectural services, and negotiate contracts for engineering and architectural services on the basis of demonstrated competence and qualifications for the...

  3. 7 CFR 760.405 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... death of the eligible livestock occurred as a direct result of an eligible adverse weather event in the... result of the eligible adverse weather event during the calendar year for which benefits are being... at the time the applicable adverse weather event occurred; (iii) The physical location of...

  4. 7 CFR 760.405 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... death of the eligible livestock occurred as a direct result of an eligible adverse weather event in the... result of the eligible adverse weather event during the calendar year for which benefits are being... at the time the applicable adverse weather event occurred; (iii) The physical location of...

  5. 7 CFR 760.405 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... death of the eligible livestock occurred as a direct result of an eligible adverse weather event in the... result of the eligible adverse weather event during the calendar year for which benefits are being... at the time the applicable adverse weather event occurred; (iii) The physical location of...

  6. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension of Deportation or Special Rule... be filed with the Immigration Court and served on the Service's district counsel in accordance with... United States Code and to civil penalties under section 274C of the Act....

  7. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Applications for Suspension of Deportation or Special Rule... be filed with the Immigration Court and served on the Service's district counsel in accordance with... United States Code and to civil penalties under section 274C of the Act....

  8. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  10. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  12. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eligible hurricane during the disaster period. The quantity and kind of livestock that died as a direct result of the eligible hurricane may be documented by: Purchase records; veterinarian records; bank or... by the Deputy Administrator, were in inventory at the time the applicable hurricane occurred;...

  13. Solar concentrators for space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermit, J. H.; Ruff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study on the technological feasibility of using solar concentrators for crystal growth and zone refining in space has been performed. Previous studies related to the many aspects of the problem are reviewed. It was concluded from this effort that the technology for fabricating, orbiting, and deploying large solar concentrators has been developed. It was also concluded that the technological feasibility of space processing materials in the focal region of a solar concentrator depends primarily on two factors: (1) the ability of a solar concentrator to provide sufficient thermal energy for the process and (2) the ability of a solar concentrator to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the processes of interest. The study indicates that solar concentrators of reasonable dimensions can satisfactorily provide both of these factors. This study also indicates that solar concentrators are attractive for space processing from the viewpoint of system specific power and system flexibility.

  14. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  15. 47 CFR 1.926 - Application processing; initial procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application processing; initial procedures. 1.926 Section 1.926 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures §...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... presented by the application; (2) A hearing is required under any applicable law or regulation; (3)...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... presented by the application; (2) A hearing is required under any applicable law or regulation; (3)...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... presented by the application; (2) A hearing is required under any applicable law or regulation; (3)...

  19. 7 CFR 1485.13 - Application process and strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application process and strategic plan. 1485.13... strategic plan. (1) Basic applicant and program information. (i) All MAP and EIP/MAP applications shall...) in order to justify a rate of reimbursement higher than specified therein. (3) Strategic plan....

  20. 12 CFR 705.6 - Application and award processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN FUND ACCESS FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.6 Application and award processes... Register, on applicable government Web sites, and its own Web site. The Notice of Funding Opportunity will... Unions, and announcements on its Web site. (b) Application requirements. A Qualifying Credit Union...

  1. 10 CFR 205.284 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing of applications. 205.284 Section 205.284 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.284 Processing of applications. (a) The Director of the Office of Hearings and Appeals...

  2. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Express consignment carrier application process. 128.11 Section 128.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXPRESS CONSIGNMENTS Administration § 128.11 Express consignment carrier application process. (a) Facility...

  3. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  4. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  5. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  6. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  7. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  8. 12 CFR 926.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 926.5 Section 926.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.5 Housing associate application process....

  9. 48 CFR 719.273-6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 719.273-6 Section 719.273-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...égé Program 719.273-6 Application process. Entities interested in becoming a Mentor firm...

  10. 47 CFR 1.571 - Processing AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing AM broadcast station applications. 1.571 Section 1.571 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.571 Processing AM broadcast...

  11. 48 CFR 719.273-6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application process. 719.273-6 Section 719.273-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...égé Program 719.273-6 Application process. Entities interested in becoming a Mentor firm...

  12. 48 CFR 719.273-6 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application process. 719.273-6 Section 719.273-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...égé Program 719.273-6 Application process. Entities interested in becoming a Mentor firm...

  13. 14 CFR 414.15 - Processing the initial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing the initial application. 414.15 Section 414.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.15 Processing...

  14. Identification of emergent blaCMY-2-carrying Proteus mirabilis lineages by whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mac Aogáin, M.; Rogers, T.R.; Crowley, B.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of 24 Proteus mirabilis isolates revealed the clonal expansion of two cefoxitin-resistant strains among patients with community-onset infection. These strains harboured blaCMY-2 within a chromosomally located integrative and conjugative element and exhibited multidrug resistance phenotypes. A predominant strain, identified in 18 patients, also harboured the PGI-1 genomic island and associated resistance genes, accounting for its broader antibiotic resistance profile. The identification of these novel multidrug-resistant strains among community-onset infections suggests that they are endemic to this region and represent emergent P. mirabilis lineages of clinical significance. PMID:26865983

  15. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  16. Review and evaluation of space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Materials research in space which offers advantages in studying phenomena and preparing materials under conditions which cannot be realized in the gravity field of the Earth is discussed. Many techniques were developed to improve processing systems and reduce the effect of gravitationally induced restrictions. The space-based devices take advantage of a wide range of low-gravity facilities including drop towers and tubes, aircraft and sounding rocket parabolic trajectories, simple materials experiment accommodations in the Space Shuttle, and more complex capabilities in Spacelab. All these systems are used to produce novel materials and to study material processing under unique conditions.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics - Applications in Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Kathol, Austin; Ziemian, Constance

    2012-11-01

    A new Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) exercise has been developed for the undergraduate introductory fluid mechanics course at Bucknell University. The goal is to develop a computational exercise that students complete which links the manufacturing processes course and the concurrent fluid mechanics course in a way that reinforces the concepts in both. In general, CFD is used as a tool to increase student understanding of the fundamentals in a virtual world. A ``learning factory,'' which is currently in development at Bucknell seeks to use the laboratory as a means to link courses that previously seemed to have little correlation at first glance. A large part of the manufacturing processes course is a project using an injection molding machine. The flow of pressurized molten polyurethane into the mold cavity can also be an example of fluid motion (a jet of liquid hitting a plate) that is applied in manufacturing. The students will run a CFD process that captures this flow using their virtual mold created with a graphics package, such as SolidWorks. The laboratory structure is currently being implemented and analyzed as a part of the ``learning factory''. Lastly, a survey taken before and after the CFD exercise demonstrate a better understanding of both the CFD and manufacturing process.

  18. Spray Cooling Processes for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizito, John P.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports ongoing work to develop numerical and modeling tools used to design efficient and effective spray cooling processes and to determine characteristic non-dimensional parametric dependence for practical fluids and conditions. In particular, we present data that will delineate conditions towards control of the impingement dynamics of droplets upon a heated substrate germane to practical situations.

  19. Rapid point-of-care detection of the tuberculosis pathogen using a BlaC-specific fluorogenic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hexin; Mire, Joseph; Kong, Ying; Chang, Mihee; Hassounah, Hany A.; Thornton, Chris N.; Sacchettini, James C.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Rao, Jianghong

    2012-10-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculosis can dramatically reduce both its transmission and the associated death rate. The extremely slow growth rate of the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), however, makes this challenging at the point of care, particularly in resource-limited settings. Here we report the use of BlaC (an enzyme naturally expressed/secreted by tubercle bacilli) as a marker and the design of BlaC-specific fluorogenic substrates as probes for Mtb detection. These probes showed an enhancement by 100-200 times in fluorescence emission on BlaC activation and a greater than 1,000-fold selectivity for BlaC over TEM-1 β-lactamase, an important factor in reducing false-positive diagnoses. Insight into the BlaC specificity was revealed by successful co-crystallization of the probe/enzyme mutant complex. A refined green fluorescent probe (CDG-OMe) enabled the successful detection of live pathogen in less than ten minutes, even in unprocessed human sputum. This system offers the opportunity for the rapid, accurate detection of very low numbers of Mtb for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis in sputum and other specimens.

  20. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  1. Prevalence of β-lactam (blaTEM) and Metronidazole (nim) Resistance Genes in the Oral Cavity of Greek Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Koukos, Georgios; Konstantinidis, Antonios; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Arsenakis, Minas; Slini, Theodora; Sakellari, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of blaTEM and nim genes that encode resistance to β-lactams and nitroimidazoles, respectively, in the oral cavity of systemically healthy Greek subjects. Materials and Methodology: After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 subjects were recruited for the study, including 50 periodontally healthy patients, 52 cases of gingivitis and 52 cases of chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters were assessed with an automated probe. Various samples were collected from the tongue, first molars and pockets >6mm, and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-amplification of the blaTEM and nim genes, using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. Results: There was a high rate of detection of blaTEM in plaque and tongue samples alike in all periodontal conditions (37% of plaque and 60% of tongue samples, and 71% of participants). The blaTEM gene was detected more frequently in the tongue samples of the periodontally healthy (56%) and chronic periodontitis (62%) groups compared to the plaque samples from the same groups (36% and 29%, respectively; z-test with Bonferroni corrections-tests, P<0.05). The nim gene was not detected in any of the 343 samples analysed. Conclusion: The oral cavity of Greek subjects often harbours blaTEM but not nim genes, and therefore the antimicrobial activity of β-lactams might be compromised. PMID:27099637

  2. Space Processing Application Rocket project, SPAR 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler); Schaefer, D. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Post flight results and analysis are presented on the following experiments: 'Agglomeration in Immiscible Liquids', 'Contained Polycrystalline Solidification in Low G', 'The Direct Observation of Dendrite Remelting and Macrosegregation in Casting', and 'Uniform Dispersion by Crystallization'. An engineering report on the performance of the SPAR Black Brant rocket is also included. Much useful data and information were accumulated for directing and developing experimental techniques and investigations toward an expanding commercially beneficial program of materials processing in the coming shuttle era.

  3. Applications of Parallel Processing in Configuration Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Ppchuraman; Hager, James O.; Biedron, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the recent progress made towards developing an efficient and user-friendly parallel environment for routine analysis of large CFD problems. The coarse-grain parallel version of the CFL3D Euler/Navier-Stokes analysis code, CFL3Dhp, has been ported onto most available parallel platforms. The CFL3Dhp solution accuracy on these parallel platforms has been verified with the CFL3D sequential analyses. User-friendly pre- and post-processing tools that enable a seamless transfer from sequential to parallel processing have been written. Static load balancing tool for CFL3Dhp analysis has also been implemented for achieving good parallel efficiency. For large problems, load balancing efficiency as high as 95% can be achieved even when large number of processors are used. Linear scalability of the CFL3Dhp code with increasing number of processors has also been shown using a large installed transonic nozzle boattail analysis. To highlight the fast turn-around time of parallel processing, the TCA full configuration in sideslip Navier-Stokes drag polar at supersonic cruise has been obtained in a day. CFL3Dhp is currently being used as a production analysis tool.

