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Sample records for applications reduce phytophagy

  1. The role of phytophagy by predators in shaping plant interactions with their pests

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Maria L.; Steppuhn, Anke; Broufas, George D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoophytophagy is common among predacious arthropods, but research on their role in plant-herbivore interactions is generally focused on predation effects whereas their phytophagy is largely neglected. Our recent study revealed the ability of zoophytophagous predators to induce defense related traits and to affect herbivore performance apart from predation through the plant. Additionally, we show here that predator-exposed plants suffer less damage compared to unexposed plants. Thus, zoophytophagous organisms likely shape community structure by both their predation on herbivores and their phytophagy. Here, we consider zoophytophagous predators as plant vaccination factors and outline how their dual role in affecting herbivores may impact their use in biological pest control. Because plant responses to phytophagy and phytopathogens are known to interact, zoophytophagous predators may also affect plant-pathogen interactions. When we consider these indirect interactions with different plant pest organisms, we will likely better understand the ecology of the complex relationships among plants, herbivores and predators. Moreover, a comprehensive knowledge on the effects of the phytophagy of predators in these ecological interactions will potentially allow us to enhance sustainability in pest control. PMID:27195065

  2. Phytophagy by the Mullein Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Apples: Feeding Behavior and Fruit Damage.

    PubMed

    Aubry, O; Cormier, D; Chouinard, G; Lucas, E

    2016-12-01

    The zoophytophagous mullein bug, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a beneficial predator of mites and aphids, but also a pest causing damage when it feeds on apples. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different parameters of phytophagy of the mullein bug both in laboratory (phytophagous behavior) and field (fruit damage) tests: 1) apple cultivar, 2) fruit size, and 3) nymphal instar. In the laboratory, nymphs were observed individually for 15 min in Petri dishes containing agar gel and an apple fruitlet to evaluate feeding punctures of four apple cultivars, four fruit sizes, and five nymphal instars. In the orchard, nymphs were caged at bloom in sleeve cages to evaluate damage on the developing fruit of seven apple cultivars and three nymphal instars on 'Red Delicious'. The feeding punctures in the laboratory were higher on 'Red Delicious' than on 'Honeycrisp'; fruit damage in the orchard did not differ among cultivars at mid-season, but was higher on 'Red Delicious' than on 'Lobo' and 'Marshall McIntosh' at harvest. The number of feeding punctures in the laboratory was higher on 7-9 mm than on 18-20 mm size fruit for 'Red Delicious', but not for 'Honeycrisp'. The number of feeding punctures in the laboratory made by the fifth nymphal instar was higher than those made by younger nymphs, but fruit damage in the orchard did not differ among nymphal instars. Our results will help to elaborate a management chart for this insect by minimizing risks and promoting its use for biocontrol.  . La punaise de la molène, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), est un prédateur bénéfique zoophytophage des acariens et pucerons dans les vergers, mais également un ravageur causant des dommages lorsqu'il se nourrit sur les pommes. Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer trois paramètres différents sur la phytophagie de la punaise de la molène, à la fois en laboratoire (comportement phytophage) et sur le terrain

  3. Reduced methanol kinetic mechanisms for combustion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yalamanchili, S.; Sirignano, W.A.; Seiser, R.; Seshadri, K.

    2005-08-01

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for methanol combustion were investigated by evaluating ignition delay magnitudes and combustion in a continuously stirred reactor. Unsteady computations were made to study the characteristics of the kinetic mechanisms proposed in the literature and to compare the dependence of various parameters on methanol combustion. All computations were done under isobaric conditions, and, to capture the influence of all the reactions involved in the mechanism, a very small time step was used. Finite-difference methods were used to solve the coupled differential equations. The five-step mechanism developed by C.M. Mueller and N. Peters [in: N. Peters, B. Rogg (Eds.), Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Applications in Combustion Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993, pp. 143-155] for premixed flames and both the five-step mechanism and the four-step mechanisms developed by C.M. Mueller, K. Seshadri, J.Y. Chen [ibid, pp. 284-307] for non-premixed flames were considered. It was found that the Mueller et al. five-step mechanism, with some modifications, best supported the spontaneous ignition and continuous stirred reactor combustion. The results were validated by comparing calculated ignition delays with available experimental data of C.T. Bowman [Combust. Flame 25 (1975) 343-354], and calculated final steady-state concentrations with chemical equilibrium calculations [J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Sci. Technol. 78 (1991) 127]. Initial temperature and concentration and the operating pressure of the system have a major effect on the delay of methanol ignition. The residence time of the continuous stirred reactor affects ignition delay and also changes the transient characteristic of chemical composition of the fuel-vapor mixture. The computations are intended to guide and explain many combustion studies that require a methanol kinetic mechanism.

  4. Laser reduced graphene for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Bock, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Graphene was prepared by excimer laser irradiation reduction of graphite oxide dissolved in an aqueous solution at different laser energies and irradiation time. The morphologies and structure of the laser reduced graphene were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The XRD results confirm that the deoxygenation of the graphite oxide sheets occurred almost completely for all laser irradiation conditions used. The graphene fabricated by laser irradiation reduction appears to be randomly aggregated, crumpled, disordered and small sheet solid material. The total amount of oxygen functional groups reduced significantly and the CC/CO intensity ratio increased, however, the atomic percentages of the Cdbnd O double bond were increased after laser reduction. The laser reduced graphene was used as the electrode active material for supercapacitors and its specific capacitance was evaluated in a two electrode cell in either a 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous or a 1 M Tetraethylammoniumtetrafluoroborate acetonitrile based electrolyte. The specific capacitance of the laser fabricated graphene was found to depend on the energy and irradiation time of the laser. The highest specific capacitance was determined to be 141 F/g at 1.04 A/g and 84 F/g at 1.46 A/g in the aqueous and ACN electrolytes, respectively.

  5. Microporous polyimide films for reduced dielectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.S.; Aubert, J.H.; McNamara, W.F.

    1996-08-01

    Limiting factor to computer chip speed and size is the dielectric constant of the interlayer insulating materials, which has been reduced going from inorganic to organic type materials. A further reduction, together with better mechanical properties, is still needed. We have developed a spincoating method in conjunction with a thermodynamic process (Non-solvent Induced Phase Separation) to create microporous polyimide films with both lower dielectric constant and better stress reduction properties compared to solid films. In this method, we spincoat a soluble polyimide solution in 1, 3-dimethoxybenzene solvent onto a Si wafer, and then immediately submerse the wet polymer film into a non-solvent bath, typically toluene. Phase separation of the polymer occurs on a micron size scale and the resulting microporous structure becomes locked in by the high glass transition temperature of the polyimide. Factors affecting film morphology, thickness, pore size, and % porosity include polymer concentration, spin speed, and non-solvent type. Morphology is explained in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation and diffusion, using an idealized ternary phase diagram. One particular film having 68% porosity, 22 microns thickness, and 1.4 micron pore size had a dielectric constant of 1.88 and loss of 0.002. Stress measurements indicated that the microporous film reduced surface stress on the wafer by more than a factor of 10 compared to analogous solid polyimide film.

  6. Microporous polyimide films for reduced dielectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.S.; Aubert, J.H.; McNamara, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    With all the advances in the microelectronics industry, a limiting factor to computer chip speed and size is becoming the dielectric constant of the interlayer insulating materials. Dielectric constants of these layers have been reduced in going from inorganic to organic type materials. A further reduction in dielectric constant, coupled with better mechanical properties are still required for these types of materials. The authors have developed a technique involving spincoating in conjunction with a thermodynamic process called {open_quotes}Non-solvent Induced Phase Separation{close_quotes} (NSIPS) to create microporous polyimide films that exhibit both a lower dielectric constant and better stress reduction properties compared to their solid film counterparts. In this technique, the authors spincoat a soluble polyimide solution in 1,3-dimethoxybenzene solvent onto a silicon wafer, and then immediately submerse the {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} polymer film into a non-solvent bath, typically toluene. Phase separation of the polymer occurs on a micron size scale and the resulting microporous structure becomes locked in by the high glass transition temperature of the polyimide. The authors have determined the factors affecting the film morphology, thickness, pore size, and percent porosity; these factors include the polymer concentration, spin speed, and the type of non-solvent used. The different morphologies obtained for the varying non-solvents are explained in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation and diffusion, using an idealized ternary phase diagram. One particular film having a porosity of 68%, thickness of 22 microns and pore size of 1.4 microns had a measured dielectric constant of 1.88 and dielectric loss of 0.002. Stress measurements indicated that the microporous film reduced surface stress on the wafer by more than a factor of 10 when compared to the analogous solid polyimide film.

  7. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  8. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells.

  9. Evaluation of super-water reducers for highway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, D.

    1981-03-01

    Super-water reducers were characterized and evaluated as potential candidates for production of low water to cement ratio, high strength concretes for highway construction applications. Admixtures were composed of either naphthalene or melamine sulfonated formaldehyde condensates. A mini-slump procedure was used to assess dosage requirements and behavior of workability with time of cement pastes. Required dosage was found to be a function of tricalcium aluminate content, alkali content, and fineness of the cement. Concretes exhibited high rates of slump loss when super-water reducers were used. The most promising area of application of these products appears to be in production of dense, high cement content concrete using mobile concrete mixer/transporters.

  10. Phytase supplementation and reduced-phosphorus turkey diets reduce phosphorus loss in runoff following litter application.

    PubMed

    Maguire, R O; Sims, J T; Applegate, T J

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about regional surpluses of manure phosphorus (P) leading to increased P losses in runoff have led to interest in diet modification to reduce P concentrations in diets. The objectives of this study were to investigate how dietary P amendment affected P concentrations in litters and P losses in runoff following land application. We grew two flocks of turkeys on the same bed of litter using diets with two levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with and without phytase. The litters were incorporated into three soils in runoff boxes at a plant-available nitrogen (PAN) rate of 168 kg PAN/ha, with runoff generated on Days 1 and 7 under simulated rainfall and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total P. Litters were analyzed for water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) and total P, while soils in the runoff boxes were analyzed for WSP and Mehlich-3 phosphorus (M3-P). Formulating diets with lower NPP and phytase both decreased litter total P. Phytase had no significant effect on litter WSP at a 1:200 litter to water extraction ratio, but decreased WSP at a 1:10 extraction ratio. Using a combination of reducing NPP fed and phytase decreased the total P application rate by up to 38% and the P in surplus of crop removal by approximately 48%. Reducing the NPP fed reduced DRP in runoff from litter-amended soils at Day 1, while phytase had no effect on DRP concentrations. Increase in soil M3-P was dependent on total P applied, irrespective of diet. Reducing overfeeding of NPP and utilizing phytase in diets for turkeys should decrease the buildup of P in soils in areas of intensive poultry production, without increasing short-term concerns about dissolved P losses.

  11. Deep Reduced PEDOT Films Support Electrochemical Applications: Biomimetic Color Front

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jose G.; Berrueco, Beatriz; Otero, Toribio F.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers (CPs) move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced CPs. Here, we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1 cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, toward the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, toward the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model explains those results. PMID:25717472

  12. Reducing Application Runtime Variability on Jaguar XT5

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Wang, Feiyi; Dillow, David A; Miller, Ross G; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Becklehimer, Jeffrey L; Larkin, Jeffrey M; Henseler, David

    2010-01-01

    Operating system (OS) noise is defined as interference generated by the OS that prevents a compute core from performing ``useful'' work. Compute node kernel daemons, network interfaces, and other OS related services are major sources of such interference. This interference on individual compute cores can vary in duration and frequency, and can cause de-synchronization (jitter) in collective communication tasks and thus results in variable (degraded) overall parallel application performance. This behavior is more observable in large-scale applications using certain types of collective communication primitives, such as MPI\\_Allreduce. This paper presents our effort towards reducing the overall effect of OS noise on our large-scale parallel applications. Our tests were performed on the quad-core Jaguar, the Cray XT5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). At the time of these tests, Jaguar was a 1.4 PFLOPS supercomputer with 149,504 compute cores and 8 cores per node. We aggregated OS noise sources onto a single core for each node. The scientific application was then run on six of the remaining cores in each node. Our results show that we were able to improve the MPI_Allreduce performance by two orders of magnitude. We demonstrated up to a 30% boost in the performance of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) using this technique.

  13. An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Lokpriya Mohanrao; Teli, Shivagond Nagappa; Majali, Vijay Shashikant; Bhushi, Umesh Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz. process yield with well-executed control plans. Six Sigma improves the process performance (process yield) of the critical operational process, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  14. Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

    1980-04-01

    Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

  15. Reducing Weight for Transportation Applications: Technology Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Alan I.

    Today's land, sea and air transportation industries — as a business necessity — are focused on technology solutions that will make vehicles more sustainable in terms of energy, the environment, safety and affordability. Reducing vehicle weight is a key enabler for meeting these challenges as well as increasing payload and improving performance. The potential weight reductions from substituting lightweight metals (advanced high-strength steels, aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys) are well established. For magnesium castings, weight savings of 60% have been reported [1]. The value of weight reduction depends on the transportation sector and ranges from about 5/kg saved for automobiles to over 500/kg saved for aircraft [2]. The challenge is to optimize the material properties and develop robust, high volume, manufacturing technologies and the associated supply chain to fabricate components and subsystems at the appropriate cost for each application.

  16. Understanding reduced inorganic mercury accumulation in rice following selenium application: Selenium application routes, speciation and doses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenli; Dang, Fei; Evans, Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Xiao, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Selenium (Se) has recently been demonstrated to reduce inorganic mercury (IHg) accumulation in rice plants, while its mechanism is far from clear. Here, we aimed at exploring the potential effects of Se application routes (soil or foliar application with Se), speciation (selenite and selenate), and doses on IHg-Se antagonistic interactions in soil-rice systems. Results of our pot experiments indicated that soil application but not foliar application could evidently reduce tissue IHg concentrations (root: 0-48%, straw: 15-58%, and brown rice: 26-74%), although both application routes resulted in comparable Se accumulation in aboveground tissues. Meanwhile, IHg distribution in root generally increased with amended Se doses in soil, suggesting antagonistic interactions between IHg and Se in root. These results provided initial evidence that IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere (i.e., soil or rice root), instead of those in the aboveground tissues, could probably be more responsible for the reduced IHg bioaccumulation following Se application. Furthermore, Se dose rather than Se speciation was found to be more important in controlling IHg accumulation in rice. Our findings regarding the importance of IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere, together with the systematic investigation of key factors affecting IHg-Se antagonism and IHg bioaccumulation, advance our understanding of Hg dynamics in soil-rice systems.

  17. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Akbi, Hamdane; Yu, Lei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Sun, Yanbo; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-01-15

    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m{sup −1}), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g{sup −1}) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance.

  18. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF REDUCED ORDER MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelli, D.; Alfonsi, A.; Talbot, P.; Wang, C.; Maljovec, D.; Smith, C.; Rabiti, C.; Cogliati, J.

    2016-10-01

    The RISMC project is developing new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Computational Risk Analysis (CRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactors primary and secondary systems, but also external event temporal evolution and component/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem being addressed, but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, seconds-hours-years). As part of the RISMC CRA approach, a large amount of computationally-expensive simulation runs may be required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis using brute-force methods may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated to assist the computational issue is the use of reduced order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RISMC analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulation runs; for this analysis improvement we used surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This article focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to RISMC analyses in order to generate, analyze, and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (microseconds instead of hours/days).

  20. Application of heat in postcook meat chillers reduces Listeria.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Electrical air-blowing heaters were used to heat and dry out holding chillers used for postcook commercial processed meats in an attempt to control the presence of Listeria. A baseline study of the prevalence of Listeria in holding chillers in seven facilities was undertaken. Listeria was detected in four of the seven chillers, and swab samples showed Listeria prevalence ranging from 7 (7.8%) of 90 to 6 (20%) of 30, depending on the facility. Two of the facilities with established Listeria contamination (A and E) were chosen for further studies. The heating trials consisted of three individual heating interventions at each of the two facilities, with 2 weeks of postintervention sampling after each treatment. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller A was 19 (10.6%) of 180, and treatment at 37°C for 36 h reduced prevalence to 3 (1.7%) of 180. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller E was 7 (7.8%) of 90, and treatment at 50°C for 2 h reduced prevalence to 0 of 90. Both reductions were statistically significant at P < 0.01. The incorporation of these two simple chiller heating protocols into these facilities' good manufacturing practices has effectively reduced prevalence of Listeria in chillers.

  1. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is on the rise and has become a growing food safety concern. The main treatment is strictly avoiding allergens in the diet. However, this is difficult to do because foods are sometimes contaminated with allergens due to processing of different foods with the same machinery. For this reason, accidental ingestion of trace amount of allergenic proteins is common. For children with severe food allergy, this could be life-threatening. Food products with reduced allergenic proteins, if developed, could be beneficial and may raise the threshold of the amount of allergenic proteins required to trigger an allergic reaction. As a result, the number of serious allergic reactions may decrease. Moreover, such less allergenic products may be useful or replace regular products in studies such as oral tolerance induction or early exposure experiments, where children with severe peanut allergy are usually excluded due to their severe intolerance. This review focuses on recent findings and progress made in approaches to reduce allergenic proteins in foods. Modifying methods may include physical and chemical treatments as well as lifestyle changes and the use of supplements. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks these methods present for production of hypoallergenic food products and food allergy prevention.

  2. 13 CFR 121.802 - What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs? 121.802 Section 121.802 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... Eligibility Requirements for Paying Reduced Patent Fees § 121.802 What size standards are applicable to...

  3. 13 CFR 121.802 - What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs? 121.802 Section 121.802 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... Eligibility Requirements for Paying Reduced Patent Fees § 121.802 What size standards are applicable to...

  4. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: Application to electronic energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Reichman, David R.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  5. Bupivacaine application reduces post thyroidectomy pain: Cerrahpasa experience

    PubMed Central

    Teksoz, Serkan; Soylu, Selen; Erbabacan, Safak Emre; Ozcan, Murat; Bukey, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the impact of bupivacaine administration into the surgical field after total thyroidectomy on post-operative pain and analgesic requirement with a double-blind, prospective, clinical and randomized study. Methods The study was performed between 2010 and 2011. Pain assessment was performed with the visual analog score (VAS). Patients were pre-operatively, randomly divided into two groups to receive either bupivacaine or saline. One group received a 10-mL of bupivacaine solution while the other group was treated with the same volume of 0.9% NaCl through the drain after completion of total thyroidectomy procedure. All patients were anesthetized and operated with the same anesthesia and surgical team. Results Ninety-one patients (20 males) were included in the study. No patient dropped out of the study during the procedures. No mortality was seen. The VAS scores were significantly lower in the bupivacaine administered group at post-operative minute 30 (3.7±3.2 vs. 5±2.9; P=0.03), hour one (3.04±2.4 vs. 4.2±2.8; P=0.04), and hour eight (1.8±2.04 vs. 3.2±2.1; P=0.005). Thirteen patients required analgesia during their hospital stay in the bupivacaine group while this number was twenty-two in the saline group (P=0.005). Conclusions Local bupivacaine administration into the surgical field after total thyroidectomy reduces pain and analgesic requirement during the hospital stay. PMID:28149801

  6. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex Combat Related Spine Trauma Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    health-related quality of life outcomes measures and perform a cost analysis based on and determined the use of tranexamic acid for blood loss...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0177 TITLE: Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex Combat-Related Spine Trauma...COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex

  7. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  8. Development and application of a technique for reducing airframe finite element models for dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashemi-Kia, Mostafa; Toossi, Mostafa

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure for the reduction of large finite element models was developed. This procedure is used to obtain a significantly reduced model while retaining the essential global dynamic characteristics of the full-size model. This reduction procedure is applied to the airframe finite element model of AH-64A Attack Helicopter. The resulting reduced model is then validated by application to a vibration reduction study.

  9. Soluble calcium amendment: Co-Application with poultry litter to reduce P loss following surface application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ha...

  10. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2013-09-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: powering up, during compute node initialization, only a portion of computer memory of the compute node, including configuring an operating system for the compute node in the powered up portion of computer memory; receiving, by the operating system, an instruction to load an application for execution; allocating, by the operating system, additional portions of computer memory to the application for use during execution; powering up the additional portions of computer memory allocated for use by the application during execution; and loading, by the operating system, the application into the powered up additional portions of computer memory.

  12. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide / sulfonated polyether ether ketone composite membrane for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharaman, S.; Ramya, K.; Dhathathreyan, K. S.

    2013-06-01

    A simple and effective method for the preparation of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) based composites with electrochemical reduced graphene oxide (EGO) as inorganic fillers has been described. The resulting dispersions are homogeneous and the cast membranes show significant improvement on tensile strength and thermal properties. It has high ionic conductivity and is cost effective making it a promising alternative membrane for electrochemical applications.

  13. Application and analysis of reduced state techniques on hybrid CPM demodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, James A.

    2008-04-01

    Hybrid Continuous Phase Modulation (HCPM) is a variant of Continuous Phase Modulation that is optimized for low-power, wireless communications applications. Hybrid CPM uses either additional Amplitude or Phase pulses to create a higher order modulation without the increase in trellis complexity that normally accompanies higher order CPM modulation schemes. For standard CPM, an increase in the modulation order results in the increase of the symbol alphabet and a corresponding increase in the transmit bandwidth and exponential increase in the complexity of the decoder trellis structure. Hybrid CPM however achieves higher order modulation by adding parallel branches to the base CPM trellis structure thus reducing the receiver complexity. The novelty of this paper is the application of the techniques devised to reduce the demodulator complexity of standard modulation types like PSK and CPM and apply them to Hybrid CPM using a method that would not result in the loss of performance or require any sort of compromise. As an example, this paper provides an analysis of the power and spectral efficiency of the two hybrid CPM waveforms and gives specific examples of the application of reduced state techniques. Both set-partitioning and reduced-state sequence estimation with decision feedback techniques are analyzed and compared. The results will demonstrate that reduced-state sequence estimation can be coupled with Hybrid CPM demodulation without any loss in bit error rate performance.

  14. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  15. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  16. Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J

    2014-04-01

    Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions.

  17. Environment-friendly route for stable aqueous dispersion of reduced graphene oxide for heat transfer application.

    PubMed

    Ota, Jyotiranjan; Hait, S K; Ramakumar, S S V; Basu, B; Malhotra, R K

    2013-08-01

    A simultaneous functionalization and reduction route to prepare stable dispersion of reduced graphene oxide from graphene oxide has been described. Diethanol amine has been introduced for the first time as an environment friendly reducing agent in a simple reflux reaction. Diethanol amine acts as a reducing agent and helps to enhance the stability of dispersion, making hydrogen bonding by virtue of two functional groups. The prepared dispersion of 0.025 mg/mL concentration is stable for months together and has a zeta potential value -45 V at room temperature. UV-Vis study shows peak at 264 nm that is signatory for reduced graphene oxide. TEM images confirm spread thin sheets of graphene of few hundred nanometer lateral dimension. Thermal diffusivity studies suggest nearly 60% enhancement for the dispersion in comparison to base fluid, water. This suggests graphene dispersion is promising for heat transfer applications.

  18. A heuristic re-mapping algorithm reducing inter-level communication in SAMR applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Steensland, Johan; Ray, Jaideep

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims at decreasing execution time for large-scale structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) applications by proposing a new heuristic re-mapping algorithm and experimentally showing its effectiveness in reducing inter-level communication. Tests were done for five different SAMR applications. The overall goal is to engineer a dynamically adaptive meta-partitioner capable of selecting and configuring the most appropriate partitioning strategy at run-time based on current system and application state. Such a metapartitioner can significantly reduce execution times for general SAMR applications. Computer simulations of physical phenomena are becoming increasingly popular as they constitute an important complement to real-life testing. In many cases, such simulations are based on solving partial differential equations by numerical methods. Adaptive methods are crucial to efficiently utilize computer resources such as memory and CPU. But even with adaption, the simulations are computationally demanding and yield huge data sets. Thus parallelization and the efficient partitioning of data become issues of utmost importance. Adaption causes the workload to change dynamically, calling for dynamic (re-) partitioning to maintain efficient resource utilization. The proposed heuristic algorithm reduced inter-level communication substantially. Since the complexity of the proposed algorithm is low, this decrease comes at a relatively low cost. As a consequence, we draw the conclusion that the proposed re-mapping algorithm would be useful to lower overall execution times for many large SAMR applications. Due to its usefulness and its parameterization, the proposed algorithm would constitute a natural and important component of the meta-partitioner.

  19. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  20. Green preparation of reduced graphene oxide for sensing and energy storage applications

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Zheng; Shuai, Xiaorui; Mao, Shun; Yang, Huachao; Qian, Jiajing; Chen, Junhong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of graphene from chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is recognized as one of the most promising methods for large-scale and low-cost production of graphene-based materials. This study reports a new, green, and efficient reducing agent (caffeic acid/CA) for GO reduction. The CA-reduced GO (CA-rGO) shows a high C/O ratio (7.15) that is among the best rGOs prepared with green reducing reagents. Electronic gas sensors and supercapacitors have been fabricated with the CA-rGO and show good performance, which demonstrates the potential of CA-rGO for sensing and energy storage applications. PMID:24732631

  1. Green preparation of reduced graphene oxide for sensing and energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Bo, Zheng; Shuai, Xiaorui; Mao, Shun; Yang, Huachao; Qian, Jiajing; Chen, Junhong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-15

    Preparation of graphene from chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is recognized as one of the most promising methods for large-scale and low-cost production of graphene-based materials. This study reports a new, green, and efficient reducing agent (caffeic acid/CA) for GO reduction. The CA-reduced GO (CA-rGO) shows a high C/O ratio (7.15) that is among the best rGOs prepared with green reducing reagents. Electronic gas sensors and supercapacitors have been fabricated with the CA-rGO and show good performance, which demonstrates the potential of CA-rGO for sensing and energy storage applications.

  2. Demonstration of methods to reduce E. coli runoff from dairy manure application sites.

    PubMed

    Meals, Donald W; Braun, David C

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by bacteria is a leading cause of impairment in U.S. waters, particularly in areas of livestock agriculture. We evaluated the effectiveness of several practices in reducing Escherichia coli levels in runoff from fields receiving liquid dairy (Bos taurus) manure. Runoff trials were conducted on replicated hay and silage corn (Zea mays L.) plots using simulated rainfall. Levels of E. coli in runoff were approximately 10(4) to 10(6) organisms per 100 mL, representing a significant pollution potential. Practices tested were: manure storage, delay between manure application and rainfall, manure incorporation by tillage, and increased hayland vegetation height. Storage of manure for 30 d or more consistently and dramatically lowered E. coli counts in our experiments, with longer storage providing greater reductions. Manure E. coli declined by > 99% after approximately 90 d of storage. On average, levels of E. coli in runoff were 97% lower from plots receiving 30-d-old and > 99% lower from plots receiving 90-d-old manure than from plots where fresh manure was applied. Runoff from hayland and cornland plots where manure was applied 3 d before rainfall contained approximately 50% fewer E. coli than did runoff from plots that received manure 1 d before rainfall. Hayland vegetation height alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in runoff, but interactions with rainfall delay and manure age were observed. Manure incorporation alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in cornland plot runoff, but incorporation could reduce bacteria export by reducing field runoff and interaction with rainfall delay was observed. Extended storage that avoids additions of fresh manure, combined with application several days before runoff, incorporation on tilled land, and higher vegetation on hayland at application could substantially reduce microorganism loading from agricultural land.

  3. The effect of dentine surface preparation and reduced application time of adhesive on bonding strength.

    PubMed

    Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, A F M Almas; Fukuyama, Mai; Kakuda, Shinichi; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Sano, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of surface preparation and the application time of adhesives on the resin-dentine bond strengths with universal adhesives. Sixty molars were cut to exposed mid-coronal dentine and divided into 12 groups (n=5) based on three factors; (1) adhesive: G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Okayama, Japan) and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); (2) smear layer preparation: SiC paper ground dentine or bur-cut dentine; (3) application time: shortened time or as manufacturer's instruction. Fifteen resin-dentine sticks per group were processed for microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) according to non-trimming technique (1mm(2)) after storage in distilled water (37 °C) for 24h. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 tests (α=0.05). Fractured surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Another 12 teeth were prepared and cut into slices for SEM examination of bonded interfaces. μTBS were higher when bonded to SiC-ground dentine according to manufacturer's instruction. Bonding to bur-cut dentine resulted in significantly lower μTBS (p<0.000). Shortening the application time resulted in significantly lower bond strength for CU on SiC and GP on bur-cut dentine. SEM of fractured surfaces revealed areas with a large amount of porosities at the adhesive resin interface. This was more pronounced when adhesives were bonded with a reduced application time and on bur cut dentine. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised on bur cut dentine and when applied with a reduced application time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-03-16

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields.

  5. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I.; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  6. Copper ferrites@reduced graphene oxide anode materials for advanced lithium storage applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junyong; Deng, Qinglin; Li, Mengjiao; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2017-08-21

    Copper ferrites are emerging transition metal oxides that have potential applications in energy storage devices. However, it still lacks in-depth designing of copper ferrites based anode architectures with enhanced electroactivity for lithium-ion batteries. Here, we report a facile synthesis technology of copper ferrites anchored on reduced graphene oxide (CuFeO2@rGO and Cu/CuFe2O4@rGO) as the high-performance electrodes. In the resulting configuration, reduced graphene offers continuous conductive channels for electron/ion transfer and high specific surface area to accommodate the volume expansion of copper ferrites. Consequently, the sheet-on-sheet CuFeO2@rGO electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity (587 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1)). In particular, Cu/CuFe2O4@rGO hybrid, which combines the advantages of nano-copper and reduced graphene, manifests a significant enhancement in lithium storage properties. It reveals superior rate capability (723 mAh g(-1) at 800 mA g(-1); 560 mAh g(-1) at 3200 mA g(-1)) and robust cycling capability (1102 mAh g(-1) after 250 cycles at 800 mA g(-1)). This unique structure design provides a strategy for the development of multivalent metal oxides in lithium storage device applications.

  7. Reduced MHD in Astrophysical Applications: Two-dimensional or Three-dimensional?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dmitruk, P.

    2017-04-01

    Originally proposed as an efficient approach to computation of nonlinear dynamics in tokamak fusion research devices, reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has subsequently found application in studies of coronal heating, flux tube dynamics, charged particle transport, and, in general, as an approximation to describe plasma turbulence in space physics and astrophysics. Given the diverse set of derivations available in the literature, there has emerged some level of discussion and a lack of consensus regarding the completeness of RMHD as a turbulence model, and its applicability in contexts such as the solar wind. Some of the key issues in this discussion are examined here, emphasizing that RMHD is properly neither 2D nor fully 3D, being rather an incomplete representation that enforces at least one family of extraneous conservation laws.

  8. Video quality measurement for multimedia applications using reduced-reference signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jonghwa; Lee, Kwon; Choi, Hyunsoo; Seo, Guiwon; Park, Jonggeun

    2011-06-01

    As more multimedia services have become increasingly available over networks where bandwidth is not always guaranteed, quality monitoring has become an important issue. For instance, quality of experience and quality monitoring have become important problems in internet protocol television applications, since transmission errors may introduce all kinds of additional video quality degradations. In this paper, we present a reduced-reference objective model for video quality measurements in multimedia applications. The proposed method first measures edge degradations that are critical for perceptual video quality and then considers transmission error effects. We compared the proposed method with some existing methods. Independent verifications confirmed that the proposed method showed good performance and consequently it was included in an International Telecommunication Union recommendation. The proposed method can be used to monitor video quality at receivers while requiring minimum usage of additional bandwidth.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide-metal/metal oxide composites: facile synthesis and application in water purification.

    PubMed

    Sreeprasad, T S; Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen M; Lisha, K P; Pradeep, T

    2011-02-15

    This paper describes a versatile, and simple synthetic route for the preparation of a range of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-metal/metal oxide composites and their application in water purification. The inherent reduction ability of RGO has been utilized to produce the composite structure from the respective precursor ions. Various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were employed to characterize the as-synthesized composites. The data reveal that the RGO-composites are formed through a redox-like reaction between RGO and the metal precursor. RGO is progressively oxidized primarily to graphene oxide (GO) and the formed metal nanoparticles are anchored onto the carbon sheets. Metal ion scavenging applications of RGO-MnO(2) and RGO-Ag were demonstrated by taking Hg(II) as the model pollutant. RGO and the composites give a high distribution coefficient (K(d)), greater than 10 L g(-1) for Hg(II) uptake. The K(d) values for the composites are found to be about an order of magnitude higher compared to parent RGO and GO for this application. A methodology was developed to immobilize RGO-composites on river sand (RS) using chitosan as the binder. The as-supported composites are found to be efficient adsorbent candidates for field application.

  10. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  11. Application of a reduced area electrical test pattern to precise pattern registration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominger, James P.

    1991-03-01

    A new reduced area electrically probed registration measurement pattern is described. The pattern is compatible with the Prometrix data acquisition and analysis system, and offers advantages over standard patterns in terms of patten area and versatility of use. The results of the application of the pattern to the measurement of reticle and stepper overlay are presented. With careful analysis of the data, inter- and intrafield reticle overlay errors are determined. Horizontal and vertical measurements of pattern placement within a single field and between fields showed an accuracy of greater than 67 nm and a repeatability of better than 14 nm (3 sigma).

  12. Biochar application reduce ammonia volatilization in a soil-plant system: A closed chamber experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sanchita; Donner, Erica; Smith, Euan; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is considered as one of the major mechanisms responsible for the loss of nitrogen (N) from soil-plant systems worldwide. About 10-30% of N can be lost as NH3 volatilization, which constitutes a significant economic loss. In recent years carbon-based materials such as biochar have created a great research interest because of their ability to increase soil fertility by reducing nutrient loss and pollutants bioavailability in soil. Most of the studies so far have investigated how biochar addition can reduce NH3 volatilization from soils but less information is available for soil-plant systems. In this research, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum, variety: Calingiri) were grown in a calcareous soil (pH 8, calcarosol) inside a closed chamber system to assess both ammonia volatilization and plant N uptake. In this specialized glass chamber air was passed through an inlet where the flow rate was maintained using an air pump (3.5 L min-1). The air outlet was passed through a sulphuric acid trap which was used to capture the volatilized NH3 from the chamber. Plants were watered using the inlet to maintain 50% field capacity throughout the incubation. Two different biochar samples were used in this study: a poultry manure biochar (PM-BC) and a green waste compost biochar (GW-BC) produced at 250 ˚C. Five different application rates were tested (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%). The soil was mixed with biochar samples, water, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S for one week before sowing. After one week of germination, plants were transferred to the chamber for further three weeks incubation for NH3 volatilization measurement. The study identified that biochar application reduced the NH3 volatilization and increase the plant biomass. Biochar application at 0.5 and 2% decreased the NH3 volatilization by 36 and 48% respectively. The N uptake of the plants also increased from 2.9 to 28% at 0.5 and 2% application rates respectively. The dry biomass of the plant also increased

  13. Application of a Reduced Texture Methodology to Model the Plasticity of Anisotropic Extruded Aluminum Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Meng; Rousselier, Gilles; Mohr, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    A recently developed Reduced Texture Methodology (RTM) featuring (i) a significantly reduced number of crystallographic orientations, (ii) a special experiment-based parameter calibration procedure, and (iii) reasonable computational time for industrial applications is adopted to model the anisotropic plastic behavior of a 2 mm-thick extruded aluminum 6260-T6 sheet. Firstly, the full-thickness sheet is modeled with twelve crystallographic orientations, and the model parameters are identified through an optimization procedure based on uniaxial tensile tests with seven different material orientations. The calibrated model describes well the stress-strain curves and Lankford ratios for all directions, while the optimized grain orientations are in good agreement with EBSD measurements. However, the EBSD results also reveal that the present sheet exhibits a strong heterogeneity through the thickness as far as crystallographic orientations and grain sizes are concerned. To account for this heterogeneity, eight grain orientations are selected out of the total twelve for the full-thickness sheet to model the 0.7 mm-thick central layer of the sheet based on the EBSD measurements. It is found that the reduced eight-grain model provides good predictions of the macroscopic responses in uniaxial tensile tests on reduced-thickness specimens, even without further calibration. A combined calibration is also performed to determine the final set of parameters which provide excellent modeling for both the full-thickness sheet (twelve-grain model) and its central layer (eight-grain model).

  14. Topical application of solubilized Reseda luteola extract reduces ultraviolet B-induced inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Casetti, F; Jung, W; Wölfle, U; Reuter, J; Neumann, K; Gilb, B; Wähling, A; Wagner, S; Merfort, I; Schempp, C M

    2009-09-04

    We investigated the skin tolerance and anti-inflammatory potential of a nanoparticular solubilisate of a luteolin-rich Reseda extract (s-RE) in two independent studies in vivo. Reseda luteola extract containing 40% flavonoids was solubilized with polysorbate, resulting in product micelles with a diameter of 10 (+/-1.5)nm. Standardized inflammation was induced by irradiating test areas on the back of healthy volunteers with defined doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). In the first study different concentrations of s-RE were tested in 10 volunteers to evaluate dose-dependency of anti-inflammatory effects of s-RE. In the second randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study a defined concentration of s-RE (2.5%w/w) was tested in 40 volunteers in comparison to the vehicle (glycerol) and hydrocortisone (1%w/w). s-RE dose-dependently reduced UVB-induced erythema when applied 30 min before irradiation. To a lesser extent, topical application of s-RE after irradiation also reduced UVB-induced erythema. s-RE was as effective as hydrocortisone, whereas the vehicle had no effect. Occlusive application of s-RE on non-irradiated test sites did not cause any skin irritation. Due to excellent skin tolerance combined with potent anti-inflammatory properties s-RE bears potential especially for the prevention but also for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as UV-induced erythema.

  15. Application of Predictive Nursing Reduces Psychiatric Complications in ICU Patients after Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Qiong; ZHU, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to investigate the effects of clinical application of perioperative predictive nursing on reducing psychiatric complications in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients after neurosurgery. Methods: A total of 129 patients who underwent neurosurgery and received intensive care were enrolled in our study from February 2013 to February 2014. These patients were divided into two groups: the experimental group (n=68) receiving predictive nursing before and after operation, and the control group (n=61) with general nursing. Clinical data including length of ICU stay, duration of the patients’ psychiatric symptoms, form and incidence of adverse events, and patient satisfaction ratings were recorded, and their differences between the two groups were analyzed. Results: The duration of psychiatric symptoms and the length of ICU stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events and psychiatric symptoms, such as sensory and intuition disturbance, thought disturbance, emotional disorder, and consciousness disorder, in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Patient satisfaction ratings were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Application of predictive nursing on ICU patients who undergo neurosurgery could effectively reduce the incidence of psychiatric symptoms as well as other adverse events. Our study provided clinical evidences to encourage predictive nursing in routine settings for patients in critical conditions. PMID:27252916

  16. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass.

  17. Early, single chlorhexidine application reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Hamilton, V Anne; Elswick, R K; Sessler, Curtis N; Ward, Kevin R

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important complication of mechanical ventilation and is particularly common in trauma, burn, and surgical patients. Interventions that kill bacteria in the oropharynx reduce the pool of viable organisms available for translocation to the lung and thereby lessen the likelihood of developing VAP. Repeated administration of chlorhexidine (CHX) to the mouth and oropharynx has been shown to reduce the incidence of VAP, but use of a single dose has not been studied. This randomized, controlled clinical trial tested an early (within 12 hours of intubation) application of CHX by swab versus control (no swab) on oral microbial flora and VAP. A total of 145 trauma patients requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly assigned to the intervention (5 mL CHX) or control group. VAP (Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score [CPIS] ≥ 6) was evaluated on study admission and at 48 and 72 hours after intubation. A total of 145 patients were enrolled; 71 and 74 patients were randomized to intervention and control groups, respectively. Seventy percent of the patients were male, and 60% were white; their mean age was 42.4 years (±18.2). A significant treatment effect was found on CPIS both from admission to 48 hours (P = .020) and to 72 hours (P = .027). In those subjects without pneumonia at baseline (CPIS < 6), 55.6% of the control patients (10/18) had developed VAP by 48 or 72 hours versus only 33.3% of the intervention patients (7/21). an early, single application of CHX to the oral cavity significantly reduces CPIS and thus VAP in trauma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  19. Reducing errors in the management of hyperbilirubinaemia: validating a software application.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, A; Quiroga-González, R; Camprubí, M; Milá-Farnés, M; Escribano, J; Girabent-Farrés, M

    2009-01-01

    To verify the usefulness and reliability of a software tool we developed to help to apply the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Guidelines 2004 on hyperbilirubinaemia according to the infant's age in hours and their clinical risk factors. Randomised, cross-over, controlled trial with 20 simulated clinical cases comparing the "manual" application of the guidelines with our software application. Fifteen doctors (eight final-year residents and seven consultants) from two hospitals in Spain. Major errors (defined a priori as any deviation from the AAP guidelines that involve a risk of morbidity or mortality for the patient), minor errors (those that cause discomfort and/or, in extremely rare cases, morbidity) and time spent. Fifteen doctors each managed 20 simulated cases, half by using the guidelines alone and half using the software tool. Without the software application, 42 "minor" errors were made. With it, only 25 errors were made. "Major" errors also decreased from 10 to 2 with the software. As a group, the residents benefited most; they made an average of 1.8 errors fewer per 10 cases. Use of the software reduced the time taken by the residents to resolve the cases, although the mean reduction in time was not significant for the group of consultants. The use of simulated clinical cases revealed many errors in the routine management of hyperbilirubinaemia. The software helped clinicians make fewer errors and saved time for residents, but not consultants.

  20. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture.

    PubMed

    Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C; Pai, S Somnath; Singh, I S Bright; Mohandas, A; Anas, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of >50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large.

  1. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald C

    2010-12-21

    Bioinformatics researchers are now confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date. Hadoop and the MapReduce programming paradigm already have a substantial base in the bioinformatics community, especially in the field of next-generation sequencing analysis, and such use is increasing. This is due to the cost-effectiveness of Hadoop-based analysis on commodity Linux clusters, and in the cloud via data upload to cloud vendors who have implemented Hadoop/HBase; and due to the effectiveness and ease-of-use of the MapReduce method in parallelization of many data analysis algorithms.

  2. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioinformatics researchers are now confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. Description An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date. Conclusions Hadoop and the MapReduce programming paradigm already have a substantial base in the bioinformatics community, especially in the field of next-generation sequencing analysis, and such use is increasing. This is due to the cost-effectiveness of Hadoop-based analysis on commodity Linux clusters, and in the cloud via data upload to cloud vendors who have implemented Hadoop/HBase; and due to the effectiveness and ease-of-use of the MapReduce method in parallelization of many data analysis algorithms. PMID:21210976

  3. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  4. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure. PMID:26899468

  5. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. Material/Methods A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. Results No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. Conclusions COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. PMID:27752035

  6. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-10-14

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. RESULTS No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. CONCLUSIONS COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy.

  7. Flammability limits of hydrated and anhydrous ethanol at reduced pressures in aeronautical applications.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Christian J R; Carvalho, João A; Andrade, José C; Mendiburu, Andrés Z; Cortez, Ely V; Carvalho, Felipe S; Gonçalves, Beatriz; Quintero, Juan C; Velásquez, Elkin I Gutiérrez; Silva, Marcos H; Santos, José C; Nascimento, Marco A R

    2014-09-15

    There is interest in finding the flammability limits of ethanol at reduced pressures for the future use of this biofuel in aeronautical applications taking into account typical commercial aviation altitude (<40,000 ft). The lower and upper flammability limits (LFL and UFL, respectively) for hydrated ethanol and anhydrous ethanol (92.6% and 99.5% p/p, respectively) were determined for a pressure of 101.3 kPa at temperatures between 0 and 200°C. A heating chamber with a spherical 20-l vessel was used. First, LFL and the UFL were determined as functions of temperature and atmospheric pressure to compare results with data published in the scientific literature. Second, after checking the veracity of the data obtained for standard atmospheric pressure, the work proceeded with reduced pressures in the same temperature range. 295 experiments were carried out in total; the first 80 were to calibrate the heating chamber and compare the results with those given in the published scientific literature. 215 experiments were performed both at atmospheric and reduced pressures. The results had a correlation with the values obtained for the LFL, but values for the UFL had some differences. With respect to the water content in ethanol, it was shown that the water vapor contained in the fuel can act as an inert substance, narrowing flammability.

  8. Topical application of a protein kinase C inhibitor reduces skin and hair pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin; González, Salvador; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A; Kapasi, Sameer; Peterson, Shaun; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether inhibition of PKC-beta activity decreases pigmentation, paired cultures of primary human melanocytes were first pretreated with bisindolylmaleimide (Bis), a selective PKC inhibitor, or vehicle alone for 30 min, and then treated with TPA for an additional 90 min to activate PKC in the presence of Bis. Bis blocked the expected induction of tyrosinase activity by activation of PKC. Addition of a peptide corresponding to amino acids 501-511 of tyrosinase containing its PKC-beta phosphorylation site, a presumptive PKC-beta pseudosubstrate, gave similar results. To determine whether Bis reduces pigmentation in vivo, the backs of four shaved and depilated pigmented guinea pigs were UV irradiated with a solar simulator for 2 wk excluding weekends. Compared to vehicle alone, Bis (300 microM), applied twice daily to paired sites for various periods encompassing the irradiation period, decreased tanning. Bis also, although less strikingly, reduced basal epidermal melanin when topically applied twice daily, 5 d per wk, for 3 wk to shaved and depilated unirradiated skin. Moreover, topical application of Bis (100 microM) once daily for 9 d to the freshly depilated backs of 8-wk-old mice markedly lightened the color of regrowing hair. These results demonstrate that inhibiting PKC activity in vivo selectively blocks tanning and reduces basal pigmentation in the epidermis and in anagen hair shafts.

  9. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M.

    2016-02-01

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure.