  4. Application of simulation models for the optimization of business processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jašek, Roman; Sedláček, Michal; Chramcov, Bronislav; Dvořák, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the applications of modeling and simulation tools in the optimization of business processes, especially in solving an optimization of signal flow in security company. As a modeling tool was selected Simul8 software that is used to process modeling based on discrete event simulation and which enables the creation of a visual model of production and distribution processes.

  5. 20 CFR 655.1307 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1307 Processing of applications. (a) Processing. (1... for H-2A employment because the employer has been able to recruit a sufficient number of U.S....

  6. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the bla OXA-72 gene in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge LM; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region. PMID:27653364

  7. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the bla OXA-72 gene in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge LM; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region.

  8. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the blaOXA-72 gene in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge Lm; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region. PMID:27653364

  9. Further Spread of bla NDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangfang; Xie, Lianyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing; Qu, Hongping; Sun, Jingyong

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of bla NDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, bla NDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the bla NDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-bla NDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of bla NDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of bla NDM. PMID:27065982

  10. Molecular typing and genetic environment of the blaKPC gene in Chilean isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Barría-Loaiza, Carla; Pincheira, Andrea; Quezada, Mario; Vera, Alejandra; Valenzuela, Pedro; Domínguez, Mariana; Lima, Celia A; Araya, Ingrid; Araya, Pamela; Prat, Soledad; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the genetic environment and transferability of blaKPC as well as the pulsotypes of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical samples in Chilean hospitals. Seventeen strains, principally isolated in Santiago (the capital of Chile) during the years 2012 and 2013, were included. The genetic environment of blaKPC was elucidated by PCR mapping and sequencing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Curing and conjugation experiments were performed with six strains of different sequence types (STs) and pulsotypes. Thirteen pulsotypes and six STs, mainly belonging to clonal complex 258, were found. In addition, seven strains belonged to a new ST assigned ST1161. The blaKPC sequence indicated that 16 strains had the KPC-2 variant; in only one strain (UC331) an amino acid change (R6P) was detected, corresponding to a new KPC variant designated KPC-24. Molecular characterisation of the blaKPC genetic environment revealed two distinct platforms, namely variant 1a and the Tn4401a isoform, with the first being the most common (11/17 strains). Mating experiments failed to produce transconjugants; however, loss of blaKPC was achieved by plasmid curing in all assayed strains. In conclusion, in Chilean strains of K. pneumoniae, blaKPC is primarily found associated with the variant 1a and is located in non-transferable plasmids. In addition, this study highlights the description of the new ST1161 and the new KPC-24 variant. PMID:27436389

  11. Further Spread of blaNDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Xie, Lianyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing; Qu, Hongping; Sun, Jingyong

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of blaNDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, blaNDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the blaNDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-blaNDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of blaNDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of blaNDM. PMID:27065982

  12. Molecular typing and genetic environment of the blaKPC gene in Chilean isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Barría-Loaiza, Carla; Pincheira, Andrea; Quezada, Mario; Vera, Alejandra; Valenzuela, Pedro; Domínguez, Mariana; Lima, Celia A; Araya, Ingrid; Araya, Pamela; Prat, Soledad; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the genetic environment and transferability of blaKPC as well as the pulsotypes of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical samples in Chilean hospitals. Seventeen strains, principally isolated in Santiago (the capital of Chile) during the years 2012 and 2013, were included. The genetic environment of blaKPC was elucidated by PCR mapping and sequencing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Curing and conjugation experiments were performed with six strains of different sequence types (STs) and pulsotypes. Thirteen pulsotypes and six STs, mainly belonging to clonal complex 258, were found. In addition, seven strains belonged to a new ST assigned ST1161. The blaKPC sequence indicated that 16 strains had the KPC-2 variant; in only one strain (UC331) an amino acid change (R6P) was detected, corresponding to a new KPC variant designated KPC-24. Molecular characterisation of the blaKPC genetic environment revealed two distinct platforms, namely variant 1a and the Tn4401a isoform, with the first being the most common (11/17 strains). Mating experiments failed to produce transconjugants; however, loss of blaKPC was achieved by plasmid curing in all assayed strains. In conclusion, in Chilean strains of K. pneumoniae, blaKPC is primarily found associated with the variant 1a and is located in non-transferable plasmids. In addition, this study highlights the description of the new ST1161 and the new KPC-24 variant.

  13. Whole-Genome Sequence of a blaOXA-48-Harboring Raoultella ornithinolytica Clinical Isolate from Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayssari, Charbel; Leangapichart, Thongpan; Okdah, Liliane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the whole-genome sequence of a blaOXA-48-harboring Raoultella ornithinolytica clinical isolate from a patient in Lebanon. The size of the Raoultella ornithinolytica CMUL058 genome was 5,622,862 bp, with a G+C content of 55.7%. We deciphered all the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and we compared our genome to other available R. ornithinolytica genomes in GenBank. The resistome consisted of 9 antibiotic resistance genes, including a plasmidic blaOXA-48 gene whose genetic organization is also described. PMID:26833149

  14. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-Lactamase (BlaC) with the Carbapenems Ertapenem and Doripenem

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Lee W.; Fan, Fan; Blanchard, John S

    2010-01-01

    Despite the enormous success of β-lactams as broad-spectrum antibacterials, they have never been widely used for the treatment of TB due to intrinsic resistance that is caused by the presence of a chromosomally-encoded gene (blaC) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our previous studies of TB BlaC revealed that this enzyme is an extremely broad-spectrum β-lactamase hydrolyzing all β-lactam classes. Carbapenems are slow substrates that acylate the enzyme but are only slowly deacylated and can therefore act also as potent inhibitors of BlaC. We carried out the in vitro characterization of doripenem and ertapenem with BlaC. A steady-state kinetic burst was observed with both compounds with magnitudes proportional to the concentration of BlaC used. The results show apparent Km and kcat values of 0.18 µM and 0.016 min−1 for doripenem and 0.18 µM and 0.017 min−1 for ertapenem. FTICR mass spectrometry demonstrated that the doripenem and ertapenem acyl-enzyme complexes remain stable over a time period of 90 min. The BlaC-doripenem covalent complex obtained after 90 minutes of soaking was solved to 2.2 Å, while the BlaC-ertapenem complex obtained after a 90 minute soak was solved to 2.0 Å. The 1.3 Å diffraction data from a 10 minute ertapenem-soaked crystal revealed an isomerization occurring in the BlaC-ertapenem adduct in which the original Δ2 pyrroline ring was tautomerized to generate the Δ1 pyrroline ring. The isomerization leads to the flipping of the carbapenem-hydroxyethyl group to hydrogen bond to the carboxyl O2 of Glu166. The hydroxyethyl flip results in both decreased basicity of Glu166 and in a significant increase in the distance between the carboxyl O2 of Glu166 and the catalytic water molecule, slowing hydrolysis. PMID:20353175

  15. Detection of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (encoded by blaNDM-1) in Acinetobacter schindleri during routine surveillance.

    PubMed

    McGann, Patrick; Milillo, Michael; Clifford, Robert J; Snesrud, Erik; Stevenson, Lindsay; Backlund, Michael G; Viscount, Helen B; Quintero, Reyes; Kwak, Yoon I; Zapor, Michael J; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil P

    2013-06-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Alcaligenes faecalis strain was isolated from a surveillance swab of a service member injured in Afghanistan. The isolate was positive for bla(NDM) by real-time PCR. Species identification was reevaluated on three identification systems but was inconclusive. Genome sequencing indicated that the closest relative was Acinetobacter schindleri and that bla(NDM-1) was carried on a plasmid that shared >99% identity with one identified in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate. The isolate also carried a novel chromosomally encoded class D oxacillinase. PMID:23554204

  16. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry.

  17. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  18. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  19. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vrable, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment.

  20. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... description and maintenance assurance; (7) Risk and cost-effectiveness information, or State's benefit-cost... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application and review... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  1. 42 CFR 401.709 - The application process and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 401.709 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Performance Measurement § 401.709 The application process and requirements. (a) Application deadline. CMS... produce reports on the performance of providers and suppliers at least annually, beginning in the...

  2. 42 CFR 401.709 - The application process and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 401.709 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Performance Measurement § 401.709 The application process and requirements. (a) Application deadline. CMS... produce reports on the performance of providers and suppliers at least annually, beginning in the...

  3. 42 CFR 401.709 - The application process and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 401.709 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Performance Measurement § 401.709 The application process and requirements. (a) Application deadline. CMS... produce reports on the performance of providers and suppliers at least annually, beginning in the...

  4. 24 CFR 200.45 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing of applications. 200.45 Section 200.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment,...

  5. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise...

  6. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise...

  7. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise...

  8. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise...

  9. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76.41 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise...

  10. 24 CFR 200.45 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing of applications. 200.45 Section 200.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment,...

  11. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing FM broadcast station applications. 73.3573 Section 73.3573 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3573...

  12. Increased prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospital setting due to cross-species transmission of the bla NDM-1 element and clonal spread of progenitor resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Chen, Gongxiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangping; Cai, Jiachang; Chan, Edward W; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains collected from a hospital setting in China, in which consistent emergence of CRE strains were observable during the period of May 2013 to February 2014. Among the 45 CRE isolates tested, 21 (47%) strains were found to harbor the bla NDM-1 element, and the rest of 24 CRE strains were all positive for bla KPC-2. The 21 bla NDM-1-borne strains were found to comprise multiple Enterobacteriaceae species including nine Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, three Citrobacter freundii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Klebsiella oxytoca, and two Morganella morganii strains, indicating that cross-species transmission of bla NDM-1 is a common event. Genetic analyses by PFGE and MLST showed that, with the exception of E. coli and E. cloacae, strains belonging to the same species were often genetically unrelated. In addition to bla NDM-1, several CRE strains were also found to harbor the bla KPC-2, bla VIM-1, and bla IMP-4 elements. Conjugations experiments confirmed that the majority of carbapenem resistance determinants were transferable. Taken together, our findings suggest that transmission of mobile resistance elements among members of Enterobacteriaceae and clonal spread of CRE strains may contribute synergistically to a rapid increase in the population of CRE in clinical settings, prompting a need to implement more rigorous infection control measures to arrest such vicious transmission cycle in CRE-prevalent areas. PMID:26136735

  13. First descriptions of blaKPC in Raoultella spp. (R. planticola and R. ornithinolytica): report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; DiPersio, Joseph R; Kang, Julia; Weinstein, Melvin P; Jones, Ronald N

    2009-12-01

    Two strains of Raoultella planticola and one of Raoultella ornithinolytica showing carbapenem resistance were recovered from patients hospitalized in New Jersey and Ohio. All patients had received previous antimicrobial treatment, including carbapenems. These strains harbored bla(KPC-2) and bla(KPC-3). Carbapenemase genes were embedded in isoforms of Tn4401 and were plasmidic and chromosomal in location.

  14. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  15. Navigating the Grad School Application Process: A Training Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindlehurst, Garrett R.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple step-by-step guide for navigating the graduate school application process, a graduate student who's been through the ringer and a faculty advisor who knows the ropes offer advice to walk prospective grad students through the process of successfully entering graduate school. A repeat printing.

  16. Descriptions of Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The experiments for all the Space Processing Applications Rocket experiments, including those flown on previous Space Processing flights as well as those under development for future flights are described. The experiment objective, rationale, approach, and results or anticipated results are summarized.