  10. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M

    2016-02-22

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure.

  11. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of Reduced Order Models for Groundwater Impacts Due to Leaking Brine or Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, D. H.; Keating, E. H.; Carroll, S.; Mansoor, K.; Sun, Y.; Zheng, L.; Harp, D. R.; Dai, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership has developed a suite of reduced-order models (ROMs) that can be used to predict the impact of CO2 and brine leaks on overlying aquifers. The these computationally-efficient models are based on field-scale reactive transport simulations. The ROMs reproduce the ensemble behavior of large numbers of simulations very well and thus are well-suited to applications that consider a large number of scenarios such as sensitivity analysis, risk assessment, and uncertainty analysis. In this presentation, we seek to demonstrate applicability of ROM-based ensemble analysis. We consider two questions. First, what types of decisions could these analyses support? Second, what types of aquifers could these ROMs be applied to? Four examples are presented for applying these ROMs, in ensemble mode, to supporting decisions in the early stages in a hypothetical geologic CO2 sequestration project. These decisions pertain to site selection, site characterization, monitoring network evaluation, and health impacts. In all these cases, we consider potential brine/CO2 leak rates at the base of the aquifer to be uncertain. We show that derived probabilities provide information relevant to the decision at hand. Although the ROMs were developed using site-specific data from two aquifers (the High Plains, and the unconfined, carbonate portion of the Edwards), the models accept aquifer characteristics as variable inputs and so they may have more broad applicability. Of the nine water quality metrics the ROMs can predict (pH, TDS, 4 trace metals, 3 organic compounds) we conclude that pH and TDS predictions are the most transferable to other aquifers. Guidelines are presented for determining the aquifer types for which the ROMs should be applicable.

  13. Multicomponent reduced scale seismic modelling: upgrade of the MUSC laboratory with application to polarization observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphaël, Valensi; Donatienne, Leparoux; Olivier, Durand; François, Bretaudeau; Philippe, Côte

    2015-09-01

    Reduced scale physical modelling is a useful intermediate step to fill the gap between field measurements and numerical simulations. In many different areas of seismology, multicomponent measurements are now commonly recorded and processed. However, up to now, laboratory facilities providing flexible and accurate reproduction of large multicomponent seismic experiments have not reached maturity. Within this context, we present an improvement of a measurement facility (MUSC) developed previously to enable the flexible and versatile reproduction of seismic experiments at reduced scale. This new measurement system provides simultaneous measurements of the vertical and the horizontal components of seismic wavefields by taking advantage of recent developments in laser ultrasonic sensing technologies. Reference measurements on an aluminum block are carried out in order to quantitatively evaluate multicomponent measurements. Noise characterization, surface wave ellipticity analysis and waveform comparisons with a semi-analytical model are presented. To enable the simultaneous comparison of phase and polarization attributes, we also introduce a regularized version of the polarization attributes and apply it to synthetic and experimental data. These comparisons demonstrate that high fidelity multicomponent reduced scale physical modelling is possible with this new facility. An illustrative example with a model containing a shallow cavity is presented. In this case, multicomponent measurements help to identify the cavity signature but multiples have a detrimental effect on regularized instantaneous polarization attributes. By assessing the reliability of the MUSC measurement facility in the performance of massive high-quality multicomponent data acquisition at the laboratory scale, this study highlights the interesting potentials of reduced scale modelling of seismic wave propagation for a large variety of applications.

  14. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  15. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  16. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Ronald C.

    2010-12-21

    Bioinformatics researchers are increasingly confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date.

  17. Application of narrow band control to reduce vibrations in magnetic bearing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, Monique S.; Johnson, Bruce G.

    1992-01-01

    The benefits of narrowband control theory for simple, open-loop stable systems are illustrated, and how the approach changes for magnetic bearing systems, which are open-loop unstable, is discussed. Magnetic bearing systems are good applications for narrowband control theory. Two sources of synchronous forces, the measurement error and the magnetic unbalance, are discussed. Both the measurement error and the magnetic unbalance manifest themselves as synchronous disturbances. It is shown that narrowband control theory for simple, open-loop stable systems provides excellent performance and good stability robustness. Because magnetic bearing systems are open-loop stable, the narrowband control approach becomes more complex. Disturbance accommodating control (DAC) theory is introduced as an effective approach to reduce vibrations in magnetic bearing systems. It is used to develop a control/estimation scheme that enables the rotor to spin about its center of mass in the presence of the measurement error disturbances.

  18. Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-01-01

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm−2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems. PMID:25531093

  19. Reduced graphene oxide anodes for potential application in algae biophotovoltaic platforms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-12-22

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm(-2) using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.

  20. Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-12-01

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm-2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.

  1. Phosphorus sequestration by chemical amendments to reduce leaching from wastewater applications.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus-immobilizing amendments can be useful in minimizing P leaching from high P soils that may be irrigated with wastewater. This study tested the P-binding ability of various amendment materials in a laboratory incubation experiment and then tested the best amendment in a field setup using drainage lysimeters. The laboratory experiment involved incubating 100-g samples of soil (72 mg kg(-1) water-extractable phosphorus, WEP) with various amendments at different rates for 63 d at field moisture capacity and 25 degrees C. The amendments tested were alum [Al2SO4)3.14H2O], ferric chloride (FeCl3), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), water treatment residual (WTR), and sugarbeet lime (SBL). Ferric chloride and alum at rates of 1.5 and 3.9 g kg(-1), respectively, were the most effective amendments that decreased WEP to 20 mg kg(-1), below which leaching has previously been shown to be low. Alum (1.3 kg m(-2)), which is less sensitive to redox conditions, was subsequently tested under field conditions, where it reduced WEP concentration in the 0- to 0.15-m layer from 119 mg kg(-1) on Day 0 to 36.1 mg kg(-1) (85% decrease) on Day 41. Lysimeter breakthrough tests using tertiary-treated potato-processing wastewater (mean total phosphorus [TP] = 3.4 mg L(-1)) showed that alum application reduced leachate TP and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations by 27 and 25%, respectively. These results indicate that alum application may be an effective strategy to immobilize P in high P coarse-textured soils. The relatively smaller decreases in TP and SRP in the leachate compared to WEP suggest some of the P may be coming from depths below 0.2 m. Thus, to achieve higher P sequestration, deeper incorporation of the alum may be necessary.

  2. Reduced graphene oxide hydrogels deposited in nickel foam for supercapacitor applications: Toward high volumetric capacitance

    DOE PAGES

    Pham, Viet Hung; Dickerson, James H.

    2016-02-21

    Graphene hydrogels have been considered as ideal materials for high-performance supercapacitors. However, their low volumetric capacitance significantly limits its real application. In this study, we report an environment-friendly and scalable method to prepare high packing density, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide hydrogels (ERGO) for supercapacitor application by the electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide onto nickel foam, followed by the electrochemical reduction and hydraulic compression of the deposited materials. The as-prepared ERGO on nickel foam was hydraulic compressed up to 20 tons, resulting in an increase of the packing density of ERGO from 0.0098 to 1.32 g cm–3. Consequently, the volumetric capacitancemore » and volumetric energy density of ERGOs greatly increased from 1.58 F cm–3 and 0.053 Wh cm–3 (as-prepared ERGO) to 176.5 F cm–3 and 6.02 Wh cm–3 (ERGO compressed at 20 tons), respectively. The ERGOs also exhibited long-term electrochemical stability with a capacitance retention in the range of approximately 79–90% after 10 000 cycles. Lastly, we believe that these high packing density ERGOs are promising for real-world energy storage devices for which scalable, cost-effective manufacturing is of significance and for which space constraints are paramount.« less

  3. Reduced graphene oxide growth on 316L stainless steel for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, L; MacLeod, J; Lipton-Duffin, J; Seifu, D G; Popescu, F; Siaj, M; Mantovani, D; Rosei, F

    2014-08-07

    We report a new method for the growth of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the 316L alloy of stainless steel (SS) and its relevance for biomedical applications. We demonstrate that electrochemical etching increases the concentration of metallic species on the surface and enables the growth of rGO. This result is supported through a combination of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), density functional theory (DFT) calculations and static water contact angle measurements. Raman spectroscopy identifies the G and D bands for oxidized species of graphene at 1595 cm(-1) and 1350 cm(-1), respectively, and gives an ID/IG ratio of 1.2, indicating a moderate degree of oxidation. XPS shows -OH and -COOH groups in the rGO stoichiometry and static contact angle measurements confirm the wettability of rGO. SEM and AFM measurements were performed on different substrates before and after coronene treatment to confirm rGO growth. Cell viability studies reveal that these rGO coatings do not have toxic effects on mammalian cells, making this material suitable for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  4. Reduced graphene oxide hydrogels deposited in nickel foam for supercapacitor applications: Toward high volumetric capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Viet Hung; Dickerson, James H.

    2016-02-21

    Graphene hydrogels have been considered as ideal materials for high-performance supercapacitors. However, their low volumetric capacitance significantly limits its real application. In this study, we report an environment-friendly and scalable method to prepare high packing density, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide hydrogels (ERGO) for supercapacitor application by the electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide onto nickel foam, followed by the electrochemical reduction and hydraulic compression of the deposited materials. The as-prepared ERGO on nickel foam was hydraulic compressed up to 20 tons, resulting in an increase of the packing density of ERGO from 0.0098 to 1.32 g cm–3. Consequently, the volumetric capacitance and volumetric energy density of ERGOs greatly increased from 1.58 F cm–3 and 0.053 Wh cm–3 (as-prepared ERGO) to 176.5 F cm–3 and 6.02 Wh cm–3 (ERGO compressed at 20 tons), respectively. The ERGOs also exhibited long-term electrochemical stability with a capacitance retention in the range of approximately 79–90% after 10 000 cycles. Lastly, we believe that these high packing density ERGOs are promising for real-world energy storage devices for which scalable, cost-effective manufacturing is of significance and for which space constraints are paramount.

  5. Variance-reduced simulation of lattice discrete-time Markov chains with applications in reaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maginnis, P. A.; West, M.; Dullerud, G. E.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate Monte Carlo simulation for a broad class of stochastic processes. Specifically, the class of countable-state, discrete-time Markov chains driven by additive Poisson noise, or lattice discrete-time Markov chains. In particular, this class includes simulation of reaction networks via the tau-leaping algorithm. To produce the speedup, we simulate pairs of fair-draw trajectories that are negatively correlated. Thus, when averaged, these paths produce an unbiased Monte Carlo estimator that has reduced variance and, therefore, reduced error. Numerical results for three example systems included in this work demonstrate two to four orders of magnitude reduction of mean-square error. The numerical examples were chosen to illustrate different application areas and levels of system complexity. The areas are: gene expression (affine state-dependent rates), aerosol particle coagulation with emission and human immunodeficiency virus infection (both with nonlinear state-dependent rates). Our algorithm views the system dynamics as a ;black-box;, i.e., we only require control of pseudorandom number generator inputs. As a result, typical codes can be retrofitted with our algorithm using only minor changes. We prove several analytical results. Among these, we characterize the relationship of covariances between paths in the general nonlinear state-dependent intensity rates case, and we prove variance reduction of mean estimators in the special case of affine intensity rates.

  6. Application of the SD technique for solving a BCS-reduced Hubbard like Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Fettes, W.; Morgenstern, I.; Husslein, T.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present exact and stochastic diagonalization results for a BCS-reduced Hubbard model. The kinetic Hamiltonian is the same as in the single band Hubbard model with additional next nearest neighbor hopping. The interaction of this model is designed to inhibit superconductivity in the d{sub x{sup 2}{minus}y{sup 2}} channel. The ground state of this model is studied by exact and stochastic diagonalization technique. The authors present a review of the technical details of the application of the stochastic diagonalization algorithm on this problem. To verify their results obtained with the stochastic diagonalization, they are compared with the exact diagonalization results. In order to show the convergence of the stochastic diagonalization the authors give a detailed analysis of the behavior of physical properties with increasing number of states. Finally they study superconductivity in this BCS-reduced Hubbard model. As an indicator of superconductivity they use the occurrence of Off Diagonal Long Range Order. The authors study the scaling behavior of this model for various attractive interactions and in addition the dependence of the superconducting correlation functions from the filling of the system.

  7. Application of the Discrimination Inference to Reduce Expected Cost Technique (DIRECT) to a Contaminant Transport Problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, T. W.; Ferré, T. P. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing recognition in the hydrologic community that deterministic hydrologic models are imperfect tools for decision support. Despite this insight, the state of practice for a hydrologic investigation follows this sequence: data collection, conceptual model development, numerical model development, and finally decision making based on model projections. This approach, based on relatively unconsidered design of data collection, may result in uninformative data. As a result, it is commonly repeated several times to resolve critical uncertainties. We present a novel two step multi-model approach to optimizing data collection to aid decision making, risk analysis. Here, we describe the application this approach (Discrimination Inference to Reduce Expected Cost Technique - DIRECT) for a contaminant transport problem. DIRECT has 7 steps. First, outcomes of concern were defined explicitly. Next a probabilistic analysis of the outcomes was conducted that incorporated multiple conceptual and parametric realizations. The likelihood of each model was assessed based on goodness of fit to existing data. A cost function was developed and used to define the projected costs based on the model-predicted outcomes of concern. Data collection was then optimized to identify the data that could test the models of greatest concern (cost) against the other models in the ensemble. Finally a field program was conducted that included gathering lithologic, hydrologic, and chemical data from 22 new wells that were drilled in projected high value locations. The additional data reduced the expected cost of model projections to an acceptable level for defining new site compliance conditions.

  8. A pre-application drop containing carboxymethylcellulose can reduce multipurpose solution-induced corneal staining.

    PubMed

    Paugh, Jerry R; Marsden, Harue J; Edrington, Timothy B; Deland, Paul N; Simmons, Peter A; Vehige, Joseph G

    2007-01-01

    Use of polyhexanide based multipurpose solutions (MPSs) for contact lens disinfection has been linked to low-grade corneal staining. In vitro data suggest that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) may neutralize polyhexanides. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a pre-application drop of CMC reduces polyhexanide staining in vivo. Thirty adapted soft contact lens (SCL) wearers participated in this investigator-masked, randomized, two-way cross-over study. Subjects wore a new Group II lens (alphafilcon A, 66% water) daily for 4 weeks and disinfected lenses using a MPS containing 0.0001% polyaminopropyl biguanide. A lens lubricant containing either CMC or povidone as the primary viscolyzer was applied to the lens each day before lens wear. Biomicroscopic signs and symptomatology were assessed. The difference in scores, 0 to 4 weeks and the difference between lubricants were analyzed. The cumulative fluorescein staining scores for combined eyes demonstrated a significant increase over time (e.g., cumulative staining score; p=0.004 and p<0.001 for CMC and povidone, respectively, matched pairs t-test, two-tailed), suggesting that for both lubricants the staining worsened with wear. This effect was expected and likely driven by the MPS. However, the mean cumulative staining scores for CMC and povidone were 2.8 and 2.6 out of 20 possible at baseline, increasing to 4.9 and 7.1 at 4 weeks, respectively. The increases were significantly different (p=0.003, matched pairs t-test, two-tailed) suggesting a greater increase in corneal staining for the povidone lubricant. The symptom scores were not significantly different, 0 to 4 weeks by regimen or between preinstillation drops. These results suggest that a CMC-containing preapplication drop can reduce corneal staining resulting from disinfection with a polyhexanide MPS. This result is consistent with a proposed mechanism for CMC to neutralize cationic disinfectants and may offer clinicians another means to reduce

  9. Post-operative pain behavior in rats is reduced after single high-concentration capsaicin application.

    PubMed

    Pospisilova, Eva; Palecek, Jiri

    2006-12-05

    Surgical procedures associated with tissue injury are often followed by increased sensitivity to innocuous and noxious stimuli in the vicinity of the surgical wound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) containing nociceptors in this process, by their functional inactivation using a high-concentration intradermal injection of capsaicin in a rat plantar incision model. Paw withdrawal responses to mechanical stimuli (von Frey filaments 10-367mN) and to radiant heat applied on plantar skin were tested in animals treated with capsaicin or the vehicle 6 days and 24h before or 2h after the incision was made. In the vehicle-treated animals, mechanical and thermal sensitivity increased significantly 1-96h following the incision. Capsaicin applied 24h before the surgery was most effective and significantly diminished the development of post-incisional mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia. Thermal hypoalgesia was present in the incised paw after the capsaicin treatment. Capsaicin application 6 days before the incision induced thermal hypoalgesia before the incision but did not prevent completely the thermal hyperalgesia after the incision, while there was also a reduction of mechanical hypersensitivity. Application of the capsaicin injection after the incision showed its first effect at 2h after the injection and at 24h the effect was comparable with the 6 days pretreatment. Our results show an important role of TRPV1-containing nociceptors in the development of post-surgical hypersensitivity and suggest that local, high-concentration capsaicin treatment could be used to reduce it.

  10. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI). Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU) and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1). RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg) had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05). Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization. PMID:28773534

  11. [Application of perineum heat therapy during partum to reduce injuries that require post-partum stitches].

    PubMed

    Terré-Rull, Carmen; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente; Gol-Gómez, Roser; Garriga-Comas, Neus; Ferrer-Comalat, Alicia; Salgado-Poveda, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of heat, moist or dry to the perineum during delivery in order to reduce injuries requiring perineal suturing after birth, and to assess its safety in relation to the adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine life. An open multicentre clinical trial directed from the School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in 5 Catalan Hospitals. The sample consisted of 198 pregnant women subjected to the natural protocol for normal delivery assistance. The pregnant women were randomized to three study groups: moist heat (MHG), dry heat (DHG), and control (CG). Usual care of the perineum was performed during labour in all groups and MHG or GCS was also applied in the perineum in the intervention groups. The Apgar score in the newborn and perineum postpartum was then assessed. Statistical tests were performed using a 95% confidence interval. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 17. Perinea that required no suturing: MHG 71% (47) versus CG 56% (37), OR: 1.803; (95% CI: 0.881-3.687); DHG 62% (41) versus CG 56% (37), OR:1.285 (95% CI: 0.641-2.577); MHG 71% (47) versus DHG 62% (41), OR:1.402 (95% CI: 0.680-2.890). MEAN: Apgar score 5', MHG: 9.91; DHG: 9.98, CG: 9.98. p=0.431. The application of heat therapy to the perineum during labour did not significantly reduce perineal suturing after birth. However, better perineal results were observed with moist heat. Heat therapy does not alter neonatal outcomes measured by Apgar score. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Prolonged clopidogrel application reduces tissue factor expression after percutaneous coronary intervention in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Yunus; Rauch, Ursula; Goldin-Lang, Petra; Eisenreich, Andreas; Pepke, Wojciech; Deiner, Carolin; Schwimmbeck, Peter L; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Pels, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Late thrombotic events are important complications associated with intracoronary brachytherapy (ICBT) using ionizing radiation (IR) or with antiproliferative treatment modalities such as drug-eluting stents (DES). The mechanism mediating these thrombotic events is not well understood. This study assessed the effect of prolonged clopidogrel treatment on tissue factor (TF) expression in coronary arteries and on the circulating TF level after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty /ICBT in a porcine coronary model. Pigs were treated with aspirin plus a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel one day before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), followed by a daily dose of clopidogrel and aspirin. During PCI one of the two balloon-injured arteries was treated by brachytherapy. Animals were sacrificed at different time points. The pigs, which were sacrificed 3 months post-PCI, were divided into two groups (Group I: clopidogrel for 3 months; Group II: clopidogrel for 1 month). Plasma TF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood samples taken from all pigs before and immediately after intervention and before sacrifice. Morphometric analysis was performed on digitalized images employing the software LUCIA G for TF staining. Vascular TF expression levels were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Prolonged clopidogrel application significantly reduced coronary TF at the protein (Group I vs. II, 8.975 ± 3.947% vs. 26.44 ± 5.375%, P = .007) and mRNA level [Group I vs. II, (0.3501 ± 0.0519) × 10(-3) vs. (0.7073 ± 0.0436) × 10(-3), P<.0005]. Circulating TF protein tended to be lower after 3 months than after 1 month clopidogrel treatment post-PCI (Group I vs. Group II, 488.3 ± 35.37 pg/ml vs. 572.3 ± 39.9 pg/ml, P = .130). Prolonged clopidogrel treatment reduced coronary TF expression and tended to reduce the blood TF level post-PCI, thus possibly modulating the risk of late thrombosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Development of benchmark reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, H.; Gaganidze, E.; Hirose, T.; Ando, M.; Zinkle, S. J.; Lindau, R.; Diegele, E.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel is the benchmark structural material for in-vessel components of fusion reactor. The current status of RAFM developments and evaluations is reviewed based on two leading RAFM steels, F82H and EUROFER-97. The applicability of various joining technologies for fabrication of fusion first wall and blanket structures, such as weld or diffusion bonding, is overviewed as well. The technical challenges and potential risks of utilizing RAFM steels as the structural material of in-vessel components are discussed, and possible mitigation methodology is introduced. The discussion suggests that deuterium-tritium fusion neutron irradiation effects currently need to be treated as an ambiguity factor which could be incorporated within the safety factor. The safety factor will be defined by the engineering design criteria which are not yet developed with regard to irradiation effects and some high temperature process, and the operating time condition of the in-vessel component will be defined by the condition at which those ambiguities due to neutron irradiation become too large to be acceptable, or by the critical condition at which 14 MeV fusion neutron irradiation effects is expected to become different from fission neutron irradiation effects.

  14. Applications of monsoon research: Opportunities to inform decisionmaking and reduce regional vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Garfin, G. M.; Wilder, M.; Lenart, M.; Vásquez-León, M.; Comrie, A. C.

    2007-05-01

    This presentation will describe ongoing efforts to understand interactions between the North American Monsoon and society, in order to develop applications for monsoon research in a highly complex, multicultural and binational region. The North American Monsoon is an annual precipitation regime that begins in early June in Mexico and progresses northward to the southwestern United States. The region includes stakeholders in large urban complexes, productive agricultural areas, and sparsely populated arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The political, cultural, and socioeconomic divisions between the U.S. and Mexico create a broad range of sensitivities to climate variability as well as capacities to use forecasts and other information to cope with climate. We will highlight methodologies to link climate science with society and analyze opportunities for monsoon science to benefit society in four sectors: natural hazards management, agriculture, public health, and water management. We present a synthesized list of stakeholder needs and a calendar of decisions to help scientists link user needs to potential forecasts and products. To ensure usability of forecasts and other research products, we recommend iterative scientist-stakeholder interactions, through integrated assessments. These knowledge- exchange interactions can improve the capacity for stakeholders to use forecasts thoughtfully and inform the development of research, and for the research community to obtain feedback on climate-related products and receive insights to guide research direction. We expect that integrated assessments can capitalize on the opportunities for monsoon science to inform decisionmaking, in the best instances, reduce regional climate vulnerabilities and enhance regional sustainability

  15. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:22088026

  16. Application of Fenton oxidation to reduce the toxicity of mixed parabens.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Gmurek, Marta; Rossi, André F; Corceiro, Vanessa; Costa, Raquel; Quinta-Ferreira, M Emília; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present work were to assess the application of a chemical process to degrade a mixture of parabens and determine the influence of a natural river water matrix on toxicity. Model effluents containing either a single compound, namely methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben or p-hydroxybenzoic acid, or to mimic realistic conditions a mixture of the six compounds was used. Fenton process was applied to reduce the organic charge and toxic properties of the model effluents. The efficiency of the decontamination has been investigated using a chemical as well as a toxicological approach. The potential reduction of the effluents' toxicity after Fenton treatment was evaluated by assessing (i) Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition, (ii) lethal effects amongst freshwater Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), and (iii) the impact on mammalian neuronal activity using brain slices. From the environmental point of view such a broad toxicity analysis has been performed for the first time. The results indicate that Fenton reaction is an effective method for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand of a mixture of parabens and their toxicity to V. fischeri and C. fluminea. However, no important differences were found between raw and treated samples in regard to mammalian neuronal activity.

  17. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.

  18. Application of a novel colour imaging technique to thermal convection under reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiland, H. G.; Wozniak, G.

    2010-12-01

    The quantitative measurement performance and the robustness of a novel high-speed imaging system using a liquid crystal tunable filter have been verified by a fluid dynamic experiment in a reduced gravity environment. This new type of diagnostic tool is a combination of a monochrome high-speed CCD camera with fast ferroelectric liquid crystal control. The filter can be tuned to red, green and blue colour planes (RGB filter), which provides real colour images without loss of resolution. The scientific application was the investigation of the influence of buoyancy on the surface tension-driven flow around a bubble on heated wall. The flow velocity and temperature patterns were observed in gravity and microgravity environments. The measuring technique is based on particle image velocimetry and thermometry (PIV/T). The principle of this optical full-field technique relies on seeded thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as signal particles, which change colour depending on their temperature. The experimental results of the flow investigations under 1-g and μ-g conditions are discussed and compared with one another.

  19. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound.

  20. Enhanced monolithic diffraction gratings with high efficiency and reduced polarization sensitivity for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triebel, Peter; Diehl, Torsten; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles and as well as lamellar profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular

  1. Integrated control of white rot disease on beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Contans® and reduced fungicides application.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawi, Mohamed; Elkhaky, Maged T; Sayed, Shaban R; Bahkali, Ali H; Mohammed, Arif A; Gambhir, Dikshit; Mansour, Aref S; Elgorban, Abdallah M

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compatibility of Contans® (Coniothyrium minitans) with fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results showed that both Contans® and Topsin® significantly reduced the disease incidence caused by S. sclerotiorum by 90% and 95% survival plants, respectively when they were individually applied and compared to control. While, soil application of Contans® and Sumisclex mixture was the most effective in suppressing the white rot disease incidence that produced 100% survival plants, application of C. minitans combined with the reduced doses of fungicides would be advantageous in saving labor cost, thus increasing production efficiency of bean.

  2. [Effect of reduced N application on soil N residue and N loss in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Wen-Yu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2012, including three planting pattern (maize-soybean relay strip intercropping, mono-cultured maize and soybean) and three nitrogen application level [0 kg N x hm(-2), 180 kg N x hm(-2) (reduced N) and 240 kg N x hm(-2) (normal N)]. Fields were assigned to different treatments in a randomized block design with three replicates. The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of planting patterns and nitrogen application rates on plant N uptake, soil N residue and N loss. After fertilization applications, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N levels increased in the soil of intercropped maize but decreased in the soil of intercropped soybean. Compared with mono-crops, the soil N residue and loss of intercropped soybean were reduced, while those of intercropped maize were increased and decreased, respectively. With the reduced rate of N application, N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate of the maize-soybean intercropping relay strip system were decreased by 17.7%, 21.5% and 0.4% compared to mono-cultured maize, but increased by 2.0%, 19.8% and 0.1% compared to mono-cultured soybean, respectively. Likewise, the reduced N application resulted in reductions in N residue, N loss, and the N loss via ammonia volatilization in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system compared with the conventional rate of N application adopted by local farmers, and the N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate reduced by 12.0%, 15.4% and 1.2%, respectively.

  3. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions?

    PubMed

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended.

  4. Application of aziridine reactive rinses in a post-development process to reduce photoresist pattern collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Ming; Lawson, Richard A.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2012-03-01

    One of the problems for lithographic processes at very small feature scales is pattern collapse caused by unbalanced capillary forces experienced by the photoresist patterns during the final deionized water rinse and drying process. The use of surfactants or super critical fluids to reduce collapse problems has been proposed and studied by many research groups. However, the patterns rinsed with low surface tension fluids appear in many cases to shrink or such treatments cause other feature deformations. Super critical fluid processing requires major changes to the ways in which current track systems operate and can result in swelling and deformation of the resist features as well. Instead of utilizing super critical fluids or adding surfactants to the rinse liquid, one general methodology we have pursued for alleviating such pattern collapse problems involves the actual strengthening of the resist feature itself during wet processing in the development and rinse cycle. One method we have investigated extensively is the use of post-development resist surface crosslinking reactions while the resist structures are still in their wet state, a process we term "reactive rinsing". Such reactive rinse processes have shown significant impact on improving resist pattern collapse. However, previous chemistries used for such reactive rinse processes have either: (1) been complex mixtures that potentially have long term stability problems (i.e. thus making their application in a fab environment more difficult) or (2) been specific to a certain resist types in that the chemistries react with only certain resist functional groups that may not be present in all resists of interest (e.g. some chemistries only work with phenolic resins such as those found in DUV or EUV resists). Therefore, the goal of this work has been to investigate other novel reactive rinse chemistries that are both more robust and which can function with different families of resist materials. Poly

  5. Free and Reduced-Price Meal Application and Income Verification Practices in School Nutrition Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Junehee; Lee, Yee Ming; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study assessed current practices and attitudes of school nutrition program (SNP) management staff regarding free and reduced-price (F-RP) meal application and verification in SNPs. Methods: Stratified, randomly selected 1,500 SNP management staff in 14 states received a link to an online questionnaire and/or a printed…

  6. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    PubMed

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at < 40%, according to NC cooperative extension surveys conducted during the last four years. Previous research has suggested that timing insecticide treatments using currently available ETs can reduce the average number of applications to two or fewer per season. We conducted field-scale trials at nine commercial tobacco farms, three in 2104 and six in 2015, to quantify inputs associated with current scouting recommendations, to determine if current ETs were able to reduce insecticide applications as compared to grower standard practices, and to assess the impacts of reduced insecticide applications on end of season yield and pesticide residues. Two fields were identified at each farm and were scouted weekly for insects. One field was only treated with insecticides if pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  7. Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efforts to reduce fertilizer rates while increasing nutrient uptake to maintain high yields are very important due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and their potential negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer cou...

  8. 75 FR 38592 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for Reducing the Effects of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Reducing the Effects of Traumatic Exposure to Grade Crossing and Trespasser Incidents on Train Crews AGENCY... intervention plan for reducing the effects of traumatic exposure to grade crossing and trespasser incidents in... implement programs mediating the effects of employees' exposure to trauma. Proposals that meet the...

  9. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  10. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  11. Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanping; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Shihua; Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-01-30

    In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of two silica (Si) sols on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in contaminated soil to rice. Results showed that the foliar application of Si sols significantly increased the dry weight of grains (without husk) and shoots in rice grown in Cd contaminated soil, whereas the Cd concentration in the grains and shoots decreased obviously. The total accumulation of Cd in rice grains also decreased with the application of both of the Si sols, but no significant effect was found on the Cd accumulation in the shoots. For the optimal effect, Si-sol-B should be foliar applied at the tillering-stage during rice growth. The mechanism of Si foliar application to alleviate the toxicity and accumulation of Cd in grains of rice may be related to the probable Cd sequestration in the shoot cell walls.

  12. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and economic benefit of sugarcane intercropped with soybean].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-xian; Wang, Jian-wu; Yang, Wen-ting; Shu, Ying-hua; Du, Qing; Liu, Li-ling; Shu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    A two-factor field experiment of randomized block design was conducted in Guangzhou to investigate the effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and total biomass dynamic of sugarcane as well as the economic benefit of the sugarcane population under different sugarcane/soybean intercropping patterns. Neither N application nor intercropping pattern had significant effects on the yield and quality of sugarcane, and no significant differences were observed in the yield and quality of sugarcane among all treatments. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of sugarcane/soybean intercropping at different N application levels was from 1.36 to 2.12, suggesting that sugarcane/soybean intercropping had higher LER than monoculture sugarcane. The total dry matter (except root) of sugarcane in all treatments increased with plant growth, and the growth pattern fitted sigmoid function. At lower nitrogen application level, the eigenvalues of the dynamic dry matter accumulation model were more coordinative, compared with those at higher nitrogen application level, which meant that in the later case, sugarcane had an advanced peak growth time and shortened fast-growth duration, and thereby, its yield decreased. Therefore, it was possible to reasonably adjust nitrogen application level to improve the eigenvalues of the sugarcane dynamic dry matter accumulation model, and accordingly, to achieve high yield. The population economic benefit under sugarcane/soybean intercropping was 3.2%-26.3% higher at lower than at higher nitrogen application level, suggesting the increase of the economic benefit of sugarcane population under reduced nitrogen application. Among the treatments, 1:2 sugarcane/soybean intercropping had the best economic benefit.

  13. Application of the reduced basis method to nonlinear transient thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    An effort to apply the reduced basis method to nonlinear transient thermal analysis is described. The method combines the classical Rayleigh-Ritz and modal superposition techniques with contemporary finite element methods to retain modeling versatility as the degrees of freedom in a problem are reduced. The essence of the method is to use a few thermal modes from eigenvalue analyses as basis vectors to represent the temperature response for a given thermal problem similar to the use of vibration modes to represent displacements in a dynamic response problem. Approximate temperature distributions were obtained using the reduced basis method for a small section of the Shuttle Orbiter lower wing undergoing reentry heating. Good agreement was obtained between the reduced basis method solutions and full system solutions with reductions in the degrees of freedom of up to a factor of four. The good agreement indicates the reduced basis method has the potential for significant reduction in computing effort for thermal analysis; however, considerable work remains to determine techniques for selecting the type and number of basis vectors needed for approximate solutions to more complex transient thermal problems.

  14. Application of bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella attachment and biofilms on hard surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-02-23

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of bacteriophage treatment for reducing Salmonella attachment and biofilms on hard surfaces. Bacteriophages (n = 6) were selected for bacteriophage treatment based on host ranges against Salmonella isolates (n = 10) obtained from rendering plants. The effectiveness of bacteriophage treatment (104-108 PFU/mL) was initially evaluated against strong Salmonella biofilm formers in 96-well microplate. Then, the bacteriophage treatment (109 PFU/mL) was applied for 7 d to reduce Salmonella attached to the stainless steel surfaces under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of pre-formed biofilm in 96-well microplate with bacteriophage treatment reached up to 90 and 66%, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, bacteriophage treatment reduced up to 2.9 and 3.0 log CFU/cm2 of attachment and slightly formed biofilm of selected top 10 Salmonella strains and an avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium strain 8243, respectively, as compared with reductions of 3.4, 1.4, and 3.0 log CFU/cm2 of S. Typhimurium strain 8243 in summer, fall/winter, and spring seasons under greenhouse conditions, respectively. Clearly, bacteriophages were effective on reducing Salmonella attachment and biofilms formed on hard surfaces under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The use of bacteriophages on hard surfaces may have merits in reducing the likelihood of finished rendered products being recontaminated with Salmonella in rendering plants.

  15. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  16. Application of exopolysaccharide-producing cultures in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese: composition and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Awad, S; Hassan, A N; Halaweish, F

    2005-12-01

    Proteolysis during ripening of reduced fat Cheddar cheeses made with different exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing and nonproducing cultures was studied. A ropy strain of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (JFR1) and capsule-forming nonropy and moderately ropy strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were used in making reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Commercial Cheddar starter was used in making full-fat cheese. Results showed that the actual yield of cheese made with JFR1 was higher than that of all other reduced-fat cheeses. Cheese made with JFR1 contained higher moisture, moisture in the nonfat substance, and residual coagulant activity than all other reduced-fat cheeses. Proteolysis, as determined by PAGE and the level of water-soluble nitrogen, was also higher in cheese made with JFR1 than in all other cheeses. The HPLC analysis showed a significant increase in hydrophobic peptides (causing bitterness) during storage of cheese made with JFR1. Cheese made with the capsule-forming nonropy adjunct of S. thermophilus, which contained lower moisture and moisture in the nonfat substance levels and lower chymosin activity than did cheese made with JFR1, accumulated less hydrophobic peptides. In conclusion, some EPS-producing cultures produced reduced-fat Cheddar cheese with moisture in the nonfat substance similar to that in its full-fat counterpart without the need for modifying the standard cheese-making protocol. Such cultures might accumulate hydrophobic (bitter) peptides if they do not contain the system able to hydrolyze them. For making high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese, EPS-producing cultures should be used in conjunction with debittering strains.

  17. Reduced-Order Aerodynamic Model and Its Application to a Nonlinear Aeroelastic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Deman; Conner, Mark D.; Dowell, Earl H.

    1998-01-01

    Starting from a finite state model for a two-dimensional aerodynamic flow over an airfoil, the eigenmodes of the aerodynamic flow are determined. Using a small number of these aerodynamic eigenmodes, ie., a reduced-order model, the aeroelastic model is formed by coupling them to a typical section structural model with a trailing-edge flap. A free-play nonlinearity is modeled. Results are shown from the finite state model, the reduced-order model, and previous theoretical and experimental work. All results are in good agreement.

  18. Large-scale synthesis of reduced graphene oxides with uniformly coated polyaniline for supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Hsu, Shao-Hui; Wu, Kevin C W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-06-01

    We report an effective route for the preparation of layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with uniformly coated polyaniline (PANI) layers. These nanocomposites are synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of layered rGO. SEM, TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy analysis results demonstrated that reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline (rGO-PANI) nanocomposites are successfully synthesized. Because of synergistic effects, rGO-PANI nanocomposites prepared by this approach exhibit excellent capacitive performance with a high specific capacitance of 286 F g(-1) and high cycle reversibility of 94 % after 2000 cycles.

  19. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  20. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  1. 26 CFR 1.122-1 - Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... uniformed services retirement pay. 1.122-1 Section 1.122-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... retirement pay. (a) Rule applicable prior to January 1, 1966. In the case of a member or former member of the... and his disability is rated at 40 percent. The entire amount of disability retirement pay, prior...

  2. 26 CFR 1.122-1 - Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uniformed services retirement pay. 1.122-1 Section 1.122-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... retirement pay. (a) Rule applicable prior to January 1, 1966. In the case of a member or former member of the... and his disability is rated at 40 percent. The entire amount of disability retirement pay, prior...

  3. 26 CFR 1.122-1 - Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... uniformed services retirement pay. 1.122-1 Section 1.122-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... retirement pay. (a) Rule applicable prior to January 1, 1966. In the case of a member or former member of the... and his disability is rated at 40 percent. The entire amount of disability retirement pay, prior...

  4. 26 CFR 1.122-1 - Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... uniformed services retirement pay. 1.122-1 Section 1.122-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... retirement pay. (a) Rule applicable prior to January 1, 1966. In the case of a member or former member of the... and his disability is rated at 40 percent. The entire amount of disability retirement pay, prior...

  5. Application of the open-lung concept during positive-pressure ventilation reduces pulmonary inflammation in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    van Kaam, Anton H; Dik, Willem A; Haitsma, Jack J; De Jaegere, Anne; Naber, Birgitta A; van Aalderen, Wim M; Kok, Joke H; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that application of the open-lung concept (OLC) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) attenuates pulmonary inflammation. We hypothesized that this attenuation could also be achieved by applying the OLC during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). After repeated whole-lung lavage, newborn piglets were assigned to one of three ventilation groups: (1) PPV(OLC); (2) HFOV(OLC), or (3) conventional PPV (PPV(CON)). After a ventilation period of 5 h, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a reduced influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, interleukin 8, and thrombin activity in both OLC groups as compared with the PPV(CON) group. There were no differences in tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. We conclude that application of the OLC during PPV reduces pulmonary inflammation as compared with conventional PPV and that the magnitude of this reduction is comparable to that of HFOV.

  6. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

  7. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

  8. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research project to develop tools and methodologies to measure aerosol chemical and particle dispersion through space. These tools can be used to devise pollution prevention strategies that could reduce occupant chemical exposures and guide manufactu...

  9. Application of digital terrain data to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Wharton, S. W.; Holben, B. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Integration of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data with 30 m U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital terrain data was undertaken to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on imagery of a forested mountain ridge test site in central Pennsylvania. High Sun angle imagery revealed variation of as much as 21 pixel values in data for slopes of different angles and aspects with uniform surface cover. Large topographic effects were apparent in MSS 4 and 5 was due to a combination of high absorption by the forest cover and the MSS quantization. Four methods for reducing the topographic effect were compared. Band ratioing of MSS 6/5 and MSS 7/5 did not eliminate the topographic effect because of the lack of variation in MSS 4 and 5 radiances. The three radiance models examined to reduce the topographic effect required integration of the digital terrain data. Two Lambertian models increased the variation in the LANDSAT radiances. The nonLambertian model considerably reduced (86 per cent) the topographic effect in the LANDSAT data. The study demonstrates that high quality digital terrain data, as provided by the USGS digital elevation model data, can be used to enhance the utility of multispectral satellite data.

  10. Application of microbial inoculants as tools for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen fertilizers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are increasing due to several factors, including increased use of nitrogen fertilizers. New management tools are needed to reduce N2O emissions from production agriculture. One potential such tool is the use of microbial inoculants, which are increasingly being used ...

  11. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research project to develop tools and methodologies to measure aerosol chemical and particle dispersion through space. These tools can be used to devise pollution prevention strategies that could reduce occupant chemical exposures and guide manufactu...

  12. Foliar application of microdoses of sucrose to reduce codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage to apple trees.

    PubMed

    Arnault, Ingrid; Lombarkia, Nadia; Joy-Ondet, Sophie; Romet, Lionel; Brahim, Imene; Meradi, Rahma; Nasri, Ardjouna; Auger, Jacques; Derridj, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The effects of foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose to reduce the damage by the codling moth have been reported from nine trials carried in France and Algeria from 2009 to 2014. The activity of sucrose alone was assessed by comparison with an untreated control and some treatments with the Cydia pomonella granulovirus or a chemical insecticide. The addition of sucrose to these different treatments was also investigated. The application of sucrose at 0.01% reduced the means of infested fruits with a value of Abbott's efficacy of 41.0 ± 10.0%. This involved the induction of resistance by antixenosis to insect egg laying. Indeed, it seems that acceptance of egg laying on leaves treated with sucrose was reduced. The addition of sucrose to thiacloprid improved its efficacy (59.5% ± 12.8) by 18.4%. However, the sucrose had no added value when associated with C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. Foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose every 20 days in commercial orchards can partially protect against the codling moth. Its addition to thiacloprid increases the efficacy in integrated control strategies, contrary to C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. This work opens a route for the development of new biocontrol strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Apyrase treatment of myocardial infarction according to a clinically applicable protocol fails to reduce myocardial injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    van der Pals, Jesper; Koul, Sasha; Götberg, Michael I; Olivecrona, Göran K; Ugander, Martin; Kanski, Mikael; Otto, Andreas; Götberg, Matthias; Arheden, Håkan; Erlinge, David

    2010-01-04

    Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS) when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO) in a large animal model. A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg). The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8) or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8), twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR) was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 +/- 4.2% vs 69.4 +/- 5.0%, p = NS) or MO (10.7 +/- 4.8% vs 11.4 +/- 4.8%, p = NS), but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction.

  14. Reduced order modelling of an unstructured mesh air pollution model and application in 2D/3D urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Zhang, T.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C. C.; Buchan, A. G.; Navon, I. M.

    2014-10-01

    A novel reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed for a finite-element (FE) adaptive mesh air pollution model. A quadratic expansion of the non-linear terms is employed to ensure the method remained efficient. This is the first time such an approach has been applied to air pollution LES turbulent simulation through three dimensional landscapes. The novelty of this work also includes POD's application within a FE-LES turbulence model that uses adaptive resolution. The accuracy of the reduced order model is assessed and validated for a range of 2D and 3D urban street canyon flow problems. By comparing the POD solutions against the fine detail solutions obtained from the full FE model it is shown that the accuracy is maintained, where fine details of the air flows are captured, whilst the computational requirements are reduced. In the examples presented below the size of the reduced order models is reduced by factors up to 2400 in comparison to the full FE model while the CPU time is reduced by up to 98% of that required by the full model.

  15. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  16. A reduced mechanism for biodiesel surrogates with low temperature chemistry for compression ignition engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhaoyu; Plomer, Max; Lu, Tianfeng; Som, Sibendu; Longman, Douglas E.

    2012-04-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It is a renewable energy source that can be used in these engines without significant alteration in design. The detailed chemical kinetics of biodiesel is however highly complex. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism with 123 species and 394 reactions for a tri-component biodiesel surrogate, which consists of methyl decanoate, methyl 9-decanoate and n-heptane was developed for simulations of 3-D turbulent spray combustion under engine-like conditions. The reduction was based on an improved directed relation graph (DRG) method that is particularly suitable for mechanisms with many isomers, followed by isomer lumping and DRG-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA). The reduction was performed for pressures from 1 to 100 atm and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2 for both extinction and ignition applications. The initial temperatures for ignition were from 700 to 1800 K. The wide parameter range ensures the applicability of the skeletal mechanism under engine-like conditions. As such the skeletal mechanism is applicable for ignition at both low and high temperatures. Compared with the detailed mechanism that consists of 3299 species and 10806 reactions, the skeletal mechanism features a significant reduction in size while still retaining good accuracy and comprehensiveness. The validations of ignition delay time, flame lift-off length and important species profiles were also performed in 3-D engine simulations and compared with the experimental data from Sandia National Laboratories under CI engine conditions.

  17. Recent Advances in the Application of Inorganic Salt Pretreatment for Transforming Lignocellulosic Biomass into Reducing Sugars.

    PubMed

    Loow, Yu-Loong; Wu, Ta Yeong; Tan, Khang Aik; Lim, Yung Shen; Siow, Lee Fong; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Teoh, Wen Hui

    2015-09-30

    Currently, the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products such as reducing sugars is garnering attention worldwide. However, efficient hydrolysis is usually hindered by the recalcitrant structure of the biomass. Many pretreatment technologies have been developed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose such that the components can be reutilized more effectively to enhance sugar recovery. Among all of the utilized pretreatment methods, inorganic salt pretreatment represents a more novel method and offers comparable sugar recovery with the potential for reducing costs. The use of inorganic salt also shows improved performance when it is integrated with other pretreatment technologies. Hence, this paper is aimed to provide a detailed overview of the current situation for lignocellulosic biomass and its physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, this review discusses some recent studies using inorganic salt for pretreating biomass and the mechanisms involved during the process. Finally, some prospects and challenges using inorganic salt are highlighted.