  17. Wideband impedance spectrum analyzer for process automation applications.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Steffen; Schneider, Thomas; Hauptmann, Peter R

    2007-10-01

    For decades impedance spectroscopy is used in technical laboratories and research departments to investigate effects or material characteristics that affect the impedance spectrum of the sensor. Establishing this analytical approach for process automation and stand-alone applications will deliver additional and valuable information beside traditional measurement techniques such as the measurement of temperature, flow rate, and conductivity, among others. As yet, most of the current impedance analysis methods are suited for laboratory applications only since they involve stand-alone network analyzers that are slow, expensive, large, or immobile. Furthermore, those systems offer a large range of functionality that is not being used in process control and other fields of application. We developed a sensor interface based on high speed direct digital signal processing offering wideband impedance spectrum analysis with high resolution for frequency adjustment, excellent noise rejection, very high measurement rate, and convenient data exchange to common interfaces. The electronics has been implemented on two small circuit boards and it is well suited for process control applications such as monitoring phase transitions, characterization of fluidal systems, and control of biological processes. The impedance spectrum analyzer can be customized easily for different measurement applications by adapting the appropriate sensor module. It has been tested for industrial applications, e.g., dielectric spectroscopy and high temperature gas analysis.

  18. Acquisition of a High Diversity of Bacteria during the Hajj Pilgrimage, Including Acinetobacter baumannii with blaOXA-72 and Escherichia coli with blaNDM-5 Carbapenemase Genes.

    PubMed

    Leangapichart, Thongpan; Gautret, Philippe; Griffiths, Karolina; Belhouchat, Khadidja; Memish, Ziad; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Pilgrims returning from the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) can be carriers of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR). Pharyngeal and rectal swab samples were collected from 98 pilgrims before and after they traveled to the Hajj in 2014 to investigate the acquisition of MDR bacteria. The bacterial diversity in pharyngeal swab samples was assessed by culture with selective media. There was a significantly higher diversity of bacteria in samples collected after the return from the Hajj than in those collected before (P = 0.0008). Surprisingly, Acinetobacter baumannii strains were isolated from 16 pharyngeal swab samples (1 sample taken during the Hajj and 15 samples taken upon return) and 26 post-Hajj rectal swab samples, while none were isolated from samples taken before the Hajj. Testing of all samples by real-time PCR targeting blaOXA-51 gave positive results for only 1% of samples taken during the Hajj, 21/90 (23.3%) pharyngeal swab samples taken post-Hajj, and 35/90 (38.9%) rectal swab samples taken post-Hajj. One strain of A. baumannii isolated from the pharynx was resistant to imipenem and harbored a blaOXA-72 carbapenemase gene. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of 43 A. baumannii isolates revealed a huge diversity of 35 sequence types (STs), among which 18 were novel STs reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, we also found one Escherichia coli isolate, collected from a rectal swab sample from a pilgrim taken after the Hajj, which harbored blaNDM-5, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1, and aadA2 (ST2659 and ST181). In conclusion, pilgrims are at a potential risk of acquiring and transmitting MDR Acinetobacter spp. and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during the Hajj season. PMID:27458222

  19. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  20. Application of TQM principles to the utilization management process.

    PubMed

    Miller, J B; Rose, M S; Milakovich, M; Rosasco, E J

    1992-01-01

    Application of the philosophy and principles of TQM and CQI to utilization management within an institution necessitates an in-depth review of the systems and processes of the flow of inpatients throughout their stay. This encompasses a total systems perspective, beginning with the admitting process and going through the discharge process. TQM and CQI philosophies identify that the most significant and costly inefficiencies are due to faulty systems and processes, not individuals. Applying this management strategy to a health care institution requires a detailed review and analysis of processes by which service is delivered and requires evaluation of the outcomes of patient care and patient satisfaction.

  1. Emergence and Distribution of Plasmids Bearing the blaOXA-51-like gene with an upstream ISAba1 in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Li; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chang, Feng-Yee; Siu, Leung-Kei; Ko, Wen-Chien; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2010-11-01

    The bla(OXA-51)-like gene with an upstream ISAba1 (ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene) was originally found on the chromosomes of carbapenem-resistant or -susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. However, a plasmid-borne ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene has recently been identified in Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU and several A. baumannii isolates in Taiwan, and all of the isolates are carbapenem resistant. This study aimed to characterize the plasmids bearing the ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene and their significance in A. baumannii. Among the 117 ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like-harboring isolates collected from 10 hospitals in Taiwan, 58 isolates (49.6%) from 24 clones had the genes located on plasmids that likely originated from a common progenitor. Among the 58 isolates, four had additional copy of the ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene on their chromosomes. Based on the analysis of these four isolates, the plasmid-located ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene appeared to be acquired via one-ended transposition (Tn6080). The isolates with a plasmid bearing the ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene had higher rates of resistance to imipenem (98% versus 46.6%; P < 0.001) and meropenem (98% versus 69%; P = 0.019) than those with the genes chromosomally encoded, which is most likely due to increased gene dosage provided by the higher copy number of associated plasmids. Transformation with a recombinant plasmid harboring only the ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene was enough to confer a high level of carbapenem resistance to A. baumannii, eliminating the possible contribution of other factors on the original plasmids. This study demonstrated that the carbapenem resistance-associated plasmids carrying the ISAba1-bla(OXA-51)-like gene are widespread in A. baumannii strains in Taiwan.

  2. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including a New Variant

    PubMed Central

    Bahador, Abbas; Raoofian, Reza; Pourakbari, Babak; Taheri, Mohammad; Hashemizadeh, Zahra; Hashemi, Farhad B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156) revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19 and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide. PMID:26617588

  3. Identification of Achromobacter xylosoxidans by detection of the bla(OXA-114-like) gene intrinsic in this species.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; Mustafa, Nazim; Shah, Jayesh; Hampton, Catherine V; Pike, Rachel; Kenna, Dervla T

    2011-07-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an emerging pathogen among patients with cystic fibrosis. Here we describe a specific PCR for identification of this organism, based on detection of bla(OXA-114-like). Comparison of isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed evidence of cross-infection in some cases, but most patients harbored their own strain.

  4. Recent Emergence of Escherichia coli with Cephalosporin Resistance Conferred by blaCTX-M on Washington State Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, William M.; Jones, Lisa P.; Moore, Dale A.; Ahmed, Sara; Short, Diana M.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae-associated blaCTX-M genes have become globally widespread within the past 30 years. Among isolates from Washington State cattle, Escherichia coli strains carrying blaCTX-M (CTX-M E. coli strains) were absent from a set of 2008 isolates but present in a set of isolates from 2011. On 30 Washington State dairy farms sampled in 2012, CTX-M E. coli prevalence was significantly higher on eastern than on northwestern Washington farms, on farms with more than 3,000 adult cows, and on farms that recently received new animals. The addition of fresh bedding to calf hutches at least weekly and use of residual fly sprays were associated with lower prevalence of CTX-M E. coli. In Washington State, the occurrence of human pathogens carrying blaCTX-M genes preceded the emergence of blaCTX-M-associated E. coli in cattle, indicating that these resistance determinants and/or their bacterial hosts may have emerged in human populations prior to their dissemination to cattle populations. PMID:25911480

  5. Analysis of bla(SHV) codon 238 and 240 allele mixtures using Sybr green high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Patiyan; Harris, Tegan; Tong, Steven Y C; Giffard, Philip M

    2009-06-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates frequently contain complex mixtures of bla(SHV) alleles. A high-resolution melting-based method for interrogating the extended-spectrum activity conferring codon 238 and 240 polymorphisms was developed. This detects minority extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-encoding alleles, allows estimation of allele ratios, and discriminates between single and double mutants.

  6. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Kabiru O; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Alafe, Olajide O; Mudashiru, Sulaiman A; Fakorede, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients. Methods Patients (158 total) made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment. Results Thirty-five (25.9%) Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7%) were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7%) S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05). A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8%) Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8%) of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2%) isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co-transferred with cefotaxime and augmentin resistance to Escherichia coli j53-2 transconjugants. Conclusion This study revealed the emergence of blaCTX-M-I S. typhi as an agent of persistent pyrexia with potential to spread to other Enterobacteriaceae in Lagos, Nigeria. Cautionary

  7. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  8. Correlation autoregressive processes with application to helicopter noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Miamee, A. G.

    1990-10-01

    This paper introduces a new class of random processes X(t), the autocorrelations R sub x (t1, t2) of which satisfy a linear relation for all t1 and t2 in some interval of the time axis. Such random processes are denoted as 'correlation-autoregressive'. This class is shown to include the familiar stationary and periodically correlated processes as well as many other, both harmonizable and nonharmonizable, nonstationary processes. When a process is correlation-autoregressive for all times and harmonizable, its two-dimensional power spectral density is shown to take a particularly simple form. The relationship of such processes to the class of stationary processes is examined. In addition, the application of such processes in the analysis of typical helicopter noise signals is described.

  9. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Alexander, Paul

    1996-03-01

    During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this paper, examples of specific applications in the areas of materials and food processing, transport in reactors and two-phase flow are discussed. One specific study, that of the internal structure of a packed column, is considered in detail. This example is reported to illustrate the extent of new, quantitative information of generic importance to many processing operations that can be obtained using NMR imaging in combination with image analysis.

  10. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  11. Combinatorial active-site variants confer sustained clavulanate resistance in BlaC β-lactamase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Egesborg, Philippe; Carlettini, Hélène; Volpato, Jordan P; Doucet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is a global issue threatening the success of infectious disease treatments worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been particularly resilient to β-lactam treatment, primarily due to the chromosomally encoded BlaC β-lactamase, a broad-spectrum hydrolase that renders ineffective the vast majority of relevant β-lactam compounds currently in use. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have nevertheless shown that specific β-lactam–BlaC inhibitor combinations can be used to inhibit the growth of extensively drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, effectively offering new tools for combined treatment regimens against resistant strains. In the present work, we performed combinatorial active-site replacements in BlaC to demonstrate that specific inhibitor-resistant (IRT) substitutions at positions 69, 130, 220, and/or 234 can act synergistically to yield active-site variants with several thousand fold greater in vitro resistance to clavulanate, the most common clinical β-lactamase inhibitor. While most single and double variants remain sensitive to clavulanate, double mutants R220S-K234R and S130G-K234R are substantially less affected by time-dependent clavulanate inactivation, showing residual β-lactam hydrolytic activities of 46% and 83% after 24 h incubation with a clinically relevant inhibitor concentration (5 μg/ml, 25 µM). These results demonstrate that active-site alterations in BlaC yield resistant variants that remain active and stable over prolonged bacterial generation times compatible with mycobacterial proliferation. These results also emphasize the formidable adaptive potential of inhibitor-resistant substitutions in β-lactamases, potentially casting a shadow on specific β-lactam–BlaC inhibitor combination treatments against M. tuberculosis. PMID:25492589

  12. AmpG is required for BlaXc beta-lactamase expression in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. 17.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Chen, Tzu-Fan; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Hu, Rouh-Mei