  18. In-situ reduced silver nanoparticles on populus fiber and the catalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miaomiao; Gong, Yumei; Wang, Wenheng; Xu, Guangpeng; Liu, Yuanfa; Guo, Jing

    2017-02-01

    One kind of composites involved in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loading in-situ on natural populus fiber (PF) matrix was prepared by polyamidoxime (PAO) functionalized the cellulose fiber. In which PAO worked as trapping and stabilizing agents chelating silver ions and made it reduced in-situ to obtain AgNPs by borohydride at room temperature. The synthesized composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the composites showed significant catalytic activity 1.87 s-1 g-1 and repeated usability more than 7 cycles in reducing 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) detected by UV-vis spectrophotometer in aqueous solution due to the surface-enhanced immobility and large amount of AgNPs. The natural cellulose fiber provides a green platform to react and support other noble metals for wide catalytic reactions.

  19. Dynamic Programming on Reduced Models and Its Evaluation through Its Application to Elevator Operation Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamoto, Tsutomu; Tamaki, Hisashi; Murao, Hajime

    In this paper, we present a modified dynamic programming (DP) method. The method is basically the same as the value iteration method (VI), a representative DP method, except the preprocess of a system's state transition model for reducing its complexity, and is called the dynamic programming on reduced models (DPRM). That reduction is achieved by imaginarily considering causes of the probabilistic behavior of a system, and then cutting off some causes with low occurring probabilities. In computational illustrations, VI, DPRM, and the real-time Q-learning method (RTQ) are applied to elevator operation problems, which can be modeled by using Markov decision processes. The results show that DPRM can compute quasi-optimal value functions which bring more effective allocations of elevators than value functions by RTQ in less computational times than VI. This characteristic is notable when the traffic pattern is complicated.

  20. Application of electrolyzed water on reducing the microbial populations on commercial mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Zhang-Long

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) for reducing total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold counts on commercial mung bean sprouts was investigated. The impact of pH, available chlorine concentration (ACC) and the cleaning method on antimicrobial efficacy of AEW was studied. AEW with a pH of 4.47 reduced the total bacterial, coliform, and yeast and mold counts on mung bean sprouts by 1.23, 1.42 and 1.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The efficacy of AEW increased with increasing ACC, and further studies showed that its antimicrobial ability was based on a combination of pH and ACC values. Cleaning using ultrasonic waves enhanced the antimicrobial activity of electrolyzed water, achieving reduction of 2.46, 2.13 and 2.92 log CFU/g for total bacterial, yeast and mold, and coliform counts, respectively. These results have indicated that using ultrasonic waves as a cleaning method, combined with AEW, could be a promising way to reduce the microbial populations on mung bean sprouts.

  1. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application

    PubMed Central

    Pegler, Joe; Lehane, Elaine; Livingstone, Vicki; McCarthy, Nora; Sahm, Laura J.; Tabirca, Sabin; O’Driscoll, Aoife; Corrigan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems. Methods An NFC-based system was designed to facilitate prescribing, administration and review of medications commonly used on surgical wards. Final year medical, nursing, and pharmacy students were recruited to test the electronic system in a cross-over observational setting on a simulated ward. Medication errors were compared against errors recorded using a paper-based system. Results A significant difference in the commission of medication errors was seen when NFC and paper-based medication systems were compared. Paper use resulted in a mean of 4.09 errors per prescribing round while NFC prescribing resulted in a mean of 0.22 errors per simulated prescribing round (P=0.000). Likewise, medication administration errors were reduced from a mean of 2.30 per drug round with a Paper system to a mean of 0.80 errors per round using NFC (P<0.015). A mean satisfaction score of 2.30 was reported by users, (rated on seven-point scale with 1 denoting total satisfaction with system use and 7 denoting total dissatisfaction). Conclusions An NFC based medication system may be used to effectively reduce medication errors in a simulated ward environment. PMID:28293602

  2. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Emer; Pegler, Joe; Lehane, Elaine; Livingstone, Vicki; McCarthy, Nora; Sahm, Laura J; Tabirca, Sabin; O'Driscoll, Aoife; Corrigan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems. An NFC-based system was designed to facilitate prescribing, administration and review of medications commonly used on surgical wards. Final year medical, nursing, and pharmacy students were recruited to test the electronic system in a cross-over observational setting on a simulated ward. Medication errors were compared against errors recorded using a paper-based system. A significant difference in the commission of medication errors was seen when NFC and paper-based medication systems were compared. Paper use resulted in a mean of 4.09 errors per prescribing round while NFC prescribing resulted in a mean of 0.22 errors per simulated prescribing round (P=0.000). Likewise, medication administration errors were reduced from a mean of 2.30 per drug round with a Paper system to a mean of 0.80 errors per round using NFC (P<0.015). A mean satisfaction score of 2.30 was reported by users, (rated on seven-point scale with 1 denoting total satisfaction with system use and 7 denoting total dissatisfaction). An NFC based medication system may be used to effectively reduce medication errors in a simulated ward environment.

  3. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO.

    PubMed

    Neal, James R; Blau, Caitlin L; Cornelius, Amanda M; Pike, Roxann B; Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N

    2016-03-01

    Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods.

  4. Application of reduced-order controller to turbulent flows for drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun H.; Cortelezzi, Luca; Kim, John; Speyer, Jason

    2001-05-01

    A reduced-order linear feedback controller is designed and applied to turbulent channel flow for drag reduction. From the linearized two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations a distributed feedback controller, which produces blowing/suction at the wall based on the measured turbulent streamwise wall-shear stress, is derived using model reduction techniques and linearquadratic-Gaussian/loop-transfer-recovery control synthesis. The quadratic cost criterion used for synthesis is composed of the streamwise wall-shear stress, which includes the control effort of blowing/suction. This distributed two-dimensional controller developed from a linear system theory is shown to reduce the skin friction by 10% in direct numerical simulations of a low-Reynolds number turbulent nonlinear channel flow. Spanwise shear-stress variation, not captured by the distributed two-dimensional controller, is suppressed by augmentation of a simple spanwise ad hoc control scheme. This augmented three-dimensional controller, which requires only the turbulent streamwise velocity gradient, results in a further reduction in the skin-friction drag. It is shown that the input power requirement is significantly less than the power saved by reduced drag. Other turbulence characteristics affected by these controllers are also discussed.

  5. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  6. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  7. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  8. Application of Reduced Order Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix for Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed

  9. Application Of Immobilized Sulfate Reducing Bacteria For Permeable Reactive Barriers In Abandoned Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Hur, W.; Choi, S.; Min, K.; Baek, H.

    2006-05-01

    The decline of the Korean coal industry has been drastic in production and consumption. This has been resulted mainly from the environmental concern and the collapse of commercial viability, which has eventually necessitated the government to implement the coal industry rationalization policies to reduce coal production and close down uneconomical mines. The overall drainage rates from abandoned coal mines reaches up to 80,000 ton/day. As a measure of controlling the acid mine drainage from abandoned coal mines, reactive materials in the pathways of drainage, designed to intercept and to transform the contaminants into environmentally acceptable forms can be applied at mines with small drainage rates. The main objective of this study is to design a permeable reactive barrier(PRB) to treat low flow and/or low contaminant loads of acid mine drainage. The PRB is comprised of immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria in hard beads and limestone to remove heavy metals and to raise the pH of AMD. A laboratory reactor was used to prepare a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria. The microbes were separated and mixed with biodegradable matrix to form spherical beads. In order to maintain the viability of micro-organisms for a prolonged period, substrates such as saw dust, polysaccharide or glycerol was supplemented for the beads preparation. The strength of beads fortified by powered limestone to control the permeability of PRB. Different mixtures of limestone and the immobilized beads were tested to determine hydraulic conductivity and AMD treatment capacities. The characteristics of the spherical beads at various pH of AMD was investigated.

  10. ­A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea™-based paint (labeled “ecofriendly”). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of “ecofriendly” paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the “ecofriendly” treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations

  11. -A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research.

    PubMed

    Jerabek, Andrea S; Wall, Kara R; Stallings, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea (™)-based paint (labeled "ecofriendly"). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of "ecofriendly" paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the "ecofriendly" treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations that are

  12. Application of Reduced Order Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix for Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed

  13. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistor and its application to biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Hirayama, Yuki; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We confirmed the specific detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE) using an aptamer-immobilized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) field effect transistor (FET). The detection limit and dynamic range were estimated to be 8.1 ng/ml and 104, respectively. These characteristics are comparable with these of current fluorescent markers. Although the mobility of rGO-FET was around 6 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is two to three orders lower than that of mechanically exfoliated pristine graphene FET, its sensitivity to IgE was only one order lower than that of pristine graphene FET.

  14. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  15. Topical application of palmitoyl-RGD reduces human facial wrinkle formation in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jong Mook; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Chi Ho; Kim, Ju Yeon; Moon, Won Kang; Lee, Min Sup; Moon, Sung Ho; Lim, Joo Hyuck; Park, Sung Jun; Lee, Jin Seo; Song, Hyunnam; Kim, Beom Joon; Park, Young Jun; Seo, Jin Seok

    2017-07-27

    Maintaining a youthful appearance is a common desire among the aging population. Loss of elasticity and dermal density constitutes major causes of wrinkle formation during skin aging. In particular, periorbital wrinkles comprise the critical assessment point of skin aging. To address these issues, cosmetic industries have been making increasing efforts to develop efficient agents against wrinkle formation. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is a tripeptide sequence used for surface coating because of its integrin-binding property. However, its pharmacological properties on skin have not yet been studied. Here, we synthesize the novel palmitoyl-Arg-Gly-Asp (Palm-RGD) and investigate its effects on periorbital wrinkle formation by clinical and in vitro studies. We observed that Palm-RGD cream application for 12 weeks decreased global photodamage and skin roughness (R1, R2, R3, and Ra) scores without causing skin irritation. In addition, topical application of Palm-RGD cream time-dependently increased skin elasticity and dermal density. An in vitro study using human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) demonstrated increased type I procollagen production by Palm-RGD treatment. Furthermore, Palm-RGD suppressed MMP-1 expression in HDFs. Our results demonstrate that Palm-RGD has protective effects against wrinkle formation, likely through the activation of collagen expression and the protection against collagen degradation. Therefore, Palm-RGD could be used as a potential agent for the prevention of wrinkle formation consequent to aging.

  16. New application of wavelets in magnetotelluric data processing: reducing impedance bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larnier, Hugo; Sailhac, Pascal; Chambodut, Aude

    2016-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data consist of the sum of several types of natural sources including transient and quasiperiodic signals and noise sources (instrumental, anthropogenic) whose nature has to be taken into account in MT data processing. Most processing techniques are based on a Fourier transform of MT time series, and robust statistics at a fixed frequency are used to compute the MT response functions, but only a few take into account the nature of the sources. Moreover, to reduce the influence of noise in the inversion of the response functions, one often sets up another MT station called a remote station. However, even careful setup of this remote station cannot prevent its failure in some cases. Here, we propose the use of the continuous wavelet transform on magnetotelluric time series to reduce the influence of noise even for single site processing. We use two different types of wavelets, Cauchy and Morlet, according to the shape of observed geomagnetic events. We show that by using wavelet coefficients at clearly identified geomagnetic events, we are able to recover the unbiased response function obtained through robust remote processing algorithms. This makes it possible to process even single station sites and increase the confidence in data interpretation.

  17. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified.

  18. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    PubMed

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling an aquatic ecosystem: application of an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping to reduce prediction uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic ecosystem models can potentially be used to understand the influence of stresses on catchment resource quality. Given that catchment responses are functions of natural and anthropogenic stresses reflected in sparse and spatiotemporal biological, physical, and chemical measurements, an ecosystem is difficult to model using statistical or numerical methods. We propose an artificial adaptive systems approach to model ecosystems. First, an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network is trained using the set of available sparse and disparate data variables. Second, an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping is applied to reduce the number of ecosystem variables to an optimal set. Third, the optimal set of ecosystem variables is used to retrain the ML network. Fourth, a stochastic cross-validation approach is applied to quantify and compare the nonlinear uncertainty in selected predictions of the original and reduced models. Results are presented for aquatic ecosystems (tens of thousands of square kilometers) undergoing landscape change in the USA: Upper Illinois River Basin and Central Colorado Assessment Project Area, and Southland region, NZ.

  20. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

    2009-11-01

    The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake levels equivalent to those with full rates of the fertilizer and (2) the minimum level to which fertilizer could be reduced when inoculants were used. The microbial inoculants used in the study were a mixture of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus T4, a formulated PGPR product, and the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices. Results showed that supplementing 75% of the recommended fertilizer rate with inoculants produced plant growth, yield, and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake that were statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer rate without inoculants. When inoculants were used with rates of fertilizer below 75% of the recommended rate, the beneficial effects were usually not consistent; however, inoculation with the mixture of PGPR and AMF at 70% fertility consistently produced the same yield as the full fertility rate without inoculants. Without inoculants, use of fertilizer rates lower than the recommended resulted in significantly less plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake or inconsistent impacts. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used and should be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies.

  1. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.

    2010-10-01

    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  2. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene reduces wound responses and maintains quality in fresh-cut apple.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linchun; Lu, Fujun; Wang, Guoze

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment before cutting on respiration rate, ethylene production, electrolyte leakage, firmness, and color in fresh-cut apple fruit. Fresh-cut apple without 1-MCP treatment had a shelf life of 10 days at 2 degrees C and became browning and decay after pro-long storage. However, fresh-cut apple remained fresh-looking even after 14 days at 2 degrees C when fruit were exposed to 1-MCP before cutting. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced wound-activated respiration rate and ethylene production, maintained firmness during storage. Visible changes in apple skin color do not occur, however, .L and whiteness index (WI) of flesh in intact and fresh-cut apple applied with 1-MCP were higher than those without 1-MCP treatment. Fresh-cut and intact fruit had little changes in electrolyte leakage after 2 days of storage when 1-MCP was pre-applied. The present study indicated that treatment with 1 microL/L 1-MCP for 10 h at 20 degrees C prior to cutting can significantly reduce wound-active responses in fresh-cut apple.

  3. Scintillation properties and applications of reduced-afterglow co-doped CsI:Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, V. V.; Gaysinskiy, V. B.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Miller, S. R.; Brecher, C.; Lempicki, A.; Bartram, R. H.

    2007-09-01

    While a wide variety of new scintillators are now available, CsI:Tl remains a highly desired material for medical and industrial applications due to its excellent properties, low cost, and easy availability. Despite its advantages, however, its use in high-speed imaging applications has been hindered by an undesirably high afterglow component in its scintillation decay. To address this specific issue and to make the material suitable for applications such as volumetric CT and high-speed radiography, we have discovered that codoping the material with certain dipositive rare earth ions is particularly effective for such afterglow suppression. We have extensively studied the manner in which one such ion, Eu 2+, alters the spectroscopic and kinetic properties of the scintillation, and have developed a coherent mathematical model consistent with the experimental results. Unfortunately, the beneficial effect of Eu 2+ appears to be restricted only to relatively short times (say <=200 ms) after the end of the excitation pulse. At longer times, the carriers whose diversion into deep traps is responsible for suppression of the short-term afterglow begin to escape those traps, resulting in enhancement of the low-level persistence on a time scale of seconds or minutes. What is needed is to provide some nonradiative means to annihilate the trapped carriers before their escape can enhance the low-level long-term emission. And, as predicted by the mathematical model, this is exactly what Sm 2+ does. In this paper we compare the respective effects of the two additives on the afterglow and hysteresis characteristics of the host CsI:Tl material system. We find that while Eu begins to exert its afterglow-suppressive effect sooner after termination of excitation, the influence of Sm lasts much longer. Moreover, the suppressive effect of the latter is always found, regardless of the conditions of excitation, and becomes more profound the greater the duration of the exciting pulse

  4. Hybrid Electrodes of Carbon Nanotube and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunmi; Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Areum; Kang, Keun Won; Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Soon Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Pil; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2015-11-01

    The choice of electrode materials in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors is important for the stability, capacity, and cycle life of the device. Despite its low capacity, graphite has often been used as an electrode material due to its inherent stability. Due to an increasing demand for large-capacity energy storage systems, there is also a demand for the development of large-capacity Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Therefore, carbonaceous materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have high stability as well as excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, are receiving attention as new electrode materials. Recently, starting from simply applying graphene and CNTs as electrode materials and progressing to the development of hybrid materials, there have been increasing research efforts in enhancing the performance of Li ion batteries and supercapacitors through the use of carbonaceous materials. This paper will discuss new composite materials and electrode structures that use graphene and CNTs for applications in Li ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  5. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  6. A Distributed Look-up Architecture for Text Mining Applications using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Balkir, Atilla Soner; Foster, Ian; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2011-11-01

    Text mining applications typically involve statistical models that require accessing and updating model parameters in an iterative fashion. With the growing size of the data, such models become extremely parameter rich, and naive parallel implementations fail to address the scalability problem of maintaining a distributed look-up table that maps model parameters to their values. We evaluate several existing alternatives to provide coordination among worker nodes in Hadoop [11] clusters, and suggest a new multi-layered look-up architecture that is specifically optimized for certain problem domains. Our solution exploits the power-law distribution characteristics of the phrase or n-gram counts in large corpora while utilizing a Bloom Filter [2], in-memory cache, and an HBase [12] cluster at varying levels of abstraction.

  7. One-step synthesis of highly reduced graphene hydrogels for high power supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, Harish; Aradilla, David; Benayad, Anass; Chenavier, Yves; Daffos, Barbara; Dubois, Lionel; Duclairoir, Florence

    2017-08-01

    Graphene hydrogels with high electrical conductivity were prepared by a one-step process using hydrazine hydrate as gel assembly agent (GH-HD). Conventional two-step process of gel formation and further reduction to prepare highly conducting gels was replaced by a single step involving equivalent amount of hydrazine. Optimized graphene oxide concentration was established to facilitate such monolith formation. Extensive characterization and control studies enabled understanding of the material properties and gel formation mechanism. The synthesized gel shows a high electrical conductivity of 1141 S/m. The supercapacitor based on GH-HD delivers a high specific capacitance of 190 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g and 123 F/g at very high current density of 100 A/g. Furthermore, excellent power capability and cyclic stability were also observed. 3D macroporous morphology of GH-HD makes it ideal for high rate supercapacitor applications.

  8. Localised application of vibration improves passive knee extension in women with apparent reduced hamstring extensibility: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Fatemi, Elham; Khalili, Mohammad Amozade; Ghorbani, Raheb

    2011-01-01

    Does the localised application of vibration over the hamstrings improve hamstring extensibility? Randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and assessor blinding. 30 non-athletic females (aged 18-22 yrs) with limited hamstring extensibility bilaterally. The experimental group received 3 sessions of localised application of vibration per week for 8 weeks. At each session, 3 sets of vibration were applied over the left and right hamstring muscles. The control group continued their usual daily activities. Both groups were asked to perform no specific exercises during the 8-week intervention period. Hamstring muscle extensibility was measured bilaterally at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention period by measuring passive knee extension in supine with 90 deg of hip flexion. At baseline, the mean lack of knee extension was 27 deg (SD 9) in the experimental group and 24 deg (SD 8) in the control group. At 8 weeks, this had changed to 13 deg (SD 5) in the experimental group and 23 deg (SD 9) in the control group. This was a significant treatment effect: mean between-group difference of 13 deg (95% CI 11 to 16). An 8-week regimen of localised application of vibration over the hamstring muscles significantly reduces knee extension lack in women with reduced range on the passive knee extension test. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of poly (p-phenylene oxide) as blocking layer to reduce self-discharge in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevi, Tete; Yaghoubi, Houman; Wang, Jing; Takshi, Arash

    2013-11-01

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power density. However, application of supercapacitors is limited mainly due to their high leakage current. In this work, application of an ultra-thin layer of electrodeposited poly (p-phenylene oxide) (PPO) has been investigated as a blocking layer to reduce the leakage current. The polymer was first deposited on a glassy carbon electrode. The morphology of the film was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the film thickness was estimated to be ˜1.5 nm by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The same deposition method was applied to coat the surface of the activated carbon electrodes of a supercapacitor with PPO. The specific capacitance, the leakage current, and the series resistance were measured in two devices with and without the blocking layer. The results demonstrate that the application of the PPO layer reduced the leakage current by ˜78%. However, the specific capacitance was decreased by ˜56%, when the blocking layer was applied. Due to the lower rate of self-discharge, the suggested approach can be applied to fabricate devices with longer charge storage time.

  10. Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: maintenance and application in new settings.

    PubMed

    Durand, V M; Carr, E G

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the initial effectiveness, maintenance, and transferability of the results of functional communication training as an intervention for the challenging behaviors exhibited by 3 students. Assessment indicated that escape from academic demands was involved in the maintenance of the challenging behaviors. Social attention was also implicated as controlling the behavior of 1 student. The intervention involved teaching alternative assistance-seeking and attention-getting phrases to the students in an effort to replace challenging behavior with these verbal equivalents. Multiple baseline data collected across the 3 students indicated that not only did the intervention substantially reduce challenging behavior but also that these results transferred across new tasks, environments, and teachers, and were generally maintained from 18 to 24 months following the introduction of functional communication training. These results are discussed in light of recent efforts to develop effective interventions for severe challenging behavior and to understand the processes underlying transfer and maintenance of intervention effects.

  11. Functionalization of reduced graphene oxide by electroactive polymer for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Le Huy; Dzung Nguyen, Tuan; Hoang Tran, Vinh; Thu Huyen Dang, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam

    2014-09-01

    A novel biosensing platform was designed by the functionalizing reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) with electroactive copolymer juglone. The composite film showed well-defined, stable electroactivity in a biocompatible buffer medium. Square wave voltammetry is used to record the redox signal for DNA hybridization. Current increase upon hybridization (signal-on) evidenced that short DNA target as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so called ‘real sample’ products, related to different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. The signal-on reached ∼40% with 1 nM of short DNA (25 mer) target, while PCR product (Africanum, EAI and Beijing strains) produced a current change of ∼20%.

  12. Renormalization group analysis of reduced magnetohydrodynamics with application to subgrid modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longcope, D. W.; Sudan, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The technique for obtaining a subgrid model for Navier-Stokes turbulence, based on renormalization group analysis (RNG), is extended to the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMND) equations. It is shown that a RNG treatment of the Alfven turbulence supported by the RMHD equations leads to effective values of the viscosity and resistivity at large scales, k yields 0, dependent on the amplitude of turbulence. The effective viscosity and resistivity become independent of the molecular quantities when the RNG analysis is augmented by the Kolmogorov argument for energy cascade. A self-contained system of equations is derived for the range of scales, k = 0-K, where K = pi/Delta is the maximum wave number for a grid size Delta. Differential operators, whose coefficients depend upon the amplitudes of the large-scale quantities, represent in this system the resistive and viscous dissipation.

  13. Renormalization group analysis of reduced magnetohydrodynamics with application to subgrid modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longcope, D. W.; Sudan, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The technique for obtaining a subgrid model for Navier-Stokes turbulence, based on renormalization group analysis (RNG), is extended to the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMND) equations. It is shown that a RNG treatment of the Alfven turbulence supported by the RMHD equations leads to effective values of the viscosity and resistivity at large scales, k yields 0, dependent on the amplitude of turbulence. The effective viscosity and resistivity become independent of the molecular quantities when the RNG analysis is augmented by the Kolmogorov argument for energy cascade. A self-contained system of equations is derived for the range of scales, k = 0-K, where K = pi/Delta is the maximum wave number for a grid size Delta. Differential operators, whose coefficients depend upon the amplitudes of the large-scale quantities, represent in this system the resistive and viscous dissipation.

  14. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Air Force - NASA Bi-Annual Research Council Meeting, slides will be presented on recent Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) work. Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. A methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project is discussed.

  15. Effects of reduced-rate methyl bromide applications under conventional and virtually impermeable plastic film in perennial crop field nurseries.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Schneider, Sally M

    2010-08-01

    Producers of perennial crop nursery stock in California use preplant soil fumigation to meet state phytosanitary requirements. Although methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out in many agricultural industries, it is still the preferred treatment in the perennial nursery industry and is used under Critical Use Exemptions and Quarantine/Preshipment provisions of the Montreal Protocol. The present research was conducted to evaluate reduced-rate MB applications sealed with conventional and low-permeability plastic films compared with the primary alternative material. Reduced rates (100-260 kg ha(-1)) of MB applied in combination with chloropicrin (Pic) and sealed with a low-permeability plastic film provided weed and nematode control similar to the industry standard rate of 392 kg ha(-1) MB:Pic (98:2) sealed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film. However, the primary alternative chemical, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), tended to provide slightly lower pest control even on sites with relatively low plant parasitic nematode, soil-borne pathogen and weed pest pressure. If California regulations change to allow the use of low-permeability films in broadcast fumigant applications, the results of this research suggest that reduced rates of MB in perennial crop nurseries could serve as a bridge strategy until more technically, economically and environmentally acceptable alternatives are developed. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Application of neutral electrolyzed water spray for reducing dust levels in a layer breeding house.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weichao; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhanyong

    2012-11-01

    Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m(-2) neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) and artificial insemination (0.72 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) compared with after spray (0.47 +/- 0.09 mg m(-3)) and during lights-off period (0.29 +/- 0.08 mg m(-3)) in the three consecutive testing days (P <0.05). The experimental cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house.

  17. Prolonged application of clopidogrel reduces inflammation after percutaneous coronary intervention in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Yunus; Rauch, Ursula; Goldin-Lang, Petra; Stellbaum, Caroline; Deiner, Carolin; Schwimmbeck, Peter L; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Pels, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    We determined the effect of prolonged treatment with clopidogrel on C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and blood thrombogenicity after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty followed by intracoronary brachytherapy in the porcine model. ANIMAL MODEL: All 48 pigs received antiplatelet therapy, including aspirin (325 mg, daily) and clopidogrel (300 mg, loading dose) 1 day before PCI, followed by a daily dose of clopidogrel (75 mg/day) in addition to aspirin. During PCI, one of two balloon-injured arteries was randomly assigned to receive immediate radiation treatment. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h, 1 month, and 3 months post-PCI. The pigs, which were sacrificed 3 months post-PCI, were divided into two groups. The first group received clopidogrel in addition to aspirin for 3 months, and the second group received clopidogrel in addition to aspirin for only 1 month after PCI and then aspirin alone. Blood was taken from all pigs before intervention, immediately after intervention, and before sacrifice. Serum CRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To analyze the procoagulant effects of PCI on blood thrombogenicity, a one-stage clotting assay was performed. Clopidogrel treatment for 3 months reduced CRP levels more than did clopidogrel therapy for 1 month only at 3 months post-PCI (27.9+/-3.9 vs. 56.6+/-11.3 microg/ml; P=.019). Baseline CRP levels were found to be 50.4+/-4.8 microg/ml. Plasma clotting was not affected by prolonged clopidogrel therapy (322.8+/-59.3 s vs. 295.2+/-52.5 s; P=ns). Prolonged treatment with clopidogrel reduced CRP levels post-PCI.

  18. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  19. High operating temperature IR-modules with reduced pitch for SWaP sensitive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Wendler, J.; Lutz, H.; Rutzinger, S.; Ihle, T.; Ziegler, J.; Rühlich, I.

    2011-06-01

    Low size, weight and power (SWaP) are the most critical requirements for portable thermal imagers like weapon sights or handheld observations devices. On the other hand due to current asymmetrical conflicts there are high requirements for the e/o performance of these devices providing the ability to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants in adequate ranges. Despite of all the success with uncooled technology, such requirements usually still require cooled detectors. AIM has developed a family of thermal weapon sights called HuntIR and RangIR based on high performance cooled IR-modules which are used e.g. in the infantryman of the future program of the German army (IdZ). The specific capability of these devices is a high ID range >1500m for tank targets being suitable in use as thermal sights for .50 cal rifles like the G82, targeting units for the 40mm AGL or for night observation. While such ranges sound far beyond the operational needs in urban operations, the a.m. specific needs of asymmetric warfare require sometimes even more range performance. High operating temperature (HOT) is introduced in the AIM MCT 640x512/15μm MWIR or LWIR modules for further reduction of cooler power consumption, shorter cooldown times and higher MTTF. As a key component to keep performance while further reducing SWaP AIM is developing a new cooled MCT IR-module with reduced pitch of 12 μm operating at a temperature >120 K. The module will provide full TV format with 640x480 elements sensitive in the MWIR spectral band. The paper will show recent results of AIM IR-modules with high operating temperature and the impact of design regarding the IR-module itself and thermal sights making use of it.

  20. Application of remote sensing in crop growth simulation and an ensembles approach to reduce model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Nelson, A.; Ravis, J.; Maunahan, A.; Villano, L.; Li, T.; Bouman, B.

    2012-12-01

    A semi-empirical model derived from the water-cloud model was used to convert synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) backscattering data into LAI. The SAR-based LAI at early rice growth stages were in a close agreement (90%) with LAI derived from MODIS data for the same study location in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. ORYZA2000 simulated rice yield of 4.5 Mg ha-1 for the 2008 wet season in Nueva Ejica, Philippines when using LAI inputs derived from SAR data, which is closer to the observed yield of 3.9 Mg ha-1, whereas simulated yield without SAR-derived LAI inputs was 5.4 Mg ha-1. The dynamic water and nitrogen balances were accounted in these simulations based on site-specific soil properties and actual fertilizer N and water management. The use of remote sensing data was promising for model application to approximate actual growth conditions and to compensate for limitations in the model due to relevant underlining processes absent in model formulations such as detailed tillering, leaf shading effect, etc., and also limiting factors not accounted in the model such as biotic factors and abiotic factors other than water and N shortages. This study also demonstrated the use an ensembles approach for provincial level rice yield estimation in the Philippines. Such ensembles approach involved statistical classifications of agronomic management settings into 25% percentile, median, and 75% levels followed by generation of factorial combinations. For irrigated lowland system, 4 factors were considered that include transplanting date, plant density, fertilizer N rate, and amount of irrigation water. For rainfed lowland system, there were 3 agronomic management factors (transplanting date, plant density, fertilizer N) and 1 soil parameter (depth of ground water table). These 4 management/soil factors and 3 statistical levels resulted in 81 total factorial combinations representing simulation scenarios for each area of interest (province in the Philippines) and water environments

  1. Application of lower aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents for increasing efficiency of the LCLD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenok, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    A method is described that is promising for application metal conductors on ceramic substrates during printed-circuit boards (PCBs) production without masking plate. The main idea of laser-induced metal deposition from solution (LCLD) consists of implementation of chemical micro reactor by using a focused laser beam. In this reactor the red/ox reaction would be initiated due to heating of a reaction medium. We used a 532 nm DPSS laser (power: 2100 mW) and water solutions of organic alcohols with low molecular weight, ethanol and isopropanol as reductants. The results of deposition were studied using the SEM, EDX methods and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent resistance-capacitance circuit of copper tracks was constructed. The experiments showed that increasing the rate of deposition of nanostructured copper tracks up to 50 μm/s with electrical resistivity 5 Ohm/cm is possible by replacing the well-known reductants such as formaldehyde and D-sorbitol with iso-propanol.

  2. Topical fluoride application is able to reduce acid susceptibility of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Cheng, Hui; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of topical fluoride application on the acid susceptibility of restorative materials. Four restorative materials were investigated in this study: 2 composite resins (Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Silorane), a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Extra), and a conventional glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus). The samples were treated once with 1 of 8 different fluoride solutions (TiF4, NaF, AmF, and SnF2, each at native pH or pH 4) for 3 min or remained untreated (control). The samples were then eroded by citric acid (pH 2.6) for 5 days (6×1 min daily). Erosive substance loss, surface topographic and compositional changes were investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, after fluoride pretreatment and after erosion. The results indicate high-concentrated AmF solution at native pH was effective in inhibiting erosion in the conventional glass-ionomer cement and polyacid-modified resin composite.

  3. Application of acoustic agglomeration to reduce fine particle emissions from coal combustion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Juarez, J.A.; Riera-Franco De Sarabia, E.; Rodriguez-Corral, G.

    1999-11-01

    Removal of fine particles (smaller than 2.5 {micro}m) from industrial flue gases is, at present, one of the most important problems in air pollution abatement. These particles which are hazardous because of their ability to penetrate deeply into the lungs, are difficult to remove by conventional separation technology. Sonic energy offers a means to solve this problem. The application of a high-intensity acoustic field to an aerosol induces agglomeration processes which changes the size distribution in favor of larger particles, which are then easier to precipitate with a conventional separator. In this work, the authors present a semiindustrial pilot plant in which this process is applied for reduction of particle emissions in coal combustion fumes. This installation basically consists of an acoustic agglomeration chamber with a rectangular cross-section, driven by four high-power and highly directional acoustic transducers of 10 and/or 20 kHz, and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In the experiments, a fluidized bed coal combustor was used as fume generator, and a sophisticated air sampling station was set up to carry out measurements with fume flow rates up to about 2,000 m{sup 3}/h, gas temperatures of about 150 C, and mass concentrations in the range 1--5 g/m{sup 3}. The fine particle reduction produced by the acoustic filter was about 40% of the number concentration.

  4. Application of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on screen-printed ion-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Ying, Yibin; Wu, Jian

    2012-04-03

    In this study, a novel disposable all-solid-state ion-selective electrode using graphene as the ion-to-electron transducer was developed. The graphene film was prepared on screen-printed electrode directly from the graphene oxide dispersion by a one-step electrodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to demonstrate the large double layer capacitance and fast charge transfer of the graphene film modified electrode. On the basis of these excellent properties, an all-solid-state calcium ion-selective electrode as the model was constructed using the calcium ion-selective membrane and graphene film modified electrode. The mechanism about the graphene promoting the ion-to-electron transformation was investigated in detail. The disposable electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope (29.1 mV/decade), low detection limit (10(-5.8) M), and fast response time (less than 10 s). With the high hydrophobic character of graphene materials, no water film was formed between the ion-selective membrane and the underlying graphene layer. Further studies revealed that the developed electrode was insensitive to light, oxygen, and redox species. The use of the disposable electrode for real sample analysis obtained satisfactory results, which made it a promising alternative in routine sensing applications.

  5. Apyrase treatment of myocardial infarction according to a clinically applicable protocol fails to reduce myocardial injury in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS) when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO) in a large animal model. Methods A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg). The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8) or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8), twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR) was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. Results No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 ± 4.2% vs 69.4 ± 5.0%, p = NS) or MO (10.7 ± 4.8% vs 11.4 ± 4.8%, p = NS), but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Conclusion Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction. PMID:20047685

  6. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  7. Cancer prevention: Application of chemicals in treatment therapy to reduce risk in secondary tumor induction

    SciTech Connect

    Grdina, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated WR2721 and similar aminothiol compounds to determine their role in modulating the mutagenic and carcinogenic action of radiation and selected chemotherapeutic agents. We have found that 2-((aminopropyl)amino) ethanethiol (WR1065), a free-thiol of WR2721, effectively protected against the mutagenic effects of radiation at the HGPRT locus in V79 cells even if administered up to 3 h following irradiation, a reduction in mutation frequencies of about 0.55. Under the conditions tested, the radioprotector protected against cell killing only if it was present during irradiation. In contrast, protection against mutagenesis occurred regardless of whether the protector was present during or following irradiation. These preliminary studies were expanded to determine the effects of WR1065 on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-(cis-DDP) and bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity even when administered following chemotherapy treatment. Thus, the V79 cell system used was found to be extremely effective in monitoring, in a rapid and cost-effective manner, the antimutagenic effects of radioprotectors on radiation and chemotherapy agents. Cell transformation was assayed using C3H 10T1/2 cells. The presence of a radioprotector significantly reduced the formation of radiation-induced transformed cells. Neonatal rats were also used to assess the induction of preneoplastic-lesions. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Mbuge, Duncan O; Negrini, Renata; Nyakundi, Livine O; Kuate, Serge P; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Muiru, William M; Torto, Baldwyn; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.

  9. Reducing GaN-on-diamond interfacial thermal resistance for high power transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huarui; Simon, Roland B.; Pomeroy, James W.; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Kuball, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Integration of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond offers promising thermal performance for GaN-based high power radio frequency amplifiers. One limiting factor is the thermal barrier at the GaN to diamond interface, often referred to as the effective thermal boundary resistance (TBReff). Using a combination of transient thermoreflectance measurement, finite element modeling and microstructural analysis, the TBReff of GaN-on-diamond wafers is shown to be dominated by the SiNx interlayer for diamond growth seeding, with additional impacts from the diamond nucleation surface. By decreasing the SiNx layer thickness and minimizing the diamond nucleation region, TBReff can be significantly reduced, and a TBReff as low as 12 m2K/GW is demonstrated. This enables a major improvement in GaN-on-diamond transistor thermal resistance with respect to GaN-on-SiC wafers. A further reduction in TBReff towards the diffuse mismatch limit is also predicted, demonstrating the full potential of using diamond as the heat spreading substrate.

  10. Assessment of Reduced-Kinetics Mechanisms for Combustion of Jet Fuel in CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Kundu, Krihna P.; Yungster, Shaye J.

    2014-01-01

    A computational effort was undertaken to analyze the details of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for next-generation LDI design. The National Combustor Code (NCC) was used to perform reacting flow computations on single-element LDI injector configurations. The feasibility of using a reduced chemical-kinetics approach, which optimizes the reaction rates and species to model the emissions characteristics typical of lean-burning gas-turbine combustors, was assessed. The assessments were performed with Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) time-integration, with a Lagrangian spray model with the NCC code. The NCC predictions for EINOx and combustor exit temperature were compared with experimental data for two different single-element LDI injector configurations, with 60deg and 45deg axially swept swirler vanes. The effects of turbulence-chemistry interaction on the predicted flow in a typical LDI combustor were studied with detailed comparisons of NCC TFNS with experimental data.

  11. Application of N-Doped Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel to Thin Film Loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Sun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Jung-Woo

    2016-08-31

    We built a thermoacoustic loudspeaker employing N-doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOA) based on a simple template-free fabrication method. A two-step fabrication process, which includes freeze-drying and reduction/doping, was used to realize a three-dimensional, freestanding, and porous graphene-based loudspeaker, whose macroscopic structure can be easily modulated. The simplified fabrication process also allows the control of structural properties of the N-rGOAs, including density and area. Taking advantage of the facile fabrication process, we fabricated and analyzed thermoacoustic loudspeakers with different structural properties. The anlayses showed that a N-rGOA with lower density and larger area can produce a higher sound pressure level (SPL). Furthermore, the resistance of the proposed loudspeaker can be easily controlled through heteroatom doping, thereby helping to generate higher SPL per unit driving voltage. Our success in constructing an array of optimized N-rGOAs able to withstand input power as high as 40 W demonstrates that a practical thermoacoustic loudspeaker can be fabricated using the proposed mass-producible solution-based process.

  12. Application of variational reduced-density-matrix theory to organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A.

    2005-03-01

    Variational calculation of the two-electron reduced-density matrix (2-RDM), using a new first-order algorithm [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)], is applied to medium-sized organic molecules. The calculations reveal systematic trends in the accuracy of the energy with well-known chemical concepts such as hybridization, electronegativity, and atomic size. Furthermore, correlation energies from hydrocarbon chains indicate that the calculation of the 2-RDM subject to two-positivity conditions is size extensive, that is, the energy grows linearly with the number of electrons. Because organic molecules have a well-defined set of functional groups, we employ the trends in energy accuracy of the functional groups to design a correction to the 2-RDM energy for an arbitrary organic molecule. We apply the 2-RDM calculations with the functional-group correction to a large set of organic molecules with different functional groups. Energies with millihartree accuracy are obtained both at equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries.

  13. A reduced representation approach to population genetic analyses and applications to human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Francesca; Hudson, Richard R.; Witonsky, David B.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation sequencing technologies allow surveys of sequence variation on an unprecedented scale. However, despite the rapid decrease in sequencing costs, collecting whole-genome sequence data on a population scale is still prohibitive for many laboratories. We have implemented an inexpensive, reduced representation protocol for preparing resequencing targets, and we have developed the analytical tools necessary for making population genetic inferences. This approach can be applied to any species for which a draft or complete reference genome sequence is available. The new tools we have developed include methods for aligning reads, calling genotypes, and incorporating sample-specific sequencing error rates in the estimate of evolutionary parameters. When applied to 19 individuals from a total of 18 human populations, our approach allowed sampling regions that are largely overlapping across individuals and that are representative of the entire genome. The resequencing data were used to test the serial founder model of human dispersal and to estimate the time of the Out of Africa migration. Our results also represent the first attempt to provide a time frame for the colonization of Australia based on large-scale resequencing data. PMID:21628451

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus chungangensis: Application in cream cheese to reduce aldehyde in alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Konkit, Maytiya; Choi, Woo Jin; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that the metabolic capability of colonic microflora may be at least as high as that of the liver or higher than that of the whole human body. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme produced by these bacteria that can metabolize acetaldehyde, produce from ethanol to acetate. Lactococcus species, which is commonly used as a starter in dairy products, was recently found to possess the ALDH gene, and the activity of this enzyme was determined. In this study, the ALDH activity of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and 11 other type strains in the genus Lactococcus was studied. Only 5 species, 3 of dairy origin (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris KCCM 40699(T), and Lactococcus raffinolactis DSM 20443(T)) and 2 of nondairy origin (Lactococcus fujiensis NJ317(T) and L. chungangensis CAU 28(T)), showed ALDH activity and possessed a gene encoding ALDH. All of these strains were capable of making cream cheese. Among the strains, L. chungangensis produced cream cheese that contained the highest level of ALDH and was found to reduce the level of acetaldehyde in the serum of mice. These results predict a promising role for L. chungangensis CAU28(T) to be used in cheese that can be developed as functional food.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Y2O3-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, T.; Anandan, P.; Azhagurajan, M.; Arivanandhan, M.; Pazhanivel, K.; Hayakawa, Y.; Jayavel, R.

    2016-07-01

    Yittrium oxide (Y2O3)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite was prepared by a low temperature solution process by mixing different weight ratios of chemically derived rGO and Y2O3. The structural properties of nanocomposite materials have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction. Laser Raman spectroscopic study further confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite materials. The morphology of the nanocomposite has been analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. From the FE-SEM and TEM images, it was found that the nanocrystals of Y2O3 were interpolated in the graphene sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that the rGO has a reasonable amount of C-O groups as the doublet was observed in the C 1s spectrum. Moreover, the O 1s peak illustrates the doublet peaks which confirms the presence of OH and other functional groups at the surfaces of rGO. Electrochemical behavior of the nanocomposite was studied by cyclic voltammetric studies. The nanocomposite with higher weight percent of rGO shows better photocatalytic performance compared to the samples with low weight percent of rGO. The photocatalytic characteristics of the nanocomposite have been discussed based on the XPS results. The presence of hydroxyl group in the rGO of nanocomposites increases the OH radical formation and suppresses the recombination of excitons, which is responsible for the rapid decomposition of dye molecules.

  16. Application of chrysophanol in zebrafish to reduce dietary introduced lipid and its possible mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Wang, Chang-Qian; Fan, Yu-Qi; Xie, Yu-Shui; Yin, Zhao-Fang; Xu, Zuo-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Li; Cao, Jia-Tian; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic potential and mechanism of chrysophanol on lipid-lowering function. Methods: Zebrafish or larvae were employed to evaluate the effect of chrysophanol on lipid-lowering. Zebrafish of 5 day post fertilization (dpf, larva) and 13-week old were fed with high-cholesterol diet or high-fat to investigate the influence of chrysophanol comparing with atorvastain and co-administration of chrysophanol and atorvastain on subsistent blood lipid using the fluorescence microscope and lipid panel screen. Thereafter, we enrolled zebrafish of 7 dpf fed with high-fat diet to explore the lipid-lowering mechanism of chrysophanol basing on the frequency of peristalsis and the residual on the digestive wall. Results: Chrysophanol could significantly lower cholesterol both in zebrafish and larvae (P < 0.05), and the co-administration of chrysophanol and atorvastatin had the best performance in reducing cholesterol (P < 0.05). Chrysophanol and atorvastain could also significantly lower triglyceride. Moreover, we found that chrysophanol attached on the digestive wall for a long time and enhanced the frequency of peristalsis. Conclusions: Chrysophanol has lipid-lowering effect both in zebrafish and larvae which may be attributed to the effect on the frequency of peristalsis and fat absorption, and co-administration with atorvastain performs better lipid-lowering effect in zebrafish. PMID:26379845

  17. [Application of Microbial Fuel Cells in Reducing Methane Emission from Rice Paddy].

    PubMed

    Deng, Huan; Cai, Lü-cheng; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to study whether the methane emission from rice paddy with straw return can be alleviated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In our study, the soil mixed with 0. 5% ( mass fraction) rice straw was packed into MFCs reactors, then flooded with excess of sterilized water and transplanted with rice seedlings followed by the operation of MFCs. The MFCs were operated for 98 days covering five stages of seeding, tillering, mid-season aeration, rice filling, and ripening. The voltage data were recorded continuously and in real time during the MFCs operation and the methane emitted was collected once a week using the static chamber method and the methane emission flux was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the MFCs current increased and reached the peak value in the seeding and tillering stages and the operation of MFCs significantly reduced the accumulative methane emission in these two stages. The possible reason could be that the electrogens competed with methanogens for organic substrates. The height, the above and below ground biomass, and the productivity of rice plants were not significantly affected by the 98-day operation of MFCs. Our study provides a potential green and sustainable technology for the reduction of CH, emission from rice paddy fields.