    2013-03-01

    The chromosomal ampR(Xc) -bla(Xc) module is essential for the β-lactam resistance of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Bla(Xc) β-lactamase is expressed at a high basal level in the absence of an inducer and its expression can be further induced by β-lactam. In enterobacteria, ampG encodes an inner membrane facilitator involved in the recycling of murein degradation compounds. An isogenic ampG mutant (XcampG) of X. campestris pv. campestris str. 17 (Xc17) was constructed to investigate the link between murein recycling and bla(Xc) expression. Our data demonstrate that (1) XcampG is susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics; (2) AmpG(Xc) is essential for expression of bla(Xc) ; (3) AmpGs of Xc17, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ (SmKJ) and Escherichia coli DH5α can complement the defect of XcampG; (4) overexpression of AmpG(X) (c) significantly increased bla(Xc) expression; and (5) AmpG(Xc) from Xc17 is able to restore β-lactamase induction of the ampN(Xc) -ampG(Xc) double mutant of SmKJ. In Xc17, ampG(Xc) can be expressed from the promoter residing in the intergenic region of ampN(Xc) -ampG(Xc) and the expression is independent of β-lactam induction. AmpN, which is required for β-lactamases induction in SmKJ, is not required for the β-lactam antibiotic resistance of Xc17.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel blaKLUC Resistance Genes through Large-Scale Resistance Plasmids Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaoding; Song, Yulong; Ma, Ping; Bao, Bokan; Jiang, Weiyan; Wu, Xinmei; Tou, Huifen; Li, Peizhen; Ren, Ping; Fei, Jingxian; Yang, Lei; Liu, Qi; Xu, Zuyuan; Zhou, Tieli; Ni, Liyan; Bao, Qiyu

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are important antibiotic resistance determinant carriers that can disseminate various drug resistance genes among species or genera. By using a high throughput sequencing approach, two groups of plasmids of Escherichia coli (named E1 and E2, each consisting of 160 clinical E. coli strains isolated from different periods of time) were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 20 million reads were obtained and mapped onto the known resistance gene sequences. As a result, a total of 9 classes, including 36 types of antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. Among these genes, 25 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) appeared, of which 9 and 12 SNPs are nonsynonymous substitutions in the E1 and E2 samples. It is interesting to find that a novel genotype of blaKLUC, whose close relatives, blaKLUC-1 and blaKLUC-2, have been previously reported as carried on the Kluyvera cryocrescens chromosome and Enterobacter cloacae plasmid, was identified. It shares 99% and 98% amino acid identities with Kluc-1 and Kluc-2, respectively. Further PCR screening of 608 Enterobacteriaceae family isolates yielded a second variant (named blaKLUC-4). It was interesting to find that Kluc-3 showed resistance to several cephalosporins including cefotaxime, whereas blaKLUC-4 did not show any resistance to the antibiotics tested. This may be due to a positively charged residue, Arg, replaced by a neutral residue, Leu, at position 167, which is located within an omega-loop. This work represents large-scale studies on resistance gene distribution, diversification and genetic variation in pooled multi-drug resistance plasmids, and provides insight into the use of high throughput sequencing technology for microbial resistance gene detection. PMID:23056610

  14. Nested Russian Doll-Like Genetic Mobility Drives Rapid Dissemination of the Carbapenem Resistance Gene blaKPC

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel J.; Sebra, Robert; Kasarskis, Andrew; Anson, Luke W.; Giess, Adam; Pankhurst, Louise J.; Vaughan, Alison; Grim, Christopher J.; Cox, Heather L.; Yeh, Anthony J.; Sifri, Costi D.; Walker, A. Sarah; Peto, Tim E.; Crook, Derrick W.

    2016-01-01

    The recent widespread emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health concern, as carbapenems are a therapy of last resort against this family of common bacterial pathogens. Resistance genes can mobilize via various mechanisms, including conjugation and transposition; however, the importance of this mobility in short-term evolution, such as within nosocomial outbreaks, is unknown. Using a combination of short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing of 281 blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from a single hospital over 5 years, we demonstrate rapid dissemination of this carbapenem resistance gene to multiple species, strains, and plasmids. Mobility of blaKPC occurs at multiple nested genetic levels, with transmission of blaKPC strains between individuals, frequent transfer of blaKPC plasmids between strains/species, and frequent transposition of blaKPC transposon Tn4401 between plasmids. We also identify a common insertion site for Tn4401 within various Tn2-like elements, suggesting that homologous recombination between Tn2-like elements has enhanced the spread of Tn4401 between different plasmid vectors. Furthermore, while short-read sequencing has known limitations for plasmid assembly, various studies have attempted to overcome this by the use of reference-based methods. We also demonstrate that, as a consequence of the genetic mobility observed in this study, plasmid structures can be extremely dynamic, and therefore these reference-based methods, as well as traditional partial typing methods, can produce very misleading conclusions. Overall, our findings demonstrate that nonclonal resistance gene dissemination can be extremely rapid, presenting significant challenges for public health surveillance and achieving effective control of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27067320

  15. Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15 among Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the environment, livestock and human interface.

    PubMed

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Glier, Melinda; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2015-07-15

    One of the currently most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae is based on the production of ESBL enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and monobactams by hydrolyzing their β-lactam ring. In humans, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme type is encoded by blaCTX-M-15. CTX-M-15 producing enterobacterial strains were also frequently isolated from environmental samples including surface water and freshwater fish. Plasmids, which can be grouped in different plasmid incompatibility types, play a key role in the horizontal spread of these multidrug resistance genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaCTX-M-15 genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the environment, livestock and human interface. In total, 81 blaCTX-M-15-harboring isolates collected between 2009 and 2014 were tested for its ability to transfer blaCTX-M-15 by conjugation. These plasmids were further typed. Transfer of a single blaCTX-M-15-harboring plasmid was observed in 32 (39.5%) of the isolates. The most frequent replicon types detected among these plasmids are IncF-type plasmids (n=12) (mostly multi replicon plasmids with a combination of following replicons: IncFII, IncFIA and IncFIB), followed by IncI1 (n=8), IncK (n=3) and IncR (n=1). A noticeable number of plasmids (n=8) could not be assigned to any of the tested replicon types. Knowledge about the plasmid types circulating in bacterial populations is indispensable for understanding epidemiological dynamics and for establishing intervention strategies to stop further dissemination of particular plasmids.

  16. Detection of chromosomal blaCTX-M-15 in Escherichia coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates from the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Fukui, Naoki; Taguchi, Masumi; Yamauchi, Kou; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Okano, Sho; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-12-01

    Escherichia coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) are distributed worldwide. The bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit has often been found on plasmids and the genetic contexts have been examined; however, less is known about the frequency and contexts of the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit on the chromosome. This study was performed to determine the chromosomal location of the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit and to analyse the molecular structure of the region surrounding the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit in E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates. Twenty-two E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 strains harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) that had been isolated from university hospital patients and nursing home residents in the Kinki region of Japan were examined. Inverse PCR (iPCR) targeting bla(CTX-M-15) was performed to classify the molecular structure of the region surrounding the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit. The isolates were classified into nine types (types A-I) considering the iPCR results; type A was the most prevalent type (13/22 isolates). Sequences of the iPCR-amplified DNA fragments showed that the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit consisted of ISEcp1, bla(CTX-M-15) and orf477Δ. A homology search of the obtained sequences showed that the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit was inserted into different chromosomal regions in eight of the nine classified types. Although 21 of the 22 E. coli isolates possessed chromosomally located bla(CTX-M-15) transposition units, clonal spread was not evident on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that certain E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 strains harbouring chromosomal bla(CTX-M-15) have emerged and spread in the Kinki region of Japan. PMID:24091130

  17. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  18. High-flux solar photon processes: Opportunities for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, J.I.; Coy, S.L.; Herzog, H.; Shorter, J.A.; Schlamp, M.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of this study was to identify new high-flux solar photon (HFSP) processes that show promise of being feasible and in the national interest. Electric power generation and hazardous waste destruction were excluded from this study at sponsor request. Our overall conclusion is that there is promise for new applications of concentrated solar photons, especially in certain aspects of materials processing and premium materials synthesis. Evaluation of the full potential of these and other possible applications, including opportunities for commercialization, requires further research and testing. 100 refs.

  19. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum. PMID:24587515

  20. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  1. The Enterprise Derivative Application: Flexible Software for Optimizing Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Richard C; Allgood, Glenn O; Knox, John R

    2008-11-01

    The Enterprise Derivative Application (EDA) implements the enterprise-derivative analysis for optimization of an industrial process (Allgood and Manges, 2001). It is a tool to help industry planners choose the most productive way of manufacturing their products while minimizing their cost. Developed in MS Access, the application allows users to input initial data ranging from raw material to variable costs and enables the tracking of specific information as material is passed from one process to another. Energy-derivative analysis is based on calculation of sensitivity parameters. For the specific application to a steel production process these include: the cost to product sensitivity, the product to energy sensitivity, the energy to efficiency sensitivity, and the efficiency to cost sensitivity. Using the EDA, for all processes the user can display a particular sensitivity or all sensitivities can be compared for all processes. Although energy-derivative analysis was originally designed for use by the steel industry, it is flexible enough to be applied to many other industrial processes. Examples of processes where energy-derivative analysis would prove useful are wireless monitoring of processes in the petroleum cracking industry and wireless monitoring of motor failure for determining the optimum time to replace motor parts. One advantage of the MS Access-based application is its flexibility in defining the process flow and establishing the relationships between parent and child process and products resulting from a process. Due to the general design of the program, a process can be anything that occurs over time with resulting output (products). So the application can be easily modified to many different industrial and organizational environments. Another advantage is the flexibility of defining sensitivity parameters. Sensitivities can be determined between all possible variables in the process flow as a function of time. Thus the dynamic development of the

  2. The application of image processing techniques and technology for security and surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Hickman, Duncan

    2007-04-01

    The range and scope of EO/IR sensor systems within security and surveillance applications is growing, and this places a corresponding demand on the image processing functionality required to meet the end-users' needs and requirements. Within this paper, the application of different image processing architectures and techniques is reviewed in terms of situational awareness criteria and is illustrated through specific system applications. The concepts and benefits of multimodal and distributed sensor systems are also considered together with the attendant data registration and fusion techniques. Finally, the exploitation of a priori information within the integrated security and surveillance picture is considered from both a processing technology and image display perspective.

  3. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  4. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-12-31

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications.

  5. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-01-01

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications.

  6. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Seck, Abdoulaye; Dia, Mouhamadou Lamine; Timbiné, Lassina Gadi; Niang, Aïssatou Ameth; Ndiaye, El Hadji Momar; Sonko, Mouhamadou Abdoulaye; Wane, Abdoul Aziz; Bercion, Raymond; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Cissé, Moussa Fafa; Gassama-Sow, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants’ stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL). blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella. PMID:27355480

  7. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diop, Amadou; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Seck, Abdoulaye; Dia, Mouhamadou Lamine; Timbiné, Lassina Gadi; Niang, Aïssatou Ameth; Ndiaye, El Hadji Momar; Sonko, Mouhamadou Abdoulaye; Wane, Abdoul Aziz; Bercion, Raymond; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Cissé, Moussa Fafa; Gassama-Sow, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants' stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL). blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella. PMID:27355480

  8. Chromosomal blaCTX-M-₁₅ associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates.

  9. Chromosomal blaCTX-M-₁₅ associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates. PMID:22683657

  10. 47 CFR 73.3574 - Processing of international broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of international broadcast station... of international broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for International station... such amended application. (c) Applications for International stations will be processed as nearly...

  11. New Insulation Application Process for Wind-And Magnet Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, K. S.; Stewart, M. W.; Hooker, M. W.

    2008-03-01

    Wind-and-react processes offer a cost-effective means of fabricating large-scale Nb3Sn magnets, while also eliminating the need to manipulate the brittle superconductor after the high-temperature reaction process. Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) has developed a hybrid inorganic/organic insulation system that can be co-processed with the Nb3Sn magnet at elevated temperatures. In this work, a new process was demonstrated for applying a thin, ceramic-based insulation that is compatible with wind-and-react processing. The insulation was applied to Rutherford cables using a continuous manufacturing process, and cable assemblies (i.e., 10-stacks) were fabricated and tested. The results of this work show that the insulation possesses a high strain tolerance, as well as the dielectric strength and fatigue resistance needed for high-field magnet applications.

  12. 47 CFR 301.3 - Household eligibility and application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Household eligibility and application process. 301.3 Section 301.3 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER BOX COUPON PROGRAM § 301.3 Household eligibility...

  13. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  14. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  15. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  17. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  18. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  19. 42 CFR 60.7 - The loan application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The loan application process. 60.7 Section 60.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... in accordance with the Department's Claims Collection Regulation (45 CFR part 30) prior to...

  20. 42 CFR 60.7 - The loan application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The loan application process. 60.7 Section 60.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... in accordance with the Department's Claims Collection Regulation (45 CFR part 30) prior to...

  1. 42 CFR 60.7 - The loan application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The loan application process. 60.7 Section 60.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... in accordance with the Department's Claims Collection Regulation (45 CFR part 30) prior to...

  2. 42 CFR 60.7 - The loan application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The loan application process. 60.7 Section 60.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... in accordance with the Department's Claims Collection Regulation (45 CFR part 30) prior to...

  3. 7 CFR 1717.859 - Application process and timeframes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application process and timeframes. 1717.859 Section 1717.859 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Lien Accommodations and...

  4. 24 CFR 599.201 - Initiation of application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Procedures for Nomination of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Initiation of application process. 599.201 Section 599.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  5. 24 CFR 599.201 - Initiation of application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Procedures for Nomination of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Initiation of application process. 599.201 Section 599.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  6. 24 CFR 599.201 - Initiation of application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Procedures for Nomination of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initiation of application process. 599.201 Section 599.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  7. 24 CFR 599.201 - Initiation of application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Procedures for Nomination of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Initiation of application process. 599.201 Section 599.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  8. 24 CFR 599.201 - Initiation of application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Procedures for Nomination of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Initiation of application process. 599.201 Section 599.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  9. Application of the wavelet transform for speech processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Stephane

    1994-01-01

    Speaker identification and word spotting will shortly play a key role in space applications. An approach based on the wavelet transform is presented that, in the context of the 'modulation model,' enables extraction of speech features which are used as input for the classification process.

  10. 21 CFR 808.25 - Procedures for processing an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for processing an application. 808.25 Section 808.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE...

  11. 21 CFR 808.25 - Procedures for processing an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for processing an application. 808.25 Section 808.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE...

  12. 21 CFR 808.25 - Procedures for processing an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for processing an application. 808.25 Section 808.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE...

  13. 21 CFR 808.25 - Procedures for processing an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for processing an application. 808.25 Section 808.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE...

  14. 21 CFR 808.25 - Procedures for processing an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for processing an application. 808.25 Section 808.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rural development programs will be processed, closed, and serviced according to applicable FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 regulations, available in any FmHA or its successor agency under... to the time a State was selected to participate in this program may be funded by FmHA or...

  16. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  17. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  18. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  19. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate percentages of chemicals and spirits in the mixture; (4) Method of operation proposed; (5) Bonded...

  20. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... historic preservation that is readily available; (9) Attachments for each property as follows: (i) A... list (provide NFIP Repetitive Loss Property Locator Number, if available); and (xiii) Observations...

  1. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  2. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  3. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business... deleted pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.11, to the Secretary, which may be made available for public review....

  4. 10 CFR 430.53 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing of applications. 430.53 Section 430.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business... deleted pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.11, to the Secretary, which may be made available for public review....

  5. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... or ever has been used for commercial or industrial purposes, and (ii) Any information regarding... environmental contamination by floodwaters, or otherwise determined to be uninhabitable by a State or...

  6. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application review and award process. 152.6 Section 152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM §...

  7. Application Processing, 2003-2004. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide contains training materials for processing applications for student financial aid under the EDExpress system. Representatives of institutions of higher education receive training in the use of EDExpress software that allows the school to manage student financial aid records. The guide contains these sessions: (1) welcome and…

  8. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application review and award process. 152.6 Section 152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... technical evaluation panel. Using the evaluation criteria detailed in the Program Guidance and in the...

  9. Computer and control applications in a vegetable processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many advantages to the use of computers and control in food industry. Software in the food industry takes 2 forms - general purpose commercial computer software and software for specialized applications, such as drying and thermal processing of foods. Many applied simulation models for d...

  10. Comparison of formant detection methods used in speech processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belean, Bogdan

    2013-11-01

    The paper describes time frequency representations of speech signal together with the formant significance in speech processing applications. Speech formants can be used in emotion recognition, sex discrimination or diagnosing different neurological diseases. Taking into account the various applications of formant detection in speech signal, two methods for detecting formants are presented. First, the poles resulted after a complex analysis of LPC coefficients are used for formants detection. The second approach uses the Kalman filter for formant prediction along the speech signal. Results are presented for both approaches on real life speech spectrograms. A comparison regarding the features of the proposed methods is also performed, in order to establish which method is more suitable in case of different speech processing applications.

  11. Application of Laser Ablation Processing in Electric Power System Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konagai, Chikara; Sano, Yuji; Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira

    The present status of laser ablation processing applied in electric power system industries is reviewed. High average power LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with Q-switch have been developed and currently introduced into various applications. Optical fiber based laser beam delivery systems for Q-switched pulse laser are also being developed these years. Based on such laser and beam delivery technology, laser ablation processes are gradually introduced in maintenance of nuclear power plant, thermal power plant and electrical power distribution system. Cost effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the process is highly required for wide utilization in these fields.

  12. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid. PMID:26525794

  13. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2015-11-02

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid.

  14. First Report of blaIMP-14 on a Plasmid Harboring Multiple Drug Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Anna E.; Peirano, Gisele; Sebra, Robert P.; Lynch, Tarah; Anson, Luke W.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Motyl, Mary R.; Crook, Derrick W.; Pitout, Johann D.

    2016-01-01

    The blaIMP-14 carbapenem resistance gene has largely previously been observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. As part of global surveillance and sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, we identified a sequence type 131 strain harboring blaIMP-14 within a class 1 integron, itself nested within an ∼54-kb multidrug resistance region on an epidemic IncA/C2 plasmid. The emergence of blaIMP-14 in this context in the ST131 lineage is of potential clinical concern. PMID:27246777

  15. [Genetic Investigation of bla(CTX-M)-typing in Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Specimens and Commercially Available Chicken Liver].

    PubMed

    Kan, Miki; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Kitao, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic investigation consisting of the bla(CTX-M) typing was performed using 40 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver and 43 ESBL-producing E. coli and 42 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients. The types were determined using a sequence analysis. In 31 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-1) group, there were 13 with the bla(CTX-M-1) and all were from chicken liver. Nine E. coli isolates from chicken liver and one E. coli isolate from patients were found to be bla(CTX-M-55). In the bla(CTX-M-15), there were 6 E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate from patients. All 39 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-2) group had the blac(CTX-M-2). Fifty-five isolates were found in the bla(CTX-M-9) group, the highest detection frequency, with 36 possessing bla(CTX-M-14) : 20 E. coli and 13 K. pneumoniae from patients and 3 E. coli from chicken liver. There were 17 bla(CTX-M-27) isolates, including 10 E. coli and 7 K. pneumoniae from patients. One bla(CTX-M-90) K. pneumoniae isolate and one bla(CTX-M-9) E. coli isolate were also obtained from patients. These results indicate that the E. coli isolates from chicken liver consist of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-55) ; the E. coli isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27) ; and the K. pneumoniae isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27). Therefore, the bla(CTX-M) type differs in isolates from chicken liver and those from humans. These results suggest that it is unlikely that ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken liver are firmly established in the human intestinal tract.

  16. [Genetic Investigation of bla(CTX-M)-typing in Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Specimens and Commercially Available Chicken Liver].

    PubMed

    Kan, Miki; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Kitao, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic investigation consisting of the bla(CTX-M) typing was performed using 40 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver and 43 ESBL-producing E. coli and 42 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients. The types were determined using a sequence analysis. In 31 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-1) group, there were 13 with the bla(CTX-M-1) and all were from chicken liver. Nine E. coli isolates from chicken liver and one E. coli isolate from patients were found to be bla(CTX-M-55). In the bla(CTX-M-15), there were 6 E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate from patients. All 39 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-2) group had the blac(CTX-M-2). Fifty-five isolates were found in the bla(CTX-M-9) group, the highest detection frequency, with 36 possessing bla(CTX-M-14) : 20 E. coli and 13 K. pneumoniae from patients and 3 E. coli from chicken liver. There were 17 bla(CTX-M-27) isolates, including 10 E. coli and 7 K. pneumoniae from patients. One bla(CTX-M-90) K. pneumoniae isolate and one bla(CTX-M-9) E. coli isolate were also obtained from patients. These results indicate that the E. coli isolates from chicken liver consist of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-55) ; the E. coli isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27) ; and the K. pneumoniae isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27). Therefore, the bla(CTX-M) type differs in isolates from chicken liver and those from humans. These results suggest that it is unlikely that ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken liver are firmly established in the human intestinal tract. PMID:27529965

  17. Molecular characterisation of acquired and overproduced chromosomal blaAmpC in Escherichia coli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Noemí; Miró, Elisenda; Pascual, Vanesa; Rivera, Alba; Simó, Maria; Garcia, Maria Consol; Xercavins, Mariona; Morera, Maria Antonia; Espejo, Elena; Gurguí, Mercè; Pérez, Josefa; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Mònica; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther; Navarro, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Coll, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli recovered from three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) were studied to determine the prevalence of isolates with acquired AmpC (ac-AmpC) and/or overproduced chromosomal AmpC (c-AmpC). Mechanisms involved in blac-AmpC overexpression, blaac-AmpC and the plasmids associated with their distribution as well as the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in AmpC-producing isolates were also determined. Isolates were selected according to their resistance phenotype. blaac-AmpC, alterations in the blac-AmpC promoter/attenuator, and PMQR genes [qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA] were characterised by PCR and sequencing. blac-AmpC expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Population structure analysis was performed using PFGE, MLST and phylogenetic group PCR. Plasmids carrying blaac-AmpC were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and S1-PFGE. IncI1 and IncF plasmids were also analysed by plasmid MLST and replicon sequence typing, respectively. Among 21563 E. coli isolates, 240 (1.1%) overproduced AmpC β-lactamases, including 180 (75.0%) harbouring ac-AmpC (132 CMY-2 variants and 48 DHA-1) and 60 (25.0%) c-AmpC enzymes. Three mutation profiles in the blac-AmpC promoter/attenuator were associated with a 72.5-, 19.9- and 5.8-fold increased expression, respectively. Moreover, 63.3% of ac-AmpC and 43.3% of c-AmpC isolates belonged to B2, D, E or F phylogenetic groups. PMQR was found in 31% of ac-AmpC isolates [38 qnrB4, 8 aac(6')-Ib-cr, 6 qnrS1 and 3 qnrB19] and in 10% of c-AmpC isolates [5 aac(6')-Ib-cr and 1 qnrS1]. IncI1-ST12 and IncF were associated with blaCMY-2 and blaDHA-1, respectively. These results suggest that ac-AmpC β-lactamases were the main mechanism of AmpC production. Isolates and plasmids both showed high genetic diversity.