  18. Multifunctional magnetic reduced graphene oxide dendrites: synthesis, characterization and their applications.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, for the first time, we have reported the novel synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) dendrite kind of nanomaterial. The proposed r-GO dendrite possesses multifunctional properties in various fields of sensing and separation. The dendrite was synthesized by chemical reaction in different steps. Initially, the r-GO sheet was conjugated with silane group modified magnetic nanoparticle, resulting in nanoparticle decorated r-GO. The above r-GO sheet was further reacted with a new r-GO sheet, resulting in the formation of r-GO dendrite type of structure. Multifunctional behavior of this r-GO dendrite structure was studied by different methods. First, magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and it was found that dendrite structure shows good magnetic susceptibility (180.2 emu/g). The proposed r-GO dendrite also shows a very good antibacterial behavior for Escherichia coli and excellent electrochemical behavior towards ferrocyanide probe molecule. Along with these, it also acts as a substrate for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer for europium metal ion, a lanthanide. The proposed imprinted sensor shows a very high selectivity and sensitivity for europium metal ion (limit of detection= 0.019 μg L(-1)) in aqueous as well as real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein-decorated reduced oxide graphene composite and its application to SERS.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Zhang, Shaohua; Gao, Hejun; Jia, Han; Zheng, Liqiang

    2012-06-27

    A globular protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), was used to decorate reduced graphene oxide sheets (RGO) and the obtained BLG-RGO composite can be dispersed in aqueous solution with pH-sensitive solubility. The morphology of the BLG-RGO composite was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that BLG-RGO is effectively exfoliated with an average thickness of 2.5 nm. UV-vis spectra were performed to examine the reduction degree and determine the optimum concentration of β-lactoglobulin and appropriate pH value. Furthermore, Raman spectra demonstrate that β-Lactoglobulin promotes the chemical reduction process of graphene oxide and benefits to repair the crystal defects. Due to the adsorption of β-Lactoglobulin on the surface of graphene sheets, the BLG-RGO composite was further used as template for Au nanoparticles assembly. These Au nanoparticles assembled on the BLG-RGO composite were shown to yield a large SERS enhancement for Rhodamine 6G.

  20. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  1. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4·7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures. PMID:25788158

  2. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  3. Movement of simazine in runoff water and weed control from citrus orchard as affected by reduced rate of herbicide application.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; O'Connell, Neil

    2003-02-01

    Simazine (6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and diuron (N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethylurea) are applied as pre-emergence herbicides to control weeds in over 45,000 hectare of citrus in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Growers usually apply 2.0 kg active ingredient (ai) ha(-1) simazine and 2.0 kg ai ha(-1) diuron together in the fall and winter seasons. Surface water and groundwater contamination, ecological, and health damage have led to increased regulatory attention and a search for changes in current weed management practices. Reduced application rate of simazine on runoff losses generated by simulated rainfall was studied in experiment 1. Treatments included a control without herbicide application and application of herbicides at 0.5, 1.0, 1.25 and 2.0 kg ai ha(-1). Three generated runoff events were produced using simulated rainfall with 540 l water. For each simulated rainfall event, the simazine concentration in runoff water was greatest at the first volumetric sampling interval, decreasing gradually in subsequent samples. Simazine concentration in runoff water for the three runoff events was undetectable for the control treatment. For the first simulated rainfall event, simazine concentrations in runoff water averaged 0.55, 1.07, 1.27, and 2.12 mg l(-1) for treatments receiving 0.5, 1.0, 1.25 and 2.0 kg ai ha(-1) herbicide application, respectively; simazine concentration in runoff water from the second event one week later averaged 0.16, 0.27, 0.36, and 0.58 kg ai ha(-1) and two weeks later the concentration was reduced to 0.05, 0.10, 0.14 and 0.22 mg l(-1), respectively. Total simazine mass recovered in runoff water from the three simulated rainfall events was estimated approximately 13.8, 26.3, 32.3 and 53.8 g ha(-1) for the treatments receiving herbicide application at 0.5, 1.0, 1.25 and 2.0 kg ai ha(-1), respectively. Field evaluation of weed density showed that pre-emergence herbicides applied at reduced rates (1.0 and 1

  4. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils undergoing remediation

  5. The application of human engineering interventions reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Cachecho, Riad; Dobkin, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) increases mortality and length of stay and escalates the cost of care. Our institution embarked on a project to eradicate VAP. We compared the outcome of trauma patients admitted in period 1 (P1) (January 2005 to December 2006) and period 2 (P2) (January 2006 to December 2009). Team building, culture change, and the ventilator bundle were introduced and modified during P1 and were fully implemented in P2. Outcome data were calculated for both periods. The Center for Disease Control VAP definition was used. The VAP rate was calculated as VAP/1,000 ventilator days. Chi-square and t test statistics were used as appropriate. Data were considered statistically significant if p ≤ 0.05. In total, 299 trauma patients were admitted in P1 and 655 in P2. The two groups were identical in age, Injury Severity Score, mortality, and non-VAP. There was a trend toward a shorter length of stay in P2 (p = 0.06). The days on ventilator was significantly shorter in P2 compared with P1 (p = 0.05). The VAP rate dropped significantly from 7.9/1,000 in P1 to 1.0/1,000 in P2 (p = 0.04). The Appropriate Care Measure score increased from 45% in early P1 to 91% in late P2 (p = 0.0001). The application of the VAP bundle, a checklist, and the multidisciplinary team approach resulted in significant improvement of VAP in all trauma patients admitted to the shock trauma unit and to the decrease in days on ventilator in the trauma patients. This intervention did not affect mortality or the rate of non-VAP in the trauma patients. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  6. Research on reducing radiation exposure for clinical applications of X-ray attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Cheol; Han, Man-Seok; So, Woon-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Yeol

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at identifing areas with low radiation exposure where workers could be taken in the examination room in case that they had to hold the patients by estimating the attenuation of primary radiation and measuring the spatial distribution of scattered radiation. The laboratory equipment included on the X-ray generator, a phantom (human phantom), and a dosimeter. The experiment measured the performance of the examination system (dose reproducibility), the dose of primary radiation (X-rays), and the dose of scattered radiation (secondary radiation). Both the primary and the scattered radiation were attenuated by a factor of tube in vacuum experimental tests of the inverse square law. In this study, the attenuation was 2 ˜ 2.246 for primary radiation and 2 ˜ 2.105 for secondary radiation. Natural attenuation occurred as the X-rays passed through air, and an attenuation equation was established in this study. The equation for primary radiation (1st dose) was y = A1* exp(- x/t1)+ y0. The high-intensity contour of the direction for the cathode was wider than that of the direction for the anode, showing a wide range on the rear side of the cathode and on the rear side of the anode. We tried to find the positions where the workers' radiation exposure could be reduced. When the medical radiation workers have to hold the patient for an abdominal examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the left side of the patient. For a lumbar-spine lateral examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and behind the patient, and for a femur AP (anterior-posterior) examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the right side of the patient.

  7. Reducing children's pain and distress towards flu vaccinations: a novel and effective application of humanoid robotics.

    PubMed

    Beran, Tanya N; Ramirez-Serrano, Alex; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Kuhn, Susan

    2013-06-07

    Millions of children in North America receive an annual flu vaccination, many of whom are at risk of experiencing severe distress. Millions of children also use technologically advanced devices such as computers and cell phones. Based on this familiarity, we introduced another sophisticated device - a humanoid robot - to interact with children during their vaccination. We hypothesized that these children would experience less pain and distress than children who did not have this interaction. This was a randomized controlled study in which 57 children (30 male; age, mean±SD: 6.87±1.34 years) were randomly assigned to a vaccination session with a nurse who used standard administration procedures, or with a robot who was programmed to use cognitive-behavioral strategies with them while a nurse administered the vaccination. Measures of pain and distress were completed by children, parents, nurses, and researchers. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that interaction with a robot during flu vaccination resulted in significantly less pain and distress in children according to parent, child, nurse, and researcher ratings with effect sizes in the moderate to high range (Cohen's d=0.49-0.90). This is the first study to examine the effectiveness of child-robot interaction for reducing children's pain and distress during a medical procedure. All measures of reduction were significant. These findings suggest that further research on robotics at the bedside is warranted to determine how they can effectively help children manage painful medical procedures. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte multilayer assemblies on reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Esteban; Bliem, Christina; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Battaglini, Fernando; Azzaroni, Omar; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2017-06-15

    We present the construction of layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies of polyethylenimine and urease onto reduced-graphene-oxide based field-effect transistors (rGO FETs) for the detection of urea. This versatile biosensor platform simultaneously exploits the pH dependency of liquid-gated graphene-based transistors and the change in the local pH produced by the catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The use of an interdigitated microchannel resulted in transistors displaying low noise, high pH sensitivity (20.3µA/pH) and transconductance values up to 800 µS. The modification of rGO FETs with a weak polyelectrolyte improved the pH response because of its transducing properties by electrostatic gating effects. In the presence of urea, the urease-modified rGO FETs showed a shift in the Dirac point due to the change in the local pH close to the graphene surface. Markedly, these devices operated at very low voltages (less than 500mV) and were able to monitor urea in the range of 1-1000µm, with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1µm, fast response and good long-term stability. The urea-response of the transistors was enhanced by increasing the number of bilayers due to the increment of the enzyme surface coverage onto the channel. Moreover, quantification of the heavy metal Cu(2+)(with a LOD down to 10nM) was performed in aqueous solution by taking advantage of the urease specific inhibition.

  9. Expancel Foams: Fabrication and Characterization of a New Reduced Density Cellular Material for Structural Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. Whinnery; S. Goods; B. Even

    2000-08-01

    higher density unexpanded powder (approximately 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) can be produced using this technique. The extremely wide range of accessible densities, ease of processing, relatively inexpensive materials, uniformity of the density, scaleable nature of the process should make this technology highly competitive for a variety of Defense Programs and commercial applications.

  10. Fabrication of electrospun silk fibroin scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene for applications in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador; Martínez, Jose G; Bernabeu-Esclapez, Antonia; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Otero, Toribio F; Cenis, Jose L

    2016-04-01

    Silk fibroin and graphene are both promising biomaterials described in the bibliography. Hybrid scaffolds combining their properties could be attractive for tissue engineering applications. In this work, a new methodology to produce electrospun fibroin scaffolds coated with graphene materials is provided. The mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the materials attained were characterised. The fibre diameters were measured (from 3.9 to 5.2 μm). The samples coated with reduced grapheme were electronic conductors and electroactive in liquid electrolytes, showing maximum oxidation and reduction (around−0.4 V peak). The chronoamperometric responses showed a reduction shoulder, pointing to the entrance of balancing cations from the solution by nucleation–relaxation: the reaction induced structural changes in the graphene. In order to check the biocompatibility of the materials, they were seeded with L929 fibroblasts. The excellent biocompatibility of silk fibroin meshes was maintained after coating with graphene, being the proliferation results equal in all the treatments 7 days after the seeding (Tukey, p N 0.05).The conductive and electroactive properties of meshes coated with reduced graphene allow the potential application of local electric fields or local ionic currents to cell cultures, biological interfaces or animal models without host response.

  11. Two-electron Reduced-Density-Matrix Mechanics: With Application to Many-electron Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotti, David

    2010-03-01

    In 1959 Charles Coulson popularized the challenge of computing the ground-state energy as a functional of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) without the many-electron wavefunction. Recently, theoretical and computational advances have led to two classes of 2-RDM methods [1]: (i) the variational calculation of the 2-RDM subject to approximate N-representability conditions and (ii) the non-variational calculation of the 2-RDM from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schr"odinger equation. I will develop the background for the 2-RDM methods, discuss recent theoretical and computational advances, and present some applications, including the detection of poly-radical correlation in polyaromatic acene and aryne chains, the study of protonated acetylene and malonaldehyde beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and the computation of activation energies in pericyclic reactions of open- and closed-shell molecular species. [4pt] [1] ``Two-electron Reduced-Density-Matrix Mechanics with Application to Many-electron Atoms and Molecules,'' edited by D. A. Mazziotti, Advances in Chemical Physics Vol. 134 (Wiley, New York, 2007).

  12. Spatially Targeted Applications of Reduced-Risk Insecticides for Economical Control of Grape Berry Moth, Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Keith S; Roubos, Craig R; Teixeira, Luis A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-19

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key economic pest of vineyards in eastern North America, and prevention of fruit infestation is particularly challenging along vineyard borders that are adjacent to wooded areas containing wild grape (Vitis spp.). For three years, infestation and damage in vineyards where reduced-risk insecticides were applied to borders at timings based on a degree day model (Integrated Pest Management program) were compared to that in vineyards where broad-spectrum insecticides were applied across the whole vineyard (Standard program). Infestation at vineyard borders immediately prior to harvest was consistently lower in IPM vineyards than in Standard program vineyards, and in two of the years this was also true at veraison (fruit coloring). Grape berry moth infestation was similar between treatments at vineyard interiors throughout the study, despite no insecticide applications to the interiors of the IPM program vineyards. Populations of two other key vineyard pests, the eastern grape leafhopper, Erythroneura comes (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were not significantly different between programs, and natural enemy captures on yellow sticky traps were also similar. The per hectare cost of insecticides applied in the IPM program was consistently lower than for the Standard program, with a significant difference in the third year of this study. We demonstrate how spatially selective applications of reduced-risk insecticides can provide improved control of grape berry moth at lower cost than standard broad-spectrum insecticide-based programs.

  13. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  14. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  16. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong

    2015-01-01

    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution. PMID:25705725

  17. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong

    2014-10-01

    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution.

  18. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    DOE PAGES

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; ...

    2017-06-09

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniquesmore » to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. In conclusion, material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.« less

  19. Applications of the MapReduce programming framework to clinical big data analysis: current landscape and future trends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called “big data” challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. The MapReduce programming framework uses two tasks common in functional programming: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by

  20. A non-intrusive reduced-order model for compressible fluid and fractured solid coupling and its application to blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D.; Yang, P.; Fang, F.; Xiang, J.; Pain, C. C.; Navon, I. M.; Chen, M.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents the first application of a non-intrusive reduced order method to model solid interacting with compressible fluid flows to simulate crack initiation and propagation. In the high fidelity model, the coupling process is achieved by introducing a source term into the momentum equation, which represents the effects of forces of the solid on the fluid. A combined single and smeared crack model with the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation. The non-intrusive reduced order method is then applied to compressible fluid and fractured solid coupled modelling where the computational cost involved in the full high fidelity simulation is high. The non-intrusive reduced order model (NIROM) developed here is constructed through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and a radial basis function (RBF) multi-dimensional interpolation method. The performance of the NIROM for solid interacting with compressible fluid flows, in the presence of fracture models, is illustrated by two complex test cases: an immersed wall in a fluid and a blasting test case. The numerical simulation results show that the NIROM is capable of capturing the details of compressible fluids and fractured solids while the CPU time is reduced by several orders of magnitude. In addition, the issue of whether or not to subtract the mean from the snapshots before applying POD is discussed in this paper. It is shown that solutions of the NIROM, without mean subtracted before constructing the POD basis, captured more details than the NIROM with mean subtracted from snapshots.

  1. Development of a strategy and computational application to select candidate protein analogs with reduced HLA binding and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Grifoni, Alba; Pham, John; Vaughan, Kerrie; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2017-08-22

    Unwanted immune responses against protein therapeutics can reduce efficacy or lead to adverse reactions. T cell responses are key in the development of such responses, and are directed against immunodominant regions within the protein sequence, often associated with binding to several allelic variants of HLA class II molecules (promiscuous binders). Herein, we report a novel computational strategy to predict 'deimmunized' peptides, based on previous studies of erythropoietin (EPO) protein immunogenicity. This algorithm (or method) first predicts promiscuous binding regions within the target protein sequence and then identifies residue substitutions predicted to reduce HLA binding. Further, this method anticipates the effect of any given substitution on flanking peptides, thereby circumventing the creation of nascent HLA binding regions. As a proof-of-principle, the algorithm was applied to Vatreptacog alpha, an engineered factor VII molecule associated with unintended immunogenicity. The algorithm correctly predicted the two immunogenic peptides containing the engineered residues. As a further validation, we selected and evaluated the immunogenicity of seven substitutions predicted to simultaneously reduce HLA binding for both peptides, five control substitutions with no predicted reduction in HLA binding capacity, and additional flanking region controls. In vitro immunogenicity was detected in 21.4% of the cultures of peptides predicted to have reduced HLA binding and 11.4% of the flanking regions, compared to 46% for the cultures of the peptides predicted to be immunogenic. This method has been implemented as an interactive application, freely available online at http://tools.iedb.org/deimmunization/. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of the MapReduce programming framework to clinical big data analysis: current landscape and future trends.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Emad A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called "big data" challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. THE MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK USES TWO TASKS COMMON IN FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by

  3. Platinum-decorated reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) hybrid paste for flexible dipole tag-antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Choonghyeon; Cho, Sunghun; Oh, Jungkyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-02-01

    With recent developments in technology, tremendous effort has been devoted to producing materials for flexible device systems. As a promising approach, solution-processed conducting polymers (CPs) have been extensively studied owing to their facile synthesis, high electrical conductivity, and various morphologies with diverse substrates. Here, we report the demonstration of platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide intercalated polyanililne:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS) hybrid paste for flexible electric devices. First, platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) was fabricated through the chemical reduction of platinum cations and subsequent heat reduction of GO sheets. Then, the Pt_rGO was mixed with PANI:PSS solution dispersed in diethylene glycol (DEG) using sonication to form a hybrid PANI-based paste (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS). The Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS was printed as a micropattern and exhibited high electrical conductivity (245.3 S cm-1) with flexible stability. Moreover, it was used in a dipole tag antenna application, where it displayed 0.15 GHz bandwidth and high transmitted power efficiency (99.6%).With recent developments in technology, tremendous effort has been devoted to producing materials for flexible device systems. As a promising approach, solution-processed conducting polymers (CPs) have been extensively studied owing to their facile synthesis, high electrical conductivity, and various morphologies with diverse substrates. Here, we report the demonstration of platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide intercalated polyanililne:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS) hybrid paste for flexible electric devices. First, platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) was fabricated through the chemical reduction of platinum cations and subsequent heat reduction of GO sheets. Then, the Pt_rGO was mixed with PANI:PSS solution dispersed in diethylene glycol (DEG) using sonication to form a hybrid PANI-based paste (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS). The Pt

  4. EMOTEO: A Smartphone Application for Monitoring and Reducing Aversive Tension in Borderline Personality Disorder Patients, a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Prada, Paco; Zamberg, Ido; Bouillault, Gérald; Jimenez, Naya; Zimmermann, Julien; Hasler, Roland; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Nicastro, Rosetta; Perroud, Nader

    2016-07-21

    We developed a smartphone application (App; EMOTEO: emotion-meteo [weather forecast]) to help borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients to monitor and regulate their inner tension. The App proposes targeted mindfulness-based exercises. We assessed the usability and efficiency of this App for monitoring and reduction of aversive tension in 16 BPD participants over a 6-month period. We recorded a mean of 318.1 sessions (SD = 166.7) per participants, with a high level of satisfaction. There was a significant decrease in aversive tension (p < .05) and the App was mainly used around 10 a.m. and 9 p.m. EMOTEO was user-friendly and efficient in reducing aversive tension in BPD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application of lidocaine jelly on chest tubes to reduce pain caused by drainage catheter after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun; Chung, Yoon Sang; Choe, Ju Won; Woo, Young Cheol; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Soon J; Hong, Joonhwa

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lidocaine jelly application to chest tubes on the intensity and duration of overall pain, chest tube site pain and the required analgesics for postoperative pain relief in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients. For patients in group L, we applied sterile 2% lidocaine jelly on the chest tubes just before insertion, and for patients in group C, we applied normal saline. Overall visual analogue scale (VAS), maximal pain area with their VAS were documented postoperatively, and the frequency that button of patient-controlled analgesia was pressed (FPB) and total fentanyl consumption were assessed. The number of patients who complained that tube site was the most painful site was significantly higher in group C than in group L (85% vs. 30% at extubation, P<0.001). The overall VAS score was significantly higher in group C than in group L (39.14±12.49 vs. 27.74±13.76 at extubation, P=0.006). After all of the tubes were removed, the VAS score decreased more in group C (5.74±4.77, P<0.001) than in group L (3.05±2.48, P<0.001). FPB and total fentanyl consumption were significantly higher in group C than in group L (73.00, 59.00-78.00 vs. 34.00, 31.00-39.25, P<0.001; 2,214.65±37.01 vs. 1,720.19±361.63, P<0.001, respectively). Lidocaine jelly application is a very simple way to reduce postoperative pain by reducing chest tube site pain after CABG. (Clinical Trials Registry No. ACTRN 12611001215910).

  6. Effective application duration of sodium ascorbate antioxidant in reducing microleakage of bonded composite restoration in intracoronally-bleached teeth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Young; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate application duration of sodium ascorbate (SA) antioxidant gel in reducing microleakage of bonded composite restoration in intracoronally-bleached teeth. Materials and Methods Eighty endodontically-treated human incisors were randomly divided into eight groups: control, no bleaching; IB and DB, immediate and delayed bonding after bleaching, respectively; S10m, S60m, S24h, S3d and S7d, bleaching + SA gel for 10 min, 60 min, 24 hr, 3 day and 7 day, respectively. For bleaching, a mixture of 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate was applied for 7 day. All access cavities were restored using One-Step adhesive (Bisco Inc.) and then Aelite LS Packable composite (Bisco Inc.). The bonded specimens were subjected to 500 thermal cycles, immersed in 1% methylene blue for 8 hr, and longitudinally sectioned. Microleakage was assessed with a 0 - 4 scoring system and analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods (α = 0.05). Results Group IB showed a significantly higher microleakge than the control group (p = 0.006) and group DB a statistically similar score to the control group (p > 0.999). Although groups S10m, S60m, and S24h exhibited significantly higher scores than group DB (p < 0.05), the microleakage in groups S3d and S7d was statistically similar to that in group DB (p = 0.771, p > 0.999). Conclusions Application of SA gel for 3 day after nonvital bleaching was effective in reducing microleakage of composite restoration in intracoronally-bleached teeth. PMID:23493742

  7. EPA Announces $1 Million for Tribal Applicants to Upgrade Diesel Engines EPA seeks to reduce emissions from older engines impacting tribal communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (05/18/15 - ATLANTA) - ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the availability of $1 million in grant funding for tribal applicants to establish clean diesel projects aimed at reducing air pollutants from diesel exhaust suc

  8. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Raman, Subha V.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2009-06-01

    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR.

  9. Strategies for reducing the fertilizer application rate in the ridge and furrow rainfall harvesting system in semiarid regions.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yanhao; Meng, Xiangping; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tianlu; Ali, Shahzad; Yang, Baoping; Zhang, Peng; Han, Qingfang; Jia, Zhikuan; Ren, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    The ridge and furrow rainwater harvesting (RFRH) system is a promising water-saving planting technique for dryland farming, but we lack a full understanding of the effects of different fertilizer rates (N:P) on plant nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency (NuUE) in foxtail millet using this planting method, as well as the available nutrient residues in the soil. We conducted field studies (Loess Plateau, China) comparing RFRH planting (R) and traditional flat planting (T) at four different fertilizer rates to determine suitable fertilizer application rates for R during 2013-2015. Compared with T, R improved the soil moisture and the utilization of rainwater and fertilizer, thereby enhancing the grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), grain nutrient uptake, and NUE in a dry year, but with no improvements in a rainy year. The grain yield and WUE exhibited parabolic increasing trends as the fertilizer application rate increased over three years, but no significant increase was found when the fertilizer rate exceeded 189:96 kg N:P ha(-1) under R, which significantly reduced the NuUE and might waste nutrients. Therefore, we recommend R combined with 189:96 kg N:P ha(-1) as a promising planting strategy for foxtail millet in semiarid areas.

  10. Circadian alertness simulator for fatigue risk assessment in transportation: application to reduce frequency and severity of truck accidents.

    PubMed

    Moore-Ede, Martin; Heitmann, Anneke; Guttkuhn, Rainer; Trutschel, Udo; Aguirre, Acacia; Croke, Dean

    2004-03-01

    The Circadian Alertness Simulator (CAS) was developed as a practical tool for assessing the risk of diminished alertness at work. Applications of CAS include assessment of operational fatigue risk, work schedule optimization, and fatigue-related accident investigation. Based on the documented work schedules of employees, sleep and alertness patterns are estimated and a cumulative fatigue score is calculated. The risk assessment algorithms are based on physiological sleep/wake principles including homeostatic and circadian processes. The free parameters of the algorithms were optimized using over 10,000 d of sleep and alertness data sets collected from transportation workers performing their regular jobs. The validity and applicability of the CAS fatigue score was then tested using work/rest and accident data from three trucking operations. Heavy truck drivers involved in DOT-recordable or high-cost accidents were found to have significantly higher CAS fatigue risk scores than accident-free drivers. Implementing a risk-informed, performance-based safety program in a 500 power-unit trucking fleet, where dispatchers and managers were held accountable for minimizing driver CAS fatigue risk scores, significantly reduced the frequency and severity of truck accidents. Further examination of CAS risk assessment validity using scenarios provided in a fatigue modeling workshop indicated that the CAS Model also performed well in estimating alertness with a real-world transportation scenario of railroad locomotive engineer work/rest patterns.

  11. An overview of advanced reduction processes for bromate removal from drinking water: Reducing agents, activation methods, applications and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Yu, Shuili; Li, Lei; Wang, Ting; Liao, Xinlei; Ye, Yubing

    2017-02-15

    Bromate (BrO3(-)) is a possible human carcinogen regulated at a strict standard of 10μg/L in drinking water. Various techniques to eliminate BrO3(-) usually fall into three main categories: reducing bromide (Br(-)) prior to formation of BrO3(-), minimizing BrO3(-) formation during the ozonation process, and removing BrO3(-) from post-ozonation waters. However, the first two approaches exhibit low degradation efficiency and high treatment cost. The third workaround has obvious advantages, such as high reduction efficiency, more stable performance and easier combination with UV disinfection, and has therefore been widely implemented in water treatment. Recently, advanced reduction processes (ARPs), the photocatalysis of BrO3(-), have attracted much attention due to improved performance. To increase the feasibility of photocatalytic systems, the focus of this work concerns new technological developments, followed by a summary of reducing agents, activation methods, operational parameters, and applications. The reaction mechanisms of two typical processes involving UV/sulfite homogeneous photocatalysis and UV/titanium dioxide heterogeneous photocatalysis are further summarized. The future research needs for ARPs to reach full-scale potential in drinking water treatment are suggested accordingly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Synthesis of Ultrastable Ag Nanoplates/Polyethylenimine-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Application as a Versatile Electrochemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jindi; Zhang, Guoxin; Sun, Wanxia; Sun, Jingsong; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-25

    Investigations on Ag nanostructures/reduced graphene oxide composites have been frequently reported, yet the morphology control of those loaded Ag nanocrystals is still challenging. We herein develop a facile method to grow triangular Ag nanoplates (AgP) on polyethylenimine-modified reduced graphene oxide (AgP/PEI-rGO). The AgP/PEI-rGO hybrids show unexpected high stability against chloride ions (Cl(-) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), which is possibly due to the strong interaction between surface Ag atoms with the amine groups of PEI. In the chronoamperometry measurements for detecting H2 O2 , N2 H4 , and NaNO2 , the AgP/PEI-rGO hybrid shows very wide linear ranges (usually 10(-6) -10(-2)  mol L(-1) for H2 O2 , N2 H4 , and NaNO2 ) and low detection limits (down to ≈1×10(-7)  mol L(-1) ), which demonstrate the promising electrochemical sensor applications of these metal/graphene hybrids with well-defined morphologies and facets. In addition, this strategy could be extended to the deposition of other noble metals on rGO with controlled morphologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Green fabricated reduced graphene oxide: evaluation of its application as nano-carrier for pH-sensitive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Naxin; Zhang, Baohua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Pei; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2015-12-30

    A green and mild approach for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was proposed by using riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium salt dihydrate as a reducing reagent and stabilizer without any other reagent. The fabricated nano-rGO was systematically evaluated for its application as nano-carrier for pH-sensitive drug delivery. The hemolytic toxicity test indicated the as-prepared nano-rGO had negligible hemolytic activity, which demonstrating its safety in drug delivery system. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as a model drug was successfully attached onto the surface of nano-rGO via strong π-π stacking interaction. Compared with common carriers, the obtained DOX-loaded nano-rGO nanohybrid exhibited characteristics of high drug loading content, good stability, pH-sensitive and sustainable release of drugs. Cytotoxicity assay results suggested such nanohybrid exhibited effective cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and A549 cells by nonspecific endocytosis mechanism. Therefore, the present green fabricated rGO could be a good candidate as an ideal nano-carrier for drug delivery and controlled release.

  14. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863

  15. The application of Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections in surgery departments.

    PubMed

    Montella, Emma; Di Cicco, Maria Vincenza; Ferraro, Anna; Centobelli, Piera; Raiola, Eliana; Triassi, Maria; Improta, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, the monitoring and prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is a priority for the healthcare sector. In this article, we report on the application of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology to reduce the number of patients affected by sentinel bacterial infections who are at risk of HAI. The LSS methodology was applied in the general surgery department by using a multidisciplinary team of both physicians and academics. Data on more than 20 000 patients who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures between January 2011 and December 2014 were collected to conduct the study using the departmental information system. The most prevalent sentinel bacteria were determined among the infected patients. The preintervention (January 2011 to December 2012) and postintervention (January 2013 to December 2014) phases were compared to analyze the effects of the methodology implemented. The methodology allowed the identification of variables that influenced the risk of HAIs and the implementation of corrective actions to improve the care process, thereby reducing the percentage of infected patients. The improved process resulted in a 20% reduction in the average number of hospitalization days between preintervention and control phases, and a decrease in the mean (SD) number of days of hospitalization amounted to 36 (15.68), with a data distribution around 3 σ. The LSS is a helpful strategy that ensures a significant decrease in the number of HAIs in patients undergoing surgical interventions. The implementation of this intervention in the general surgery departments resulted in a significant reduction in both the number of hospitalization days and the number of patients affected by HAIs. This approach, together with other tools for reducing the risk of infection (surveillance, epidemiological guidelines, and training of healthcare personnel), could be applied to redesign and improve a wide range of healthcare processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reduced combustion mechanism for C1-C4 hydrocarbons and its application in computational fluid dynamics flare modeling.

    PubMed

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang

    2017-05-01

    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators/regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C2H2, C2H4, C6H6). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, using ANSYS Fluent software. Results of non-premixed probability density function (PDF) model and eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model are discussed. It is also noteworthy that when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C1-C4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.

  17. The application of the reduced order model Kalman filter to motion estimation of degraded image sequences. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Elizabeth C.

    1989-01-01

    Motion estimation is a field of great interest because of its many applications in areas such as robotics and image coding. The optic flow method is one such scheme which, although fairly accurate, is prone to error in the presence of noise. This thesis describes the use of the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF) in reducing errors in displacement estimation due to degradation of the sequence. The implementation of filtering and motion estimation algorithms on the SUN workstation is also discussed. Results from preliminary testing were used to determine the degrees of freedom available for the ROMKF in the SUN software. The tests indicated that increasing the state to the left leads to slight improvement over the minimum state case. Therefore, the software uses the minimum model, with the option of adding states to the left only. The ROMKF was then used in conjunction with a hierarchical pel recursive motion estimation algorithm. Applying the ROMKF to the degraded displacements themselves generally yielded slight improvements in cases with noise degradation and noise plus blur. Filtering the images of the degraded sequence prior to motion estimation was less effective in these cases. Both methods performed badly in the case of blur alone, resulting in increased displacement errors. This is thought to be due in part to filter artifacts. Some improvements were obtained by varying the filter parameters when filtering the displacements directly. This result suggests that further study in varying filter parameters may lead to better results. The results of this thesis indicate that the ROMKF can play a part in reducing motion estimation errors from degraded sequences. However, more work needs to be done before the use of the ROMKF can be a practical solution.

  18. Does help structures play a role in reducing the variation of dwell time in IPSA planning for gynaecological brachytherapy application?

    PubMed Central

    Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deshpande, DD; Sharma, Smriti; Shrivastava, SK

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report our experience of dosimetric comparison of IPSA and manual plans, with a focus on the use of help structures (HS) during optimization. Material and methods 33 patients who underwent MR image-based HDR intracavitary-brachytherapy for cervix cancer based on GYN-ESTRO recommendations were selected for evaluation. Tandem/ovoid (T/O) and Vienna applicators were used. HS of diameter of 5 mm were drawn around the tandem/needles/ovoid and ring. Three plans were generated: manual optimized plan (MOPT), IPSA without help structures (IPSA_woHS) and IPSA with help structures (IPSA_wHS). Dose-volume parameters and the loading pattern were evaluated. Results For T/O, the use of HS did not make significant impact in the dose-volume parameters and in the loading of tandem and ovoids, however steep variation was found in the individual dwell time. In case of Vienna applicator, inclusion of HS in the optimization made a significant impact in loading of needles. The percentage ratio of total time of needles to the tandem (TN/T%) was found to be 14±2.5, 53±9, 22±6 for MOPT, IPSA_woHS and IPSA_wHS, respectively, which implies that in IPSA_woHS the dwell time in needles were half of the dwell time in the tandem, while in MOPT the needles were loaded only in 14%, and in IPSA_wHS it was 22% of the dwell time of tandem. Inclusion of HS in the optimization has reduced the contribution of dwell time of needle in IPSA_wHS. The individual variation of dwell time was also reduced in IPSA_wHS, however drawing of HS is a time consuming procedure and may not be practical for a routine practice. Conclusion The role of HS was evaluated for IPSA for T/O and Vienna-applicator, the use of HS may be beneficial in case of combined intracavitary – interstitial approach. PMID:23346124

  19. Fast temperature optimization of multi-source hyperthermia applicators with reduced-order modeling of ‘virtual sources’

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kung-Shan; Stakhursky, Vadim; Craciunescu, Oana I; Stauffer, Paul; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to build the foundation for facilitating real-time magnetic resonance image guided patient treatment for heating systems with a large number of physical sources (e.g. antennas). Achieving this goal requires knowledge of how the temperature distribution will be affected by changing each source individually, which requires time expenditure on the order of the square of the number of sources. To reduce computation time, we propose a model reduction approach that combines a smaller number of predefined source configurations (fewer than the number of actual sources) that are most likely to heat tumor. The source configurations consist of magnitude and phase source excitation values for each actual source and may be computed from a CT scan based plan or a simplified generic model of the corresponding patient anatomy. Each pre-calculated source configuration is considered a ‘virtual source’. We assume that the actual best source settings can be represented effectively as weighted combinations of the virtual sources. In the context of optimization, each source configuration is treated equivalently to one physical source. This model reduction approach is tested on a patient upper-leg tumor model (with and without temperature-dependent perfusion), heated using a 140 MHz ten-antenna cylindrical mini-annular phased array. Numerical simulations demonstrate that using only a few pre-defined source configurations can achieve temperature distributions that are comparable to those from full optimizations using all physical sources. The method yields close to optimal temperature distributions when using source configurations determined from a simplified model of the tumor, even when tumor position is erroneously assumed to be ~2.0 cm away from the actual position as often happens in practical clinical application of pre-treatment planning. The method also appears to be robust under conditions of changing, nonlinear, temperature-dependent perfusion. The

  20. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  1. Reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock approach within the nuclear-electronic orbital framework: applications to positronic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Pak, Michael V; Swalina, Chet; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-07-21

    In the application of the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) method to positronic systems, all electrons and the positron are treated quantum mechanically on the same level. Explicit electron-positron correlation can be included using Gaussian-type geminal functions within the variational self-consistent-field procedure. In this paper, we apply the recently developed reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (RXCHF) approach to positronic molecular systems. In the application of RXCHF to positronic systems, only a single electronic orbital is explicitly correlated to the positronic orbital. We apply NEO-RXCHF to three systems: positron-lithium, lithium positride, and positron-lithium hydride. For all three of these systems, the RXCHF approach provides accurate two-photon annihilation rates, average contact densities, electronic and positronic single-particle densities, and electron-positron contact densities. Moreover, the RXCHF approach is significantly more accurate than the original XCHF approach, in which all electronic orbitals are explicitly correlated to the positronic orbital in the same manner, because the RXCHF wavefunction is optimized to produce a highly accurate description of the short-ranged electron-positron interaction that dictates the annihilation rates and other local properties. Furthermore, RXCHF methods that neglect or approximate the electronic exchange interactions between the geminal-coupled electronic orbital and the regular electronic orbitals lead to virtually identical annihilation rates and densities as the fully antisymmetric RXCHF method but offer substantial advantages in computational tractability. Thus, NEO-RXCHF is a promising, computationally practical approach for studying larger positron-containing systems.

  2. Characterization and Potential Applications of a Selenium Nanoparticle Producing and Nitrate Reducing Bacterium Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Peng; Xiao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Hui-Jiao; Xu, Hao; Xu, Peng-Peng; Jia, Yan; Häggblom, Max M.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-09-01

    A novel nitrate- and selenite reducing bacterium strain ZYKT was isolated from a rice paddy soil in Dehong, Yunnan, China. Strain ZYKT is a facultative anaerobe and grows in up to 150, 000 ppm O2. The comparative genomics analysis of strain ZYKT implies that it shares more orthologues with B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610T (ANIm values, 85.4–86.7%) than with B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (ANIm values, 84.4–84.7%), although B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) is the closest Bacillus species according to 16S rRNA gene comparison. The major cellular fatty acids of strain ZYKT were iso-C14:0 (17.8%), iso-C15:0 (17.8%), and C16:0 (32.0%). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic properties, the strain was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZYKT (=DSM 26460T =CGMCC 1.5179T). Strain ZYKT can reduce nitrate to nitrite and ammonium and possesses metabolic genes for nitrate reduction including nar, nap and nrf. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles of strain ZYKT show a narrow size distribution and agree with the gaussian distribution. These selenium nanoparticles show significant dose-dependent inhibition of the lung cancer cell line H157, which suggests potential for application in cancer therapy.

  3. Characterization and Potential Applications of a Selenium Nanoparticle Producing and Nitrate Reducing Bacterium Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Peng; Xiao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Hui-Jiao; Xu, Hao; Xu, Peng-Peng; Jia, Yan; Häggblom, Max M.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    A novel nitrate- and selenite reducing bacterium strain ZYKT was isolated from a rice paddy soil in Dehong, Yunnan, China. Strain ZYKT is a facultative anaerobe and grows in up to 150, 000 ppm O2. The comparative genomics analysis of strain ZYKT implies that it shares more orthologues with B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610T (ANIm values, 85.4–86.7%) than with B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (ANIm values, 84.4–84.7%), although B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) is the closest Bacillus species according to 16S rRNA gene comparison. The major cellular fatty acids of strain ZYKT were iso-C14:0 (17.8%), iso-C15:0 (17.8%), and C16:0 (32.0%). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic properties, the strain was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZYKT (=DSM 26460T =CGMCC 1.5179T). Strain ZYKT can reduce nitrate to nitrite and ammonium and possesses metabolic genes for nitrate reduction including nar, nap and nrf. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles of strain ZYKT show a narrow size distribution and agree with the gaussian distribution. These selenium nanoparticles show significant dose-dependent inhibition of the lung cancer cell line H157, which suggests potential for application in cancer therapy. PMID:27677458

  4. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).

    PubMed

    Walker, John F; Johnson, Loretta C; Simpson, Nicholas B; Bill, Markus; Jumpponen, Ari

    2010-01-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris] or propiconazole [Tilt]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris nor Tilt affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf 15N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf 15N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from 15NH4 in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial communities.

  5. Using model derived regional climate forecasts to enhance the effectiveness and skill of selected application models in reducing negative impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, P. A.; Hewitson, B. C.

    2001-05-01

    A new approach to regional climate forecasting in Southern Africa is involving a cross section of researchers working to integrate the key elements of the global system that determine seasonal conditions. The aim is to produce seasonal forecasts of temperature and rainfall with a 1-3 month lead-time. These forecasts, reflecting climatic variation and inter-annual change, using a combination of global and regional climate models, can be used as input for a selection of crop-yield/ hydrological/ economic models to assess the impact and usefulness in specific application areas e.g. water resources, agriculture etc. The investigation focuses on the usefulness of the information content of the forecast output. The impacts of severe droughts and flooding associated with ENSO events can be prepared for and reduced. However, until recently (Vogel, 2000; Mukara, 2000) the value of these forecasts for farming, industry and commerce in South Africa has not been assessed. An essential part of the analysis is the collaboration with others working within the forecaster-user dynamic. This ensures that forecast/model output provides the most usable content for end-users whether in small scale pastoral or commercial farming, hydrological planning, industry or fishing. Input from the users informs the modellers with respect to the format and content of forecast outputs. The parameters most useful to user applications are identified and in consultation with the modellers, specified in the model output. Different model runs are compared and various hindcasts performed. The issue is to determine the level and scope of the accuracy of the identified parameters. A model's accuracy may be temporally substantial, but spatially unreliable. When submitting the seasonal forecast data into other models within a localised region, specific accuracy for that region, during the particular season and in the individual topography, is essential. If the accuracy is lower than a critical value, then

  6. A multi-channel feedback algorithm for the development of active liners to reduce noise in flow duct applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeaud, B.; Galland, M.-A.

    2007-10-01

    The present paper deals with the design and development of the active part of a hybrid acoustic treatment combining porous material properties and active control techniques. Such an acoustic system was developed to reduce evolutionary tones in flow duct applications. Attention was particularly focused on the optimization process of the controller part of the hybrid cell. A piezo-electric transducer combining efficiency and compactness was selected as a secondary source. A digital adaptive feedback control algorithm was specially developed in order to operate independently cell by cell, and to facilitate a subsequent increase in the liner surface. An adaptive bandpass filter was used to prevent the development of instabilities due to the coupling occurring between cells. Special care was taken in the development of such systems for time-varying primary signals. An automatic frequency detection loop was therefore introduced in the control algorithm, enabling the continuous adaptation of the bandpass filtering. The multi-cell structure was experimentally validated for a four-cell system located on a duct wall in the presence of flow. Substantial noise reduction was obtained throughout the 0.7-2.5 kHz frequency range, with flow velocities up to 50 m/s.

  7. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    PubMed

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemiluminescence of luminol-reduced gold nanoparticles and their application in a hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hua; Wang, Wei; Duan, Chun-Feng; Dong, Yong-Ping; Guo, Ji-Zhao

    2007-01-01

    It was found that chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) could be directly reduced by the luminescent reagent luminol in aqueous solution to form gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the size of which depended on the amount of luminol. The morphology and surface state of as-prepared AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All results indicated that residual luminol and its oxidation product 3-aminophthalate coexisted on the surface of AuNPs through the weak covalent interaction between gold and nitrogen atoms in their amino groups. Subsequently, a luminol-capped AuNP-modified electrode was fabricated by the immobilization of AuNPs on a gold electrode by virtue of cysteine molecules and then immersion in a luminol solution. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The as-prepared modified electrode exhibited an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) response in alkaline aqueous solution under a double-step potential. H2O2 was found to enhance the ECL. On this basis, an ECL sensor for the detection of H2O2 was developed. The method is simple, fast, and reagent free. It is applicable to the determination of H2O2 in the range of 3x10(-7)-1x10(-3) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1x10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3).

  9. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baoyan; Zhao, Na; Hou, Shihua; Zhang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu) biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of PPy–RGO–nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au3+) in aqueous solution, a PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy–RGO–nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy–RGO–nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about −0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM–2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor. PMID:28335348

  10. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baoyan; Zhao, Na; Hou, Shihua; Zhang, Cong

    2016-11-21

    Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu) biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of PPy-RGO-nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au(3+)) in aqueous solution, a PPy-RGO-nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy-RGO-nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy-RGO-nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about -0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM-2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy-RGO-nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor.

  11. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.

    2009-11-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  12. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R.; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7 ± 0.5 years) in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the app are also described. Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data, and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app. Conclusion: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys. PMID:24904909

  13. Application of Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 101 to 6 × 105 dsrB gene copies ml−1. DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

  14. Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields.

    PubMed

    Priha, Outi; Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.

  15. [Effects of reduced N application rate on yield and nutrient uptake and utilization in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wen-Yu, Liu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2014-02-01

    A field experiment with three N application rates (0, 180, 240 N kg x hm(-2), representing zero, reduced and conventional N application, respectively) and three planting patterns (maize monoculture, soybean monoculture and maize-soybean relay strip intercropping) was conducted to reveal the effects of cropping patterns and N application rates on yield, nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of maize and soybean. The results showed that the grain yield, N, P and K uptake and harvest index of the intercropped maize reduced slightly compared with the monoculture maize, however these indices of the intercropped soybean increased significantly compared with the monoculture. With the increase in nitrogen fertilizer application, the excellence of relay strip intercropping was weakened in the maize-soybean intercropping system. The grain yield, economic coefficient, N, P and K uptake, harvest index, N agronomy efficiency and N uptake efficiency of maize and soybean increased significantly at the reduced nitrogen rate (180 N kg x hm(-2)), but the rate of soil N contribution declined, compared with the conventional rate of N application by local farmers (240 N kg x hm(-2)). In the reduced nitrogen rate treatment, total soil N and P contents of the maize strip reduced, whereas the total soil N, P and K contents of soybean strip and the total K content of maize strip increased compared with the zero N application treatment. With the reduced N application, the annual total grain yield, N, P and K uptake of above-ground biomass in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system were higher than in the monoculture, and the land equivalent ratio (LER) was 2.28. N uptake efficiency of maize in the relay strip intercropping system was 20.2% higher than in the maize monoculture, and the index of soybean was 30.5% lower than in the monoculture. The rate of soil N contribution in the relay strip intercropping system was 20.0% and 8.8% lower than in the maize and soybean

  16. Phytophagy of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) fed on prey and Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Grigolli, J F J; Grigolli, M M Kubota; Ramalho, D G; Martins, A L; Vacari, A M; De Bortoli, S A

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0) and mean generation time (T) were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.