  18. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    PubMed

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. PMID:26169417

  19. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  20. Applications of neural networks to process control and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Brown, S.K.; Flake, G.W.; Jones, R.D.; O'Rourke, M.K.; Lee, Y.C.

    1991-01-01

    Modeling and control of physical processes are universal parts of modern life, from control of chemical plants to riding a bicycle. Often, an effective model of the process is not known so that traditional control theory is of little use. If a process can be represented by a set of a data which captures it behavior over a range of parameter settings, a neural net can inductively model the process and form the basis of an optimization procedure. We present a neural network architecture which is particularly effective in process modeling and control. We discuss its effectiveness in several application areas as well as some of the non-ideal characteristics present in real control problems which effect the form and style of the network architecture and learning algorithm. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  2. Launch Site Computer Simulation and its Application to Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of computer simulation, the Lockheed developed STS Processing Model, and the application of computer simulation to a wide range of processes. The STS Processing Model is an icon driven model that uses commercial off the shelf software and a Macintosh personal computer. While it usually takes one year to process and launch 8 space shuttles, with the STS Processing Model this process is computer simulated in about 5 minutes. Facilities, orbiters, or ground support equipment can be added or deleted and the impact on launch rate, facility utilization, or other factors measured as desired. This same computer simulation technology can be used to simulate manufacturing, engineering, commercial, or business processes. The technology does not require an 'army' of software engineers to develop and operate, but instead can be used by the layman with only a minimal amount of training. Instead of making changes to a process and realizing the results after the fact, with computer simulation, changes can be made and processes perfected before they are implemented.

  3. Application of image processing techniques to fluid flow data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamati, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The application of color coding techniques used in processing remote sensing imagery to analyze and display fluid flow data is discussed. A minicomputer based color film recording and color CRT display system is described. High quality, high resolution images of two-dimensional data are produced on the film recorder. Three dimensional data, in large volume, are used to generate color motion pictures in which time is used to represent the third dimension. Several applications and examples are presented. System hardware and software is described.

  4. Application of parallel distributed processing to space based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, J. R.; Heffelfinger, H. L.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) to enhance automated experiment monitoring and control is explored. Recent very large scale integration (VLSI) advances have made such applications an achievable goal. The PDP machine has demonstrated the ability to automatically organize stored information, handle unfamiliar and contradictory input data and perform the actions necessary. The PDP machine has demonstrated that it can perform inference and knowledge operations with greater speed and flexibility and at lower cost than traditional architectures. In applications where the rule set governing an expert system's decisions is difficult to formulate, PDP can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken.

  5. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food. PMID:25557827

  6. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  7. Diverse Genetic Array of blaCTXM-15 in Escherichia coli: A Single-Center Study from India.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Dhar Chanda, Debadatta; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2016-01-01

    CTX-M-15 is a chief contributor for expanded-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam resistance in India, complicating treatment options. In this study, we have investigated genetic context of CTX-M-15 in Escherichia coli and their transmission dynamics in a tertiary referral hospital of India. A total of 198 isolates were collected, of which 66 were harboring blaCTXM-15. Among them, 14 isolates were carrying a single CTX-M-15 gene and 52 were harboring multiple extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes along with blaCTX-M-15. The resistance gene was flanked by tnpA, ISEcp1, IS26, and ORF477 in 10 different arrangements. The resistance determinant was horizontally transferable through F, W, I1, and P Inc types of plasmids. Restriction mapping of plasmids showed a variable band pattern even within the same Inc types. Minimum inhibitory concentration was found above the breakpoint level against expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactam while susceptible against carbapenems. blaCTX-M-15 was highly stable and sustained in the cell after 115 serial passages. In pulse-field gel electrophoresis, eight pulsotypes of E. coli were found to be responsible for the spread of blaCTX-M-15 in the tertiary referral center. We conclude that the presence of CTX-M-15 in the heterogeneous group of E. coli is highly alarming in terms of infection control and it may require regular monitoring, so as to formulate appropriate antibiotic policy to stop the spread of this resistance determinant.

  8. Association between β-Lactamase-Encoding blaOXA-51 Variants and DiversiLab Rep-PCR-Based Typing of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Esther; Nemec, Alexandr; Seifert, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between blaOXA-51 variants and Acinetobacter baumannii worldwide clonal lineages 1 to 8 (WW1 to -8). The blaOXA-51-like genes of 102 A. baumannii isolates were sequenced. Using DiversiLab repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing, 92 of these isolates had previously been assigned to WW1 to -8 and 10 were unclustered. Clustering of DNA sequences was performed using the neighbor-joining method and the Jukes-Cantor phylogenetic correction. blaOXA-51 variants were in good correlation with DiversiLab-defined clonal lineages. Sequence-based typing of blaOXA-51 variants has the potential to be applied for epidemiologic characterization of A. baumannii and to identify worldwide clonal lineages 1 to 8. PMID:22422849

  9. Detection of blaCTX-M-type genes in complex class 1 integrons carried by Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casella, Tiago; Rodríguez, María Margarita; Takahashi, Juliana Tiemi; Ghiglione, Barbara; Dropa, Milena; Assunção, Ednei; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Lincopan, Nilton; Gutkind, Gabriel; Nogueira, Mara Corrêa Lelles

    2015-03-16

    CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been increasingly identified in humans and animals, and their potential transmission by contaminated food has been highlighted. In this study, we report for the first time the isolation of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis strains harboring blaCTXM-2 or blaCTXM-8 gene variants in chicken meat sold in markets in southeast Brazil. In this regard, the genetic environment of the blaCTX-M-2 gene is composed of a complex class 1 integron and an ISCR1-associated sequence with dfr and/or aadA gene cassettes located within the variable region. In summary, chicken meat may be a reservoir of MDR Enterobacteriaceae harboring blaCTX-M-type genes, which is a public health concern.

  10. Detection of blaCTX-M-type genes in complex class 1 integrons carried by Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casella, Tiago; Rodríguez, María Margarita; Takahashi, Juliana Tiemi; Ghiglione, Barbara; Dropa, Milena; Assunção, Ednei; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Lincopan, Nilton; Gutkind, Gabriel; Nogueira, Mara Corrêa Lelles

    2015-03-16

    CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been increasingly identified in humans and animals, and their potential transmission by contaminated food has been highlighted. In this study, we report for the first time the isolation of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis strains harboring blaCTXM-2 or blaCTXM-8 gene variants in chicken meat sold in markets in southeast Brazil. In this regard, the genetic environment of the blaCTX-M-2 gene is composed of a complex class 1 integron and an ISCR1-associated sequence with dfr and/or aadA gene cassettes located within the variable region. In summary, chicken meat may be a reservoir of MDR Enterobacteriaceae harboring blaCTX-M-type genes, which is a public health concern. PMID:25576985

  11. The effect of BLA GABA(A) receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlu-Haghighi, Katayoon; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    The roles of GABAergic receptors of the Basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist (arachydonilcyclopropylamide; ACPA)-induced anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit in adult male mice were examined in elevated plus-maze task. Results showed that pre-test intra-peritoneal injection of ACPA induced anxiolytic-like effect (at dose of 0.05 mg/kg) and aversive memory deficit (at doses of 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg). The results revealed that Pre-test intra-BLA infusion of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist; at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 µg/mouse) or bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist; at all doses) impaired and did not alter aversive memory, respectively. All previous GABA agents did not have any effects on anxiety-like behaviors. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub-threshold dose of muscimol (0.025 µg/mouse) and bicuculline (0.025 µg/mouse) did not alter anxiolytic-like behaviors induced by ACPA, while both drugs restored ACPA-induced amnesia. Moreover, muscimol or bicuculline increased and decreased ACPA-induced locomotor activity, respectively. Finally the data may indicate that BLA GABAA receptors have critical and different roles in anxiolytic-like effect, aversive memory deficit and locomotor activity induced by ACPA. PMID:26648818

  12. Molecular Evolution of a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST278 Isolate Harboring blaNDM-7 and Involved in Nosocomial Transmission.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tarah; Chen, Liang; Peirano, Gisele; Gregson, Dan B; Church, Deirdre L; Conly, John; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Pitout, Johann D

    2016-09-01

    During 2013, ST278 Klebsiella pneumoniae with blaNDM-7 was isolated from the urine (KpN01) and rectum (KpN02) of a patient in Calgary, Canada. The same strain (KpN04) was subsequently isolated from another patient in the same unit. Interestingly, a carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae ST278 (KpN06) was obtained 1 month later from the blood of the second patient. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed that the loss of carbapenem-resistance in KpN06 was due to a 5-kb deletion on the blaNDM-7-harboring IncX3 plasmid. In addition, an IncFIB plasmid in KpN06 had a 27-kb deletion that removed genes encoding for heavy metal resistance. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the K. pneumoniae ST278 from patient 2 was likely a descendant of KpN02 and that KpN06 was a close progenitor of an environmental ST278. It is unclear whether KpN06 lost the blaNDM-7 gene in vivo. This study detailed the remarkable plasticity and speed of evolutionary changes in multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, demonstrating the highly recombinant nature of this species. It also highlights the ability of NGS to clarify molecular microevolutionary events within antibiotic-resistant organisms. PMID:27284091

  13. Clonal dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 carrying blaKPC-3 in a hospital in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Iula, Dora Vita; de Luca, Cristiana; Roscetto, Emanuela; Vollaro, Antonio; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC-carbapenemase have emerged as one of the most important multidrug-resistant Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. Here, we report the first isolation and subsequent dissemination of a K. pneumoniae ST512 producing KPC-3 carbapenemase in a hospital in southern Italy. Isolates were obtained from blood, throat swabs, sputum, catheters, and urine of patients admitted to different hospital wards. Antimicrobial MICs were determined for all isolates by automated systems and confirmed by Etest. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by the modified Hodge test and by a disc synergy test, and carbapenemase genes were investigated by PCR. All isolates were characterized by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Most isolates were multidrug resistant with exception of some isolates intermediately susceptible to gentamicin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PCR analysis showed that isolates harbored the bla(KPC-3) gene associated with bla(TEM) and bla(SVH). PFGE and MLST showed that all isolates belonged to the same ST512 clone recently described in Israel.

  14. Within-Host and Population Transmission of blaOXA-48 in K. pneumoniae and E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Ossewaarde, Tjaco J. M.; van der Zee, Anneke; den Hollander, Jan G.; Troelstra, Annet; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Bootsma, Martin C. J.

    2015-01-01

    During a large hospital outbreak of OXA-48 producing bacteria, most K. pneumoniaeOXA-48 isolates were phenotypically resistant to meropenem or imipenem, whereas most E. coliOXA-48 isolates were phenotypically susceptible to these antibiotics. In the absence of molecular gene-detection E. coliOXA-48 could remain undetected, facilitating cross-transmission and horizontal gene transfer of blaOXA-48. Based on 868 longitudinal molecular microbiological screening results from patients carrying K. pneumoniaeOXA-48 (n = 24), E. coliOXA-48 (n = 17), or both (n = 40) and mathematical modelling we determined mean durations of colonisation (278 and 225 days for K. pneumoniaeOXA-48 and E. coliOXA-48, respectively), and horizontal gene transfer rates (0.0091/day from K. pneumoniae to E. coli and 0.0015/day vice versa). Based on these findings the maximum effect of horizontal gene transfer of blaOXA-48 originating from E. coliOXA-48 on the basic reproduction number (R0) is 1.9%, and it is, therefore, unlikely that phenotypically susceptible E. coliOXA-48 will contribute significantly to the spread of blaOXA-48. PMID:26485437

  15. blaCTX-M-15-carrying F2:A-:B- plasmid in Escherichia coli from cattle milk in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Grami, Raoudha; Dahmen, Safia; Mansour, Wejdene; Mehri, Wahib; Haenni, Marisa; Aouni, Mahjoub; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are widespread enzymes in animals, and the risk of transmission of ESBL genes to humans has become a major issue. In Tunisia, recent data showed a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates in healthy animals, mostly in chickens. In this study, we report the first data on ESBL in diseased Tunisian animals (chickens and cattle), highlighting a major difference in ESBL prevalence in the infectious versus noninfectious E. coli flora. Interestingly, the only ESBL producer was an ST10 E. coli from a cattle, and not from chicken. Moreover, this E. coli isolate harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) gene on an F2:A-:B- plasmid, a combination frequently found in humans. This plasmid was also highly similar to a bla(CTX-M-15) F2:A-:B- plasmid recently reported in cattle in France. Altogether, this study is also the first report of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene in food animals in Tunisia, and, to our best knowledge, the first report of an ESBL producer in cattle in Africa. Since this plasmid was recognized in cattle in France and worldwide in humans, the question of its origin in Tunisian cattle is open. The detection of ESBL producers in milk in Tunisia may also constitute a risk of ESBL transmission from animals to humans through food consumption.

  16. Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

    2008-08-01

    A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

  17. Graphics processing unit based computation for NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, C. A.; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2012-05-01

    Advances in parallel processing in recent years are helping to improve the cost of numerical simulation. Breakthroughs in Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) based computation now offer the prospect of further drastic improvements. The introduction of 'compute unified device architecture' (CUDA) by NVIDIA (the global technology company based in Santa Clara, California, USA) has made programming GPUs for general purpose computing accessible to the average programmer. Here we use CUDA to develop parallel finite difference schemes as applicable to two problems of interest to NDE community, namely heat diffusion and elastic wave propagation. The implementations are for two-dimensions. Performance improvement of the GPU implementation against serial CPU implementation is then discussed.

  18. Process for application of powder particles to filamentary materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Snoha, John J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention is a process for the uniform application of polymer powder particles to a filamentary material in a continuous manner to form a uniform composite prepreg material. A tow of the filamentary material is fed under carefully controlled tension into a spreading unit, where it is spread pneumatically into an even band. The spread filamentary tow is then coated with polymer particles from a fluidized bed, after which the coated filamentary tow is fused before take-up on a package for subsequent utilization. This process produces a composite prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the filamentary material, and without requiring long, high temperature residence times for the polymer.

  19. Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M.S.; Mohd-Yasin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications, Evolvable Hardware Chip (EHW) development, and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications. PMID:16799694

  20. Laser cleaning of metal surfaces: physical processes and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Mutin, T. J.; Smirnov, V. N.; Shakhno, E. A.; Batishche, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processes occurring by laser cleaning of metal surfaces from soiling particles, coatings and near-surface oxide or corroded layer are considered. Unconventional methods of laser cleaning which promote increasing the quality and effectiveness of cleaning and solving of the problem of soiling substance gathering are proposed. Applications of these methods in a number of novel fields, such as pinholes cleaning, coatings removal, radioactive contaminated layers removal, cleaning of objects of historic and cultural heritage are considered.

  1. Intelligent Computational Systems. Opening Remarks: CFD Application Process Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    1994-01-01

    This discussion will include a short review of the challenges that must be overcome if computational physics technology is to have a larger impact on the design cycles of U.S. aerospace companies. Some of the potential solutions to these challenges may come from the information sciences fields. A few examples of potential computational physics/information sciences synergy will be presented, as motivation and inspiration for the Improving The CFD Applications Process Workshop.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael R.

    2006-11-16

    Project Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications PI: Michael R. Brown, Swarthmore College The purpose of the project was to provide theoretical and modeling support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Accordingly, the theoretical effort was tightly integrated into the SSX experimental effort. During the grant period, Michael Brown and his experimental collaborators at Swarthmore, with assistance from W. Matthaeus as appropriate, made substantial progress in understanding the physics SSX plasmas.

  3. Application of hazard assessment techniques in the CISF design process

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.R.; Henry, T.

    1997-10-29

    The Department of Energy has submitted to the NRC staff for review a topical safety analysis report (TSAR) for a Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF). The TSAR will be used in licensing the CISF when and if a site is designated. CISF1 design events are identified based on thorough review of design basis events (DBEs) previously identified by dry storage system suppliers and licensees and through the application of hazard assessment techniques. A Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) is performed to identify design events applicable to a Phase 1 non site specific CISF. A PHA is deemed necessary since the Phase 1 CISF is distinguishable from previous dry store applications in several significant operational scope and design basis aspects. In addition to assuring all design events applicable to the Phase 1 CISF are identified, the PHA served as an integral part of the CISF design process by identifying potential important to safety and defense in depth facility design and administrative control features. This paper describes the Phase 1 CISF design event identification process and summarizes significant PHA contributions to the CISF design.

  4. Cloning of cockroach allergen, Bla g 4, identifies ligand binding proteins (or calycins) as a cause of IgE antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Arruda, L K; Vailes, L D; Hayden, M L; Benjamin, D C; Chapman, M D

    1995-12-29

    An allergen cloned from a Blattella germanica (German cockroach) cDNA library, encoded a 182-amino acid protein of 20,904 Da. This protein, designated B. germanica allergen 4 (Bla g 4), was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of serum IgE antibody to recombinant Bla g 4 in 73 cockroach allergic patients with asthma ranged from 40% (antigen binding radioimmunoassay) to 60% (plaque immunoassay). Cockroach allergic patients gave positive intradermal skin tests to recombinant Bla g 4 at concentrations of 10(-3)-10(-5) micrograms/ml, whereas non-allergic controls, or cockroach allergic patients with no detectable serum IgE antibody to Bla g 4, gave negative skin tests to 1 microgram/ml. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern analysis identified a 523-base pair DNA encoding Bla g 4 in both B. germanica and Periplaneta americana (American cockroach). However, Northern analysis showed that mRNA encoding Bla g 4 was transcribed in B. germanica but not in P. americana, suggesting that allergen expression was species specific. Sequence similarity searches showed that Bla g 4 was a ligand binding protein or calycin and unexpectedly revealed that this family contained several important allergens: beta-lactoglobulin, from cow milk, and rat and mouse urinary proteins. Although the overall sequence homology between these proteins was low (approximately 20%), macromolecular modeling techniques were used to generate two models of the tertiary structure of Bla g 4, based on comparisons with the x-ray crystal coordinates of bilin binding protein and rodent urinary proteins. The results show that members of the calycin protein family can cause IgE antibody responses by inhalation or ingestion and are associated with asthma and food hypersensitivity. PMID:8537384

  5. Characterization of the genetic environment of blaESBL genes, integrons and toxin-antitoxin systems identified on large transferrable plasmids in multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Stephan, Roger; Zurfluh, Katrin; Hächler, Herbert; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previously 14 conjugative plasmids from multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli from healthy humans and food-producing animals in Switzerland were sequenced. The aim of this study was to extend the genetic characterization of these plasmids with a focus on blaESBL genes including blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM, class 1 integrons and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems contained therein. Methods: The nucleotide sequences and subsequent annotation therein of 14 conjugative plasmids were previously determined from their corresponding transconjugants. The TA loci were confirmed by RASTA-Bacteria. Results: Eight of the conjugative plasmids identified were found to encode genes expressing ESBLs. Structural heterogeneity was noted in the regions flanking both the blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM genes. The blaCTX-M-1 genes were associated with the common insertion sequences ISEcp1 and IS26, and uniquely with an IS5 element in one case; while blaTEM genes were found to be associated with IS26 and Tn2. A new blaTEM-210 gene was identified. Seven class 1 integrons were also identified and assigned into 3 groups, denoted as In54, In369 and In501. Sixteen TA loci belonging to 4 of the TA gene families (relBE, vapBC, ccd and mazEF) were identified on 11 of these plasmids. Conclusions: Comparative sequence analysis of these plasmids provided data on the structures likely to contribute to sequence diversity associated with these accessory genes, including IS26, ISEcp1 and Tn2. All of them contribute to the dissemination of the corresponding resistance genes located on the different plasmids. There appears to be no association between β-lactam encoding genes and TA systems. PMID:25610429

  6. Application of statistical process control and process capability analysis procedures in orbiter processing activities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safford, Robert R.; Jackson, Andrew E.; Swart, William W.; Barth, Timothy S.

    1994-01-01

    Successful ground processing at KSC requires that flight hardware and ground support equipment conform to specifications at tens of thousands of checkpoints. Knowledge of conformance is an essential requirement for launch. That knowledge of conformance at every requisite point does not, however, enable identification of past problems with equipment, or potential problem areas. This paper describes how the introduction of Statistical Process Control and Process Capability Analysis identification procedures into existing shuttle processing procedures can enable identification of potential problem areas and candidates for improvements to increase processing performance measures. Results of a case study describing application of the analysis procedures to Thermal Protection System processing are used to illustrate the benefits of the approaches described in the paper.

  7. Novel applications of ionic liquids in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2009-05-01

    Ionic liquids are mixtures of organic and inorganic salts which are liquids at room temperature. Several potential applications of ionic liquids in the field of materials processing are electrowinning and electrodeposition of metals and alloys, electrolysis of active metals at low temperature, liquid-liquid extraction of metals. Results using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with AlCl3 at low temperatures yielded high purity aluminium deposits (>99.9% pure) and current efficiencies >98%. Titanium and aluminium were co-deposited with/without the addition of TiCl4 with up to 27 wt% Ti in the deposit with current efficiencies in the range of 78-85 %. Certain ionic liquids are potential replacements for thermal oils and molten salts as heat transfer fluids in solar energy applications due to high thermal stability, very low corrosivity and substantial sensible heat retentivity. The calculated storage densities for several chloride and fluoride ionic liquids are in the range of 160-210 MJ/m3. A 3-D mathematical model was developed to simulate the large scale electrowinning of aluminium. Since ionic liquids processing results in their low energy consumption, low pollutant emissions many more materials processing applications are expected in future.