  17. Island phytophagy: explaining the remarkable diversity of plant-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jeffrey B; Crespi, Bernard J

    2012-08-22

    Plant-feeding insects have undergone unparalleled diversification among different plant taxa, yet explanations for variation in their diversity lack a quantitative, predictive framework. Island biogeographic theory has been applied to spatially discrete habitats but not to habitats, such as host plants, separated by genetic distance. We show that relationships between the diversity of gall-inducing flies and their host plants meet several fundamental predictions from island biogeographic theory. First, plant-taxon genetic distinctiveness, an integrator for long-term evolutionary history of plant lineages, is a significant predictor of variance in the diversity of gall-inducing flies among host-plant taxa. Second, range size and structural complexity also explain significant proportions of the variance in diversity of gall-inducing flies among different host-plant taxa. Third, as with other island systems, plant-lineage age does not predict species diversity. Island biogeographic theory, applied to habitats defined by genetic distance, provides a novel, comprehensive framework for analysing and explaining the diversity of plant-feeding insects and other host-specific taxa.

  18. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  19. Performance of a new 915 mhz direct contact applicator with reduced leakage. A detailed analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, G.; Witters, D.M. Jr.

    1983-04-01

    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a direct contact diathermy applicator operating at 915 MHz. The design is a circular waveguide internally loaded with two orthogonal pairs of forward ridges to obtain circular polarization and two rear ridges with a probe to excite the guide. Two designs were tested: a 15-cm diameter applicator with one annular choke covered with a microwave absorber and a 25-cm diameter applicator with two additional concentric chokes to limit radiation leakage. In delivering a thermally effective specific absorption rate to a planar phantom, leakage levels were less than 5 mW/sq. cm for applicators in direct contact with the phantom. If there is a small spacing between these applicators and planar phantoms, the net power and associated leakage is excessive.

  20. GREEN APPROACH TO BULK AND TEMPLATE-FREE SYNTHESIS OF THERMALLY STABLE REDUCED POLYANILINE NANOFIBERS FOR CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extremely simple green approach is described that generates bulk quantities of nanofibers of the electronic polymer polyaniline in fully reduced state (leucoemeraldine form) in one step without using any reducing agent, surfactants, and/or large amounts of insoluble templates....

  1. GREEN APPROACH TO BULK AND TEMPLATE-FREE SYNTHESIS OF THERMALLY STABLE REDUCED POLYANILINE NANOFIBERS FOR CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extremely simple green approach is described that generates bulk quantities of nanofibers of the electronic polymer polyaniline in fully reduced state (leucoemeraldine form) in one step without using any reducing agent, surfactants, and/or large amounts of insoluble templates....

  2. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lixin; Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-01-01

    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  3. Application of herbicides is likely to reduce greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingyan; Chen, Linmei; Sun, Qing; Sang, Mengmeng; Huang, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Herbicides have been widely used to control weeds in croplands; however, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain unclear. The effects of three wheat herbicides (acetochlor, AC; tribenuron-methyl, TBM; fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, FE) and two rice herbicides (butachlor, BC; bensulfuron-methyl, BSM) on N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated in this study. In the wheat growing season, applications of AC and FE + TBM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 31% compared with no herbicide use (p = 0.001). In the rice growing season, the application of BC significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 58% (p = 0.022), and BSM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 27% (p = 0.040); however, no significant difference among treatments with regard to the aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 in the CO2 equivalent for the 100-year horizon was observed (p > 0.05). Relative to control plots, which were not treated with herbicides, the combined application of the herbicides FE and TBM in the wheat season led to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by ∼41% (p = 0.002), and the application of BC together with BSM reduced GHGI by 22% in the rice season, although this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.158). Further investigation suggested that the inhibitory effect of herbicides on N2O emissions in the wheat field could be ascribed to low soil ammonium nitrogen and less abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The inhibitory effects of separate applications of BC on CH4 emissions in rice fields, in contrast, were linked to high soil nitrate nitrogen and urease activity.

  4. Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

    2014-05-01

    A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

  5. Time-dependent occupation numbers in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory: Application to an interacting Landau-Zener model

    SciTech Connect

    Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-05-15

    We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.

  6. A strategy for reducing particulate contamination on opening glass ampoules and development of evaluation methods for its application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryoon; Chae, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Sung-Eel; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2011-12-01

    A single-dose glass ampoule was developed for ease of administration. When glass ampoules are opened, resulting in contamination by particulate matter. Reducing its contamination may minimize the risk in patients due to particulates. This study reports on an attempt to reduce insoluble particulate contamination by developing methods for the precise measurement of this. A vacuum machine (VM) was used to reduce the level of insoluble particulate contamination, and a microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) were used to evaluate the level of reduction. The method permitted the insoluble particle content to be reduced by up to 87.8 and 89.3% after opening 1 and 2 mL-ampoules, respectively. The morphology of the glass particulate contaminants was very sharp and rough, a condition that can be harmful to human health. The total weight of glass particles in the opened ampoules was determined to be 104 ± 72.9 μg and 30.5 ± 1.00 μg after opening 1 and 2 mL-ampoules when the VM was operated at highest power. The total weights were reduced to 53.6 and 50.6%, respectively for 1 and 2 mL-ampoules, compared to opening by hand. The loss of ampoule contents on opening by the VM was 6.50 and 4.67% for 1 and 2 mL-ampoules, respectively. As a result, the VM efficiently reduced glass particulate contamination and the evaluation methods used were appropriate for quantifying these levels of contamination.

  7. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives.

  8. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post harvest debris.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2004-2005, early winter application of suspensions of Aureobasidium pullulans (AuP) conidia to post-harvest chickpea debris resulted in significantly fewer spring-time Ascochyta blight lesions on chickpea test plants relative to controls. Survival of plants adjacent to treated debris was higher t...

  9. Surface application of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure slurry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare topical and fully mixed treatments of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide (SBP/CaO2) for reducing odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from swine manure slurry. The five treatments consisted of a control, the fully mixed ...

  10. Maintaining Instrument Quality while Reducing Items: Application of Rasch Analysis to a Self-Report of Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velozzo, Craig A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mallinson, Trudy; Hauselman, Ellyn

    2001-01-01

    Studied how Rasch analysis could be used to reduce the number of items in an instrument while maintaining credible psychometric properties. Applied the approach to the Visual Function-14 developed to measure the need for and outcomes of cataract surgery. Results show how Rasch analysis can be useful in designing modifications of instruments. (SLD)

  11. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  12. Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Assessment of Food Quality: How the Electrochemical Platform Should Be Tailored to the Application.

    PubMed

    Chng, Chu'Er; Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin; Bonanni, Alessandra

    2017-02-03

    Graphene platforms have been drawing considerable attention in electrochemistry for the detection of various electroactive probes. Depending on the chemical composition and properties of the probe, graphene materials with diverse structural features may be required to achieve an optimal electrochemical performance. This work comprises a comparative study on three chemically modified graphenes, obtained from the same starting material and with different oxygen functionalities and structural defects (graphene oxide (GO), chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO), and thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO)) towards the electrochemical detection of quinine, an important flavoring agent present in tonic-based beverages. In general, the reduced graphenes, namely CRGO and TRGO, showed enhanced performance in terms of calibration sensitivity and selectivity, due to the improved heterogeneous electron-transfer rates on their surfaces. In particular, CRGO provided the best overall electrochemical performance, which can be attributed to its higher density of structural defects and reduced amount of oxygen functionalities. For this reason, CRGO was employed for the electrochemical detection of quinine in commercial tonic drink samples, showing high sensitivity and selectivity, and therefore representing a valid low-cost alternative to more complicated and time consuming traditional analytical methods.

  13. Field Efficacy and application timing of methoxyfenozide, a reduced risk treatment for control of navel orangeworm (Lepidpotera: Pyralidae) in almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large-scale field efficacy trials of methoxyfenozide (Intrepid®), a reduced-risk molting agonist insecticide, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in an orchard containing ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Sonora’ variety almonds located in Kern County, California. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, and the orga...

  14. Biochar reduces DOC but not NO3- leaching in relation to vinasse application in a tropical sugarcane soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eykelbosh, A. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Santos de Queiroz, E.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: Sugarcane cultivation for bioethanol production is associated with impacts on water quality, particularly those related to the application of vinasse, a corrosive, nutrient-dense effluent with high eutrophication potential (Martinelli et al. 2008 Ecol. Appl. 18:885-98). Vinasse is typically disposed of via soil application, which also recaptures waste nutrients and water (i.e., fertigation). However, vinasse constituents, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3-), are highly mobile in the soil and their presence can be observed at the catchment scale after vinasse application (Ometo et al. 2000 Freshwater Biol. 44:327-37). Biochar (charcoal produced from waste biomass via pyrolysis) has been investigated as a soil amendment to improve water and nutrient retention. Here, we evaluate the potential for biochar to mitigate carbon and nutrient leaching in a cultivated Oxisol in relation to vinasse application. Methods: Biochar was produced from dried filtercake (a solid organic waste obtained from cane juice filtration) via slow pyrolysis at 550°C for 3 h under N2. Sieved soil was packed into 12 PVC tubes (10 cm diameter, 50 cm tall) representing four treatments: soil alone as a control (S), soil with vinasse (S+V), soil with vinasse and 5% (w/w) biochar (S+V+B), and soil with 5% biochar (S+B). Columns were flushed with water, treated with 250 mL of water or vinasse (32 mm, equivalent to a moderate field application rate of ~300 m3 ha-1), and flushed again with water. Samples collected via vacuum filtration were analyzed for pH, ORP, conductivity and examined via UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected before and after leaching for residual soil nutrient analysis. Results: Biochar strongly attenuated the leaching of vinasse-derived DOC (p < 0.001). This was also related to a change in DOC composition as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vinasse application greatly increased total NO3- flux (p < 0

  15. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  16. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  17. Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-03-15

    Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube modified electrodes for measuring the enzymatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianlong; Li, Li; Wang, Yanping; Xu, Chongzheng; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Xiaodi

    2013-06-15

    An electrochemical method was developed to measure the enzymatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by monitoring the amount of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) generated in the catalysed oxidation of ethanol by ADH. The concentration of NADH was determined by amperometric measurements, which recorded the oxidation current of NADH versus time on reduced graphene oxide and functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrodes. The initial reaction rates and the apparent Michaelis constants of the enzymatic reaction were obtained in the absence and presence of Al(3+) and nanometre-sized tridecameric aluminium polycationic (nano-Al(13)) species. The results showed that Al(3+) and nano-Al(13) exhibited inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of ADH. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra indicated the inhibitory effect was likely caused by the conformational changes of ADH and/or NADH induced by Al(3+) and nano-Al(13). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Porous reduced graphene oxide sheet wrapped silicon composite fabricated by steam etching for lithium-ion battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, Q. Q.; Tong, Y. Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    A novel of Si/porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite is fabricated by steam etching of Si/rGO aerogel. The rGO sheets with nano-holes build a unique three-dimensional porous network and can encapsulate the Si nanoparticles. The porous structure of Si/rGO composite can reduce the transfer distance of Li ions and restrain the aggregation and destruction of Si particles. The in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation demonstrates that the porous rGO sheets help the entire electrode to maintain highly conductive and facilitate the lithiation of Si nanoparticles. The composite electrode presents high specific capacity and good cycling stability (1004 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 up to 100 cycles).

  20. Highly conductive and transparent reduced graphene oxide/aluminium doped zinc oxide nanocomposite for the next generation solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, aluminum-doped zinc oxide(AZO)/reduced graphene oxide nano-composite thin films are synthesized by a one-pot, solution-processed method. The nanocomposite film has been extensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray-diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Hall effect measurement and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is found that the controlled addition of reduced graphene oxide into AZO can lower the film's resistivity without causing significant degradation of optical transparency. In addition, nanocomposite films post-annealed at process temperature at 500 °C possesses the lowest resistivity and the highest optical transmittance and that further increases in the annealing temperature degrades the film's property due to nucleation of other phases of the AZO.

  1. Nasal application of neuropeptide S reduces anxiety and prolongs memory in rats: social versus non-social effects.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated potent behavioral effects of centrally applied neuropeptide S (NPS) in mice and rats. These include increased arousal and wakefulness, facilitation of fear extinction and object memory consolidation and anxiolysis. Here, we compared the effects of NPS on both social and non-social memory, in male rats, and on social preference/social anxiety versus non-social anxiety after either intracerebroventricular (icv) or nasal application. Intranasal application of neuropeptides has been successfully employed to alter behavioral parameters in humans and rodents, but studies concerning nasal application of NPS are lacking so far. First, we confirmed the facilitatory effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on object discrimination after an inter-exposure interval (IEI) of 240 min. These effects were context-dependent, as icv NPS (1 nmol) did not prolong social memory in a social discrimination paradigm. Second, we confirmed the anxiolytic effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on the elevated plus-maze, whereas neither icv NPS (1 nmol) nor NPS receptor antagonist (10 nmol) altered social preference/social avoidance behavior. Third, nasal NPS (4-40 nmol applied topically on the rhinarium) facilitated object discrimination in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the anxiolytic effect of NPS on the elevated plus-maze could be confirmed after nasal administration (40 nmol). In contrast, identical doses of subcutaneously injected NPS failed to produce corresponding behavioral effects in both tests. Our findings provide evidence for memory-enhancing and anxiolytic effects of icv NPS in a non-social context. We could further show that these effects are context-specific, as social memory and social preference behavior remained unchanged after icv NPS. The effects of icv NPS were replicated by nasal application of the neuropeptide. Thus, nasal application of NPS seems to be a useful method in rodents for screening for behavioral or physiological effects before more specific and time

  2. Impact of adjustment measures on reducing outpatient waiting time in a community hospital: application of a computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bai-lian; Li, En-dong; Yamawuchi, Kazunobu; Kato, Ken; Naganawa, Shinji; Miao, Wei-jun

    2010-03-05

    As an important determinant of patient satisfaction, waiting time, has gained increasing attention in the field of health care services. The present study aimed to illustrate the distribution characteristics of waiting time in a community hospital and explore the impact of potential measures to reduce outpatient waiting time based on a computer simulation approach. During a one-month study period in 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a community hospital located in Shanghai, China. Baseline data of outpatient waiting time were calculated according to the records of registration time and payment time. A simulation technique was adopted to investigate the impact of perspective reform methods on reducing waiting time. Data from a total of 10,092 patients and 26,816 medical consultations were collected in the study and 19,947 medical consultations were included. The average of the total visit time for outpatients in this hospital was 43.6 minutes in the morning, 19.1 minutes in the afternoon, and 34.3 minutes for the whole day studied period. The simulation results suggested that waiting time for outpatients could be greatly reduced through the introduction of appointment system and flexible demand-orientated doctor scheduling according to the numbers of patients waiting at different time of the workday. Adoption of an appointment system and flexible management of doctor scheduling may be effective way to achieve decreased waiting time.

  3. A reduced order model for fluid-structure interaction of thin shell structures conveying fluid for physiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gary Han; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a reduced-order model (ROM) is constructed to study fluid-structure interaction of thin shell structures conveying fluid. The method of snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is used to construct the reduced-order bases based on a series of CFD results, which then are improved using a QR-factorization technique to satisfy the various boundary conditions in physiological flow problems. In the process, two sets of POD modes are extracted: those due to the shell wall's motion and those due to the pulsatile flow. The Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) technique is used for selecting the final POD modes used in the reduced-order model. The structure model is solved by Galerkin's method and the FSI coupling is done by adapting a coupled momentum method. The results show that the dynamic behavior of thin shells conveying fluid is closely related to the distribution of the shell's Gaussian curvature, the existence of imperfections and the physiological flow conditions. This method can effectively construct a computationally efficient FSI model, which allows us to examine a wide range of parameters which exist in real-life physiological problems.

  4. Application of PINS radiofrequency pulses to reduce power deposition in RARE/turbo spin echo imaging of the human head.

    PubMed

    Norris, David G; Boyacioğlu, Rasim; Schulz, Jenni; Barth, Markus; Koopmans, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    To explore the use of PINS radiofrequency (RF) pulses to reduce RF power deposition in multiband/simultaneous multislice imaging with the RARE/turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence at 3T and 7T. A PINS-TSE sequence was implemented and combined with blipped CAIPI to improve the reconstruction of superposed slices. Whole brain imaging of healthy volunteers was performed at both 3T and 7T using a 32-channel coil for signal reception. A considerable reduction in power deposition was achieved compared with a standard sequence of the manufacturer. At 3T, the reduction in specific absorption rate (SAR) made short pulse repetition times (TRs) possible, however, in order to obtain a good T2 contrast, it is advisable to maintain TR while extending the echo train length. At 7T, whole brain coverage with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 2 mm(3) was achieved in an acquisition time of 150 s. Furthermore, it could be shown that pulse sequences that use PINS pulses do not suffer from having additional magnetization transfer contrast. PINS RF pulses combined with multiband imaging reduce SAR sufficiently to enable routine TSE imaging at 7T within clinically acceptable acquisition times. In general, the combination of multiband imaging with PINS RF pulses represents a method to reduce total RF power deposition. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application of β-Resorcylic Acid as Potential Antimicrobial Feed Additive to Reduce Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wagle, Basanta R.; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Arsi, Komala; Shrestha, Sandip; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Donoghue, Annie M.; Donoghue, Dan J.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, β-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (∼106 CFU/ml; 250 μl/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ∼2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for motility

  6. Application of β-Resorcylic Acid as Potential Antimicrobial Feed Additive to Reduce Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Basanta R; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Arsi, Komala; Shrestha, Sandip; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Donoghue, Annie M; Donoghue, Dan J

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, β-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (∼10(6) CFU/ml; 250 μl/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ∼2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for

  7. Characterization of genome-reduced Bacillus subtilis strains and their application for the production of guanosine and thymidine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhu, Xujun; Zhang, Xueyu; Fu, Jing; Wang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2016-06-03

    Genome streamlining has emerged as an effective strategy to boost the production efficiency of bio-based products. Many efforts have been made to construct desirable chassis cells by reducing the genome size of microbes. It has been reported that the genome-reduced Bacillus subtilis strain MBG874 showed clear advantages for the production of several heterologous enzymes including alkaline cellulase and protease. In addition to enzymes, B. subtilis is also used for the production of chemicals. To our best knowledge, it is still unknown whether genome reduction could be used to optimize the production of chemicals such as nucleoside products. In this study, we constructed a series of genome-reduced strains by deleting non-essential regions in the chromosome of B. subtilis 168. These strains with genome reductions ranging in size from 581.9 to 814.4 kb displayed markedly decreased growth rates, sporulation ratios, transformation efficiencies and maintenance coefficients, as well as increased cell yields. We re-engineered the genome-reduced strains to produce guanosine and thymidine, respectively. The strain BSK814G2, in which purA was knocked out, and prs, purF and guaB were co-overexpressed, produced 115.2 mg/L of guanosine, which was 4.4-fold higher compared to the control strain constructed by introducing the same gene modifications into the parental strain. We also constructed a thymidine producer by deleting the tdk gene and overexpressing the prs, ushA, thyA, dut, and ndk genes from Escherichia coli in strain BSK756, and the resulting strain BSK756T3 accumulated 151.2 mg/L thymidine, showing a 5.2-fold increase compared to the corresponding control strain. Genome-scale genetic manipulation has a variety of effects on the physiological characteristics and cell metabolism of B. subtilis. By introducing specific gene modifications related to guanosine and thymidine accumulation, respectively, we demonstrated that genome-reduced strains had greatly improved

  8. Manipulating Planting Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application to Improve Yield and Reduce Environmental Impact in Chinese Maize Production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cailong; Huang, Shoubing; Tian, Beijing; Ren, Jianhong; Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Pu

    2017-01-01

    Relatively low nitrogen (N) efficiency and heavy environmental costs caused by excessive N fertilizer applications with outdated fertilization techniques are current cultivation production problems with maize among smallholders in North China Plain. Although many studies have examined agronomical strategies for improving yields and N use, the integrated effects of these measures and the associated environmental costs are not well understood. We conducted a 2-year field study with two densities (67,500 plants ha(-1), which was similar to local farmers' practices, and 90,000 plants ha(-1)) and three N rates (0, 180, and 360 kg ha(-1), the rate local farmers' commonly apply) to test the integrated effects for maize production at Wuqiao experimental station in North China Plain. The higher planting density produced significant increases in grain yield (GY), N use efficiency (NUE), agronomic N efficiency (AEN), and N partial productivity (PFPN) by 6.6, 3.9, 24.7, and 8.8%, respectively; in addition, N2O emission and greenhouse gas intensity decreased by 7.3 and 4.3%, respectively. With a lower N application rate, from 360 to 180 kg ha(-1), GY was unchanged, and NUE, AEN, and PFPN all significantly increased by 6.2, 96.0, and 98.7%, respectively; in addition, N2O emission and greenhouse gas intensity decreased by 61.5 and 46.2%, respectively. The optimized N rate (180 kg N ha(-1)) for the 90,000 plants ha(-1) treatment achieved the highest yield with only 50% of the N fertilizer input commonly employed by local farmers' (360 kg N ha(-1)), which contributed to the increased N-uptake and N-transfer capacity. Therefore, our study demonstrated that agronomical methods such as increasing planting density with reasonable N application could be useful to obtain higher GY along with efficient N management to help lower environmental costs of maize production.

  9. Application of reduced order modeling techniques to problems in heat conduction, isoelectric focusing and differential algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Pramod P.

    This thesis focuses on applying and augmenting 'Reduced Order Modeling' (ROM) techniques to large scale problems. ROM refers to the set of mathematical techniques that are used to reduce the computational expense of conventional modeling techniques, like finite element and finite difference methods, while minimizing the loss of accuracy that typically accompanies such a reduction. The first problem that we address pertains to the prediction of the level of heat dissipation in electronic and MEMS devices. With the ever decreasing feature sizes in electronic devices, and the accompanied rise in Joule heating, the electronics industry has, since the 1990s, identified a clear need for computationally cheap heat transfer modeling techniques that can be incorporated along with the electronic design process. We demonstrate how one can create reduced order models for simulating heat conduction in individual components that constitute an idealized electronic device. The reduced order models are created using Krylov Subspace Techniques (KST). We introduce a novel 'plug and play' approach, based on the small gain theorem in control theory, to interconnect these component reduced order models (according to the device architecture) to reliably and cheaply replicate whole device behavior. The final aim is to have this technique available commercially as a computationally cheap and reliable option that enables a designer to optimize for heat dissipation among competing VLSI architectures. Another place where model reduction is crucial to better design is Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) - the second problem in this thesis - which is a popular technique that is used to separate minute amounts of proteins from the other constituents that are present in a typical biological tissue sample. Fundamental questions about how to design IEF experiments still remain because of the high dimensional and highly nonlinear nature of the differential equations that describe the IEF process as well as

  10. Trajectory piecewise quadratic reduced-order model for subsurface flow, with application to PDE-constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trehan, Sumeet; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2016-12-01

    A new reduced-order model based on trajectory piecewise quadratic (TPWQ) approximations and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is introduced and applied for subsurface oil-water flow simulation. The method extends existing techniques based on trajectory piecewise linear (TPWL) approximations by incorporating second-derivative terms into the reduced-order treatment. Both the linear and quadratic reduced-order methods, referred to as POD-TPWL and POD-TPWQ, entail the representation of new solutions as expansions around previously simulated high-fidelity (full-order) training solutions, along with POD-based projection into a low-dimensional space. POD-TPWQ entails significantly more offline preprocessing than POD-TPWL as it requires generating and projecting several third-order (Hessian-type) terms. The POD-TPWQ method is implemented for two-dimensional systems. Extensive numerical results demonstrate that it provides consistently better accuracy than POD-TPWL, with speedups of about two orders of magnitude relative to high-fidelity simulations for the problems considered. We demonstrate that POD-TPWQ can be used as an error estimator for POD-TPWL, which motivates the development of a trust-region-based optimization framework. This procedure uses POD-TPWL for fast function evaluations and a POD-TPWQ error estimator to determine when retraining, which entails a high-fidelity simulation, is required. Optimization results for an oil-water problem demonstrate the substantial speedups that can be achieved relative to optimizations based on high-fidelity simulation.

  11. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  12. [Efficacy of topical 0.3% ciprofloxacin application in reducing the conjunctival biota of patients undergoing cataract extraction].

    PubMed

    Carron, A; Samudio, M; Laspina, F; Fariña, N; Sanabria, R R; Cibils, D; Ramirez, L; Carron, J; Mino de Kaspar, H

    2013-09-01

    To determine the efficacy of topical 0.3% ciprofloxacin in reducing conjunctival biota in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Experimental, prospective, randomized, controlled and single-blind study. Forty-six eyes of 46 patients were randomized into 2 groups, the study group (n=23) received topical 0.3% ciprofloxacin one day before surgery for six times, and on the day of the surgery one drop every 15minutes starting one hour before surgery until 3 doses were completed. The control group (n=23) did not receive any antibiotics. For both groups for the surgical field 10% povidone-iodine was applied. Samples from the conjunctiva were taken at four different times and then cultured on solid media (chocolate agar, blood agar) and enrichment broth (thioglycolate). The aqueous humor samples were also cultured in thioglycolate. The presence of bacteria was identified quantitatively and qualitatively, and the frequency of contamination was measured by considering the presence of bacteria in liquid and solid culture media. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was counted in the solid culture medium. Positive cultures were obtained in 82.6% and 78.2% of the patients in the study and control groups, respectively, before the administration of 0.3% ciprofloxacin. The administration of 0.3% ciprofloxacin significantly reduced the CFU compared to the control group (P<.05). Immediately after the use of povidone-iodine, the proportion of patients with a positive culture decreased to 21.7% in the study group, and 8.7% in the control group. At the end of the surgery, this percentage was 26% and 30.4%, respectively. The most common isolated pathogen was negative-coagulase Staphylococcus (66.7%). The administration of 0.3% ciprofloxacin reduces conjunctival bacterial load in the preoperative period. However, it was unable to eradicate the bacteria completely. The administration of povidone-iodine reduced conjunctival biota in 50%-70% of patients undergoing cataract surgery

  13. Novel MSVPWM to reduce the inductor current ripple for Z-source inverter in electric vehicle applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Dong, Shuai; Xue, Ping; Zhou, Chaowei; Cheng, ShuKang

    2014-01-01

    A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results.

  14. Novel MSVPWM to Reduce the Inductor Current Ripple for Z-Source Inverter in Electric Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianfan; Dong, Shuai; Xue, Ping; Zhou, Chaowei; Cheng, ShuKang

    2014-01-01

    A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results. PMID:24883412

  15. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications.

    PubMed

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  16. Application of stochastic optimal reduced state feedback gain computation procedures to the design of aircraft gust alleviation controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, K.; Kaufman, H.

    1979-01-01

    A stochastic linear model that accounts for process parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, and a restricted number of measurable outputs was used to determine feedback gains useful for reducing the vertical acceleration which results from the presence of a vertical wind gust. Considered in the study were the influence of various feedback configurations, the effects of sensor noise, flight condition changes, and initialization procedures. Results showed that for sixth order linearized longitudinal motion, a controller with feedback on three states could be designed for effective gust alleviation taking into account both sensor noise and flight condition variation.

  17. Factors influencing the efficacy of two organophosphate insecticides in controlling California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell). A basis for reducing spray application volume in Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Because society is seeking ways to lessen the environmental impact of agricultural activity, dose adjustment has become a key issue in current plant protection treatments with high spray application volumes, such as on citrus plants. This work investigates, in field conditions, the factors affecting the efficacy of organophosphate insecticides against California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), when the delivery rate is decreased. Insecticide rate changes were induced by modifying the spray application volumes of two commercial organophosphate pesticides based on chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl. Results showed that, with increase in the spray volume, the coverage and the uniformity of deposition on the canopy increased, but final infestation depended neither on the spray application volume nor on the coverage. Furthermore, final infestation significantly depended on the pest pressure in the plot and the spray volume applied per unit volume of canopy (L m(-3) canopy). Moreover, it was found that the final infestation was influenced by the efficiency of deposition in the applications that were carried out against the second-generation of CRS. Because the spray application volume did not affect the final infestation, this research introduces the possibility that reducing the doses of current citrus organophosphate treatments may still allow effective plant protection in Mediterranean conditions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Antioxidant and catalytic applications of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus longan seed extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faheem Ullah; Chen, Yongmei; Khan, Naeem Ullah; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Arif Ullah; Ahmad, Aftab; Tahir, Kamran; Wang, Lei; Khan, Muhammad Riaz; Wan, Pingyu

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a simple and environmental friendly method was developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using Dimocarpus longan seed extract as a source of reducing and stabilizing agent. The appearance of a surface plasmon resonance peak at 432nm confirmed the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (UV-visible spectroscopy). The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were face centered cubic structures (XRD) with an approximate particle size of 40nm (TEM). Optimization study revealed that 10mL of plant extract (2mM AgNO3) at 180min of incubation resulted the optimum product synthesis. Poly-phenolic compounds were majorly involved in the reduction of silver ions into Ag-NPs (FT-IR). The catalytic activities of Ag-NPs were assessed against the photo-catalytic degradation of methylene blue and chemo catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP). The results indicated that the prepared Ag-NPs have strong chemo catalytic activity with a complete reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP within 10min. Similarly, Ag-NPs displayed higher photo-catalytic activity (K=0.12) as compared to commercial Ag-NPs (K=0.003). In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibited a promising antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH radicals. The findings of this study conclude that the biosynthesized Ag-NPs are promising agent possessing strong catalytic and reducing properties.

  19. Applications of light-induced electron-transfer and hydrogen-abstraction processes: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from reducing radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Whitten, D.G.

    1980-07-16

    A study of several photoprocesses which generate reducing radicals in similar photoelectrochemical cells was reported. Coupling of a light-induced reaction to produce a photocurrent concurrent with hydrogen generation in a second compartment can occur for a number of electron transfers and hydrogen abstractions in what appears to be a fairly general process. Irradiation of the RuL/sub 3//sup +2//Et/sub 3/N: photoanode compartment leads to production of a photocurrent together with generation of hydrogen at the cathode. A rather different type of reaction that also results in formation of two reducing radicals as primary photoproducts if the photoreduction of ketones and H-heteroaromatics by alcohols and other hydrogen atom donors. Irradiation of benzophenone/2-propanol/MV/sup +2/ solutions in the photoanode compartment (intensity 1.4 x 10/sup -8/ einstein/s) leads to a buildup of moderate levels of MV/sup +/ and to a steady photocurrent of 320 ..mu..A. The MV/sup +/ is oxidized at the anode of the photolyzed compartment with concomitant reduction of H/sup +/ in the cathode compartment. There was no decrease in benzophenone concentration over moderate periods of irradiation, and a steady production of hydrogen in the cathode compartment was observed. The photocurrent produced was linear with the square of absorbed light intensity. The quantum efficiency at the above-indicated intensity is 22%; quantitative analysis of the hydrogen produced gives good agreement with this value. 1 figure, 1 table. (DP)

  20. Application of exposure simulation system to reduce isolated-dense bias by using annular off-axis illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Yi-Nan; Chen, Nien-Po

    2008-11-01

    The optical proximity effect (OPE) is one of the most serious problems, as the optical lithography is pushed into the smaller feature size below the exposure wavelength. Some of the typical ways to solve this problem are to use the optical proximity correction (OPC) and the phase shift mask (PSM). However, these sophisticated techniques increase the cost of making masks, as well as the risk of getting defects on the masks. In this study we optimize the annular off-axis illumination (OAI) conditions to reduce the Isolated-Dense bias (IDB), in order to improve the resolution and the depth of focus (DOF) as a solution to fight for OPE. Through the simulation done with AIMS Fab 248 exposure system, the energy distribution on the photo-resist is analyzed with the intensity distribution across the simulated exposure images. The optimization is performed with the aid of Taguchi method. On the basis of the simulation analysis, the optimum optical parameters (the numerical aperture NA, the degree of coherence Sigma, and the ratio of the inner and the outer radii of the rings Annular) are selected to obtain the high resolution and enough DOF to reduce IDB value. The low IDB can be realized by using optimal optical parameters before exposure processes, without using sophisticated OPC and PSM on the masks.

  1. Formation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on melamine electrografted layers and its application toward the determination of methylxanthines.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Srinivasan; Raj, M Amal; John, S Abraham

    2016-03-01

    The current study describes the electrografting of 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (AT) groups at the surfaces of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and indium tin oxide (ITO) through in situ diazotization of melamine. The presence of AT groups at the surface of the electrode was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Furthermore, graphene oxide (GO) was self-assembled on AT grafted GCE. The oxygen functional groups present on the surface of GO were electrochemically reduced to form an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on AT grafted electrode surface. Raman spectra show the characteristic D and G bands at 1340 and 1605 cm(-1), respectively, which confirms the successful attachment of GO on AT grafted surface, and the ratio of D and G bands was increased after the electrochemical reduction of GO. EIS shows that the electron transfer reaction of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) was higher at the ERGO modified electrode than at bare, AT grafted, and GO modified GCEs. The electrocatalytic activity of ERGO was investigated toward the oxidation of methylxanthines. It shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward these methylxanthines by not only shifting their oxidation potentials toward less positive potentials but also enhancing their oxidation currents.

  2. Continuous piecewise-linear, reduced-order electrochemical model for lithium-ion batteries in real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Mohammed; Fleckenstein, Matthias; Habibi, Saeid

    2017-02-01

    Model-order reduction and minimization of the CPU run-time while maintaining the model accuracy are critical requirements for real-time implementation of lithium-ion electrochemical battery models. In this paper, an isothermal, continuous, piecewise-linear, electrode-average model is developed by using an optimal knot placement technique. The proposed model reduces the univariate nonlinear function of the electrode's open circuit potential dependence on the state of charge to continuous piecewise regions. The parameterization experiments were chosen to provide a trade-off between extensive experimental characterization techniques and purely identifying all parameters using optimization techniques. The model is then parameterized in each continuous, piecewise-linear, region. Applying the proposed technique cuts down the CPU run-time by around 20%, compared to the reduced-order, electrode-average model. Finally, the model validation against real-time driving profiles (FTP-72, WLTP) demonstrates the ability of the model to predict the cell voltage accurately with less than 2% error.

  3. Preparation of a stable aqueous suspension of reduced graphene oxide by a green method for applications in biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Song, Yahui; Han, Jing; Ge, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Xu, Chen; Wang, Yongqiang; Wu, Di; Qiu, Haixia

    2017-07-01

    A green approach for the preparation of a stable reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspension from graphene oxide (GO) has been developed. This method uses l-serine (l-Ser) as the reductant and yellow dextrin (YD) as the stabilizing agent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses showed that l-Ser can efficiently reduce GO at a comparatively low temperature, and that the YD adsorbed onto the RGO facilitating the formation of a stable RGO aqueous suspension. Since l-Ser and YD are natural environmentally friendly materials, this approach provides a green method to produce stable RGO from GO on a large scale. Sodium salicylate (SS) which has an aromatic structure was loaded onto the RGO through π-π interactions and a maximum loading capacity of 44.6mg/g was obtained. The release of the loaded SS can be controlled by adjusting the solution pH, and a 74.8% release was reached after 70h at pH 7.4. The release profile of SS could be further controlled by incorporating it into RGO Dispersed carboxylated chitosan films. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W

    2015-10-30

    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  6. Practical applications of sulfate-reducing bacteria to control acid mine drainage at the Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine near Elliston, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, M.

    1994-12-31

    The overall purpose of this document is to provide a detailed technical description of a technology, biological sulfate reduction, which is being demonstrated under the Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program, and provide the technology evaluation process undertaken to select this technology for demonstration. In addition, this document will link the use of the selected technology to an application at a specific site. The purpose of this project is to develop technical information on the ability of biological sulfate reduction to slow the process of acid generation and, thus, improve water quality at a remote mine site. Several technologies are screened for their potential to treat acid mine water and to function as a source control for a specific acid-generating situation: a mine shaft and associated underground workings flooded with acid mine water and discharging a small flow from a mine opening. The preferred technology is the use of biological sulfate reduction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are capable of reducing sulfate to sulfide, as well as increasing the pH and alkalinity of water affected by acid generation. Soluble sulfide reacts with the soluble metals in solution to form insoluble metal sulfides. The environment needed for efficient sulfate-reducing bacteria growth decreases acid production by reducing the dissolved oxygen in water and increasing pH. A detailed technical description of the sulfate-reducing bacteria technology, based on an extensive review of the technical literature, is presented. The field demonstration of this technology to be performed at the Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine is also described. Finally, additional in situ applications of biological sulfate reduction are presented.

  7. Reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles: one nano-host applicable for simultaneous optical down- and up-conversions.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Meehan, Kathleen; Hassounah, Ibrahim; Hudait, Mantu; Jain, Nikhil; Clavel, Michael; Elhelw, Sarah; Madi, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new synthesis procedure to form erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (EDC NPs) that can act as an optical medium for both up-conversion and down-conversion in the same time. This synthesis process results qualitatively in a high concentration of Ce(3+) ions required to obtain high fluorescence efficiency in the down-conversion process. Simultaneously, the synthesized nanoparticles contain the molecular energy levels of erbium that are required for up-conversion. Therefore, the synthesized EDC NPs can emit visible light when excited with either UV or IR photons. This opens new opportunities for applications where emission of light via both up- and down-conversions from a single nanomaterial is desired such as solar cells and bio-imaging.

  8. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E.; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed. PMID:27399702

  9. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-05

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  10. Reduced burning and stinging associated with topical application of lactic acid 10% with strontium versus ammonium lactate 12%.

    PubMed

    Haddican, Madelaine; Gagliotti, Matthew; Lebwohl, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Burning and/or stinging is one of the most common concerns expressed by patients using topical therapies for treatment of dermatologic disorders. Topical lactic acid preparations often are used to treat dry scaly skin. In this study, we compared the level of burning/stinging reported by participants with application of lactic acid cream 10% containing strontium versus ammonium lactate lotion 12% and cetearyl alcohol lotion. The mean rating of burning/stinging reported for lactic acid cream 10% with strontium and cetearyl alcohol lotion was lower than ammonium lactate lotion 12% (P<.0001). Based on the study results, lactic acid cream 10% with strontium causes less burning/stinging than ammonium lactate lotion 12%.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphite oxide-polymer composites and their application in adsorption of lead.

    PubMed

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the in situ polymerization of 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (15DAN) and 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (14DAA) on the surface of reduced graphite oxide (RGO). Synthesized RGO-P15DAN and RGO-P14DAA were characterized by FTIR, Raman, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption capacity and adsorptivity of the synthesized composites were investigated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using 100 ppm aqueous solution of Pb(2+) ions. Further, we compared the results of the composites with those of poly 1,5-(diaminonaphthalene) (P15DAN), poly 1,4-(diaminoanthraquinone) (P14DAA), RGO, graphite oxide (GO) and graphite. Among the tested adsorbents, RGO-P15DAN demonstrated the high adsorptivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Control system to reduce the effects of friction in drive trains of continuous-path-positioning systems. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Green, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    An improved continuous-path-positioning servo-control system is provided for reducing the effects of friction arising at very low cutting speeds in the drive trains of numerically controlled cutting machines, and the like. The improvement comprises a feed forward network for altering the gain of the servo-control loop at low positioning velocities to prevent stick-slip movement of the cutting tool holder being positioned by the control system. The feed forward network shunts conventional lag-compensators in the control loop, or loops, so that the error signal used for positioning varies linearly when the value is small, but being limited for larger values. Thus, at higher positioning speeds there is little effect of the added component upon the control being achieved.

  13. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  14. Reducing and Uniforming the Co3 O 4 Particle Size by Sulfonated Graphenal Polymers for Electrochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Xubo; Zeng, Sha; Fang, Jianhui; Men, Chuanling; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Qingwen

    2017-03-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, namely sulfonated graphenal polymer (SGP), is used to tune the hydrothermal growth of Co3O4 nanoparticles. SGP provides abundant nucleation sites to grow Co3O4 nanoparticles and effectively reduces the particle size and dimension. As a result, with considering the improved size uniformity of Co3O4 and the tight wrapping of SGP around Co3O4 as well, the Co3O4/SGP hybrid electrode exhibits a high specific electrochemical capacitance of 234.28 F/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g, 237% higher than that of the pure Co3O4 electrode. By using the hybrid as the anode of an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor, the capacitance can be well maintained up to 93% after 5000 cycles even at 2 A/g.

  15. New Electrospinning Nozzle to Reduce Jet Instability and Its Application to Manufacture of Multi-layered Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Park, Haedong; Lee, Geunsung; Yang, Ho-Sung; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-01-01

    A new nozzle system for the efficient production of multi-layered nanofibers through electrospinning is reported. Developed a decade ago, the commonly used coaxial nozzle system consisting of two concentric cylindrical needles has remained unchanged, despite recent advances in multi-layered, multi-functional nanofibers. Here, we demonstrate a core-cut nozzle system, in which the exit pipe of the core nozzle is removed such that the core fluid can form an envelope inside the shell solution. This configuration effectively improves the coaxial electrospinning behavior of two fluids and significantly reduces the jet instability, which was proved by finite element simulation. The proposed electrospinning nozzle system was then used to fabricate bi- and tri-layered carbon nanofibers. PMID:25342096

  16. A MEMS hardness sensor with reduced contact force dependence based on the reference plane concept aimed for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Terao, Kyohei; Shimokawa, Fusao; Takao, Hidekuni

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the stable detection principle of a MEMS hardness sensor with “reference plane” structure is theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental results. Hardness measurement independent of contact force instability is realized by the optimum design of the reference plane. The fabricated devices were evaluated, and a “shore A” hardness scale (JIS K 6301 A) was obtained as the reference in the range from A1 to A54 under a stable contact force. The contact force dependence on hardness sensor signals was effectively reduced by 96.6% using our reference plane design. Below 5 N contact force, the maximal signal error of hardness is suppressed to A8. This result corresponds to the detection capability for fat hardness, even when the contact force is unstable. Through experiments, stable detection of human body hardness has been demonstrated without any control of contact force.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical property of ZnO nanorods array synthesized on reduced graphene oxide for self-powered biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuo; Gu, Yousong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhiming; Liu, Yichong; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-15

    We have realized the direct synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array on reduced graphene layer (rGO), and demonstrated the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of the rGO/ZnO based photoanode under UV irradiation compared with the pristine ZnO NRs array. The introduction of the rGO layer resulted in a favorable energy band structure for electron migration, which finally led to the efficient photoinduced charge separation. Such nanostructure was subsequently employed for self-powered PEC biosensing of glutathione in the condition of 0 V bias, with a linear range from 10 to 200 µM, a detection limit of 2.17 µM, as well as excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The results indicated the rGO/ZnO nanostructure is a competitive candidate in the PEC biosensing field.

  18. A MapReduce scheme for image feature extraction and its application to man-made object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fei; Chen, Honghui

    2013-07-01

    A fundamental challenge in image engineering is how to locate interested objects from high-resolution images with efficient detection performance. Several man-made objects detection approaches have been proposed while the majority of these methods are not truly timesaving and suffer low degree of detection precision. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach for man-made object detection in aerial image involving MapReduce scheme for large scale image analysis to support image feature extraction, which can be widely used to compute-intensive tasks in a highly parallel way, and texture feature extraction and clustering. Comprehensive experiments show that the parallel framework saves voluminous time for feature extraction with satisfied objects detection performance.

  19. New electrospinning nozzle to reduce jet instability and its application to manufacture of multi-layered nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Park, Haedong; Lee, Geunsung; Yang, Ho-Sung; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-10-24

    A new nozzle system for the efficient production of multi-layered nanofibers through electrospinning is reported. Developed a decade ago, the commonly used coaxial nozzle system consisting of two concentric cylindrical needles has remained unchanged, despite recent advances in multi-layered, multi-functional nanofibers. Here, we demonstrate a core-cut nozzle system, in which the exit pipe of the core nozzle is removed such that the core fluid can form an envelope inside the shell solution. This configuration effectively improves the coaxial electrospinning behavior of two fluids and significantly reduces the jet instability, which was proved by finite element simulation. The proposed electrospinning nozzle system was then used to fabricate bi- and tri-layered carbon nanofibers.

  20. Approximation of skewed interfaces with tensor-based model reduction procedures: Application to the reduced basis hierarchical model reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlberger, Mario; Smetana, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    In this article we introduce a procedure, which allows to recover the potentially very good approximation properties of tensor-based model reduction procedures for the solution of partial differential equations in the presence of interfaces or strong gradients in the solution which are skewed with respect to the coordinate axes. The two key ideas are the location of the interface either by solving a lower-dimensional partial differential equation or by using data functions and the subsequent removal of the interface of the solution by choosing the determined interface as the lifting function of the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We demonstrate in numerical experiments for linear elliptic equations and the reduced basis-hierarchical model reduction approach that the proposed procedure locates the interface well and yields a significantly improved convergence behavior even in the case when we only consider an approximation of the interface.

  1. Projection on Proper elements for code control: Verification, numerical convergence, and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bufferand, H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.; Tamain, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to (1) checking the correct implementation of models, (2) determining the convergence of numerical methods, and (3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any number of dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify its ratio of cost to benefit. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.

  2. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  3. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-12-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  4. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  5. Structural investigation of SiSn/(reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposite powder for Li-ion battery anode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Laokawee, Viratchara; Sarakonsri, Thapanee; Hashizume, Takashi; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    We synthesized SiSn/(reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) nanocomposite powder for a Li-ion battery material and characterized the structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Graphene oxide was prepared by Hummers method. The graphene oxide powder processed by heat treatment was added together with Si powder into a solution of SnCl2 ṡ 2(H2O) dissolved in N2 bubbled ethylene glycol, and the solution was reacted with NaBH4. The product had a nominal atomic ratio of Si: Sn: C = 14: 3.5: 100. High-resolution TEM/STEM analysis revealed that the powder consisted of crystalline particles of Sn, Si, and SiO as well as thin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) lamellae of amorphous-like graphite with distorted lattices that were often found in areas as local as a few nm2. The aggregated Si and SiO particles grew up to several hundred nm across. Sn particles grew as large as a few tens of nm while those as small as a few nm were scattered on the (0001) rGO surface with some epitaxial relations. Si, SiO, and Sn particles were found hanging on at the edges of the rGO lamellae. An electrochemical test was performed for this nanocomposite powder. The result suggested that the SiSn/rGO powder would be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity.

  6. Contrast Enhanced Superharmonic Imaging for Acoustic Angiography Using Reduced Form-Factor Lateral Mode Transmitters for Intravascular and Intracavity Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuochen; Heath Martin, K; Huang, Wenbin; Dayton, Paul A; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2017-02-01

    Techniques to image the microvasculature may play an important role in imaging tumor-related angiogenesis and vasa vasorum associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. However, the microvasculature associated with these pathologies is difficult to detect using traditional B-mode ultrasound or even harmonic imaging due to small vessel size and poor differentiation from surrounding tissue. Acoustic angiography, a microvascular imaging technique that utilizes superharmonic imaging (detection of higher order harmonics of microbubble response), can yield a much higher contrast-to-tissue ratio than second harmonic imaging methods. In this paper, two dual-frequency transducers using lateral mode transmitters were developed for superharmonic detection and acoustic angiography imaging in intracavity applications. A single element dual-frequency intravascular ultrasound transducer was developed for concept validation, which achieved larger signal amplitude, better contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and pulselength compared to the previous work. A dual-frequency [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] array transducer was then developed for superharmonic imaging with dynamic focusing. The axial and lateral sizes of the microbubbles in a 200- [Formula: see text] tube were measured to be 269 and [Formula: see text], respectively. The maximum CNR was calculated to be 22 dB. These results show that superharmonic imaging with a low frequency lateral mode transmitter is a feasible alternative to thickness mode transmitters when the final transducer size requirements dictate design choices.

  7. Applicability of colloid filtration theory in size-distributed, reduced porosity, granular media in the absence of energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Pazmino, Eddy F; Ma, Huilian; Johnson, William P

    2011-12-15

    The vast majority of colloid transport experiments use granular porous media with narrow size distribution to facilitate comparison with colloid filtration theory, which represents porous media with a single collector size. In this work we examine retention of colloids ranging in size from 0.21 to 9.1 μm in diameter, in columns packed with uniform and size-distributed borosilicate glass bead porous media with porosity ranging from 0.38 to 0.28. Conditions were favorable to attachment (absent a significant energy barrier). The goal was to determine the applicability of colloid filtration theory to colloid retention in these media. We also directly observed deposition at the pore scale in packed flow cells. The pore domain was characterized via high resolution computerized X-ray micro tomography (HRXMT). The flow field was examined using Lattice-Boltzmann flow simulation methods (LBM). The influence of preferential flow paths on colloid retention in the lowest porosity media was accounted for by correcting the fluid velocity. Straining in pore throats too small to pass was not a significant contributor to colloid retention despite colloid-to-collector size ratios up to 0.05. Mechanistic simulations via the Ma-Pedel-Fife-Johnson correlation equation (MPFJ) for colloid filtration predicted the experimentally observed trends in deposition with porosity when a number-based mean grain size was used.

  8. Polymer-Based Surfaces Designed to Reduce Biofilm Formation: From Antimicrobial Polymers to Strategies for Long-Term Applications.

    PubMed

    Riga, Esther K; Vöhringer, Maria; Widyaya, Vania Tanda; Lienkamp, Karen

    2017-08-28

    Contact-active antimicrobial polymer surfaces bear cationic charges and kill or deactivate bacteria by interaction with the negatively charged parts of their cell envelope (lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan, and membrane lipids). The exact mechanism of this interaction is still under debate. While cationic antimicrobial polymer surfaces can be very useful for short-term applications, they lose their activity once they are contaminated by a sufficiently thick layer of adhering biomolecules or bacterial cell debris. This layer shields incoming bacteria from the antimicrobially active cationic surface moieties. Besides discussing antimicrobial surfaces, this feature article focuses on recent strategies that were developed to overcome the contamination problem. This includes bifunctional materials with simultaneously presented antimicrobial and protein-repellent moieties; polymer surfaces that can be switched from an antimicrobial, cell-attractive to a cell-repellent state; polymer surfaces that can be regenerated by enzyme action; degradable antimicrobial polymers; and antimicrobial polymer surfaces with removable top layers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Application of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-gold composite modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fan; Xi, Jingwen; Hou, Fei; Han, Lin; Li, Guangjiu; Gong, Shixing; Chen, Chanxing; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold (Au) composite was synthesized by electrodeposition and used for the electrode modification with carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of 3D RGO-Au/CILE to obtain an electrochemical sensing platform. Direct electrochemistry of Mb on the modified electrode was investigated with a pair of well-defined redox waves appeared on cyclic voltammogram, indicating the realization of direct electron transfer of Mb with the modified electrode. The results can be ascribed to the presence of highly conductive 3D RGO-Au composite on the electrode surface that accelerate the electron transfer rate between the electroactive center of Mb and the electrode. The Mb modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.2 to 36.0 mmol/L with the detection limit of 0.06 mmol/L (3σ). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zinc Treatment to Under-five Children: Applications to Improve Child Survival and Reduce Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles P.; Roy, S.K.; Khan, Azharul Islam; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Qadri, Firdausi

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient associated with over 300 biological functions. Marginal zinc deficiency states are common among children living in poverty and exposed to diets either low in zinc or high in phytates that compromise zinc uptake. These children are at increased risk of morbidity due to infectious diseases, including diarrhoea and respiratory infection. Children aged less than five years (under-five children) and those exposed to zinc-deficient diets will benefit from either daily supplementation of zinc or a 10 to 14-day course of zinc treatment for an episode of acute diarrhoea. This includes less severe illness and a reduced likelihood of repeat episodes of diarrhoea. Given these findings, the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund now recommend that all children with an acute diarrhoeal illness be treated with zinc, regardless of aetiology. ICDDR.B scientists have led the way in identifying the benefits of zinc. Now, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh and the private sector, the first national scaling up of zinc treatment has been carried out. Important challenges remain in terms of reaching the poorest families and those living in remote areas of Bangladesh. PMID:18831230

  11. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  12. Application of strategies for sanitation management in wastewater treatment plants in order to control/reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Préndez, Margarita; Lara-González, Scarlette

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHG), basically methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O), occur at atmospheric concentrations of ppbv to ppmv under natural conditions. GHG have long mean lifetimes and are an important factor for the mean temperature of the Earth. However, increasing anthropogenic emissions could produce a scenario of progressive and cumulative effects over time, causing a potential "global climate change". Biological degradation of the organic matter present in wastewater is considered one of the anthropogenic sources of GHG. In this study, GHG emissions for the period 1990-2027 were estimated considering the sanitation process and the official domestic wastewater treatment startup schedule approved for the Metropolitan Region (MR) of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers selected models proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and some others published by different authors; these were modified according to national conditions and different sanitation and temporal scenarios. For the end of the modeled period (2027), results show emissions of about 65 Tg CO(2) equiv./year (as global warming potential), which represent around 50% of national emissions. These values could be reduced if certain sanitation management strategies were introduced in the environmental management by the sanitation company in charge of wastewater treatment.

  13. Colonization on root surface by a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium and its application for reducing plant phenanthrene contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Shuang; Sun, Kai; Sheng, Yuehui; Gu, Yujun; Gao, Yanzheng

    2014-01-01

    A phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium, Pn2, was isolated from Alopecurus aequalis Sobol grown in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Based on morphology, physiological characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence, it was identified as Massilia sp. Strain Pn2 could degrade more than 95% of the phenanthrene (150 mg · L(-1)) in a minimal salts medium (MSM) within 48 hours at an initial pH of 7.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. Pn2 could grow well on the MSM plates with a series of other PAHs, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, and degrade them to different degrees. Pn2 could also colonize the root surface of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), invade its internal root tissues and translocate into the plant shoot. When treated with the endophyte Pn2 under hydroponic growth conditions with 2 mg · L(-1) of phenanthrene in the Hoagland solution, the phenanthrene concentrations in ryegrass roots and shoots were reduced by 54% and 57%, respectively, compared with the endophyte-free treatment. Strain Pn2 could be a novel and useful bacterial resource for eliminating plant PAH contamination in polluted environments by degrading the PAHs inside plants. Furthermore, we provide new perspectives on the control of the plant uptake of PAHs via endophytic bacteria.

  14. Application of real-time quantitative PCR to molecular analysis of Candida albicans strains exhibiting reduced susceptibility to azoles.

    PubMed

    Chau, Andrew S; Mendrick, Cara A; Sabatelli, Frank J; Loebenberg, David; McNicholas, Paul M

    2004-06-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure expression levels of genes encoding efflux pumps, ERG11 and two control genes, ACT1 and PMA1, in a collection of 14 fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans isolates. For each gene, average expression levels and variations within the population were determined. These values were then used as reference points to make predictions about the molecular basis of resistance in 38 clinical isolates (the majority of which were resistant to fluconazole) obtained from 18 patients treated with posaconazole for refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis. For each of the 38 isolates, the expression levels of genes encoding efflux pumps, ERG11 and the control genes, were measured as above. Comparison of the two data sets revealed that expression of ACT1 and PMA1 did not vary significantly between the two sets of isolates. In contrast, MDR1, ERG11, CDR1, and CDR2 were overexpressed in 3, 4, 14, and 35, respectively, of the isolates from patients treated with azoles. In addition to these changes, the patient isolates all had at least one and often multiple missense mutations in ERG11. Select ERG11 alleles were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; all of the alleles tested conferred reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. Despite both the increases in pump expression and the ERG11 mutations, only one of the patient isolates exhibited a large decrease in posaconazole susceptibility.

  15. Reducing quasi-ergodic behavior in Monte Carlo simulations by J-walking: Applications to atomic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, D. D.; Freeman, D. L.; Doll, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    A method is introduced that is easy to implement and greatly reduces the systematic error resulting from quasi-ergodicity, or incomplete sampling of configuration space, in Monte Carlo simulations of systems containing large potential energy barriers. The method makes possible the jumping over these barriers by coupling the usual Metropolis sampling to the Boltzmann distribution generated by another random walker at a higher temperature. The basic techniques are illustrated on some simple classical systems, beginning for heuristic purposes with a simple one-dimensional double well potential based on a quartic polynomial. The method's suitability for typical multidimensional Monte Carlo systems is demonstrated by extending the double well potential to several dimensions, and then by applying the method to a multiparticle cluster system consisting of argon atoms bound by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. Remarkable improvements are demonstrated in the convergence rate for the cluster configuration energy, and especially for the heat capacity, at temperatures near the cluster melting transition region. Moreover, these improvements can be obtained even in the worst-case scenario where the clusters are initialized from random configurations.

  16. GPU Accelerated Reduced MHD Simulations: An Application to Magnetic Island Coalescence in 3D Line-Tied Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liwei; Ng, Chung-Sang; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2011-10-01

    We present a comprehensive re-programming of a 3D reduced MHD code for hardware acceleration using graphics processing units (GPUs) with Nvidia CUDA. The code (pseudo-spectral semi-implicit) is tailored for the study of a 3D model of coronal heating [Arxiv:1106.0515]. We discuss our general porting strategy and report code performance and detailed code tracing on GPU accelerated supercomputers (NCSA/Forge, NICS/Keeneland). At 20482 × 256 , the highest resolution tested, the chip-to-chip speedup is 18 × comparing Xeon Nehalem QC and Nvidia Fermi. Scaling well up to 256 GPUs, the code effectively gives a speedup of 46 × compared with our original code on a conventional CPU cluster. A test case is presented in which magnetic island coalescence is studied in 3D line-tied geometry, where very large Lundquist numbers are used to induce magnetic flux-tube sloshing. Results are compared with existing 2D simulations and the advantages of the GPU implementation are emphasized. This work is supported by NASA: NNX08BA71G, NNX06AC19G, DOE: DE-FG02-07ER54832, NSF: AGS-096247, and NSF TeraGrid grants at NCSA (TG-PHY100057) and NICS (UT-NTNL0092).

  17. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2017-02-01

    In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM-1 cm-2 in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  18. An Application of Deviance Regulation Theory to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Women During Spring Break.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M

    2017-02-20

    Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Spectroscopic, colorimetric and theoretical investigation of salicylidene hydrazine based reduced Schiff base and its application towards biologically important anions.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sankar; Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2012-06-15

    A reduced Schiff base anionic receptor 1 [N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzyl)hydrazine] has been synthesized, characterized and reported as a selective chromogenic receptor for fluoride, acetate and phosphate anions over the other tested anions such as chloride, bromide, iodide and hydrogensulphite. Colorimetric naked-eye detection and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques were used to distinguish the recognition behaviours towards various anions. The receptor-anion complexation mainly occurs via hydrogen bonding interactions which facile to generate the charge transfer band in the UV-vis spectra and cause large bathochromic shift as well as naked-eye colour change. Complexation stoichiometry, binding constant and free energy change due to complex formation were determined from Benesi-Hildebrand plot. The binding constant and the free energy change values are well interactive for spontaneous complexation. The experimental results have been correlated with the theoretical calculations using B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for both the receptor and complex by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method.

  20. [Application of liquid chromatography in substitution of the radioimmunoassay technique in order to reduce residues generated in health services in research laboratory].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, Luciane M; Sugawara, Eduardo K; Verreschi, Ieda T N

    2008-10-01

    Designing a Health Care Service Waste Management Plan, according to the RDC 306 rules, is a responsibility of all those who produce such waste. Since radioimmunoassay (RIA) is one of the most employed techniques, we studied the impact of replacing this technique by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with regard to the reduction of the radioactive residues routinely produced by the Unifesp steroid laboratory. The residues produced by the determination of serum cortisol and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were classified, and those belonging to groups B and C were evaluated. We observed that, when RIA is used, chemical residues (group B) and radioactive waste (group C) are produced, whereas HPLC generates only chemical residues. Adequation of these techniques showed to be advantageous, by significantly reducing the time of analysis and mainly by eliminating and/or reducing the generation of radioactive waste, encouraging its application to other methodologies, as well as its adoption by other research units.

  1. Improved properties of phosphor-filled luminescent down-shifting layers: reduced scattering, optical model, and optimization for PV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Lipovšek, Benjamin; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Krč, Janez; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Topič, Marko; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the optical properties of polymer layers filled with phosphor particles in two aspects. First, we used two different polymer binders with refractive indices n = 1.46 and n = 1.61 (λ = 600 nm) to decrease Δn with the phosphor particles (n = 1.81). Second, we prepared two particle size distributions D50 = 12 μm and D50 = 19 μm. The particles were dispersed in both polymer binders in several volume concentrations and coated onto glass with thicknesses of 150 - 600 μm. We present further a newly developed optical model for simulation and optimization of such luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layers. The model is developed within the ray tracing framework of the existing optical simulator CROWM (Combined Ray Optics / Wave Optics Model), which enables simulation of standalone LDS layers as well as complete solar cells (including thick and thin layers) enhanced by the LDS layers for an improved solar spectrum harvesting. Experimental results and numerical simulations show that the layers of the higher refractive index binder with larger particles result in the highest optical transmittance in the visible light spectrum. Finally we proved that scattering of the phosphor particles in the LDS layers may increase the overall light harvesting in the solar cell. We used numerical simulations to determine optimal layer composition for application in realistic thin-film photovoltaic devices. Surprisingly LDS layers with lower measured optical transmittance are more efficient when applied onto the solar cells due to graded refractive index and efficient light scattering. Therefore, our phosphor-filled LDS layers could possibly complement other light-coupling techniques in photovoltaics.

  2. Reduced-complexity probabilistic reconstruction of alluvial aquifer stratigraphy, and application to sedimentary fans in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Wout M.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Sinha, Rajiv; Singh, Ajit; Voller, Vaughan R.

    2016-10-01

    Generating a realistic model of subsurface stratigraphy that fits data from multiple well locations is a well-established problem in the field of aquifer characterisation. This is particularly critical for the alluvial fan-hosted aquifers in northwestern India, as they have some of the highest rates of groundwater extraction in the world and spatially limited subsurface observations. The objective of this study is to develop a reduced-complexity model that generates probabilistic estimates of aquifer body occurrence within a sedimentary fan, based loosely on the northwestern Indian aquifer system. We propose a parsimonious, inverse-weighted random walk model that reconstructs potential channel belt pathways within a discrete depth range or slice by (i) connecting known aquifer locations with the fan apex, (ii) filling adjacent cells with non-aquifer material based on estimated channel-body dimensions, and (iii) random filling of the remaining cells until the model fraction of aquifer material is comparable to the bulk aquifer fraction observed from well data. Once filled, individual depth slices can be stacked to produce a three-dimensional representation of aquifer-body geometry, allowing informed inference and testable predictions about the configuration of aquifer units in the subsurface. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve shows that the model performs better than fully random filling, both in matching the locations of aquifer material in the subsurface and in reconstructing the geometry of relict channel bodies preserved on the fan surface. The model differs from purely statistical-empirical approaches by incorporating some geomorphic knowledge of fluvial channel belt geometry within the fan system. In contrast to a fully process-based approach, the model is computationally fast and is easily refined as new subsurface data become available.

  3. Application of a bacteriological on-farm test to reduce antimicrobial usage in dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharge.

    PubMed

    Madoz, L V; Prunner, I; Jaureguiberry, M; Gelfert, C-C; de la Sota, R L; Giuliodori, M J; Drillich, M

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a selective antibiotic treatment strategy based on a quick bacteriological on-farm test (Petrifilm, 3M Corp., St. Paul, MN) compared with the conventional antibiotic treatment of all cows having clinical endometritis (CE) defined by the presence of purulent vaginal discharge on both clinical cure rate and reproductive performance. The study was simultaneously conducted with dairy cows reared under a highly supplemented rotational grazing system in Argentina and in a freestall system in Slovakia. Cows having an abnormal vaginal discharge (VD, indicative of clinical endometritis) on 21 to 35 d in milk (DIM) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 study groups: selective treatment (ST) or conventional treatment (CT). All cows in the CT group (n = 174) received a single intrauterine administration of 500 mg of cephapirin. In the ST group (n = 178), treatment decision was made according to the results of the bacteriological on-farm test. For this test, we collected intrauterine samples with the cytobrush technique and stroke the brushes onto 2 different Petrifilm plates, one for aerobic count and another for Enterobacteriaceae count, incubated the plates, and counted the number of colonies after 24 h. Positive cows (≥5 colonies in one or both plates) received a single intrauterine treatment with 500 mg of cephapirin, whereas negative cows (<5 colonies) remained untreated. Clinical cure rate was assessed by direct vaginal inspection at 14 d after treatment (VD-0). The odds for conception at first artificial insemination, artificial insemination by 80 DIM, pregnancy by 100 DIM, and for nonpregnancy by 200 DIM were estimated with mixed logistic regression models. The hazard of conception was also assessed with proportional hazard regression model. The selective antibiotic treatment strategy based on the outcome of Petrifilm test reduced the number of required treatments (57%) and maintained similar efficacy in terms of

  4. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology.

  5. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some sigma phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets film: layer-by-layer electrochemical preparation, characterization and rifampicin sensory application.

    PubMed

    Rastgar, Shokoufeh; Shahrokhian, Saeed

    2014-02-01

    Electrochemical deposition, as a well-controlled synthesis procedure, has been used for subsequently layer-by-layer preparation of nickel hydroxide nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Ni(OH)2-RGO) on a graphene oxide (GO) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The surface morphology and nature of the nano-hybrid film (Ni(OH)2-RGO) was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The modified electrode appeared as an effective electro-catalytic model for analysis of rifampicin (RIF) by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The prepared modified electrode exhibited a distinctly higher activity for electro-oxidation of RIF than either GO, RGO nanosheets or Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles. Enhancement of peak currents is ascribed to the fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics that arise from the synergistic coupling between the excellent properties of RGO nanosheets (such as high density of edge plane sites, subtle electronic characteristics and attractive π-π interaction) and unique properties of metal nanoparticles. Under the optimized analysis conditions, the modified electrode showed two oxidation processes for rifampicin at potentials about 0.08 V (peak I) and 0.69 V (peak II) in buffer solution of pH 7.0 with a wide linear dynamic range of 0.006-10.0 µmol L(-1) and 0.04-10 µmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 4.16 nmol L(-1) and 2.34 nmol L(-1) considering peaks I and II as an analytical signal, respectively. The results proved the efficacy of the fabricated modified electrode for simple, low cost and highly sensitive medicine sensor well suited for the accurate determinations of trace amounts of rifampicin in the pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  7. Reducing Salmonella on cantaloupes and honeydew melons using wash practices applicable to postharvest handling, foodservice, and consumer preparation.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tracy L; Harris, Linda J; Suslow, Trevor V

    2005-03-01

    Washing conditions that included a soak or brush scrub were evaluated for removal of Salmonella from the surface of smooth (honeydew) or complex (cantaloupe) melon rinds. Melon rinds were spot-inoculated onto a 2.5 cm2 area of rind (squares) with approximately 6.0 log(10) CFU/square of an avirulent nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Melons were washed by immersion in 1500 ml of water or 200 ppm total chlorine and allowed to soak or were scrubbed over the entire melon surface with a sterile vegetable brush for 60 s. Inoculated sites, uninoculated sites ("next to" sites) that were adjacent to inoculated sites, and sites on the side of the melon opposite (remote sites) the inoculated site were excised and pummeled in a stomacher for 2 min prior to plating onto tryptic soy or bismuth sulfite agar supplemented with 50 microg/ml nalidixic acid. S. typhimurium was reduced on the rind of cantaloupe by 1.8 log CFU/melon after soaking for 60 s in 200 ppm total chlorine, which was significantly better than the 0.7 log CFU/melon achieved with soaking in water. For both water and 200 ppm total chlorine, scrubbing with a vegetable brush was shown to be significantly (0.9 log CFU/cantaloupe) more effective than soaking alone. When honeydew melons were soaked or scrubbed in water, reductions of 2.8 log CFU/melon or >4.6 log CFU/melon (four of five samples), respectively, were observed. However, when water treatments were used, the presence of Salmonella-positive "next to" and remote sites indicated that bacteria were spread from inoculated site on the rind to uninoculated sites either through the rinse water (40-70 CFU/ml of Salmonella) or scrub brush (400-500 CFU/brush). Transfer to other sites occurred more often with cantaloupe than honeydew melons. This transfer was eliminated when 200 ppm total chlorine was used. When 200 ppm total chlorine was used, Salmonella could not be detected in the water or on the scrub brush. For optimal microbial removal in

  8. Topical application of {beta}-radiation to reduce intimal hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in rabbit A possible application for brachytherapy in vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, David; Stevens, Scott L.; Skillern, C.S.; Wellons, Eric D.; Robinson, Keith; Matsuura, John H.; Gannon, Brian J

    2002-03-01

    Purpose: Endovascular brachytherapy for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis after balloon/stent angioplasty has proven effective both in animal preparations and clinical trials. A variety of {beta}-emitting isotopes and catheter-based devices have been developed for the delivery of low-dose radiation in clinical coronary and peripheral trials. No platform, however, has yet been developed for brachytherapy in concert with vascular surgical operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular histopathologic response following balloon injury to rabbit carotid arteries with and without topically applied low-dose {beta}-radiation. Methods: The {beta}-emitting isotope strontium-90 (Sr-90) was conjugated onto the matrix of polypropylene (PLYP) mesh. Rabbit carotid arteries were balloon-injured with a no. 2 embolectomy catheter. Six carotid arteries were wrapped with nonradioactive PLYP mesh (controls) and Sr-90 ({approx}90 {mu}Ci) PLYP mesh in order to deliver low-dose radiation to the vessel wall from the external (adventitial) surface. Tissue was harvested at 6 weeks and processed for histologic examination. Results: There was consistent blockade of fibrocellular neointima formation with virtually no neointima present in all treated segments, compared to moderate neointima formation in controls. Medial thinning and smooth muscle cell (SMC) necrosis were also associated with topical brachytherapy. Conclusion: {beta}-Radiation applied by an externally wrapped PLYP mesh labeled with Sr-90 markedly suppressed neointima formation in an animal vascular surgical injury model. Further studies, however, are necessary to determine a suitable isotope and dosage for clinical application.

  9. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H

    1983-03-01

    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  10. Absorption and distribution characteristics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after an application to the liver surface in rats in order to reduce systemic side effects.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishi, Junya; Nakashima, Mikiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Junzo; Nishida, Koyo

    2008-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the absorption and distribution characteristics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after its application to the liver surface in rats to examine the possibility of reducing the systemic side effects of this agent. 5-FU was applied to the surface of the liver by employing a cylindrical diffusion cell. Approximately 69% of the dose was absorbed in 360 min. The time course of the change in the amount of 5-FU remaining in the diffusion cell obeyed first-order kinetics. Also, a linear relationship was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, P app, and the reciprocal of the square root of the molecular weight of several compounds including 5-FU. The estimated P app value of 5-FU was in good agreement with the experimental value. The plasma concentration of 5-FU was low (<1.2 microg/ml) until 360 min after the application. Following i.v. administration, 5-FU was rapidly eliminated from the plasma and could not be detected at 120 min. In the analysis of tissue distribution, the liver was divided into three sites; the region under the diffusion cell attachment site (site 1), the treated lobe excluding site 1 (site 2), and untreated lobes (site 3). After being administered i.v., 5-FU mainly distributed in the kidney, and the concentration in the liver was significantly lower than that in kidney, spleen, or heart. After its application to the liver surface, however, 5-FU preferentially distributed at site 1, and was not detected at the other sites or in other tissues. Thus, these results suggested the possibility of a reduction in the systemic side effect of 5-FU on its application to the liver surface.

  11. Hand skill assessment with a reduced version of the Peg Moving Task (PMT-5) in children: normative data and application in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Gilberto; Braga, Lucia Willadino; Rossi, Luciana; Lawisch, Vera Lucia; Nunes, Luiz Guilherme Nadal; Dellatolas, Georges

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple method of hand skill assessment in children that can be useful in clinical practice. A reduced 5-hole version of Annett's Peg Moving Task was used to quantify hand skill bilaterally in 435 normally developing preschool and school-children, and adolescents aged 3-18 years from Brazil. The cross-cultural validity of the normative data obtained in Brazil was verified in 157 school-children aged 6-11 years from France. An application in 76 children with cerebral palsy (hemiplegia 21, diplegia 34, triplegia 6, mixed type 15) showed very important variability of the deficits in hand function within each subtype of cerebral palsy (CP). Hand deficits were more severe in children in special schools than in children in regular schools within each CP subtype. A qualitative analysis showed which difficulties during the execution of the task were specific to children with CP and which were also observed in normally developing children.

  12. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of magnetically recoverable palladium/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and its catalytic applications in cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Zhuqing; Zhuang, Peiyuan; Shen, Jianfeng; Ye, Mingxin

    2017-07-01

    A facile, green, economical approach was designed to deposit palladium nanoparticles on magnetic reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Pd-Fe3O4/rGO) via a one-pot hydrothermal synthesis method. The prepared Pd-Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposites were thoroughly characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Importantly, the highly efficient catalytic property of the as-obtained Pd-Fe3O4/rGO catalyst was demonstrated for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction and Mizoroki-Heck coupling reaction. Significantly, the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions could be efficiently performed in an environmentally friendly aqueous solution with no need for further additives. Besides, the nanocomposites could be conveniently separated from reaction system with an external permanent magnet for recycling and the inherent catalytic activity of the nanocomposites did not exacerbate after six repeated applications.

  13. Biocomposite based on reduced graphene oxide film modified with phenothiazone and flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase for glucose sensing and biofuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Ravenna, Yehonatan; Xia, Lin; Gun, Jenny; Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Medvedev, Alexander G; Lev, Ovadia; Alfonta, Lital

    2015-10-06

    A novel composite material for the encapsulation of redox enzymes was prepared. Reduced graphene oxide film with adsorbed phenothiazone was used as a highly efficient composite for electron transfer between flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and electrodes. Measured redox potential for glucose oxidation was lower than 0 V vs Ag/AgCl electrode. The fabricated biosensor showed high sensitivity of 42 mA M(-1) cm(-2), a linear range of glucose detection of 0.5-12 mM, and good reproducibility and stability as well as high selectivity for different interfering compounds. In a semibiofuel cell configuration, the hybrid film generated high power output of 345 μW cm(-2). These results demonstrate a promising potential for this composition in various bioelectronic applications.

  14. Application of a Reduced Order Kalman Filter to Initialize a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Impact on the Prediction of El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Busalacchi, A.; Murtugudde, R.

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order Kalman Filter, based on a simplification of the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter equations, is used to assimilate observed fields of the surface wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level into the nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model of Zebiak and Cane. The SEEK filter projects the Kalman Filter equations onto a subspace defined by the eigenvalue decomposition of the error forecast matrix, allowing its application to high dimensional systems. The Zebiak and Cane model couples a linear reduced gravity ocean model with a single vertical mode atmospheric model of Zebiak. The compatibility between the simplified physics of the model and each observed variable is studied separately and together. The results show the ability of the model to represent the simultaneous value of the wind stress, SST and sea level, when the fields are limited to the latitude band 10 deg S - 10 deg N In this first application of the Kalman Filter to a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction model, the sea level fields are assimilated in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby modes of the thermocline depth anomaly. An estimation of the error of these modes is derived from the projection of an estimation of the sea level error over such modes. This method gives a value of 12 for the error of the Kelvin amplitude, and 6 m of error for the Rossby component of the thermocline depth. The ability of the method to reconstruct the state of the equatorial Pacific and predict its time evolution is demonstrated. The method is shown to be quite robust for predictions up to six months, and able to predict the onset of the 1997 warm event fifteen months before its occurrence.

  15. Application of a Reduced Order Kalman Filter to Initialize a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Impact on the Prediction of El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Busalacchi, A.; Murtugudde, R.

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order Kalman Filter, based on a simplification of the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter equations, is used to assimilate observed fields of the surface wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level into the nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model of Zebiak and Cane. The SEEK filter projects the Kalman Filter equations onto a subspace defined by the eigenvalue decomposition of the error forecast matrix, allowing its application to high dimensional systems. The Zebiak and Cane model couples a linear reduced gravity ocean model with a single vertical mode atmospheric model of Zebiak. The compatibility between the simplified physics of the model and each observed variable is studied separately and together. The results show the ability of the model to represent the simultaneous value of the wind stress, SST and sea level, when the fields are limited to the latitude band 10 deg S - 10 deg N In this first application of the Kalman Filter to a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction model, the sea level fields are assimilated in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby modes of the thermocline depth anomaly. An estimation of the error of these modes is derived from the projection of an estimation of the sea level error over such modes. This method gives a value of 12 for the error of the Kelvin amplitude, and 6 m of error for the Rossby component of the thermocline depth. The ability of the method to reconstruct the state of the equatorial Pacific and predict its time evolution is demonstrated. The method is shown to be quite robust for predictions up to six months, and able to predict the onset of the 1997 warm event fifteen months before its occurrence.

  16. Application of a Reduced Order Kalman Filter to Initialize a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Impact on the Prediction of El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Murtugudde, Ragu

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order Kalman Filter, based on a simplification of the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter equations, is used to assimilate observed fields of the surface wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level into the nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The SEEK filter projects the Kalman Filter equations onto a subspace defined by the eigenvalue decomposition of the error forecast matrix, allowing its application to high dimensional systems. The Zebiak and Cane model couples a linear reduced gravity ocean model with a single vertical mode atmospheric model of Zebiak. The compatibility between the simplified physics of the model and each observed variable is studied separately and together. The results show the ability of the model to represent the simultaneous value of the wind stress, SST and sea level, when the fields are limited to the latitude band 10 deg S - 10 deg N. In this first application of the Kalman Filter to a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction model, the sea level fields are assimilated in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby modes of the thermocline depth anomaly. An estimation of the error of these modes is derived from the projection of an estimation of the sea level error over such modes. This method gives a value of 12 for the error of the Kelvin amplitude, and 6 m of error for the Rossby component of the thermocline depth. The ability of the method to reconstruct the state of the equatorial Pacific and predict its time evolution is demonstrated. The method is shown to be quite robust for predictions I up to six months, and able to predict the onset of the 1997 warm event fifteen months before its occurrence.

  17. Platinum-TM (TM = Fe, Co) alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotube) hybrid structure cathode electrocatalysts for high performance PEMFC applications.

    PubMed

    Vinayan, B P; Ramaprabhu, S

    2013-06-07

    The efforts to push proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for commercial applications are being undertaken globally. In PEMFC, the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) at the cathode can be improved by the alloying of platinum with 3d-transition metals (TM = Fe, Co, etc.) and with nitrogen doping, and in the present work we have combined both of these aspects. We describe a facile method for the synthesis of a nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)) hybrid structure (N-(G-MWNTs)) by the uniform coating of a nitrogen containing polymer over the surface of the hybrid structure (positively surface charged rGO-negatively surface charged MWNTs) followed by the pyrolysis of these (rGO-MWNTs) hybrid structure-polymer composites. The N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure is used as a catalyst support for the dispersion of platinum (Pt), platinum-iron (Pt3Fe) and platinum-cobalt (Pt3Co) alloy nanoparticles. The PEMFC performances of Pt-TM alloy nanoparticle dispersed N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure electrocatalysts are 5.0 times higher than that of commercial Pt-C electrocatalysts along with very good stability under acidic environment conditions. This work demonstrates a considerable improvement in performance compared to existing cathode electrocatalysts being used in PEMFC and can be extended to the synthesis of metal, metal oxides or metal alloy nanoparticle decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanostructures for various electrochemical energy applications.

  18. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils.

  19. Application of conjugated heparin-albumin microparticles with laser-balloon angioplasty: a potential method for reducing adverse biologic reactivity after angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sourav K.; McMath, Linda P.; Zaidan, Jonathan T.; Spears, J. Richard

    1991-05-01

    Laser-balloon angioplasty (LBA) may potentially be used for local application of pharmacologically active agents which will reduce thrombogenic and proliferative responses after the angioplasty. In this study, the feasibility of applying covalently conjugated heparin- albumin microparticles onto arterial luminal surface was demonstrated. The covalent linkages were formed by reaction with 1-ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC), and the resultant conjugates were used for preparation of microparticles by employing standard emulsification and heat-crosslinking techniques. The heparin release rate from the microparticles was found to be dependent upon the degree of crosslinking. When a thin coagulum of a suspension of microparticles was formed with heat on a glass surface, the treated surface demonstrated resistance to clot formation in contact with non-anticoagulated blood. A suspension of the microparticles applied during laser-balloon angioplasty onto the luminal surface of dog carotid and femoral arteries showed persistence for up to one week without thrombus formation or occlusion of the vessel. Since the rate of biodegradation is primarily dictated by the extent of crosslinking, an optimal degree of thermal denaturation will permit longer persistence of the carrier while allowing adequate release of the entrapped pharmacologic agent. A variety of antithrombotic and antiinflammatory agents are being considered as candidate bioprotective materials for local application after angioplasty.

  20. Application of Z-scan technique for the study of nonlinear absorption in chemically reduced LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostritskii, SM; Aillerie, M.; Kokonyan, E.; Sevostyanov, OG

    2017-07-01

    The nonlinear absorption (NLA) was studied by open-aperture Z-scan experiments in the chemically reduced nominally pure LiNbO3 crystals at cw-illumination with the red (644 nm) and green (514.5 nm) laser beams. The magnitude of the measured NLA is considerably different from the reported Z-scan results obtained in as-grown LiNbO3. The positive sign of NLA obtained with the red light has been related to the generation of the small bound polarons absorbing in red and near-IR ranges. Application of green light results in the light-induced transparency, i.e. the Z-scan traces show negative sign of NLA. Intensity dependence of Z-scan traces allows for conclusion that the photo-induced dissociation of small NbLi 4+:NbNb 4+ bipolarons and sequent generation of small polarons gives the dominating contribution to the nonlinear optical absorption in reduced crystals with a large bipolarons concentration.

  1. Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Mohanty, Soumitra; Padhi, Avinash; Sengupta, Mitali; Vaseeharan, Baskarlingam; Goswami, Chandan; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-08-01

    Here we studied immunological and antibacterial mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) against human pathogens. ZnO-NPs showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and least against Mycobacterium bovis-BCG. However, BCG killing was significantly increased in synergy with antituberculous-drug rifampicin. Antibacterial mechanistic studies showed that ZnO-NPs disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity and down-regulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. ZnO-NP treatment also augmented the intracellular bacterial killing by inducing reactive oxygen species production and co-localization with Mycobacterium smegmatis-GFP in macrophages. Moreover, ZnO-NPs disrupted biofilm formation and inhibited hemolysis by hemolysin toxin producing S. aureus. Intradermal administration of ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the skin infection, bacterial load and inflammation in mice, and also improved infected skin architecture. We envision that this study offers novel insights into antimicrobial actions of ZnO-NPs and also demonstrates ZnO-NPs as a novel class of topical anti-infective agent for the treatment of skin infections. This in-depth study demonstrates properties of ZnO nanoparticles in infection prevention and treatment in several skin infection models, dissecting the potential mechanisms of action of these nanoparticles and paving the way to human applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intranasal application of dopamine reduces activity and improves attention in Naples High Excitability rats that feature the mesocortical variant of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Lucia A; de Souza Silva, Maria A; Topic, Bianca; Mattern, Claudia; Huston, Joseph P; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2009-10-01

    Based on findings of a profound action of intranasally applied dopamine (DA) on dopamine release in the striatum, we examined the possibility that intranasal application of DA would influence indices of attention and activity in juvenile male rats of the Naples High Excitability line. This rat model features the main aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Juvenile NHE rats received an intranasal application of either DA (0.075 mg/kg, 0.15 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg) or vehicle into both nostrils daily for 15 days. On day 14, 1 h after treatment, they were tested in the Làt maze, and one day later, in the eight arm radial maze. Activity in the Làt maze: The highest dose of DA (0.3 mg/kg) decreased horizontal (HA) and vertical (VA) activity during the first 10 min of the test. No effect was found for rearing duration (RD), which indexes non-selective attention (NSA). Activity in the radial maze: No treatment effects were found for HA and VA components, and for RD. Attention indices: The intermediate dose of DA (0.15 mg/kg) significantly improved the number of arms visited before the first repetitive arm entry in the radial maze, an index of selective spatial attention (SSA). In conclusion, intranasal application of DA reduced hyperactivity at the highest dose used, whereas the intermediate dose improved attention in an animal model of ADHD. These results suggest the potential of employing intranasal DA for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Production of a microcapsule agent of chromate-reducing Lysinibacillus fusiformis ZC1 and its application in remediation of chromate-spiked soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Li, Jingxin; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Lysinibacillus fusiformis ZC1 is an efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterium that can transform the toxic and soluble chromate [Cr(VI)] form to the less toxic and precipitated chromite form [Cr(III)]. As such, this strain might be applicable for bioremediation of Cr(VI) in soil by reducing its bioavailability. The study objective was to prepare a microcapsule agent of strain ZC1 for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Using a single-factor orthogonal array design, the optimal fermentation medium was obtained and consisted of 6 g/L corn flour, 12 g/L soybean flour, 8 g/L NH4Cl and 6 g/L CaCl2. After enlarged fermentation, the cell and spore densities were 5.9 × 10(9) and 1.7 × 10(8) cfu/mL, respectively. The fermentation products were collected and embedded with 1 % gum arabic and 1 % sorbitol as the microcapsule carriers and were subsequently spray-dried. Strain ZC1 exhibited viable cell counts of (3.6 ± 0.44) × 10(10) cfu/g dw after 50-day storage at room temperature. In simulated soil bioremediation experiments, 67 % of Cr(VI) was reduced in 5 days with the inoculation of this microcapsule agent, and the Cr(VI) concentration was below the soil Cr(VI) standard level. The results demonstrated that the microcapsule agent of strain ZC1 is efficient for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

  4. Microbial Larvicide Application by a Large-Scale, Community-Based Program Reduces Malaria Infection Prevalence in Urban Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geissbühler, Yvonne; Kannady, Khadija; Chaki, Prosper Pius; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodem James; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven William; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Killeen, Gerry Francis

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. Methods and Findings Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km2 with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.683 [0.491–0.952], P = 0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI] = 0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P = 0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children ≤5 years of age (OR [CI] = 0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P = 0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI] = 0.764 [0.614–0.951], P = 0.016). Conclusions In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres. PMID:19333402

  5. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  6. The application of evidence-based measures to reduce surgical site infections during orthopedic surgery - report of a single-center experience in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures relating to the correct use of prophylactic antibiotics, perioperative normothermia, urinary tract catheterization and hand hygiene, important contributions can be made to reducing the risk of postoperative infections and device-related infections. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the application of intraoperative evidence-based measures, designed to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the type of surgery, i.e. total joint arthroplasty compared with tibia and femur/hip fracture surgery, affected the use of protective measures. Method Data on the clinical application of evidence-based measures were collected structurally on site during 69 consecutively included operations involving fracture surgery (n = 35) and total joint arthroplasties (n = 34) using a pre-tested observation form. For observations in relation to hand disinfection, a modified version of the World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method was used. Results In all, only 29 patients (49%) of 59 received prophylaxis within the recommended time span. The differences in the timing of prophylactic antibiotics between total joint arthroplasty and fracture surgery were significant, i.e. a more accurate timing was implemented in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (p = 0.02). Eighteen (53%) of the patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were actively treated with a forced-air warming system. The corresponding number for fracture surgery was 12 (34%) (p = 0.04). Observations of 254 opportunities for hand hygiene revealed an overall adherence rate of 10.3% to hand disinfection guidelines. Conclusions The results showed that the utilization of evidence-based measures to reduce infections in clinical practice is not sufficient and there are unjustifiable differences in care depending on the type of surgery. The poor adherence to hand

  7. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. ); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. )

    1992-06-01

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  8. Parametrization of the two-electron reduced density matrix for its direct calculation without the many-electron wave function: Generalizations and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2010-06-15

    An improved parametrization of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)] was recently shown to yield energies and properties that are markedly better than those calculated by traditional ab initio methods of similar computational scaling. In this paper a family of such energy functionals, generalizing the ones obtained previously, is derived through the use of (i) p-particle contraction relations based on the contraction of the cumulant expansions of p-particle RDMs and (ii) Cauchy-Schwarz relations that arise from an important set of N-representability constraints known as the two-positivity conditions. The 2-RDMs are explicitly parameterized in terms of the first-order part of the cumulant 2-RDM and, for the inclusion of single excitations, a second-order part of the 1-RDM. In contrast to earlier formulations based on the coefficients from configuration interaction with single and double excitations (CISD), the cumulant-based parametric 2-RDM methods, from the properties of cumulants, are rigorously size extensive. We also show that writing the energy functionals in terms of correlated 1-RDMs and cumulant 2-RDMs reduces the computational cost of the parametric 2-RDM methods to that of CISD. Applications are made to ground-state energies of several molecules, equilibrium bond distances, and frequencies of HF, F{sub 2}, and CO, the relative energy of the cis and trans isomers of HO{sub 3}{sup -}, and the HCN-HNC isomerization reaction. For bond breaking in hydrogen fluoride the improved and more efficient parametric 2-RDM methods yield energies with similar accuracies at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries in 6-31G** and polarized valence quadruple-{zeta} basis sets. Computed 2-RDMs very nearly satisfy well-known N-representability conditions.

  9. Factor analytic and reduced animal models for the investigation of additive genotype-by-environment interaction in outcrossing plant species with application to a Pinus radiata breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Cullis, Brian R; Jefferson, Paul; Thompson, Robin; Smith, Alison B

    2014-10-01

    Modelling additive genotype-by-environment interaction is best achieved with the use of factor analytic models. With numerous environments and for outcrossing plant species, computation is facilitated using reduced animal models. The development of efficient plant breeding strategies requires a knowledge of the magnitude and structure of genotype-by-environment interaction. This information can be obtained from appropriate linear mixed model analyses of phenotypic data from multi-environment trials. The use of factor analytic models for genotype-by-environment effects is known to provide a reliable, parsimonious and holistic approach for obtaining estimates of genetic correlations between all pairs of trials. When breeding for outcrossing species the focus is on estimating additive genetic correlations and effects which is achieved by including pedigree information in the analysis. The use of factor analytic models in this setting may be computationally prohibitive when the number of environments is moderate to large. In this paper, we present an approach that uses an approximate reduced animal model to overcome the computational issues associated with factor analytic models for additive genotype-by-environment effects. The approach is illustrated using a Pinus radiata breeding dataset involving 77 trials, located in environments across New Zealand and south eastern Australia, and with pedigree information on 315,581 trees. Using this approach we demonstrate the existence of substantial additive genotype-by-environment interaction for the trait of stem diameter measured at breast height. This finding has potentially significant implications for both breeding and deployment strategies. Although our approach has been developed for forest tree breeding programmes, it is directly applicable for other outcrossing plant species, including sugarcane, maize and numerous horticultural crops.

  10. Evaluation of Bacteriophage Application to Cattle in Lairage at Beef Processing Plants to Reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 Prevalence on Hides and Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Agga, Getahun E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern for the beef industry. Several studies have provided evidence that cattle hides are the main source of beef carcass contamination during processing and that reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hides of cattle entering processing facilities will lead to reductions in carcass contamination. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a novel preharvest antimicrobial intervention to reduce the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle hides. The objective of this study was to evaluate a commercialized phage application administered in the lairage area of commercial beef processing plants for the ability to reduce E. coli O157:H7 contamination of cattle hides and carcasses. Cattle lots either received phage spray treatment (n = 289) or did not (n = 301), as they entered the lairage environments in two separate experiments at two different commercial beef processing plants. Hide and carcass samples were collected and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and concentration. Cattle hides receiving phage treatment had an E. coli O157:H7 prevalence of 51.8%, whereas untreated hides had a prevalence of 57.6%. For carcass samples, the E. coli O157 prevalence in treated and untreated samples was 17.1% and 17.6%, respectively. The results obtained from these experiments demonstrated that the treatment of cattle hides with bacteriophages before processing did not produce a significant reduction of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle hides or beef carcasses during processing.

  11. [Applicability of lives saved tool in projecting effects of scaling up interventions on reducing maternal mortality rates in the rural area of Guangxi province in China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Da-sheng; Chen, Li-li; Wei, Ping; Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Yan

    2013-06-18

    To evaluate applicability of lives saved tool (LiST) in projecting effects of maternal health interventions on reducing maternal mortality in the rural area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, and provide evidence for promoting LiST in China. By using maternal intervention coverage and other information collected through the cross-sectional household survey, literature review and expert consultation, LiST projection was performed and modeled. The maternal mortality reduction and causes of death were measured and compared, and the differences were analyzed. SPSS 19.0 was used in the household survey data analysis. Coverage of calcium supplementation, MgSO4-management of pre-eclampsia and institutional delivery reached 51.9%, 99.0% and 98.4% respectively in rural Guangxi in 2011. The LiST captured the general trend of maternal mortality in rural Guangxi. The modeled maternal mortality rate was 4.71%, lower than the measured in 2009 and 10.43% higher in 2010. Maternal mortality rate would decreased to 18/100 000 in 2015 assuming all relevant interventions reached full coverage, and 90% of the maternal morality reduction was attributed to the labor and delivery management. LiST can be applied to project effects of maternal health interventions on reducing the maternal mortality in rural Guangxi, but its accuracy was limited by the fact that the effect of relevant interventions on some major causes of maternal death, such as amniotic embolism, was not calculated in LiST and maternal deaths caused by those causes varied by the year in the area. Based on the LiST projection, labor and delivery management was found to be the priority intervention in improving maternal health in rural Guangxi. Improving the quality of obstetric care in township hospitals and facilitating referral of high-risk pregnant women were highly recommended.

  12. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  13. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g−1 at 100 A g−1. On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg−1 and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg−1. PMID:26053847

  14. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-28

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  15. An innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel for high flux X-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Lim, K.; Park, K.; Lee, C.; Alexander, S.; Cho, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an innovative fast X-ray photon-counting pixel for high X-ray flux applications is proposed. A computed tomography system typically uses X-ray fluxes up to 108 photons/mm2/sec at the detector and thus a fast read-out is required in order to process individual X-ray photons. Otherwise, pulse pile-up can occur at the output of the signal processing unit. These superimposed signals can distort the number of incident X-ray photons leading to count loss. To minimize such losses, a cross detection method was implemented in the photon-counting pixel. A maximum count rate under X-ray tube voltage of 90 kV was acquired which reflect electrical test results of the proposed photon counting pixel. A maximum count of 780 kcps was achieved with a conventional photon-counting pixel at the pulse processing time of 500 ns, which is the time for a pulse to return to the baseline from the initial rise. In contrast, the maximum count of about 8.1 Mcps was achieved with the proposed photon-counting pixel. From these results, it was clear that the maximum count rate was increased by approximately a factor 10 times by adopting the cross detection method. Therefore, it is an innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel while maintaining the pulse processing time.

  16. The synthesis of amphiphilic pillar[5]arene functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as novel fluorescence sensing platform for the determination of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Genfu; Yang, Long; Wu, Shilian; Zhao, Hui; Tang, E; Li, Can-Peng

    2017-05-15

    A sensitive and selective fluorescence approach based on a competitive host-guest interaction between amphiphilic pillar[5]arene (amPA5) and signal probe (acridine orange, AO)/target molecule (acetaminophen, AP) was developed by using amPA5 functionalized reduced graphene oxide (amPA5-RGO) as a receptor. Due to the host-guest interaction, AO and AP molecules both can enter into the hydrophobic inner cavity of amPA5 that could form a complex of 1:1 guest-host with amPA5 according to the size of molecules and the cavity of amPA5, but the AP interacts more strongly with amPA5 than with AO, so it can detect AP by the host-guest competition. The low detection limit of 0.05μM (S/N=3) and a linear response range of 0.1-4.0μM and 4.0-32μM for AP was obtained by using this method. It had lower detection limit and wider linear range than other methods, therefore, it was successfully utilized to detect AP in serum samples, and exhibited a promising application in practice. The molecular docking studies indicated that the major driving forces for the formation of the inclusion complex of AP and amPA5 are hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions, and hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-time propagation of the reduced one-electron density matrix in atom-centered Gaussian orbitals: application to absorption spectra of silicon clusters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yi; Liang, Wan-Zhen

    2007-12-21

    We solve the time-dependent density functional theory equation by propagating the reduced one-electron density matrix in real-time domain. The efficiency of several standard solvers such as the short-iterative Krylov-subspace propagator, the low-order Magnus integration method with the matrix polynomial (MP) or Chebyshev matrix polynomial (CMP) expansion of the evolution operator, and Runge-Kutta algorithm are assessed. Fast methods for summing MP and CMP are implemented to speed the calculation of the matrix exponential. It is found that the exponential propagators can tolerate large time step size and retain the computational accuracy whereas the Krylov-subspace algorithm is a little inferior for a larger time step size compared with the second-order Magnus integration method with the MP/CMP expansion of the evolution operator in both weak and intense fields. As an application, we calculate the absorption spectra of hydrogen-passivated silicon nanoparticles Si(29)H(x). The popular hybrid and generalized gradient approximation exchange-correlation functionals are applied. We find that the experimental spectra can be reproduced by using B3LYP and that the silicon particles with sizes of 1 nm and the optical excitations at 3.7, 4.0, and 4.6 eV may consist of 29 Si atoms surrounded by 24 hydrogen atoms.

  18. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm(3) (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  19. FASTdoop: A Versatile and Efficient Library for the Input of FASTA and FASTQ Files for MapReduce Hadoop Bioinformatics Applications.

    PubMed

    Ferraro Petrillo, Umberto; Roscigno, Gianluca; Cattaneo, Giuseppe; Giancarlo, Raffaele

    2017-01-16

    MapReduce Hadoop bioinformatics applications require the availability of special-purpose routines to manage the input of sequence files. Unfortunately, the Hadoop framework does not provide any built-in support for the most popular sequence file formats like FASTA or BAM. Moreover, the development of these routines is not easy, both because of the diversity of these formats and the need for managing efficiently sequence datasets that may count up to billions of characters. We present FASTdoop, a generic Hadoop library for the management of FASTA and FASTQ files. We show that, with respect to analogous input management routines that have appeared in the Literature, it offers versatility and efficiency. That is, it can handle collections of reads, with or without quality scores, as well as long genomic sequences while the existing routines concentrate mainly on NGS sequence data. Moreover, in the domain where a comparison is possible, the routines proposed here are faster than the available ones. In conclusion, FASTdoop is a much needed addition to Hadoop-BAM (Niemenmaa et al., 2012).

  20. Perivenous application of cyanoacrylate tissue sealants reduces intimal and medial thickening of the vein graft and inflammatory responses in a rabbit model of carotid artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dai, Longsheng; Gao, Mingxin; Gu, Chengxiong; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Effective therapies to prevent vein graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are still lacking. α-Cyanoacrylate (α-CA, 99% n-octyl-α-cyanoacrylate + n-butyl-α-cyanoacrylate) has been increasingly used as a tissue sealant for wound closure because of its bacteriostatic, biodegradable and haemostatic properties. As a strong tissue adhesive, α-CA might prevent an arterial circulation-induced mechanical stretch on vein graft to attenuate intimal hyperplasia. Here, we investigated the effects of perivenous application of α-CA on the vein graft in a rabbit model of carotid artery bypass grafting. Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into no graft, graft or graft + α-CA group (n = 10 per group). Rabbit carotid artery was bypassed with the jugular vein. α-CA sealants were sprayed on the entire jugular graft including both anastomotic sites after completion of anastomoses. Blood flow parameters and histological characteristics of the vein grafts including vessel wall thickness, number of medial elastic lamina and proliferation index were evaluated 4 weeks after the surgery. The mRNA or protein levels of proinflammatory factors, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL-2) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured 4 weeks after the operation by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the untreated vein grafts at Week 4 after the operation, the α-CA spray significantly improved graft flow (39.4 ± 1.5 vs 27.8 ± 2.9 ml/min, P < 0.01), attenuated intimal and medial thickening (116.3 ± 1.0 vs 159.7 ± 0.9 μm, P < 0.01), reduced anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferation index of the vein grafts (15.0 ± 0.4 vs 23.6 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01), decreased the mRNA levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and CCL-2, and reduced the serum levels of TNF-α (92.9 ± 1.7 vs 102.7 ± 1.8 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Perivenous application of α-CA sealants exerts short

  1. Hexagonal Platelet-like Magnetite as a Biosignature of Thermophilic Iron-Reducing Bacteria and Its Applications to the Exploration of the Modern Deep, Hot Biosphere and the Emergence of Iron-Reducing Bacteria in Early Precambrian Oceans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria are able to enzymatically reduce ferric iron and couple to the oxidation of organic carbon. This mechanism induces the mineralization of fine magnetite crystals characterized by a wide distribution in size and irregular morphologies that are indistinguishable from authigenic magnetite. Thermoanaerobacter are thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria that predominantly inhabit terrestrial hot springs or deep crusts and have the capacity to transform amorphous ferric iron into magnetite with a size up to 120 nm. In this study, I first characterize the formation of hexagonal platelet-like magnetite of a few hundred nanometers in cultures of Thermoanaerobacter spp. strain TOR39. Biogenic magnetite with such large crystal sizes and unique morphology has never been observed in abiotic or biotic processes and thus can be considered as a potential biosignature for thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria. The unique crystallographic features and strong ferrimagnetic properties of these crystals allow easy and rapid screening for the previous presence of iron-reducing bacteria in deep terrestrial crustal samples that are unsuitable for biological detection methods and, also, the search for biogenic magnetite in banded iron formations that deposited only in the first 2 billion years of Earth with evidence of life. Key Words: Biosignatures—Magnetite—Iron-reducing bacteria—Deep subsurface biosphere—Banded iron formation. Astrobiology 12, 1100–1108. PMID:23145573

  2. Hexagonal platelet-like magnetite as a biosignature of thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria and its applications to the exploration of the modern deep, hot biosphere and the emergence of iron-reducing bacteria in early precambrian oceans.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Liang

    2012-12-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria are able to enzymatically reduce ferric iron and couple to the oxidation of organic carbon. This mechanism induces the mineralization of fine magnetite crystals characterized by a wide distribution in size and irregular morphologies that are indistinguishable from authigenic magnetite. Thermoanaerobacter are thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria that predominantly inhabit terrestrial hot springs or deep crusts and have the capacity to transform amorphous ferric iron into magnetite with a size up to 120 nm. In this study, I first characterize the formation of hexagonal platelet-like magnetite of a few hundred nanometers in cultures of Thermoanaerobacter spp. strain TOR39. Biogenic magnetite with such large crystal sizes and unique morphology has never been observed in abiotic or biotic processes and thus can be considered as a potential biosignature for thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria. The unique crystallographic features and strong ferrimagnetic properties of these crystals allow easy and rapid screening for the previous presence of iron-reducing bacteria in deep terrestrial crustal samples that are unsuitable for biological detection methods and, also, the search for biogenic magnetite in banded iron formations that deposited only in the first 2 billion years of Earth with evidence of life.

  3. Effectiveness of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate containing prophylaxis paste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately and 4 weeks after a single application: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Mongiello, Kimberly A; Simonton, Thomas C; Clark, Courtney E; Proskin, Howard M; Seemann, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this single-site, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 3-arm parallel study was to determine the effectiveness of a prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS; NovaMin®) with and without fluoride in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately after a single application and 28 days following dental scaling and root planing. Materials & Methods Overall, 151 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects received a scaling and root planing procedure followed by a final prophylaxis step using one of three different prophylaxis pastes: Test-A (15% NovaMin® and NaF), Test-B (15% NovaMin®) and a control. Dentine hypersensitivity was assessed by tactile stimulus (Yeaple Probe®) and by air blast (Schiff scale) at baseline, immediately after and 28 days after a prophylaxis procedure. One hundred and forty-nine subjects completed the study. Results Subjects having received the test prophylaxis pastes showed statistically lower (anova, p < 0.05) dentine hypersensitivity compared with the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure (Yeaple Probe®: Test-A = 20.9 ± 12.6, Test-B = 22.7 ± 12.9, Control=11.2 ± 3.1; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.1 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.1 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7) and after 28 days (Yeaple probe: Test-A = 21.5 ± 11.9, Test-B = 20.6 ± 11.3, Control = 11.8 ± 6.0; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.0 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.0 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7). Conclusions In conclusion, the single application of both fluoridated and non-fluoridated prophylaxis pastes containing 15% CSPS (NovaMin®) provided a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity up to at least 28 days. PMID:23414245

  4. Electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide incorporating polymerization of l-lysine on electrode surface and its application in simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Lingzhi; Ma, Weina; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Yanmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel strategy for the construction of a graphene hybrid composites film, which was fabricated by electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) incorporating polymerization of l-lysine (PLL) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Here we show that graphene films can be prepared on electrodes directly from GO dispersions by one-step electrodeposition technique based on electropolymerized PLL as a positively charged polymer interface to adsorb negatively charged GO nanosheets through electrostatic attraction. The thickness of graphene film can be easily controlled by using the electrodeposition technique, a distinct advantage over previously developed methods. The electrochemically reduced process of GO and electropolymerization of l-lysine were investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a wide potential range. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The ERGO/PLL/GCE shows conducive to electron transfer kinetics for Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) redox probes, compared with bare GCE, PLL/GCE and ERGO/GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) at ERGO/PLL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the results suggest that the modified electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward these important molecules. Under physiological condition and in the co-existence system of AA, DA and UA, the ERGO/PLL/GCE showed linear voltammetric responses in the concentration of 100μM-1200μM for AA, 2.0μM-60μM for DA and 20μM-200μM for UA, and with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 2.0μM, 0.10μM and 0.15μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively. The developed method has been applied to simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA in human urine with satisfactory recoveries of 104.2%, 95.4% and 99.9%, respectively. This work demonstrates that the attractive features of ERGO/PLL provide promising applications in simultaneous determination of AA, DA

  5. Reducing Spreadsheet Errors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Basic for Applications ( VBA ) to improve spreadsheets. Program- ming and coding portions of a spreadsheet in VBA (especially iteration) can reduce...effort as well as errors. Users unfamiliar with VBA may begin learning by “recording macros” in Excel. Microsoft’s online tutorials...www.office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel) provide overviews of this and other VBA capabilities. 5) Thorough documentation of spreadsheet development and application is

  6. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems.…

  7. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides.

    PubMed

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  8. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn and glyphosate applications under conventional and reduced tillage practices on exoenzyme activities and microbial community structure of bulk and rhizosphere soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Conservation tillage practices across the country have been implementing genetically engineered glyphosate resistant corn crops along with applications of the herbicide glyphosate. We tested the hypothesis that six years of glyphosate applications to both resistant and non-resistant corn ...

  9. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  10. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  11. Development of a reduced tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether– n -hexadecane–poly-aromatic hydrocarbon mechanism and its application for soot prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seunghyun; Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.; Pitz, William J.; Kurtz, Eric

    2016-03-01

    A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for Tri-Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TPGME) has been developed and applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for predicting combustion and soot formation processes. The reduced TPGME mechanism was combined with a reduced n-hexadecane mechanism and a Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) mechanism to investigate the effect of fuel oxygenation on combustion and soot emissions. The final version of the TPGME-n-hexadecane-PAH mechanism consists of 144 species and 730 reactions and was validated with experiments in shock tubes as well as in a constant volume spray combustion vessel (CVCV) from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). The effects of ambient temperature, varying oxygen content in the tested fuels on ignition delay, spray liftoff length and soot formation under diesel-like conditions were analyzed and addressed using multidimensional reacting flow simulations and the reduced mechanism. Here, the results show that the present reduced mechanism gives reliable predictions of the combustion characteristics and soot formation processes. In the CVCV simulations, two important trends were identified. First, increasing the initial temperature in the CVCV shortens the ignition delay and lift-off length, reduces the fuel-air mixing, thereby increasing the soot levels. Secondly, fuel oxygenation introduces more oxygen into the central region of a fuel jet and reduces residence times of fuel rich area in active soot forming regions, thereby reducing soot levels.

  12. Development of a reduced tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether– n -hexadecane–poly-aromatic hydrocarbon mechanism and its application for soot prediction

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Seunghyun; Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.; ...

    2016-03-01

    A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for Tri-Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TPGME) has been developed and applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for predicting combustion and soot formation processes. The reduced TPGME mechanism was combined with a reduced n-hexadecane mechanism and a Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) mechanism to investigate the effect of fuel oxygenation on combustion and soot emissions. The final version of the TPGME-n-hexadecane-PAH mechanism consists of 144 species and 730 reactions and was validated with experiments in shock tubes as well as in a constant volume spray combustion vessel (CVCV) from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). The effects ofmore » ambient temperature, varying oxygen content in the tested fuels on ignition delay, spray liftoff length and soot formation under diesel-like conditions were analyzed and addressed using multidimensional reacting flow simulations and the reduced mechanism. Here, the results show that the present reduced mechanism gives reliable predictions of the combustion characteristics and soot formation processes. In the CVCV simulations, two important trends were identified. First, increasing the initial temperature in the CVCV shortens the ignition delay and lift-off length, reduces the fuel-air mixing, thereby increasing the soot levels. Secondly, fuel oxygenation introduces more oxygen into the central region of a fuel jet and reduces residence times of fuel rich area in active soot forming regions, thereby reducing soot levels.« less

  13. Green chemistry methods in sulfur dyeing: application of various reducing D-sugars and analysis of the importance of optimum redox potential.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Richard S; Harvey, Anna

    2004-07-15

    The importance of sulfur dyeing of cellulosic fibers, particularly cotton, is realized economically throughout the dyeing industry. At the present time, dyeing with sulfur dyes requires the use of various auxiliaries, many of which have adverse effects on the environment. The most damaging of these is the reducing agent sodium sulfide, required to reduce the dye molecules to a water-soluble leuco form to enable adsorption and diffusion into the fiber. In this study, attempts have been made to replace the sodium sulfide used within the sulfur dyeing process with a variety of environmentally friendly reducing sugars. The redox potential of various hexose and pentose monosaccharides and reducing disaccharides was recorded and compared. Subsequently, cotton was dyed with the world's most important sulfur dye, C. I. Sulfur Black 1, using the reducing sugars under alkaline conditions, and compared to dyeings secured by employing commercial sulfide reducing agents. It was observed that reducing sugars gave comparable, and in many cases superior, color strength and wash fastness results, with respect to the commercial sulfide-based reducing agents, which still account for the vast majority of sulfur dyeing processes and that pose significant environmental concern. Employment of reducing sugars in sulfur dyeing could provide a sustainable, nontoxic, biodegradable, cost-effective alternative to sodium polysulfide and sodium hydrogen sulfide. Comparison of the redox potential of reducing sugars against the color strength of the dyeings secured demonstrated that there was an optimum redox potential of around -650 mV for maximum color strength achieved. The same redox potential also conferred the lowest color loss upon washing. These observations were attributed to reduction of the polymeric dye molecules to an optimum size for fiber affinity and diffusion into the fiber, but which would also confer maximum wash fastness upon oxidation.

  14. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide using Psidium guajava and its application in SERS for the detection of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettri, Prajwal; Vendamani, V. S.; Tripathi, Ajay; Singh, Manish Kumar; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide and silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composites using aqueous extract of dry leaves of Psidium guajava by one pot reflux method. Psidium guajava extract simultaneously reduces silver nitrate and graphene oxide in the reaction mixture which is confirmed by various spectroscopic techniques. Variable concentrations of silver nitrate solution are used to obtain reduced graphene oxide with different dosage of silver nanoparticles and the resultant composites are examined using surface enhanced Raman scattering measurements. Considering methylene blue as a probe molecule, it is found that the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity increases with the increase in the dose of silver nanoparticles. Our as-synthesised silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite shows remarkable performance in detecting methylene blue with concentration as low as 10-8 M for which the enhancement factor is 4.6 × 105. In addition, we report that the reduced graphene oxide quenches the photoluminescence of methylene blue more efficiently than silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite. The charge transfer states have been extracted which are mainly responsible for the quenching processes.

  16. Designing eHealth Applications to Reduce Cognitive Effort for Persons With Severe Mental Illness: Page Complexity, Navigation Simplicity, and Comprehensibility.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Armando J; Spring, Michael R; Hanusa, Barbara H; Eack, Shaun M; Haas, Gretchen L

    2017-01-05

    significantly related to 2 or 3 of these usability outcomes. With the 5 tested websites, 7 of the 19 variables of the FEDM overlapped with other variables, resulting in 12 distinct variable groups. The 3 design dimensions had acceptable coefficient alphas. Both navigational simplicity and comprehensibility were significantly related to correctly identifying whether information was available on a website. Page complexity and navigational simplicity were significantly associated with the ability and time to find information and ease-of-use ratings. The 19 variables and 3 dimensions (page complexity, navigational simplicity, and comprehensibility) of the FEDM offer evidence-based design guidance intended to reduce the cognitive effort required to effectively use eHealth applications, particularly for persons with SMI, and potentially others, including those with cognitive impairments and limited skills or experience with technology. The new variables we examined (topic areas, navigational areas, columns) offer additional and very simple ways to improve simplicity.

  17. Designing eHealth Applications to Reduce Cognitive Effort for Persons With Severe Mental Illness: Page Complexity, Navigation Simplicity, and Comprehensibility

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Michael R; Hanusa, Barbara H; Eack, Shaun M; Haas, Gretchen L

    2017-01-01

    usability outcomes. Most other variables were significantly related to 2 or 3 of these usability outcomes. With the 5 tested websites, 7 of the 19 variables of the FEDM overlapped with other variables, resulting in 12 distinct variable groups. The 3 design dimensions had acceptable coefficient alphas. Both navigational simplicity and comprehensibility were significantly related to correctly identifying whether information was available on a website. Page complexity and navigational simplicity were significantly associated with the ability and time to find information and ease-of-use ratings. Conclusions The 19 variables and 3 dimensions (page complexity, navigational simplicity, and comprehensibility) of the FEDM offer evidence-based design guidance intended to reduce the cognitive effort required to effectively use eHealth applications, particularly for persons with SMI, and potentially others, including those with cognitive impairments and limited skills or experience with technology. The new variables we examined (topic areas, navigational areas, columns) offer additional and very simple ways to improve simplicity. PMID:28057610

  18. Application of feces extracts and synthetic analogues of the host marking pheromone of Anastrepha ludens significantly reduces fruit infestation by A. obliqua in tropical plum and mango backyard orchards.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Boller, E F; Hurter, J; Edmunds, A J F; Hagmann, L; Patrian, B; Reyes, J

    2009-12-01

    We determined the efficacy of three potential oviposition deterrents in reducing fruit infestation by Anastrepha obliqua in tropical plum and mango orchards. These were: (1) Extracts of feces of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, known to contain the A. ludens host marking pheromone (HMP) and (2) two fully synthetic simplified analogues of the naturally occurring compound, which we have named desmethyl A. ludens HMP (DM-HMP) and Anastrephamide. Two applications of feces extracts 2 or 3 wk before fruit color break reduced A. obliqua infestation in plums by 94.1, 75.9, and 72% when measured 8, 14, and 25 d, respectively, after application. The natural A. ludens-HMP containing extract retained its effectiveness despite considerable rainfall (112.5 mm) and high A. obliqua populations. The synthetic desmethyl HMP derivative (DM-HMP) also reduced infestation in plums by 53.3 and 58.7% when measured, 18 and 26 d, respectively, after application. Finally, applications of Anastrephamide resulted in fruit loss cut by half and an 80% reduction in numbers of fly larvae per fruit. Our results confirm previous findings indicating that there is interspecific cross-recognition of the HMP in two of the most pestiferous Anastrepha species and open the door for the development of a highly selective, biorational Anastrepha management scheme.

  19. Determination of the reduced matrix elements using accurate ab initio wavefunctions: Formalism and its application to the vibrational ground state (000) of H216O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamouroux, J.; Gamache, R. R.; Schwenke, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    The calculations of the reduced matrix elements for 441 rotational collisional transitions for rotational quantum numbers of the lower state up to J″=20 in the vibrational ground state of H216O are presented using effective and ab initio wavefunctions. Effective wavefunctions are derived from a Watson A-reduced Hamiltonian with the effective parameters determined by Matsushima et al. [Matsushima et al., J Mol Struct 1995;352-353:371]. The ab initio wavefunctions used in this study are from the work of Partridge and Schwenke [Partridge, H, Schwenke, DW. J Chem Phys 1997;106:4618]. The comparison of the reduced matrix elements obtained by both methods is described. It is demonstrated that, even for the rotational band, the effective wavefunctions show problems for some states.

  20. Application of split gluteus maximus muscle--adipofascial turnover flap and subcutaneous tension-reducing suture technique in repair of decubitus ulcers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weizhong; Zhou, Zheng; Zhao, Zuojun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the clinical effect of split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. Thirty-one cases of sacrococcygeal decubitus ulcers were repaired by split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap. The surface of flaps ranged from 5×6 cm to 7×8 cm. The skin was then closed, primarily using subcutaneous tension-reducing suture. Eighty-eight percent of the flaps (27 of 31) healed primarily. The split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture technique was found to be a highly efficient method of repairing decubitus ulcers with a relatively low ratio of recurrence.

  1. Speciation of Phosphorus by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: Application for quantification of reduced forms of phosphorus in rocks and natural waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Z. D.; Pasek, M. A.; Sampson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important element making up approximately 0.12 % of the Earth's crust. It is commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite and this causes phosphorus to be a limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus is a key element in DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that reduced phosphorus played a substantial role in the development of life on the early Earth. Reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus, and reduced phosphorus may continue to play a role in biologic productivity. This study examines a new methodology for quantification of reduced phosphorus separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICP-MS reaction cell (using O2 gas) effectively convert elemental P to P-O producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 mM) for P species analyzed as P-O at M/Z = 47. Additionally this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other metastable forms of phosphorus. We verified this method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks to suburban retention pond waters and many samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus. These data highlight a significant role of redox processing of phosphorus throughout the history of the Earth, with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  2. A Study of Defense Logistics Agency Inventory Classifications: Application of Inventory Control Methods to Reduce Total Variable Cost and Stockage Levels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Vilfredo Pareto known as the “ Pareto Principle.” In essence, the Pareto Principle states that many situations are dominated by a relatively vital...few elements (Magad & Amos, 1989: 123). The ABC classification scheme is an inventory application of the Pareto Principle and states that whenever

  3. Application of microbial-based inoculants for reducing N2O emissions from soil under two different ammonium nitrate-based fertilizers.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable effort is being made among the scientific community to identify mechanisms to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agriculture soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that microbial-based inoculants known to promote root growth and nutrient uptake will r...

  4. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  5. Protecting group free synthesis of glycosyl thiols from reducing sugars in water; application to the production of N-glycan glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Alexander, S R; Lim, D; Amso, Z; Brimble, M A; Fairbanks, A J

    2017-02-17

    Glycosyl thiols may be accessed from the corresponding reducing sugars in water without recourse to any sugar projecting groups by way of a DMC mediated reaction with thioacetic acid in the presence of base, and hydrolysis of the anomeric thioacetate. Glycosyl thiols produced by this method may be used to access glycoconjugates, such as glycopeptides by use of the thiol-ene click reaction.

  6. Reduced Capillary Length Scale in the Application of Ostwald Ripening Theory to the Coarsening of Charged Colloidal Crystals in Electrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Jeffrey D.; Baird, James K.

    2007-06-01

    A colloidal crystal suspended in an electrolyte solution will ordinarily exchange ions with the surrounding solution and develop a net surface charge density and a corresponding double layer. The interfacial tension of the charged surface has contributions arising from: (a) background interfacial tension of the uncharged surface, (b) the entropy associated with the adsorption of ions on the surface, and (c) the polarizing effect of the electrostatic field within the double layer. The adsorption and polarization effects make negative contributions to the surface free energy and serve to reduce the interfacial tension below the value to be expected for the uncharged surface. The diminished interfacial tension leads to a reduced capillary length scale. According to the Ostwald ripening theory of particle coarsening, the reduced capillary length will cause the solute supersaturation to decay more rapidly and the colloidal particles to be smaller in size and greater in number than in the absence of the double layer. Although the length scale for coarsening should be little affected in the case of inorganic colloids, such as AgI, it should be greatly reduced in the case of suspensions of protein crystals, such as apoferritin, catalase, and thaumatin.

  7. Field Efficacy and Application Timing of Methoxyfenozide, a Reduced-risk Treatment for Control of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Almond

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large-scale field efficacy trials of methoxyfenozide (Intrepid®), a reduced risk molting agonist insecticide, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in an orchard containing ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Sonora’ variety almonds located in Kern County, California. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, and the orga...

  8. Toward reducing systematic errors in NWP - cross-evaluation of common physics from 6h-regional to 6d-global to 6mon-coupled applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, S.

    2015-12-01

    An integrated evaluation system against gridded data and observations is being applied against global models (FIM, GFS) and regional models (WRF-ARW applications for RAP/HRRR). An overview will be presented on wind, relative humidity, and temperature model errors as measured against rawinsonde and aircraft observations in common at 12h forecast duration for global and regional models. Systematic errors common to both applications will be presented. A common problem with deficient cloud cover has been evident in both 6h (3km HRRR-WRF-ARW) regional forecasts and 6-month coupled-global (FIM-HYCOM) forecasts, allowing improvements in a common deep/shallow convection scheme (Grell-Freitas) with subgrid-scale clouds to be evaluated across time scales.

  9. Selective purification of reduced oligosaccharides using a phenylboronic acid bond elut column: potential application in HPLC, mass spectrometry, reductive amination procedures and antigenic/serum analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoll, M S; Hounsell, E F

    1988-11-01

    A phenylboronic acid (PBA) derivatized Bond Elut column has been investigated for the selective purification of oligosaccharide alditols and of oligosaccharide derivatives formed by reductive amination reactions. These compounds are specifically retained by the column via interaction of sterically unhindered vicinal hydroxyl groups, hence achieving their separation from glycopeptides, unreduced oligosaccharides and non-carbohydrate reactants. This purification procedure has widespread application for the clean-up of derivatives prior to HPLC, mass spectrometry and antigenic/serum analysis.

  10. Exovascular application of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-releasing electrospun poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) fiber sheets to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Jang, Eui Hwa; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2015-09-21

    Intimal hyperplasia is an excessive ingrowth of tissue resulting in chronic structural lesions commonly found at sites of atherosclerotic lesions, arterial angioplasty, vascular graft anastomoses, and other vascular abnormalities. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was shown to elicit antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-thrombogenic effects. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to synthesize EGCG-eluting biodegradable poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber sheets for local delivery of EGCG and investigated the effect of their exovascular application on intimal hyperplasia following balloon-induced abdominal aorta injury in a rabbit experimental model. The morphology of the composite sheets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. EGCG was loaded and dispersed into the PLGA-based electrospun fibers. The EGCG-loaded PLGA sheets exhibited sustained EGCG release following the initial 24 h of burst release in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia following the application of the EGCG-eluting electrospun PLGA fiber sheets, compared with vehicle PLGA controls. In conclusion, our results show that exovascular application of EGCG-eluting PLGA electrospun fiber sheets may provide a useful system for the effective local delivery of drugs for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia.

  11. Enhanced performance of NiMoO4 nanoparticles and quantum dots and reduced nanohole graphene oxide hybrid for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Meng, Yang; Tongxiang, Liang

    2017-10-01

    NiMoO4 nanoparticles and quantum dots were uniformly distributed on the surface of reduced nanohole graphene oxide (rNHGO). NiMoO4@rNHGO exhibited a higher specific capacitance and better cycling stability than NiMoO4@reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which were attributed to the large surface area and high electrical conductivity. NiMoO4 nanoparticles and quantum dots (QDs) had high surface to volume ratio, which would not result in change in volume during the electro-chemical operation and induced better supercapacitor performance. Moreover, synergistic effect between NiMoO4 and the rNHGO also improved undoubtedly high specific capacitance and cycle stability.

  12. Biotransformation and Its Application: Biogenic Nano-Catalyst and Metal-Reducing-Bacteria for Remediation of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Water.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyunhee; Roh, Yul

    2015-08-01

    The use of ubiquitous metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) and the synthesis and transforming capability of nano-sized catalysts (BNC) provide enormous potential for the transformation of environmental waste to environmental catalysts, such as abandoned mine precipitates that are transformed into nontoxic and inexpensive catalysts for remediating contaminated groundwater. In this study, BNC from acid mine drainage (AMD) precipitates are transformed to nm-sized siderite after a fermenting process under anaerobic conditions, and MRB enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments were examined for efficiency in the Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization in upward flow-through sand column tests. As a result, BNC and MRB proved to have excellent Cr(VI) reducing/immobilizing capacity independently and when used in conjunction. In addition the combination of BNC+MRB showed to have a capacity enhanced with 20% more capability of Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization in flow-through column test for 168 h.

  13. Multifunctional Electrochemical Platforms Based on the Michael Addition/Schiff Base Reaction of Polydopamine Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide: Construction and Application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Zhang, Si; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, a new strategy for the construction of multifunctional electrochemical detection platforms based on the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction of polydopamine modified reduced graphene oxide was first proposed. Inspired by the mussel adhesion proteins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DA) was selected as a reducing agent to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and self-polymerize to obtain the polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide (PDA-rGO). The PDA-rGO was then functionalized with thiols and amines by the reaction of thiol/amino groups with quinine groups of PDA-rGO via the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction. Several typical compounds containing thiol and/or amino groups such as 1-[(4-amino)phenylethynyl] ferrocene (Fc-NH2), cysteine (cys), and glucose oxidase (GOx) were selected as the model molecules to anchor on the surface of PDA-rGO using the strategy for construction of multifunctional electrochemical platforms. The experiments revealed that the composite grafted with ferrocene derivative shows excellent catalysis activity toward many electroactive molecules and could be used for individual or simultaneous detection of dopamine hydrochloride (DA) and uric acid (UA), or hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), while, after grafting of cysteine on PDA-rGO, simultaneous discrimination detection of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) was realized on the composite modified electrode. In addition, direct electron transfer of GOx can be observed when GOx-PDA-rGO was immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). When glucose was added into the system, the modified electrode showed excellent electric current response toward glucose. These results inferred that the proposed multifunctional electrochemical platforms could be simply, conveniently, and effectively regulated through changing the anchored recognition or reaction groups. This study would provide a versatile method to design more detection or biosensing platforms through a chemical reaction strategy in the future.

  14. Whole-herd optimization with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. III. Application of an optimization model to evaluate alternatives to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Fox, D G; Cherney, D J; Chase, L E; Tedeschi, L O

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of this paper were to use a linear programming model previously described to evaluate different alternatives for reducing excess nutrients that may influence water quality on a case study farm (300 lactating cows on 430 ha of cropland growing alfalfa, grass, and corn). Several alternatives perceived to influence farm nutrient balance were evaluated for their potential to reduce N and P mass balance. Dividing lactating cow diets into three groups according to their level of milk production versus a one-group total mixed ration decreased mass balance (tonne/yr) from 51.7 to 44.7 for N, from 6.7 to 6.1 for P and from 16.2 to 14.8 for K with little influence on return over feed costs. Increasing forage quality (lower neutral detergent fiber and higher crude protein) did not improve N balance because of the increased N fixation from the air to the soil, but it increased returns over feed costs by $31,385. Improving yields to the maximum potential for the farm reduced mass balance by 29, 51, and 100% for N, P, and K, respectively, and increased returns over feed costs by $70,579. Changing the crop hectare proportions to more corn and less alfalfa reduced N and K balances by 19 and 29%, respectively, and increased returns over feed costs $39,383. Increasing annual milk production 10% by increasing milk production per head 10% compared with increasing animal numbers at the current average milk production per cow until total milk increased 10% gave $34,132 more return over feed costs with less N, P, and K retained on the farm.

  15. [Effects of increased planting density with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application on rice yield, N use efficiency and greenhouse gas emission in Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang-cheng; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Ai-xing; Zhang, Wei-jian

    2016-02-01

    The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33.3% and reduced the basal N rate by 20%. The results showed that the average N agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity were improved by 49.6% (P<0.05) and 20.4% (P<0.05), respectively, while the area and yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 9.9% and 12.7% (P<0.05), respectively. Although IR cropping mode decreased panicle number and biomass production, it significantly enhanced rice seed setting rate and harvest index, resulting in an unchanged or even highei yield. NH4+-N and NO3(-)-N concentrations in rice rhizosphere soil were reduced, resulting in an increment of N recovery efficiency. Generally, proper dense planting with less basal N applicatior could be a good approach for the trade-off between rice yield, NUE and greenhouse gas emission.

  16. Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on

  17. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ray Trace Modeling to Determine Optimal Forest Canopy Gap Size for Reduced Solar Irradiance During Snowmelt: Field Verification and Continental Scale Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, K. N.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Link, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest hydrology has long debated the influence of forest gap size on the shortwave radiation regime and subsequent snowmelt rates. To address this question, a new ray trace solar transmittance model is presented to evaluate the sensitivity of gap influence on shortwave irradiance patterns to latitude, gap size, and time of year in fragmented forest environments. The ray trace model takes into account solar position, gap and forest geometry, and position within or near the gap, and was tested against measurements of shortwave radiation from 20 pyranometers in and around a gap in a mixed conifer forest and compared to simpler canopy transmittance models that ignored shading or that scaled transmittance according to leaf area index. The ray trace model reduced the large errors obtained by simple canopy transmittance models; at the 20 pyranometer locations, average biases in excess of ~ ±90 W m-2 were reduced to better than 4 W m-2. These results suggest that an accurate description of the spatial variability of solar irradiance in and around a forest gap requires explicit calculation of how gaps modify the canopy transmittance. To examine model sensitivity to key parameters, gap size, latitude, and day of year were varied under clear-sky conditions. The calculated spatial distribution patterns of cumulative daily solar irradiance inform how forest gap sizes might be optimized to minimize (shortwave) snowmelt energy. As gap size was changed for a given latitude and date, the (spatial) coefficient of variation (CV) of cumulative daily irradiance exhibited a distinct maximum that is a function of gap geometry and solar angle; smaller (larger) gaps with more diffuse (direct beam) radiation exhibited reduced spatial variability of irradiance. The results indicate that optimum forest gap sizes to reduce solar radiation while maximizing gap area depend on date and latitude; using mean snowmelt onset dates for a range of latitudes (31°N - 71°N) spanning North American

  19. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioinspired polydopamine as the scaffold for the active AuNPs anchoring and the chemical simultaneously reduced graphene oxide: characterization and the enhanced biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Li, Da-Li; Shan, Dan; He, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shi, You

    2013-11-15

    We report here an efficient approach to enhance the performance of biosensing platform based on graphene or graphene derivate. Initially, graphene oxides (GO) nanosheets were reduced and surface functionalized by one-step oxidative polymerization of dopamine in basic solution at environment friendly condition to obtain the polydopamine (Pdop) modified reduced graphene oxides (PDRGO). The bioinspired surface was further used as a support to anchor active gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The morphology and structure of the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Electrochemical studies demonstrate that the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO hybrid materials possess excellent electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH at low potential (0.1 V vs. SCE) with the fast response (15s) and the broad linear range (5.0 × 10(-8)-4.2 × 10(-5)M). Thus, this AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite can be further used to fabricate a sensitive alcohol biosensor using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), by simply incorporating the specific enzyme within the composite matrix with the aid of chitosan (Chit). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions as Test Fluids for In Vitro Evaluation of Potential Blood Damage in Blood Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Amanda R.; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E.; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596

  3. Reduced ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin with topical application of a photolyase-containing DNA repair enzyme cream: clues to skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, Enzo; Bertona, Marco; Altabas, Karmela; Altabas, Velimir; Emanuele, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    The exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the formation of DNA photolesions that give rise to photoaging, mutations, cell death and the onset of carcinogenic events. Photolyase (EC 4.1.99.3) is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses damage caused by exposure to UVR. We sought to investigate whether addition of photolyase enhances the protection provided by a traditional sunscreen (SS), by reducing the in vivo formation of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and UVR-induced apoptosis in human skin. Ten volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin type II) were exposed to solar-simulated (ss) UVR at a three times minimal erythema dose for 4 consecutive days. Thirty minutes prior to each exposure, the test materials [vehicle, SS (sun protection factor 50) alone, and SS plus photolyase from Anacystis nidulans] were applied topically to three different sites. One additional site was left untreated and one received ssUVR only. Biopsy specimens were taken 72 h after the last irradiation. The amount of CPDs and the extent of apoptosis were measured by ELISA. Photolyase plus SS was superior to SS alone in reducing both the formation of CPDs and apoptotic cell death (both P<0.001). In conclusion, the addition of photolyase to a traditional SS contributes significantly to the prevention of UVR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis when applied topically to human skin.

  4. Texture analysis of tinplate steel and its application in production of double reduced high strength tinplate grades with controlled earing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černík, M.; Gburík, R.; Hrabčáková, L.; Vranec, P.

    2015-04-01

    Several years of texture investigation via X-ray Diffraction and EBSD techniques clearly highlight the effect of steel chemistry and processing on the final texture development in individual tinplate grades produced by U.S. Steel Košice. The influence of chemical composition, degree of deformation, and the annealing process on the texture development in tinplate steel is presented for selected grades processed in production and using the material controlled laboratory experiments. “Non-earing and Ultra-low Earing” tinplate materials provide a good case study where the desired final texture, which contains a strong γ fiber along with other texture component, is achieved with precise control of key processing variables. Development and production of high strength double reduced material with isotropic properties can be achieved by detailed study of crystallographic texture. As-measured Inverse Pole Figure (IPF) maps and calculated Orientation Distribution Functions (ODFs) were used to characterize the strength of the γ fiber and selected texture components. Calculation of the normal anisotropy index, r, from the acquired texture information, was accomplished for these steels using available crystal plasticity models. Achieved results of detailed texture analysis of tinplate in the manufacture of double reduced high strength tinplate steel grades have been successfully applied.

  5. Reduced density gradient as a novel approach for estimating QSAR descriptors, and its application to 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives with potential antihypertensive effects.

    PubMed

    Jardínez, Christiaan; Vela, Alberto; Cruz-Borbolla, Julián; Alvarez-Mendez, Rodrigo J; Alvarado-Rodríguez, José G

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between the chemical structure and biological activity (log IC50) of 40 derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and multiple linear regression analysis methods. With the aim of improving the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model, the reduced density gradient s( r) of the optimized equilibrium geometries was used as a descriptor to include weak non-covalent interactions. The QSAR model highlights the correlation between the log IC50 with highest molecular orbital energy (E HOMO), molecular volume (V), partition coefficient (log P), non-covalent interactions NCI(H4-G) and the dual descriptor [Δf(r)]. The model yielded values of R (2)=79.57 and Q (2)=69.67 that were validated with the next four internal analytical validations DK=0.076, DQ=-0.006, R (P) =0.056, and R (N)=0.000, and the external validation Q (2)boot=64.26. The QSAR model found can be used to estimate biological activity with high reliability in new compounds based on a DHP series. Graphical abstract The good correlation between the log IC50 with the NCI (H4-G) estimated by the reduced density gradient approach of the DHP derivatives.

  6. Application of an Artificial Stomach-Duodenum Reduced Gastric pH Dog Model for Formulation Principle Assessment and Mechanistic Performance Understanding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Ming; Luner, Paul E; Locke, Karen; Briggs, Katherine

    2017-02-23

    The objective of this study was to develop an artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) dissolution model as an in vitro evaluation tool that would simulate the gastrointestinal physiology of gastric pH-reduced dogs as a method to assess formulations for a poorly soluble free acid compound with ng/mL solubility. After establishing the ASD model with well controlled duodenum pH, five formulations each applying different solubilization principles were developed and their performance in the ASD model and in vivo in dogs was evaluated. Excellent correlations were obtained between dog AUC and ASD AUC of five formulations evaluated with SIF (r(2) = 0.987) and FaSSIF (r(2) = 0.989) as the duodenum dissolution medium, indicating that the approach of infusing NaOH into duodenum compartment to maintain duodenum pH of an ASD worked properly in simulating gastric pH-reduced dog. Raman spectroscopy was used to study drug dissolution kinetics associated with different solubilization principles and the results suggested that the solubilization principles performed as designed. Spectroscopic results also identified that the compound formed a gel during dissolution and HPMC maintained the drug gelled state to avoid further solid form conversion. The implication of the compound physical gelation to drug dissolution kinetics and in vivo exposure are discussed.

  7. Synthesis and application of reduced graphene oxide and molecularly imprinted polymers composite in chemo sensor for trichloroacetic acid detection in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibechu, Rose W.; Mamo, Messai A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Sampath, S.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    This work presents the fabrication of a simple, cheap and fast thin film chemo sensor for detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in aqueous solutions. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) chemo-sensor has been developed. The recognition of TCAA was achieved by imprinted polymers synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and a crosslinking monomer ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA) in acetonitrile using bulk polymerization method. Adsorption studies to determine the rebinding properties of the MIP with the template were conducted using UV Visible spectrophotometer. The fabricated sensor exhibited high recognition ability and affinity for HAA in comparison with the non-imprinted one which was employed as a control, this indicated that the MIP could selectively rebind with TCAA. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was used to improve conductivity of the sensor; RGO was obtained from reduction of graphene oxide (GO) synthesized using modified Stauddmer and Hummers method. Polysulphone was used in solution blending of MIP and RGO to form a hybrid which was deposited between two gold plated electrodes by spin coating to form a thin film. The performance of the imprinted sensor was studied using a homemade circuit. The results demonstrate that the sensor based on TCAA-imprinted polymer is fast, cheap and sensitive screening method of TCAA in drinking water.

  8. Obesity reduces the pro-angiogenic potential of adipose tissue stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) by impairing miR-126 content: impact on clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, G; Dentelli, P; Gili, M; Gallo, S; Deregibus, C; Biglieri, E; Iavello, A; Santini, E; Rossi, C; Solini, A; Camussi, G; Brizzi, M F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial tissue repair mediators in cell-based therapy. In the present study, we investigate the therapeutic impact of EVs released by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) recovered from obese subjects' visceral and subcutaneous tissues. Methods: ASCs were recovered from 10 obese (oASCs) and 6 non-obese (nASCs) participants and characterized. In selected experiments, nASCs and oASCs were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) or high glucose (HG), respectively. EVs from obese (oEVs) and non-obese (nEVs) subjects' visceral and subcutaneous ASCs were collected after ultracentrifugation and analyzed for their cargo: microRNA-126 (miR-126), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and for their biological effects on endothelial cells (ECs). Western blotting analysis and loss- and gain-of function experiments were performed. Results: oEVs show impaired angiogenic potential compared with nEVs. This effect depends on EV cargo: reduced content of VEGF, MMP-2 and, more importantly, miR-126. We demonstrate, using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, that this reduced miR-126 content leads to Spred1 upregulation and the inhibition of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in ECs. We also show that PA treatment of nASCs translates into the release of EVs that recapitulate oEV cargo. Moreover, HG treatment of oASCs further reduces miR-126 EV content and EV-mediated in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, impaired pro-angiogenic potential is also detected in EVs released from obese subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived ASCs. Conclusions: These results indicate that obesity impacts on EV pro-angiogenic potential and may raise concerns about the use of adipose tissue-derived EVs in cell-based therapy in the obese setting. PMID:26122028

  9. Reducing radiation dose by application of optimized low-energy x-ray filters to K-edge imaging with a photon counting detector.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seungwan; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-01-21

    K-edge imaging with photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) can improve image quality compared with conventional energy integrating detectors. However, low-energy x-ray photons below the K-edge absorption energy of a target material do not contribute to image formation in the K-edge imaging and are likely to be completely absorbed by an object. In this study, we applied x-ray filters to the K-edge imaging with a PCXD based on cadmium zinc telluride for reducing radiation dose induced by low-energy x-ray photons. We used aluminum (Al) filters with different thicknesses as the low-energy x-ray filters and implemented the iodine K-edge imaging with an energy bin of 34-48 keV at the tube voltages of 50, 70 and 90 kVp. The effects of the low-energy x-ray filters on the K-edge imaging were investigated with respect to signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and figure of merit (FOM). The highest value of SDNR was observed in the K-edge imaging with a 2 mm Al filter, and the SDNR decreased as a function of the filter thicknesses. Compared to the K-edge imaging with a 2 mm Al filter, the ESAK was reduced by 66%, 48% and 39% in the K-edge imaging with a 12 mm Al filter for 50 kVp, 70 kVp and 90 kVp, respectively. The FOM values, which took into account the ESAK and SDNR, were maximized for 8, 6 to 8 and 4 mm Al filters at 50 kVp, 70 kVp and 90 kVp, respectively. We concluded that the use of an optimal low-energy filter thickness, which was determined by maximizing the FOM, could significantly reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in the K-edge imaging with the PCXD.

  10. Development of Simulation-Based Evaluation System for Iterative Design of Human-Machine Interface in a Nuclear Power Plant - Application for Reducing Workload

    SciTech Connect

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2003-01-15

    Development of simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID) has been conducted in the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation to simulate the behavior of a few operators and the human-machine interface (HMI) in a commercialized pressurized water reactor plant. The workload is one of the key factors with respect to reducing the human error in the operation of nuclear power plants. In order to produce a high-quality design of HMI, the evaluation method was developed to simulate and analyze the operator's workload. Our method was adopted from the cognition model proposed by Reason. The workload such as the length of the visual point movement and the moving length of the operators was visualized in a monitor image during the simulation, and then recorded as a movie-file. As a consequence, the validation of SEAMAID was clarified.

  11. Enzymatic product-mediated stabilization of CdS quantum dots produced in situ: application for detection of reduced glutathione, NADPH, and glutathione reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Saa, Laura; Pavlov, Valeri

    2013-06-04

    Glutathione is the most abundant nonprotein molecule in the cell and plays an important role in many biological processes, including the maintenance of intracellular redox states, detoxification, and metabolism. Furthermore, glutathione levels have been linked to several human diseases, such as AIDS, Alzheimer disease, alcoholic liver disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. A novel concept in bioanalysis is introduced and applied to the highly sensitive and inexpensive detection of reduced glutathione (GSH), over its oxidized form (GSSG), and glutathione reductase (GR) in human serum. This new fluorogenic bioanalytical system is based on the GSH-mediated stabilization of growing CdS nanoparticles. The sensitivity of this new assay is 5 pM of GR, which is 3 orders of magnitude better than other fluorogenic methods previously reported.

  12. The application of Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov methods to reduce the spin-up time of ocean general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Bernsen, Erik; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Thies, Jonas; Wubs, Fred W.

    2010-10-20

    In present-day forward time stepping ocean-climate models, capturing both the wind-driven and thermohaline components, a substantial amount of CPU time is needed in a so-called spin-up simulation to determine an equilibrium solution. In this paper, we present methodology based on Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov methods to reduce the computational time for such a spin-up problem. We apply the method to an idealized configuration of a state-of-the-art ocean model, the Modular Ocean Model version 4 (MOM4). It is shown that a typical speed-up of a factor 10-25 with respect to the original MOM4 code can be achieved and that this speed-up increases with increasing horizontal resolution.

  13. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Changdong Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. • Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. • The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. • 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidation–reduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup −1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  14. Microdroplet fluorochromatic assay for the enumeration of white cells (WBCs) in WBC-reduced blood components: validation and application for evaluating newly developed WBC-reduction filters.

    PubMed

    Borzini, P; Dumont, L J

    1997-06-01

    Sensitive and accurate counting methods are required to assess the residual white cells (WBCs) in WBC-reduced blood components. The Nageotte hemocytometer, widely used for this purpose, is cumbersome, and its efficacy is dependent upon the skill of the operator. The performance of a simple fluorochromatic assay using tissue-typing microdroplet trays is presented here. Undiluted samples of blood components were mixed with a fluorochromatic dye in trays. WBCs were counted under an epifluorescence microscope. The accuracy and sensitivity of this method were compared with those of the reference Nageotte hemocytometer method by using serial dilution of samples of platelets and red cells containing known concentrations of WBCs and by calculating the standard curves. The Nageotte hemocytometer and the microdroplet fluorochromatic assay (MFA) were also compared in terms of count correlation and reproducibility in 320 paired counts of plateletpheresis samples. MFA was used to evaluate a newly developed WBC-reduction red cell filter. The MFA for platelets and red cells was linear to 0.1 and 0.03 WBCs per microL, respectively. The linear regression line of log10 MFA versus log10 Nageotte method had a slope of 0.963, intercept of -0.04, and r2 of 0.968. The Nageotte method gave an estimation of WBC content 12 to 20 percent greater than that of the MFA. The MFA, with a larger neat sample volume, showed precision comparable to that of the Nageotte method. The filters demonstrated a median WBC reduction of 4.8 log10. The MFA is a sensitive and accurate method for quality control processes to assess the residual WBCs in WBC-reduced blood components.

  15. Microstructural and electrochemical impedance characterization of bio-functionalized ultrafine ZnS nanocrystals-reduced graphene oxide hybrid for immunosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sujeet K.; Srivastava, Avanish K.; Kumar, Devendra; Biradar, Ashok M.; Rajesh, Affa

    2013-10-01

    We report a mercaptopropionic acid capped ZnS nanocrystals decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid film on a silane modified indium-tin-oxide glass plate, as a bioelectrode for the quantitative detection of human cardiac myoglobin (Ag-cMb). The ZnS nanocrystals were anchored over electrochemically reduced GO sheets through a cross linker, 1-pyrenemethylamine hydrochloride, by carbodiimide reaction and have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The transmission electron microscopic characterization of the ZnS-RGO hybrid shows the uniform distribution of ultra-fine nanoparticles of ZnS in nano-sheets of GO throughout the material. The protein antibody, Ab-cMb, was covalently linked to ZnS-RGO nanocomposite hybrid for the fabrication of the bioelectrode. A detailed electrochemical immunosensing study has been carried out on the bioelectrode towards the detection of target Ag-cMb. The optimal fitted equivalent circuit model that matches the impedance response has been studied to delineate the biocompatibility, sensitivity and selectivity of the bioelectrode. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear electrochemical impedance response to Ag-cMb in a range of 10 ng to 1 μg mL-1 in PBS (pH 7.4) with a sensitivity of 177.56 Ω cm2 per decade. The combined synergistic effects of the high surface-to-volume ratio of ZnS(MPA) nanocrystals and conducting RGO has provided a dominant charge transfer characteristic (Ret) at the lower frequency region of <10 Hz showing a good biocompatibility and enhanced impedance sensitivity towards target Ag-cMb. The impedance response sensitivity of the ZnS-RGO hybrid bioelectrode towards Ag-cMb has been found to be about 2.5 fold higher than that of a bare RGO modified bioelectrode.

  16. High yield expression of an AHL-lactonase from Bacillus sp. B546 in Pichia pastoris and its application to reduce Aeromonas hydrophila mortality in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aeromonas hydrophila is a serious pathogen and can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. To control this disease, antibiotics and chemicals are widely used which can consequently result in "superbugs" and chemical accumulation in the food chain. Though vaccine against A. hydrophila is available, its use is limited due to multiple serotypes of this pathogen and problems of safety and efficacy. Another problem with vaccination is the ability to apply it to small fish especially in high numbers. In this study, we tried a new way to attenuate the A. hydrophila infection by using a quorum quenching strategy with a recombinant AHL-lactonase expressed in Pichia pastoris. Results The AHL-lactonase (AiiAB546) from Bacillus sp. B546 was produced extracellularly in P. pastoris with a yield of 3,558.4 ± 81.3 U/mL in a 3.7-L fermenter when using 3-oxo-C8-HSL as the substrate. After purification with a HiTrap Q Sepharose column, the recombinant homogenous protein showed a band of 33.6 kDa on SDS-PAGE, higher than the calculated molecular mass (28.14 kDa). Deglycosylation of AiiAB546 with Endo H confirmed the occurrence of N-glycosylation. The purified recombinant AiiAB546 showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 20°C, exhibited excellent stability at pH 8.0-12.0 and thermal stability at 70°C, was firstly confirmed to be significantly protease-resistant, and had wide substrate specificity. In application test, when co-injected with A. hydrophila in common carp, recombinant AiiAB546 decreased the mortality rate and delayed the mortality time of fish. Conclusions Our results not only indicate the possibility of mass-production of AHL-lactonase at low cost, but also open up a promising foreground of application of AHL-lactonase in fish to control A. hydrophila disease by regulating its virulence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on heterologous expression of AHL-lactonase in P. pastoris and attenuating A. hydrophila virulence by co-injection with AHL

  17. The 2D Hotelling filter - a quantitative noise-reducing principal-component filter for dynamic PET data, with applications in patient dose reduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this paper we apply the principal-component analysis filter (Hotelling filter) to reduce noise from dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) patient data, for a number of different radio-tracer molecules. We furthermore show how preprocessing images with this filter improves parametric images created from such dynamic sequence. We use zero-mean unit variance normalization, prior to performing a Hotelling filter on the slices of a dynamic time-series. The Scree-plot technique was used to determine which principal components to be rejected in the filter process. This filter was applied to [11C]-acetate on heart and head-neck tumors, [18F]-FDG on liver tumors and brain, and [11C]-Raclopride on brain. Simulations of blood and tissue regions with noise properties matched to real PET data, was used to analyze how quantitation and resolution is affected by the Hotelling filter. Summing varying parts of a 90-frame [18F]-FDG brain scan, we created 9-frame dynamic scans with image statistics comparable to 20 MBq, 60 MBq and 200 MBq injected activity. Hotelling filter performed on slices (2D) and on volumes (3D) were compared. Results The 2D Hotelling filter reduces noise in the tissue uptake drastically, so that it becomes simple to manually pick out regions-of-interest from noisy data. 2D Hotelling filter introduces less bias than 3D Hotelling filter in focal Raclopride uptake. Simulations show that the Hotelling filter is sensitive to typical blood peak in PET prior to tissue uptake have commenced, introducing a negative bias in early tissue uptake. Quantitation on real dynamic data is reliable. Two examples clearly show that pre-filtering the dynamic sequence with the Hotelling filter prior to Patlak-slope calculations gives clearly improved parametric image quality. We also show that a dramatic dose reduction can be achieved for Patlak slope images without changing image quality or quantitation. Conclusions The 2D Hotelling-filtering of dynamic PET data

  18. The 2D Hotelling filter - a quantitative noise-reducing principal-component filter for dynamic PET data, with applications in patient dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Jan; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-04-10

    In this paper we apply the principal-component analysis filter (Hotelling filter) to reduce noise from dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) patient data, for a number of different radio-tracer molecules. We furthermore show how preprocessing images with this filter improves parametric images created from such dynamic sequence.We use zero-mean unit variance normalization, prior to performing a Hotelling filter on the slices of a dynamic time-series. The Scree-plot technique was used to determine which principal components to be rejected in the filter process. This filter was applied to [11C]-acetate on heart and head-neck tumors, [18F]-FDG on liver tumors and brain, and [11C]-Raclopride on brain. Simulations of blood and tissue regions with noise properties matched to real PET data, was used to analyze how quantitation and resolution is affected by the Hotelling filter. Summing varying parts of a 90-frame [18F]-FDG brain scan, we created 9-frame dynamic scans with image statistics comparable to 20 MBq, 60 MBq and 200 MBq injected activity. Hotelling filter performed on slices (2D) and on volumes (3D) were compared. The 2D Hotelling filter reduces noise in the tissue uptake drastically, so that it becomes simple to manually pick out regions-of-interest from noisy data. 2D Hotelling filter introduces less bias than 3D Hotelling filter in focal Raclopride uptake. Simulations show that the Hotelling filter is sensitive to typical blood peak in PET prior to tissue uptake have commenced, introducing a negative bias in early tissue uptake. Quantitation on real dynamic data is reliable. Two examples clearly show that pre-filtering the dynamic sequence with the Hotelling filter prior to Patlak-slope calculations gives clearly improved parametric image quality. We also show that a dramatic dose reduction can be achieved for Patlak slope images without changing image quality or quantitation. The 2D Hotelling-filtering of dynamic PET data is a computer-efficient method

  19. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    PubMed

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates.

  20. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mary W.

    1997-01-01

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools, more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense US social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti- graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more tot he general 'order maintenance' of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  1. Avian metapneumovirus RT-nested-PCR: a novel false positive reducing inactivated control virus with potential applications to other RNA viruses and real time methods.

    PubMed

    Falchieri, Marco; Brown, Paul A; Catelli, Elena; Naylor, Clive J

    2012-12-01

    Using reverse genetics, an avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) was modified for use as a positive control for validating all stages of a popular established RT-nested PCR, used in the detection of the two major AMPV subtypes (A and B). Resultant amplicons were of increased size and clearly distinguishable from those arising from unmodified virus, thus allowing false positive bands, due to control virus contamination of test samples, to be identified readily. Absorption of the control virus onto filter paper and subsequent microwave irradiation removed all infectivity while its function as an efficient RT-nested-PCR template was unaffected. Identical amplicons were produced after storage for one year. The modified virus is likely to have application as an internal standard as well as in real time methods. Additions to AMPV of RNA from other RNA viruses, including hazardous examples such HIV and influenza, are likely to yield similar safe RT-PCR controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools (or at least the perception of their prevalence), more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense U.S. social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti-graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems (`big picture`) approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more to the general `order maintenance` of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  3. Applications of phytochemical and in vitro techniques for reducing over-harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants and generating income for the rural poor.

    PubMed

    Sarasan, Viswambharan; Kite, Geoffrey C; Sileshi, Gudeta W; Stevenson, Philip C

    2011-07-01

    Plants provide medicine and pest control resources for millions of poor people world-wide. Widespread harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants puts pressure on natural populations, thus severely compromising their contribution to the income and well-being of traders and consumers. The development of in vitro propagation techniques appropriate for developing countries will provide a robust platform for effective propagation and cultivation of endangered plants. This review focuses on advances in the application of phytochemical and in vitro tools to identify and rapidly propagate medicinal and pesticidal plants. Problems of over-harvesting can be alleviated and ex situ cultivation in agroforestry systems can be facilitated through improving seed germination, in vitro cloning and the use of mycorrhizal fungi. We also present a case for effective use of phytochemical analyses for the accurate identification of elite materials from wild stands and validation of the desired quality in order to counter loss of efficacy in the long run through selection, propagation or ex situ management in agroforestry systems. Future prospects are discussed in the context of medicinal activity screening, sustainable propagation, on-farm planting, management and utilization.

  4. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  5. Why the Three-Point Rule Failed to Sufficiently Reduce the Number of Draws in Soccer: An Application of Prospect Theory.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Dennis; Heuer, Andreas; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Incentives guide human behavior by altering the level of external motivation. We apply the idea of loss aversion from prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) to the point reward systems in soccer and investigate the controversial impact of the three-point rule on reducing the fraction of draws in this sport. Making use of the Poisson nature of goal scoring, we compared empirical results with theoretically deduced draw ratios from 24 countries encompassing 20 seasons each (N = 118.148 matches). The rule change yielded a slight reduction in the ratio of draws, but despite adverse incentives, still 18% more matches ended drawn than expected, t(23) = 11.04, p < .001, d = 2.25, consistent with prospect theory assertions. Alternative point systems that manipulated incentives for losses yielded reductions at or below statistical expectation. This provides support for the deduced concept of how arbitrary aims, such as the reduction of draws in the world's soccer leagues, could be more effectively accomplished than currently attempted.

  6. An application of the Complier Average Causal Effect analysis to examine the effects of a family intervention in reducing illicit drug use among high-risk Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Estrada, Yannine; Brincks, Ahnalee M; Asfour, Lila S; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    The Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) method has been increasingly used in prevention research to provide more accurate causal intervention effect estimates in the presence of noncompliance. The purpose of this study was to provide an applied demonstration of the CACE analytic approach to evaluate the relative effects of a family-based prevention intervention, Familias Unidas, in preventing/reducing illicit drug use for those participants who received the intended dosage. This study is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the relative efficacy of Familias Unidas with high-risk Hispanic youth. A total of 242 high-risk Hispanic youth aged 12-17 years and their primary caregivers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months postbaseline. CACE models were estimated with a finite growth mixture model. Predictors of engagement were included in the CACE model. Findings indicate that, relative to the intent-to-treat (ITT) analytic approach, the CACE analytic approach yielded stronger intervention effects among both initially engaged and overall engaged participants. The CACE analytic approach may be particularly helpful for studies involving parent/family-centered interventions given that participants may not receive the intended dosage. Future studies should consider implementing the CACE analysis in addition to ITT analysis when examining the effects of family-based prevention programs to determine whether, and the extent to which, the CACE analysis has more power to uncover intervention effects.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet Application to Reduce HIV Transmission Behavior Among HIV Infected Men Who have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Milam, Joel; Morris, Sheldon; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Xiaoying; Dubé, Michael P; Daar, Eric S; Jimenez, Gustavo; Haubrich, Richard

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial of an internet-based safer-sex intervention to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors. HIV-infected men who have sex with men (n = 179) were randomized to receive a monthly internet survey alone or a monthly survey plus tailored risk reduction messages over 12 months. The primary outcome was the cumulative sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence over 12 months. Secondary outcomes included self-reported unprotected sex with an at risk partner and disclosure of HIV status to partners. In a modified intent to treat analysis, there was no difference in 12-month STI incidence between the intervention and control arms (30 vs. 25 %, respectively; p = 0.5). Unprotected sex decreased and disclosure increased over time in both study arms. These improvements suggest that addition of the risk-reduction messages provided little benefit beyond the self-monitoring of risky behavior via regular self-report risk behavior assessments (as was done in both study arms).

  8. An optimized, sensitive and stable reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle-luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system and its potential analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Shuo; He, Da-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hong; Duan, Jia-Hua; Peng, Hong-Shang; Wu, Hong-Peng; Fu, Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Qing

    2014-04-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) performance of luminol is improved using reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nano-composites as catalyst. To prepare this catalyst, we propose a linker free, one-step method to in-situ synthesize rGO-AuNP nano-composites. Various measurements are utilized to characterize the resulting rGO-AuNP samples, and it is revealed that rGO could improve the stability and conductivity. Furthermore, we investigate the CL signals of luminal catalyzed by rGO-AuNP. Afterwards, the size effect of particle and the assisted enhancement effect of rGO are studied and discussed in detail. Based on the discussion, an optimal, sensitive and stable rGO-AuNP-luminon-H2O2 CL system is proposed. Finally, we utilize the system as a sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide and organic compounds containing amino, hydroxyl, or thiol groups. The CL system might provide a more attractive platform for various analytical devices with CL detection in the field of biosensors, bioassays, and immunosensors.

  9. Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides by using a plasma technique and their application for removal of heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Changlun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides (NZVI/rGOs) from spent graphene oxide (GO)-bound iron ions were developed by using a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method to improve the reactivity and stability of NZVI. The NZVI/rGOs exhibited excellent water treatment performance with excellent removal capacities of 187.16 and 396.37 mg g(-1) for chromium and lead, respectively. Moreover, the NZVI/rGOs could be regenerated by plasma treatment and maintained high removal ability after four cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results implied that the removal mechanisms could be attributed to adsorption/precipitation, reduction, or both. Such multiple removal mechanisms by the NZVI/rGOs were attributed to the reduction ability of the NZVI particles and the role of dispersing and stabilizing abilities of the rGOs. The results indicated that the NZVI/rGOs prepared by a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method might be an effective composite for heavy-metal-ion removal.

  10. Immobilization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger on κ-carrageenan hybrid matrix and its application on the production of reducing sugar from macroalgae cellulosic residue.

    PubMed

    Tan, Inn Shi; Lee, Keat Teong

    2015-05-01

    A novel concept for the synthesis of a stable polymer hybrid matrix bead was developed in this study. The beads were further applied for enzyme immobilization to produce stable and active biocatalysts with low enzyme leakage, and high immobilization efficiency, enzyme activity, and recyclability. The immobilization conditions, including PEI concentration, activation time and pH of the PEI solution were investigated and optimized. All formulated beads were characterized for its functionalized groups, composition, surface morphology and thermal stability. Compared with the free β-glucosidase, the immobilized β-glucosidase on the hybrid matrix bead was able to tolerate broader range of pH values and higher reaction temperature up to 60 °C. The immobilized β-glucosidase was then used to hydrolyse pretreated macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR) for the production of reducing sugar and a hydrolysis yield of 73.4% was obtained. After repeated twelve runs, immobilized β-glucosidase retained about 75% of its initial activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assembly and benign step-by-step post-treatment of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxides for transparent conductive thin films with multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiayi; He, Junhui

    2012-06-07

    We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on PET showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. In addition, the graphene thin film had a smooth surface with tunable wettability.

  12. Transmission-Ratio Distortion and Allele Sharing in Affected Sib Pairs: A New Linkage Statistic with Reduced Bias, with Application to Chromosome 6q25.3

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Mathieu; Roslin, Nicole M.; Laprise, Catherine; Hudson, Thomas J.; Morgan, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of transmission-ratio distortion (TRD) on tests of linkage based on allele sharing in affected sib pairs. We developed and implemented a discrete-trait allele-sharing test statistic, Sad, analogous to the Spairs test statistic of Whittemore and Halpern, that evaluates an excess sharing of alleles at autosomal loci in pairs of affected siblings, as well as a lack of sharing in phenotypically discordant relative pairs, where available. Under the null hypothesis of no linkage, nuclear families with at least two affected siblings and one unaffected sibling have a contribution to Sad that is unbiased, with respect to the effects of TRD independent of the disease under study. If more distantly related unaffected individuals are studied, the bias of Sad is generally reduced compared with that of Spairs, but not completely. Moreover, Sad has higher power, in some circumstances, because of the availability of unaffected relatives, who are ignored in affected-only analyses. We discuss situations in which it may be an efficient use of resources to genotype unaffected relatives, which would give insights for promising study designs. The method is applied to a sample of pedigrees ascertained for asthma in a chromosomal region in which TRD has been reported. Results are consistent with the presence of transmission distortion in that region. PMID:15322985

  13. CdO-NPs; synthesis from 1D new nano Cd coordination polymer, characterization and application as anti-cancer drug for reducing the viability of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzalian Mend, Behnaz; Delavar, Mahmoud; Darroudi, Majid

    2017-04-01

    The hexagonal CdO nano-particles (CdO-NPs) was prepared using new nano Cd coordination polymer, [Cd(NO3)(bipy)(pzca)]n (1) as a precursor, through direct calcination process at 500 °C. The precursor (1) was synthesized by sonochemical method. The new nano compound (1) was characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analyses. The structure of nano coordination polymer was determined by comparing the XRD pattern of nano and single-crystal of compound (1). The nano CdO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). In addition, the activity and efficiency of nano CdO as an anti-cancer drug was studied on cancer cells with different concentration. The results shows that the viability of cancer cells reduced above 2 μg/mL of CdO-NPs concentration.

  14. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice.

  15. Topical application of TRPM8 agonists accelerates skin permeability barrier recovery and reduces epidermal proliferation induced by barrier insult: role of cold-sensitive TRP receptors in epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Denda, Mitsuhiro; Tsutsumi, Moe; Denda, Sumiko

    2010-09-01

    TRPA1 and TRPM8 receptors are activated at low temperature (A1: below 17 degrees C and M8: below 22 degrees C). Recently, we observed that low temperature (below 22 degrees C) induced elevation of intracellular calcium in keratinocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that topical application of TRPA1 agonists accelerated the recovery of epidermal permeability barrier function after disruption. In this study, we examined the effect of topical application of TRPM8 modulators on epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis. Immunohistochemical study and RT-PCR confirmed the expression of TRPM8 or TRPM8-like protein in epidermal keratinocytes. Topical application of TRPM8 agonists, menthol and WS 12 accelerated barrier recovery after tape stripping. The effect of WS12 was blocked by a non-selective TRP antagonist, Ruthenium Red, and a TRPM8-specific antagonist, BTCT. Topical application of WS12 also reduced epidermal proliferation associated with barrier disruption under low humidity, and this effect was blocked by BTCT. Our results indicate that TRPM8 or a closely related protein in epidermal keratinocytes plays a role in epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis and epidermal proliferation after barrier insult.

  16. The maximum overlap method: A general and efficient scheme for reducing basis sets. Application to the generation of approximate AO's for the 3 d transition metal atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, E.; Seijo, L.; Pueyo, L.

    1986-07-01

    The method of maximum overlap, often applied to the problem of basis set reduction, is formulated in terms of weighted least squares with orthogonality restrictions. An analytical solution for the linear parameters of the reduced set is given. In this form, the method is a general and efficient scheme for reducing basis sets. As an application, orthogonal radial wavefunctions of the STO type have been obtained for the 3 d transition metal atoms and ions by simulation of the high-quality sets of Clementi and Roetti. The performance of the reduction has been evaluated by examining several one- and two-electron interactions. Results of these tests reveal that the new functions are highly accurate simulations of the reference AO's. They appear to be appropriate for molecular and solid state calculations.

  17. Comparative efficacy of the standard flossing procedure and a new floss applicator in reducing interproximal bleeding: a short-term study.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F; Jenkins, W M; Paterson, A J

    1992-09-01

    This was a parallel stratified study which examined the effect on gingival health of a new floss holder and applicator, designed to deliver a 25 microliters dose of 0.1% chlorhexidine solution to each interdental embrasure during the flossing procedure. Fifty-two patients with simple chronic gingivitis were stratified according to age, sex, and baseline interdental bleeding score and then assigned to one of three treatment groups. One of the following interdental cleaning agents was used once daily during a 2-week period: conventional floss; a flossing device with chlorhexidine; or a flossing device with placebo solution. Gingival health was assessed using the interdental bleeding index (IBI); i.e., the ratio of bleeding sites to the number of sites tested by stimulation with an interdental cleaner. The percentage reduction in bleeding amounted to 38.3% for conventional floss, 51.5% for the flossing device with chlorhexidine, and 51.4% for the flossing device with placebo. The reductions in both flossing device groups were significantly greater than that of the conventional floss group as determined by one-way ANOVA (F = 4.0; P = 0.024) and multiple range tests. There were no statistically significant differences between the two flossing device groups. There was no difference in patients' perception of ease of use of their respective materials; however, 72% of chlorhexidine users and 94% of placebo users, but only 24% of conventional floss users, felt that their interdental cleaning regimens left their mouths feeling fresher. It is therefore postulated that the pleasant tasting spray may have been an important stimulus to extended use of the new device and may explain its greater effectiveness.

  18. A reduced order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for regional- and climate-scale land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-04-01

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometer scale (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a particular reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "Proper Orthogonal Decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally-resolved fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We applied this technique to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface-subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June-September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998-2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the four study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (< 0.1%) for two validation years not used in training the ROM. We also demonstrated that our approach: (1) efficiently corrects for coarse-resolution model bias and (2) can be used for polygonal tundra sites not included in the training dataset with relatively good accuracy (< 1.5% relative error), thereby allowing for the possibility of applying these ROMs across a much larger landscape. This method has the potential to efficiently increase the resolution of land models for coupled climate simulations, allowing LSMs to be used at spatial scales consistent with mechanistic physical

  19. A reduced-order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-09-01

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from the molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometers (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "proper orthogonal decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally resolved fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We developed four different methods and applied them to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface-subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June-September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998-2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (< 0.1%) for 2 validation years not used in training the ROM. We also demonstrate that our approach: (1) efficiently corrects for coarse-resolution model bias and (2) can be used for polygonal tundra sites not included in the training data set with relatively good accuracy (< 1.7% relative error), thereby allowing for the possibility of applying these ROMs across a much larger landscape. By coupling the ROMs constructed at different scales together hierarchically, this method has the potential to efficiently increase the resolution of land models for coupled climate

  20. A Trilogy Case Review Highlighting the Clinical and Pharmacologic Applications of Mirtazapine in Reducing Polypharmacy for Anxiety, Agitation, Insomnia, Depression, and Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Barkin, Robert L.; Chor, Philip N.; Braun, Bennett G.; Schwer, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), is characterized by a unique receptor-specific pharmacologic profile and tolerable side-effect profile in comparison to other antidepressants. It has been reported to have a low incidence of agitation, anxiety, and insomnia, which may be due to blockade of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. This unique multireceptor-mediated clinical pharmacologic profile may reduce the need for polypharmacy in selected patients. Case reports: Three cases are presented. In case 1, mirtazapine was able to rapidly treat anxiety and agitation in a 90-year-old woman. This was confirmed with 3 consecutive challenges with mirtazapine. In case 2, both a mood disorder and insomnia were successfully treated with rapid resolution in a patient by using mirtazapine. In case 3, the patient experienced sexual dysfunction while receiving sertraline and developed insomnia with the addition of bupropion. The addition of mirtazapine and the discontinuation of sertraline and bupropion resolved the sexual dysfunction and insomnia. Polypharmacy interventions were decreased in these patients through receptor-specific events from mirtazapine. Conclusion: The new antidepressant mirtazapine appears to be an effective strategy for treating anxiety, agitation, and insomnia and for diminishing SSRI-related sexual dysfunction without compromising the patient's therapeutic response to the medication while decreasing the need for additional pharmacotherapies. More than 70% of patients with major depression will have anxiety symptoms. The 5-HT2 receptor seems to play a major role in the regulation of anxiety. The anxiolytic properties of mirtazapine may be due to its antagonism of 5-HT2 receptors and can appear as early as the first week of treatment. PMID:15014675

  1. A reduced-order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    DOE PAGES

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-09-17

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from the molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometers (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "proper orthogonal decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally resolvedmore » fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We developed four different methods and applied them to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface–subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June–September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998–2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (< 0.1%) for 2 validation years not used in training the ROM. We also demonstrate that our approach: (1) efficiently corrects for coarse-resolution model bias and (2) can be used for polygonal tundra sites not included in the training data set with relatively good accuracy (< 1.7% relative error), thereby allowing for the possibility of applying these ROMs across a much larger landscape. By coupling the ROMs constructed at different scales together hierarchically, this method has the potential to efficiently increase the resolution of land models for coupled

  2. Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide decorated with CeO2-doped MnO2 nanorods for supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Gunendra Prasad; Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Soo-Jin; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2017-05-15

    A novel and efficient CeO2-doped MnO2 nanorods decorated reduced graphene oxide (CeO2-MnO2/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The growth of the CeO2 doped MnO2 nanorods over GO sheets and reduction of GO were simultaneously carried out under hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of as-synthesized nanocomposite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the formation of CeO2-MnO2 decorated RGO nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of as-prepared CeO2-MnO2/RGO nanocomposites as an active electrode material for supercapacitor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods in 2M alkaline medium. The obtained results revealed that as-synthesized CeO2-MnO2/RGO nanocomposite exhibited higher specific capacitance (648F/g) as compared to other formulations (MnO2/RGO nanocomposites: 315.13 F/g and MnO2 nanorods: 228.5 F/g) at the scan rate of 5mV/s. After 1000 cycles, it retained ∼90.4%, exhibiting a good stability. The high surface area, enhanced electrical conductivity, and good stability possess by the nanocomposite make this material a promising candidate to be applied as a supercapacitor electrode.

  3. Robotic-locomotor training as a tool to reduce neuromuscular abnormality in spinal cord injury: the application of system identification and advanced longitudinal modeling.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M; Kindig, Matthew; Niu, Xun; Varoqui, Deborah; Conaway, Petra

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effect of the LOKOMAT, a robotic-assisted locomotor training system, on the reduction of neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity was examined, for the first time in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Twenty-three individuals with chronic incomplete SCI received 1-hour training sessions in the LOKOMAT three times per week, with up to 45 minutes of training per session; matched control group received no intervention. The neuromuscular properties of the spastic ankle were then evaluated prior to training and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of training. A parallel-cascade system identification technique was used to determine the reflex and intrinsic stiffness of the ankle joint as a function of ankle position at each time point. The slope of the stiffness vs. joint angle curve, i.e. the modulation of stiffness with joint position, was then calculated and tracked over the four-week period. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM), an advanced statistical method, was then used to classify subjects into subgroups based on similar trends in recovery pattern of slope over time, and Random Coefficient Regression (RCR) was used to model the recovery patterns within each subgroup. All groups showed significant reductions in both reflex and intrinsic slope over time, but subjects in classes with higher baseline values of the slope showed larger improvements over the four weeks of training. These findings suggest that LOKOMAT training may also be useful for reducing the abnormal modulation of neuromuscular properties that arises as secondary effects after SCI. This can advise clinicians as to which patients can benefit the most from LOKOMAT training prior to beginning the training. Further, this study shows that system identification and GMM/RCR can serve as powerful tools to quantify and track spasticity over time in the SCI population.

  4. A comparative study of two composts as filter media for the removal of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) by biofiltration: application at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Hort, C; Gracy, S; Platel, V; Moynault, L

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the use of two composts as filter media for the treatment by biofiltration of odors emitted during the aerobic composting of a mixture containing sewage sludge and yard waste. The chemical analysis of the waste gas showed that the malodorous compounds at trace level were the reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) which were dimethyl sulfide (Me(2)S), methanethiol (MeSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Laboratory tests for biofiltration treatment of RSCs were performed in order to compare the properties of two filter media, consisted of a mature compost with yard waste (YW) and a mixture of mature compost with sewage sludge and yard waste (SS/YW). The maximum elimination capacity (EC) values obtained with the YW mature compost as packing material were 12.5 mg m(-3)h(-1) for H(2)S, 7.9 mg m(-3)h(-1) for MeSH and 34 mg m(-3)h(-1) for Me(2)S, and the removal efficiency decreased in the order of: H(2)S>MeSH>Me(2)S. Moreover, the YW compost filter medium had a better behavior than the filter medium based on SS/YW in terms of acclimation of the microbial communities and moisture content. According to these results, a YW mature compost as packing material for an industrial biofilter were designed and this industrial biofilter was found effective under specified conditions (without inoculation and addition of water). The results showed that the maximum EC value of RSCs was 935 mg m(-3)h(-1) (100% removal efficiency, RE) for an inlet loads (IL) between 0 and 1000 mg m(-3)h(-1). Thus, YW compost medium was proven efficient for biofiltration of RSCs both at laboratory and industrial scale.

  5. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg−1•min−1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

  6. Multiple-stimuli responsive bioelectrocatalysis based on reduced graphene oxide/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) composite films and its application in the fabrication of logic gates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Lian, Wenjing; Yao, Huiqin; Liu, Hongyun

    2015-03-11

    In the present work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAA) composite films were electrodeposited onto the surface of Au electrodes in a fast and one-step manner from an aqueous mixture of a graphene oxide (GO) dispersion and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAA) monomer solutions. Reflection-absorption infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were employed to characterize the successful construction of the rGO/PNIPAA composite films. The rGO/PNIPAA composite films exhibited reversible potential-, pH-, temperature-, and sulfate-sensitive cyclic voltammetric (CV) on-off behavior to the electroactive probe ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2). For instance, after the composite films were treated at -0.7 V for 7 min, the CV responses of Fc(COOH)2 at the rGO/PNIPAA electrodes were quite large at pH 8.0, exhibiting the on state. However, after the films were treated at 0 V for 30 min, the CV peak currents became much smaller, demonstrating the off state. The mechanism of the multiple-stimuli switchable behaviors for the system was investigated not only by electrochemical methods but also by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The potential-responsive behavior for this system was mainly attributed to the transformation between rGO and GO in the films at different potentials. The film system was further used to realize multiple-stimuli responsive bioelectrocatalysis of glucose catalyzed by the enzyme of glucose oxidase and mediated by the electroactive probe of Fc(COOH)2 in solution. On the basis of this, a four-input enabled OR (EnOR) logic gate network was established.

  7. A novel application of the Intent to Attend assessment to reduce bias due to missing data in a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Friedman, Edward S.; Bowden, Charles L.; Thase, Michael E.; Ketter, Terence; Ostacher, Michael J.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Leon, Andrew C.; Schoenfeld, David A

    2014-01-01

    model is well-specified. Conclusions In LiTMUS, the Intent to Attend assessment predicted missed study visits. This item was incorporated into our IPAW models and helped reduce bias due to informative missing data. This analysis should both encourage and facilitate future use of the Intent to Attend assessment along with IPAW to address missing data in a randomized trial. PMID:24872362

  8. (Indium,gallium)arsenide quantum dot materials for solar cell applications: Effect of strain-reducing and strain-compensated barriers on quantum dot structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancholi, Anup

    the other hand, in the sample with thin barrier and electronically coupled QDs, the radiative lifetime increases and later decreases with the dot size. This is due to the enhancement of the oscillator strength in the larger size, coherently coupled QDs. In order to improve the quality of multi-layer QD structures, strain compensated barriers were introduced between the QD layers grown on off-oriented GaAs (311)B substrate. The QD shape anisotropy resulted from the growth on off-oriented substrate was studied using polarization-dependent PL measurements both on the surface and the edge of the samples. The transverse electric mode of the edge-emitted PL showed about 5° deviation from the sample surface for the dots grown on (311)B GaAs, which was attributed to the tilted vertical alignment and the shape asymmetry of dots resulted from the substrate orientation. Significant structural quality improvements were attained by introducing strain compensated barriers, i.e., reduction of misfit dislocations and uniform dot size formation. Longer lifetime (˜1 ns) and enhanced PL intensity at room temperature were obtained, compared to those in conventional multilayer (In,Ga)As/GaAs QD structures. A significant increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) was observed for the solar cell devices fabricated with the strain compensated structures. A major issue in a QD IBSC is the occurrence of charge trapping, followed by recombination in the dots, which results in fewer carriers being collected, and hence low quantum efficiency. We proposed and studied a novel structure, in which InAs QDs were sandwiched between GaAsSb (12% Sb) strain-reducing layers (SRLs) with various thicknesses. Both short (˜1 ns) and long (˜4-6 ns) radiative lifetimes were measured in the dots and were attributed to type-I and type-II transitions, respectively, which were induced by the band alignment modifications at the QD/barrier interface in the structures analyzed, due to the quantum confinement effect

  9. Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Le Cointe, Ronan; Simon, Thomas E; Delarue, Patrick; Hervé, Maxime; Leclerc, Melen; Poggi, Sylvain

    Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential "shield effect" of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide-a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L-significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use.

  10. Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Le Cointe, Ronan; Simon, Thomas E.; Delarue, Patrick; Hervé, Maxime; Leclerc, Melen; Poggi, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential “shield effect” of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide—a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L—significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use. PMID:27668731

  11. Establishing ecological reference conditions and tracking post-application effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (Phoslock®) for reducing phosphorus in aquatic systems: an applied paleolimnological approach.

    PubMed

    Moos, M T; Taffs, K H; Longstaff, B J; Ginn, B K

    2014-08-01

    Innovative management strategies for nutrient enrichment of freshwater are important in the face of this increasing global problem, however many strategies are not assessed over long enough time periods to establish effectiveness. Paleolimnological techniques using diatoms as biological indicators were utilized to establish ecological reference conditions, environmental variation, and the effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (brand name: Phoslock(®)) applied to reduce water column phosphorus (P) concentrations in four waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and eastern Australia. In sediment cores from the two Canadian sites, there were short-lived changes to diatom assemblages, relative to inferred background conditions, and a temporary reduction in both measured and diatom-inferred total phosphorus (TP) before returning to pre-application conditions (particularly in the urban stormwater management pond which has a high flushing rate and responds rapidly to precipitation and surface run-off). The two Australian sites (a sewage treatment pond and a shallow recreational lake), recorded no reduction in diatom-inferred TP. Based on our pre-application environmental reconstruction, changes to the diatom assemblages and diatom-inferred TP appeared to be driven by larger, climatic factors. While laboratory tests involving this product showed sharp reductions in water column TP, management strategies require detailed information on pre-application environmental conditions and variations in order to accurately assess the effectiveness of new technologies for lake management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-15

    adjacent to the temporary restoration. Staining of the dentition was not evident. ,󈧝 ’ ,. . .99...recorded on the teeth * (16, 21, 24, 36, 41, 44) identified as representative of the whole dentition (Ramfjord 1959). To insure that the teeth were free of

  13. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    apthous ulcers (Yeoman, Greenspan, and Harding, 1978); anti-fungal drugs for the management of denture stomatitis (Douglas and Walker, 1973; Thomas and...In vitro studies into the use of denture base and soft liner materials as carriers for drugs in the mouth. Journal of Oral Rehabili- tation, 8:131...cement. (1980) Journal of the American Dental Association, 101:669. Douglas, W. H. and Walker, D. M. (1973) Nystatin in denture liners, an alter- native

  14. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  15. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  16. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    system against plaque and gingivitis was not Impressive. A . I A 𔃾 ........................... Table of Contents Page Report Documentation Page 1...mutans and High Caries Prevalence 28 Study 5: Effect of SnF 2 and Acidulated NaF Mouthrinse on Plaque and Gingivitis In Adults with High Caries Prevalence...rinsing with acidulated NaF. k4 STUDY 5: EFFECT OF SNF 2 AND ACIDULATED NAF MOUTHRINSES ON PLAQUE AND GINGIVITIS IN ADULTS WITH HIGH CARIES

  17. Reducing Classroom Alienation: Applications from Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Barbara R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides advice on minimizing classroom alienation (powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and self-estrangement) through specific classroom strategies. Concludes that student alienation effects learning as well as evaluation. A conscious effort to increase student integration improves teaching, student learning, and the…

  18. Reduced size fuel cell for portable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flat pack type fuel cell includes a plurality of membrane electrode assemblies. Each membrane electrode assembly is formed of an anode, an electrolyte, and an cathode with appropriate catalysts thereon. The anode is directly into contact with fuel via a wicking element. The fuel reservoir may extend along the same axis as the membrane electrode assemblies, so that fuel can be applied to each of the anodes. Each of the fuel cell elements is interconnected together to provide the voltage outputs in series.

  19. Biosynthesis of Ag/reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 using Lotus garcinii leaf extract and its application as a recyclable nanocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Maham, Mehdi; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Nekoei, Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    In current research, Ag/RGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was synthesized through applying the aqueous extract of Lotus garcinii leaves through a two-step method. The plant extract was utilized as agents for reduction and stabilization in biosynthesizing nanocomposite. The green synthesized nanocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, EDX, XRD, TEM, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the biosynthesized nanocomposite was studied by reducing different colored solutions contained organic pollutants such as 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR) and Rhodamine B (RhB). In order to verify commercial applications of the prepared heterogeneous nanocatalyst, reusability and recoverability tests were performed in five successive catalytic reactions.

  20. Facile synthesis of novel Ni(II)-based metal-organic coordination polymer nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their application for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbo; Qin, Xiaoyun; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Sun, Xuping

    2013-01-21

    The present paper reports on the facile preparation of novel Ni(II)-based metal-organic coordination polymer nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (NiCPNP/rGO) nanocomposites for the first time. The formation of the nanocomposites occurs in a single step, carried out by hydrothermal treatment of the mixture of tannic a