  8. Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) project: SPAR 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) X Final Report contains the compilation of the post-flight reports from each of the Principal Investigators (PIs) on the four selected science payloads, in addition to the engineering report as documented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This combined effort also describes pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication and testing, all of which are expected to contribute to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. The SPAR project was coordinated and managed by MSFC as part of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) program of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) of NASA Headquarters. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the tenth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled, Containerless Processing Technology, SPAR Experiment 76-20/3; Directional Solidification of Magnetic Composites, SPAR Experiment 76-22/3; Comparative Alloy Solidification, SPAR Experiment 76-36/3; and Foam Copper, SPAR Experiment 77-9/1R.

  9. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian; Llarrull1, Leticia I.; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Shi, Qicun; Peng, Jeffrey; Baker, Brian M.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-10-29

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed the lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  10. Application of Hollow Sphere Structures and Composites in Processing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöler, Martin; Mauermann, Marc; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    The term processing machines refers to a large variety of machines and equipment for the mass production of consumer goods. Processing machines are often specially tailored according to the particular processing task they have to fulfill, such as pasteurising milk or packing goods. Furthermore the vast majority is characterised by large production outputs, demanding high processing velocities and fast moving parts. A special application is that of the food and drug processing area. Due to high quality standards there are special requirements for material surfaces to be considered if surfaces are in contact with the manufactured product. This chapter deals with the special demands concerning dedicated engineering materials that occur from state of the art processing machines. Specific requirements ranging from high damping abilities for support components to high stiffness and low weight for fast moving tools are presented by means of a general classification of processing machines into four functional areas. Accordingly, the proposed hollow sphere structures and similar material classes are presented and applied on each of these four areas.

  11. Complete Sequence of a Novel IncR-F33:A–:B– Plasmid, pKP1034, Harboring fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, and rmtB from an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 Strain in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Dai-Rong; Li, Jun-Jie; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Yu, Hai-Ying; Deng, Mei; Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Chen, Wei; Xue, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Bo; Doi, Yohei; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    A high fosfomycin resistance rate was observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) in our previous study, but little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we explored the prevalence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants among fosfomycin-resistant KPC-KP strains from a Chinese university hospital and determined the complete sequence of a novel fosA3-carrying plasmid isolated from an epidemic K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain. A total of 97 KPC-KP strains were studied, of which 57 (58.8%) were resistant to fosfomycin, including 44 (45.4%) harboring fosA3 and 1 harboring fosA. All fosA3-positive strains belonged to the dominant ST11-pulse type (PT) A clone according to multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting clonal dissemination. The fosA-positive isolate belonged to ST11-PTE. The fosA3-carrying plasmid pKP1034 is 136,848 bp in length and is not self-transmissible. It is a multireplicon plasmid belonging to IncR-F33:A−: B−. Besides fosA3, a variety of other resistance determinants, including blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-65, and blaSHV-12, are identified in pKP1034, which would allow for coselection of fosA3 by most β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and facilitate its dissemination despite limited use of fosfomycin in China. Detailed comparisons with related plasmids revealed that pKP1034 is highly mosaic and might have evolved from alarming recombination of the blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pKPC-LK30 from Taiwan and the epidemic fosA3-carrying plasmid pHN7A8 from mainland China. PMID:26666939

  12. Processes and applications of silicon carbide nanocomposite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D. G.; Cho, K. Y.; Jin, E. J.; Riu, D. H.

    2011-10-01

    Various types of SiC such as nanowires, thin films, foam, and continuous fibers have been developed since the early 1980s, and their applications have been expanded into several new applications, such as for gas-fueled radiation heater, diesel particulate filter (DPF), ceramic fiber separators and catalyst/catalyst supports include for the military, aerospace, automobile and electronics industries. For these new applications, high specific surface area is demanded and it has been tried by reducing the diameter of SiC fiber. Furthermore, functional nanocomposites show potentials in various harsh environmental applications. In this study, silicon carbide fiber was prepared through electrospinning of the polycarbosilane (PCS) with optimum molecular weight distribution which was synthesized by new method adopting solid acid catalyst such as ZSM-5 and γ-Al2O3. Functional elements such as aluminum, titanium, tungsten and palladium easily doped in the precursor fiber and remained in the SiC fiber after pyrolysis. The uniform SiC fibers were produced at the condition of spinning voltage over 20 kV from the PCS solution as the concentration of 1.3 g/ml in DMF/Toluene (3:7) and pyrolysis at 1200°C. Pyrolyzed products were processed into several interesting applications such as thermal batteries, hydrogen sensors and gas filters.

  13. Exploring the potential reservoirs of non specific TEM beta lactamase (blaTEM) gene in the Indo-Gangetic region: A risk assessment approach to predict health hazards.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Rani, Neetika; Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2016-08-15

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is an important public health and environmental contamination issue. Antimicrobials of β-lactam group accounts for approximately two thirds, by weight, of all antimicrobials administered to humans due to high clinical efficacy and low toxicity. This study explores β-lactam resistance determinant gene (blaTEM) as emerging contaminant in Indo-Gangetic region using qPCR in molecular beacon format. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach was adopted to predict risk to human health associated with consumption/exposure of surface water, potable water and street foods contaminated with bacteria having blaTEM gene. It was observed that surface water and sediments of the river Ganga and Gomti showed high numbers of blaTEM gene copies and varied significantly (p<0.05) among the sampling locations. The potable water collected from drinking water facility and clinical settings exhibit significant number of blaTEM gene copies (13±0.44-10200±316 gene copies/100mL). It was observed that E.crassipes among aquatic flora encountered in both the rivers had high load of blaTEM gene copies. The information on prevalence of environmental reservoirs of blaTEM gene containing bacteria in Indo-Gangetic region and risk associated will be useful for formulating strategies to protect public from menace of clinical risks linked with antimicrobial resistant bacteria. PMID:27111425

  14. Detection of intrinsic blaOXA-51-like by multiplex PCR on its own is not reliable for the identification of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Zander, Esther; Higgins, Paul G; Fernández-González, Ana; Seifert, Harald

    2013-03-01

    Three clinical A. baumannii isolates Ab-508, Ab-511, and Ab-653 were recovered from South Africa, South Korea, and Turkey, respectively. Multiplex PCR to detect OXA-type carbapenemases showed atypical blaOXA-51-like amplification products. The aim of this study was to investigate the background of changes in blaOXA-51-like PCR products. Isolates were confirmed as A. baumannii using gyrB multiplex and rpoB sequencing and were epidemiologically unrelated by rep-PCR-based DiversiLab. Sequencing of blaOXA-51-like revealed an insertion of ISAba15 in blaOXA-66 (isolate Ab-511) and an insertion of the novel ISAba19 in blaOXA-78 (isolates Ab-508 and Ab-653). Detection of the intrinsic blaOXA-51-like by OXA-multiplex PCR should not be considered a fully reliable method for identification of A. baumannii when used without an additional independent method. Other species identification methods such as gyrB multiplex PCR and rpoB sequencing should be used to reliably identify A. baumannii.

  15. Novel arrangement of the blaCTX-M-55 gene in an Escherichia coli isolate coproducing 16S rRNA methylase.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jian-Hua; Hu, Han; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Yuan, Li; Wu, Hua; Wang, Ling-Fei; Hu, Gong-Zheng

    2013-11-01

    A multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli C21 was isolated from a chicken in China. It was shown to be positive for the presence of the blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-55 and rmtB genes by PCR. This strain was examined by phylogenetic grouping, conjugation experiments, plasmid analysis, PCR-based replicon typing and multi-locus sequence typed (MLST). The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-55 was investigated by PCR mapping. The strain belonged to phylogroup A, ST156. The blaCTX-M-55 and rmtB genes were found to be present in separate plasmids that belonged to the IncI1 and IncN families, respectively. These antibiotic-resistant plasmids could be transferred to the recipient strain alone or together. A new arrangement of ISEcp1Δ-IS1294-ΔISEcp1-blaCTX-M-55 -ORF477, in which the ISEcp1 element was disrupted by another IS1294 element, was identified initially. Conjugative transfer and IS elements found in this study could lead to the rapid dissemination of blaCTX-M-55 and rmtB among strains of Enterobacteriaceae, which could pose a threat to animal husbandry and public health.

  16. Exploring the potential reservoirs of non specific TEM beta lactamase (blaTEM) gene in the Indo-Gangetic region: A risk assessment approach to predict health hazards.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Rani, Neetika; Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2016-08-15

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is an important public health and environmental contamination issue. Antimicrobials of β-lactam group accounts for approximately two thirds, by weight, of all antimicrobials administered to humans due to high clinical efficacy and low toxicity. This study explores β-lactam resistance determinant gene (blaTEM) as emerging contaminant in Indo-Gangetic region using qPCR in molecular beacon format. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach was adopted to predict risk to human health associated with consumption/exposure of surface water, potable water and street foods contaminated with bacteria having blaTEM gene. It was observed that surface water and sediments of the river Ganga and Gomti showed high numbers of blaTEM gene copies and varied significantly (p<0.05) among the sampling locations. The potable water collected from drinking water facility and clinical settings exhibit significant number of blaTEM gene copies (13±0.44-10200±316 gene copies/100mL). It was observed that E.crassipes among aquatic flora encountered in both the rivers had high load of blaTEM gene copies. The information on prevalence of environmental reservoirs of blaTEM gene containing bacteria in Indo-Gangetic region and risk associated will be useful for formulating strategies to protect public from menace of clinical risks linked with antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

  17. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  18. Facilitating emotional processing in depression: the application of exposure principles

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Adele M.

    2015-01-01

    Even with the best psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for unipolar depression, relapse is a serious problem. One path to improve treatments for depression is to target fundamental processes that go awry in depression and to enhance new learning by adapting principles and strategies from exposure-based treatments for anxiety and fear-related disorders. I describe basic principles of exposure and emotional processing and illustrate with Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy (EBCT) for depression, how these principles can be applied, with some adaptation, to address the therapeutic targets of depression. Clinical trial data of EBCT suggest that this application might be fruitful and that the process of change might be similar to that in exposure-based treatments for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. PMID:25932464

  19. Process Orchestration With Modular Software Applications On Intelligent Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfgen, Marius; Schmitt, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    The method developed by the DFKI-IFS for extending the functionality of intelligent field devices through the use of reloadable software applications (so-called Apps) is to be further augmented with a methodology and communication concept for process orchestration. The concept allows individual Apps from different manufacturers to decentrally share information. This way of communicating forms the basis for the dynamic orchestration of Apps to complete processes, in that it allows the actions of one App (e.g. detecting a component part with a sensor App) to trigger reactions in other Apps (e.g. triggering the processing of that component part). A holistic methodology and its implementation as a configuration tool allows one to model the information flow between Apps, as well as automatically introduce it into physical production hardware via available interfaces provided by the Field Device Middleware. Consequently, configuring industrial facilities is made simpler, resulting in shorter changeover and shutdown times.

  20. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain.