Science.gov

Sample records for applied optics warsaw

  1. Optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol observed over Warsaw on 10th July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning aerosol originating from Canadian forest fires was widely observed over Europe in July 2013. Favorable weather conditions caused long-term westward flow of smoke from Canada to Western and Central Europe. During this period, PollyXT lidar of the University of Warsaw took wavelength dependent measurements in Warsaw. On July 10th short event of simultaneous advection of Canadian smoke and Saharan dust was observed at different altitudes over Warsaw. Different origination of both air masses was indicated by backward trajectories from HYSPLIT model. Lidar measurements performed with various wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm), using also Raman and depolarization channels for VIS and UV allowed for distinguishing physical differences of this two types of aerosols. Optical properties acted as input for retrieval of microphysical properties. Comparisons of microphysical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust observed will be presented.

  2. Sport and Other Motor Activities of Warsaw Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities. Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in…

  3. NATO-Warsaw Pact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization's peacetime deterrent position is good, and its conventional capabilities have improved over the last decade but they should be better says the Conventional Defense Study Group. It discussed the many factors NATO's success or failure would depend on and concluded that neither side has such an overwhelming advantage that victory is assured for one or the other. Although most scenarios favor the Warsaw Pact as the victor rather than NATO, group participants believe that Warsaw Pact forces might not have a substantial advantage in manpower or division strength in a short-preparation or medium warning attack. Some suggested solutions to improving NATO's conventional capabilities are discussed. They include the following: encouraging Europeans to assume greater responsibility for their defense, such as creating physical barriers to delay a Warsaw Pact advance; increasing emphasis on conventional war-fighting in Nato planning; using dumb weapons to conserve limited stocks of smart munitions; and using arms control measures, either reciprocal or negotiated, to reduce troop size.

  4. The Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    excess of fresh water . The water in the northern end of the Gulf of Bothnia is so low in salt content as to be drinkable . This is reminiscent of the...ground forces could restrict Soviet passage of the Straits, making a difficult mission even more difficult. The mission can be simplified by the use of...force structures of the Warsaw Pact nations (East Germany, Poland, and the Soviet Ubion) which make up the Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet are examined

  5. Hermann Mooser, Typhus, Warsaw 1941.

    PubMed

    Lindenmann, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Hermann Mooser (1891-1971), a Swiss rickettsiologist, sent his friend Peyton Rous (1879-1970) of the Rockefeller Institute (New York) a telegram on November 3, 1941, asking for financial help for the manufacture of typhus vaccine in Zurich for the Warsaw Ghetto. His explanatory letter from November 4 reached Rous too late to have any influence on the negative decision (by the Rockefeller Foundation and the American Red Cross) in this matter. Contrary to Weindling's affirmation Mooser was neither in Warsaw in 1941, nor was he a member of the Swiss Sanitary Missions to the eastern front.

  6. Socio-optics: optical knowledge applied in modeling social phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisleag, Radu; Chisleag Losada, Ioana-Roxana

    2011-05-01

    The term "Socio-optics" (as a natural part of Socio-physics), is rather not found in literature or at Congresses. In Optics books, there are not made references to optical models applied to explain social phenomena, in spite of Optics relying on the duality particle-wave which seems convenient to model relationships among society and its members. The authors, who have developed a few models applied to explain social phenomena based on knowledge in Optics, along with a few other models applying, in Social Sciences, knowledge from other branches of Physics, give their own examples of such optical models, f. e., of relationships among social groups and their sub-groups, by using kowledge from partially coherent optical phenomena or to explain by tunnel effect, the apparently impossible penetration of social barriers by individuals. They consider that the term "Socio-optics" may come to life. There is mentioned the authors' expertise in stimulating Socio-optics approach by systematically asking students taken courses in Optics to find applications of the newly got Wave and Photon Optics knowledge, to model social and even everyday life phenomena, eventually engaging in such activities other possibly interested colleagues.

  7. Velocity filtering applied to optical flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1990-01-01

    Optical flow is a method by which a stream of two-dimensional images obtained from a forward-looking passive sensor is used to map the three-dimensional volume in front of a moving vehicle. Passive ranging via optical flow is applied here to the helicopter obstacle-avoidance problem. Velocity filtering is used as a field-based method to determine range to all pixels in the initial image. The theoretical understanding and performance analysis of velocity filtering as applied to optical flow is expanded and experimental results are presented.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Warsaw breakage syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... multiple abnormalities. People with Warsaw breakage syndrome have intellectual disability that varies from mild to severe. They also ... Encyclopedia: Delayed Growth Encyclopedia: Hearing Loss--Infants Encyclopedia: Intellectual Disability Health Topic: Growth Disorders Additional NIH Resources (1 ...

  9. The Warsaw K=160 cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choinski, J.; Miszczak, J.; Sura, J.

    2001-12-01

    The overview of the Warsaw cyclotron facility is presented. The facility consists of K=160 cyclotron, 10 GHz ECR ion source, and several experimental stations. The cyclotron is of compact design with 2 straight dees. A yearly operation time is about 2900 hours on an average for the past few years. The cyclotron can deliver beams up to Ar with energy up to 10 MeV/amu to the experimental area. Experimental stations are: 1) The multidetector OSIRIS II, allows the study of exotic nuclei in the double magic 100Sn region. The experimental set-up consists of 8 HPGe detectors equipped with charged particle 4π multiplicity filter SiBall, 50 elements BGO γ-rays multiplicity filter, 4 sector polarimeter and electron conversion detector system. 2) CUDAC-Coulomb Universal Detector Scattering Chamber-an array of PIN-diodes in connection with HPGe detectors and the computer data analysis package GOSIA, maintained by the Laboratory allows investigation the Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) reactions. 3) IGISOL or Helium-jet transport system opened investigation of the reaction products by means of the online mass separator with ion-guide system. The system uses the Scandinavian-type mass separator built in INR Świerk, Poland. 4) Giant Dipole Resonance studies using experimental set-up JANOSIK developed for the detection of high-energy photons emitted in heavy-ion collisions. The set-up consists of a large NaI(Tl) detector (25 cm×29 cm) surrounded by shields: passive lead shield, active anticoincidence plastic shield and LiH shield to absorb neutrons, and a multiplicity filter of 32 small scintillator detectors (BaF2 and NaI(Tl)). 5) Laser spectroscopy stand now in test phase. The laser spectroscopy group at HIL has completed an equipment consisting of Argon ion Laser Innova 400-25W in all lines and coherent Ring Laser 669-21 as well as atomic beam apparatus.

  10. OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-16

    and Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging (COSI) .The meetings exposed attendees to in-depth learning of optical sensing and imaging and their...were supported by this grant. The meetings exposed attendees to in-depth learning of optical sensing and imaging and their applications from...Participants can hear about the latest products and services, but more importantly, learn about entrepreneurial opportunities and how scientific

  11. Superresolution applied to optical data storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Edwin Parker

    1999-09-01

    This dissertation investigates superresolution applications in optical data storage systems. The performance of standard and superresolving magneto-optic data storage system are quantified by scalar diffraction modeling and experiments. Classical resolution measures are reviewed. Background on superresolution definitions and their conceptual development in scanning optical microscopes, optical data storage, and image processing is presented. Figures of merit for quantifying the performance of the systems are reviewed, such as system transfer function, two-point response, focused spot size, and signal-to-noise ratio. The description of the scalar diffraction modeling used to simulate an optical data storage system is reviewed. Operation of the magneto-optic data storage system and tradeoffs of superresolving techniques are discussed. The signal and noise spatial distribution in the pupil of an optical data storage system are shown to be different. For a particular spatial frequency bandwidth, the signal and noise are concentrated in different regions of the pupil. This understanding allows the use of optical filters that partially equalize the system transfer function and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The main superresolution techniques investigated are those that increase the transmission of the higher spatial frequencies, or equalize the system transfer function, without changing the system cutoff frequency. The optical methods used to achieve superresolution are amplitude and phase filters placed in strategic system locations. One location influences the properties of the focused spot such as the irradiance distribution and width of the central core. Another location does not change the focused spot at all, but does change the signal and noise properties of the system. Electronic filtering techniques are also used to increase the transmission of the high spatial frequencies. The amplitude and phase filter sensitivities to aberration are also investigated

  12. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors.

    PubMed

    McGloin, David

    2014-02-27

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  13. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  14. Optical high-performance computing: introduction to the JOSA A and Applied Optics feature.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, H John; Dolev, Shlomi; Green, William M J

    2009-08-01

    The feature issues in both Applied Optics and the Journal of the Optical Society of America A focus on topics of immediate relevance to the community working in the area of optical high-performance computing.

  15. [Frequency of hypotrophic births in the Warsaw population].

    PubMed

    Pawlus, Beata; Wiśniewski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Newborn's reduced body mass and length are regarded as an important symptom. The diagnosis requires careful observation of the individual's course of growth and metabolic condition. Various criteria are used to diagnose hypotrophy; 3rd, 5th or 10th percentile body mass are the most common, although others recommend using a value of -2.0 SDS body mass and length. To define the frequency of body mass and length deficiency in newborns in the Warsaw population. 4096 children born in single deliveries in 2009 at one Warsaw hospital. Body dimensions at birth were compared against the following standards, taking gestation period and sex into consideration: 1. Usher and McLean (UML). 2. A standard generally used in Warsaw maternity wards, drawn up by the Mother and Baby Institute (IMiD). 3. A standard drawn up in Wielkopolska (WLKP). Hypotrophy was diagnosed retrospectively on the basis of -2.0 SDS body mass and/or body length and 10th percentile body mass criterion. Regardless of sex and the standard being applied, at least one of the analysed body dimensions fell at or below -2.0 SDS in approximately 1% of all children. In newborn boys hypotrophy was diagnosed significantly less frequently using the UML standard than using the national ones, while in newborn girls it was diagnosed less frequently using the IMiD standard than UML or WLKP. Birth mass below the 10th percentile was found in approximately 7% and in just over 3% of all newborns using the IMiD and WLKP standards respectively. The absence of national standards for body length at birth makes the -2.0 SDS criterion difficult to use, while basing the diagnosis purely on evaluating body mass results in too few diagnoses of hypotrophy. Using the 10th percentile criterion allows for diagnosing hypotrophy in a few percent of newborns, while the Warsaw and Wielkopolska standards result in more diagnoses. Taking population trends into account, we postulate the need to prepare new national standards of body dimensions of

  16. (Optical characterization techniques applied to ceramic oxides)

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, M.M.

    1990-10-15

    The traveler collaborated with M.J.M. Leask, J.M. Baker, B. Bleaney, and others at the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford, UK, to Study Tetragonal rare-earth phosphates and vanadates by optical and magnetic spectroscopy. This work is related to similar studies that have been performed at ORNL by the Synthesis and Properties of Novel Materials Group in the Solid State Division.

  17. Scanning Optical Microscopy Applied To Fluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblin, Gerard; Bernstein, Leon

    1987-08-01

    Scanning Optical Microscopy, able to reconstruct, pixel after pixel, low noise images with the expected microscope resolution, is especially suitable for quantitative microscopy. Use of a bright, monochromatic spot of light extends its field of application to fluo-rescence Microscopy. Description of a typical device is given and the problems encountered to realize the scan of the laser beam are discussed. Results relating to transmitted light images as well as to epifluorescence images and spectral analysis are shown.

  18. Optical correlator techniques applied to robotic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hine, Butler P., III; Reid, Max B.; Downie, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Vision processing is one of the most computationally intensive tasks required of an autonomous robot. The data flow from a single typical imaging sensor is roughly 60 Mbits/sec, which can easily overload current on-board processors. Optical correlator-based processing can be used to perform many of the functions required of a general robotic vision system, such as object recognition, tracking, and orientation determination, and can perform these functions fast enough to keep pace with the incoming sensor data. We describe a hybrid digital electronic/analog optical robotic vision processing system developed at Ames Research Center to test concepts and algorithms for autonomous construction, inspection, and maintenance of space-based habitats. We discuss the system architecture design and implementation, its performance characteristics, and our future plans. In particular, we compare the performance of the system to a more conventional all digital electronic system developed concurrently. The hybrid system consistently outperforms the digital electronic one in both speed and robustness.

  19. How optics and photonics is simply applied in agriculture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-06-01

    This paper highlights based on author's experience how optics and photonics is applied in Thai agriculture. These include spectral imaging based systems and mobile applications that have been implemented in the last 5 years for rice, fishery, and sericulture. Brief review of optics and photonics in agriculture will also be introduced.

  20. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-12-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging.

  1. Teaching applied optics at the Univ. of Minho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    1995-10-01

    In this communication we make a brief presentation of the branch of Applied Optics of the University of Mihno's undergraduate course of Applied Physics. The course of Applied Physics began in the year 1988/89. Previously we had just a course devoted to the formation of future physics and chemistry teachers at high school level. The Applied Physics course specialized in Optics appeared due to the growth of the physics department and due to request from the industry. The Applied Physics course has two specialization's on the field of applied optics: Optometry; and Optics and Lasers. The topics covered in the two first years of the course ar common to the two branches. On the second semester of the third year the students must choose between either one. The number of students on the Optometry branch was usually almost four times the number of Applied Optics and Lasers students. Nevertheless this tendency is rapidly changing. A short analysis of the result obtained will be presented focusing on last couple of years' advances. Presented will also be the results of an inquest made on students's opinions about the quality of the course, and their own performance and expectations.

  2. Trends in optical coherence tomography applied to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to double every three years. Traditionally applied to imaging the eye, OCT is now being extended to fields outside ophthalmology and optometry. Widening its applicability, progress in the core engine of the technology, and impact on development of novel optical sources, make OCT a very active and rapidly evolving field. Trends in the developments of different specific devices, such as optical sources, optical configurations and signal processing will be presented. Encompassing studies on both the configurations as well as on signal processing themes, current research in Kent looks at combining spectral domain with time domain imaging for long axial range and simultaneous imaging at several depths. Results of the collaborative work of the Applied Optics Group in Kent with organisers of this conference will be presented, with reference to 3D monitoring of abfraction.

  3. Nonlinear and non-Hermitian optical systems applied to the development of filters and optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro de Faria Júnior, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a method of investigation of nonlinear optical beams generated from non-Hermitian optical systems1 . This method can be applied in the development of optical filters and optical sensors to process, analyze and choose the passband of the propagation modes of an optical pulse from an non-Hermitian optical system. Non-Hermitian optical systems can be used to develop optical fiber sensors that suppress certain propagation modes of optical pulses that eventually behave as quantum noise. Such systems are described by the Nonlinear Schrödinger-like Equation with Parity-Time (PT) Symmetric Optical Potentials. There are optical fiber sensors that due to high laser intensity and frequency can produce quantum noise, such as Raman and Brillouin scattering. However, the optical fiber, for example, can be designed so that its geometry suppress certain propagation modes of the beam. We apply some results of non- Hermitian optical systems with PT symmetry to simulate optical lattice by a appropriate potential function, which among other applications, can naturally suppress certain propagation modes of an optical beam propagating through a waveguide. In other words, the optical system is modeled by a potential function in the Nonlinear Schrödinger-like Equation that one relates with the geometric aspects of the wave guides and with the optical beam interacting with the waveguide material. The paper is organized as follows: sections 1 and 2 present a brief description about nonlinear optical systems and non-Hermitian optical systems with PT symmetry. Section 3 presents a description of the dynamics of nonlinear optical pulses propagating through optical networks described by a optical potential non-Hermitian. Sections 4 and 5 present a general description of this non-Hermitian optical systems and how to get them from a more general model. Section 6 presents some conclusions and comment and the final section presents the references. Begin the abstract two

  4. Applied study of optical interconnection link in computer cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ge; Tian, Jindong; Zhang, Nan; Jing, Wencai; Li, Haifeng

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, some study results to apply fiber link to a computer cluster are presented. The research is based on a ring network topology for a cluster system, which is connected by gigabit/s virtual parallel optical fiber link (VPOFLink) and its driver is for Linux Operating System, the transmission protocol of VPOFLink is compliant with Ethernet standard. We have studied the effect of different types of motherboard on transmission rate of the VPOFLink, and have analyzed the influence of optical interconnection network topology and computer networks protocol on the performance of this optical interconnection computer cluster. The round-trip transmission bandwidth of the VPOFLink have been tested, and the factors that limit transmission bandwidth, such as modes of forwarding data packets in the optical interconnection ring networks, and the size of the link buffer etc., are investigated.

  5. Applying of digital signal processing to optical equisignal zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraev, Anton A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Gusarov, Vadim F.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we are trying to assess the application of array detectors and digital information processing to the system with the optical equisignal zone as a new method of evaluating of optical equisignal zone position. Peculiarities of optical equisignal zone formation are described. The algorithm of evaluation of optical equisignal zone position is applied to processing on the array detector. This algorithm enables to evaluate as lateral displacement as turning angles of the receiver relative to the projector. Interrelation of parameters of the projector and the receiver is considered. According to described principles an experimental set was made and then characterized. The accuracy of position evaluation of the equisignal zone is shown dependent of the size of the equivalent entrance pupil at processing.

  6. Light deviation based optical techniques applied to solid propellant combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauty, F.; Eradès, C.; Desse, J.-M.

    2011-10-01

    The Investigation in Combustion of Energetic Materials (InCoME) program is aimed at validating the numerical simulation of composite propellant combustion using nonintrusive optical techniques. The Focusing Schlieren Technique (FST) was selected; it allows catching light deviation from a thin vertical planar section centered above the propellant combustion surface. The optical system is described in the paper. Significant results are presented showing the capabilities of this technique when applied to solid propellant combustion in terms of studying flame structure, flame propagation, and particle tracking.

  7. The use of the Hurst exponent to predict changes in trends on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domino, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The local properties of the time series of the evolution of share prices of 126 significant companies traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange during the period between 1991-2008 have been investigated. The analysis was applied to daily financial returns. I have used the local DFA to obtain the Hurst exponent (diffusion coefficient) while searching for negative correlations by which changes of long-term trends would be effected. A certain evidence, proving that after the signature of anti-correlation-the drop in the Hurst exponent-the change in the trend and in the return rate of an investment is probable, was pointed out. Hence after further investigation this method may be useful as a part of an investment strategy. As the Warsaw Stock Exchange is relatively smaller and younger than other significant world Stock Exchanges-and as the developing market is less efficient-the generalization for others markets needs further investigation.

  8. RA diagnostics applying optical tomography in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Prapavat, Viravuth; Minet, Olaf; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    Our aim is to reconstruct the optical parameters in a slice of a finger joint phantom for further investigations about rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we have developed a flexible NIR scanning system in order to collect amplitude and phase delay of photon density waves in frequency-domain. A cylindrical finger joint phantom was embedded in a container of Intralipid solution due to the application of an inverse method for infinite geometry. The joint phantom was investigated by a laser beam obtaining several projections. The average optical parameters of each projection was calculated. Using different reconstruction techniques, e.g. ART and SIRT with a special projection operator, we reconstructed the optical parameters in a slice. The projection operator can be heuristically described by a photon path density function of a homogeneous media with infinite geometry. Applied to an object with an unknown distribution of optical parameters it calculates the expectation value of the investigated object. The potentials and limits of these fast reconstruction methods will be presented.

  9. Resonant-state expansion applied to planar open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost, M. B.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2012-02-01

    The resonant-state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbation theory of the Brillouin-Wigner type recently developed in electrodynamics[E. A. Muljarov, W. Langbein, and R. Zimmermann, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/92/50010 92, 50010 (2010)], is applied to planar, effectively one-dimensional optical systems, such as layered dielectric slabs and Bragg reflector microcavities. It is demonstrated that the RSE converges with a power law in the basis size. Algorithms for error estimation and their reduction by extrapolation are presented and evaluated. Complex eigenfrequencies, electromagnetic fields, and the Green's function of a selection of optical systems are calculated, as well as the observable transmission spectra. In particular, we find that for a Bragg-mirror microcavity, which has sharp resonances in the spectrum, the transmission calculated using the RSE reproduces the result of the transfer- or scattering-matrix method.

  10. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich

    2017-09-01

    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  11. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography applied to intervertebral disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matcher, Stephen J.; Winlove, Peter; Gangnus, Sergei V.

    2003-07-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is a powerful new optical imaging modality that is sensitive to the birefringence properties of tissues. It thus has potential applications in studying the large-scale ordering of collagen fibers within connective tisues and changes related to pathology. As a tissue for study by PSOCT, intervertebral disk respresents an interesting system as the collagen organization is believed to show pronounced variations with depth, on a spatial scale of about 100 μm. We have used a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system to measure the birefringence properties of bovine caudal intervertebral disk and compared this with equine flexor tendon. The result for equine tendon, δ = (3.0 +/- 0.5)x10-3 at 1.3 μm, is in broad agreement with values reported for bovine tendon, while bovine intervertebral disk displays a birefringence of about half this, δ = 1.2 x 10-3 at 1.3 μm. While tendon appears to show a uniform fast-axis over 0.8 mm depth, intervertebral disk shows image contrast at all orientations relative to a linearly polarized input beam, suggesting a variation in fast-axis orientation with depth. These initial results suggest that PSOCT could be a useful tool to study collagen organization within this tissue and its variation with applied load and disease.

  12. [Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in dogs from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Turkowicz, Monika; Cielecka, Danuta

    2002-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in dogs from Warsaw region. Investigation of prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs have been conducted in order to protect human and animal health. The aim of the study was to establish species composition of intestinal parasites and to evaluate their prevalence in dogs from the shelter in Józefów situated on north from Warsaw. Additionally, urban dogs from Warsaw and village dogs from areas near the shelter, were examined. The prevalence of nematodes was: 62.3% in dogs from shelter, 37.5% in village dogs and 18.8% in urban dogs. In homeless dogs, the most common parasite was Uncinaria stenocephala, then Trichuris vulpis and Toxascaris leonina. In village dogs only eggs of U. stenocephala were detected; in urban dogs Toxocara canis and U. stenocephala were found.

  13. [How a Warsaw physician helped Sienkiewicz in his literary debut].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1999-01-01

    This article is on the borderline between history of medicine and history of literature. The life and works are presented of Konrad Dobrski (1849-1915), with description of his works in Warsaw and scientific visits to Vienna. He was a well-known Warsaw's physician, especially in laryngology and pulmonology. His friendly relations with Henryk Sienkiewicz, a famous Polish writer, in adolescence are described in more details. The Dobrski's participation in origin of first Sienkiewicz's novel "Na marne" is presented with full particulars. The Józef Ignacy Kraszewski's assistance in this matter is also depicted.

  14. Extended Kramers-Moyal analysis applied to optical trapping.

    PubMed

    Honisch, Christoph; Friedrich, Rudolf; Hörner, Florian; Denz, Cornelia

    2012-08-01

    The Kramers-Moyal analysis is a well-established approach to analyze stochastic time series from complex systems. If the sampling interval of a measured time series is too low, systematic errors occur in the analysis results. These errors are labeled as finite time effects in the literature. In the present article, we present some new insights about these effects and discuss the limitations of a previously published method to estimate Kramers-Moyal coefficients at the presence of finite time effects. To increase the reliability of this method and to avoid misinterpretations, we extend it by the computation of error estimates for estimated parameters using a Monte Carlo error propagation technique. Finally, the extended method is applied to a data set of an optical trapping experiment yielding estimations of the forces acting on a Brownian particle trapped by optical tweezers. We find an increased Markov-Einstein time scale of the order of the relaxation time of the process, which can be traced back to memory effects caused by the interaction of the particle and the fluid. Above the Markov-Einstein time scale, the process can be very well described by the classical overdamped Markov model for Brownian motion.

  15. Turbulence profiling methods applied to ESO's adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Javier; Béchet, Clémentine; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Gonté, Frédéric; Kolb, Johann; Le Louarn, Miska; Neichel, Benoît; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Guesalaga, Andrés.

    2014-07-01

    Two algorithms were recently studied for C2n profiling from wide-field Adaptive Optics (AO) measurements on GeMS (Gemini Multi-Conjugate AO system). They both rely on the Slope Detection and Ranging (SLODAR) approach, using spatial covariances of the measurements issued from various wavefront sensors. The first algorithm estimates the C2n profile by applying the truncated least-squares inverse of a matrix modeling the response of slopes covariances to various turbulent layer heights. In the second method, the profile is estimated by deconvolution of these spatial cross-covariances of slopes. We compare these methods in the new configuration of ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF), a high-order multiple laser system under integration. For this, we use measurements simulated by the AO cluster of ESO. The impact of the measurement noise and of the outer scale of the atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. The important influence of the outer scale on the results leads to the development of a new step for outer scale fitting included in each algorithm. This increases the reliability and robustness of the turbulence strength and profile estimations.

  16. Optical and Probe Diagnostics Applied to Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ticich, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The general theme of the research my NASA colleague and I have planned is "Optical and probe diagnostics applied to reacting flows". We plan to explore three major threads during the fellowship period. The first interrogates the flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes using aerosol catalysts. Having demonstrated the viability of the technique for nanotube synthesis, we seek to understand the details of this reacting system which are important to its practical application. Laser light scattering will reveal changes in particle size at various heights above the burner. Analysis of the flame gas by mass spectroscopy will reveal the chemical composition of the mixture. Finally, absorption measurements will map the nanotube concentration within the flow. The second thread explores soot oxidation kinetics. Despite the impact of soot on engine performance, fire safety and pollution, models for its oxidation are inhibited by uncertainty in the values of the oxidation rate. We plan to employ both optical and microscopic measurements to refine this rate. Cavity ring-down absorption measurements of the carbonaceous aerosol can provide a measure of the mass concentration with time and, hence, an oxidation rate. Spectroscopic and direct probe measurements will provide the temperature of the system needed for subsequent modeling. These data will be benchmarked against changes in soot nanostructures as revealed by transmission electron microscopic images from directly sampled material.

  17. Research of the grid computing system applied in optical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei-wei; Wang, Yu-dong; Liu, Qiangsheng; Cen, Zhao-feng; Li, Xiao-tong; Lin, Yi-qun

    2008-03-01

    A grid computing in the field of optics is presented in this paper. Firstly, the basic principles and research background of grid computing are outlined in this paper, along with the overview of its applications and the development status quo. The paper also discusses several typical tasks scheduling algorithms. Secondly, it focuses on describing a task scheduling of grid computing applied in optical computation. The paper gives details about the task scheduling system, including the task partition, granularity selection and tasks allocation, especially the structure of the system. In addition, some details of communication on grid computing are also illustrated. In this system, the "makespan" and "load balancing" are comprehensively considered. Finally, we build a grid model to test the task scheduling strategy, and the results are analyzed in detail. Compared to one isolated computer, a grid comprised of one server and four processors can shorten the "makespan" to 1/4. At the same time, the experimental results of the simulation also illustrate that the proposed scheduling system is able to balance loads of all processors. In short, the system performs scheduling well in the grid environment.

  18. Physics and agriculture: applied optics to plant fertilization and breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomandé, K.; Soro, P. A.; Zoro, G. H.; Krou, V. A.

    2011-08-01

    The economy of Côte d'Ivoire rests on the agriculture. In order to contribute to the development of this agriculture, we have oriented our research field on applied optics to agriculture. Then, our research concerns mainly the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence in plants. A simple laser-induced fluorescence set up has been designed and built at the Laboratory of Crystallography and Molecular Physics (LaCPM) at the University of Cocody (Abidjan, COTE D'IVOIRE). With this home set up we first have studied the fluorescence spectra of the "chlorophyll" to characterize the potassium deficiency in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq,). However, we found that the results differed for samples along terraced plots. The study of this phenomenon called "border effect", has enabled us to realize that sampling should be done after two rows of safety in each plot. We also applied the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence technique to improve the plant breeding. For this, we have characterized the rubber tree seedlings in nurseries. And so we have highlighted those sensible to drought and resistant ones.

  19. The Battle of Warsaw, 1920: Impact on Operational Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-06

    Poles believed earnestly that they were fighting for the most sacred possessions of man: freedom, language, traditions, and religion .4 2 SECTION IV THE...York: St. Martin’s Press, 1972.) p. 51. Quoted from, Historia Polski, Vol. IV, Pt 1. Warsaw (1966), p. 258. 7 J.F.C. Fuller, A Military History of the

  20. Applied Astronomy: An Optical Search For Space Debris At GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Rodriguez, H.

    2007-07-01

    There are over 250 active spacecraft in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) regime, with another 500 inactive or debris pieces in the public catalog. Their orbits are primarily perturbed by gravitational effects from the Earth, Moon, and Sun, with inclination increasing from zero degrees to 15 degrees and back to zero over a 54 year period. We will review the dynamics of objects at GEO, and then show results from an optical survey for faint GEO debris with the University of Michigan's Curtis-Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo. Recently the CTIO 0.9-m was used to follow-up debris discoveries made with the Schmidt, and determine orbits and colors. Faint GEO debris has a very different angular rate and orbital distribution than bright debris. The consensus is that these objects have high area-to-mass (A/M) and their orbits are significantly perturbed by solar radiation. This is a classic problem of applied astronomy: using modern methods of imaging and astrometry to measure the distribution of artificial objects close to Earth which could pose a risk to operational spacecraft. This work is supported by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  1. Flood Frequency Analysis using different flood descriptors - the Warsaw reach of the river Vistula case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuz, Emilia; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Romanowicz, Renata

    2014-05-01

    Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is customarily performed using annual maximum flows. However, there is a number of different flood descriptors that could be used. Among them are water levels, peaks over the threshold, flood-wave duration, flood volume, etc. In this study we compare different approaches to FFA for their suitability for flood risk assessment. The main goal is to obtain the FFA curve with the smallest possible uncertainty limits, in particular for the distribution tail. The extrapolation of FFA curves is crucial in future flood risk assessment in a changing climate. We compare the FFA curves together with their uncertainty limits obtained using flows, water levels, flood inundation area and volumes for the Warsaw reach of the river Vistula. Moreover, we derive the FFA curves obtained using simulated flows. The results are used to derive the error distribution for the maximum simulated and observed values under different modelling techniques and assess its influence on flood risk predictions for ungauged catchments. MIKE11, HEC-RAS and transfer function model are applied in average and extreme conditions to model flow propagation in the Warsaw Vistula reach. The additional questions we want to answer are what is the range of application of different modelling tools under various flow conditions and how can the uncertainty of flood risk assessment be decreased. This work was partly supported by the projects "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula reach from Zawichost to Warsaw)" and "Modern statistical models for analysis of flood frequency and features of flood waves", carried by the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences on the order of the National Science Centre (contracts Nos. 2011/01/B/ST10/06866 and 2012/05/B/ST10/00482, respectively). The water level and flow data were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

  2. Optical fiber smart structures applied to secure containers

    SciTech Connect

    Sliva, P.; Gordon, N.R.; Stahl, K.A.; Simmon, K.L.; Anheier, N.C.

    1994-07-01

    A prototype secure container was prepared that uses continually monitored optical fiber as the smart structure. A small ({approx}7.6 cm {times} 10.2 cm {times} 12.7 cm), matchbox-shaped container consisting of an inner drawer within an outer shell was fabricated from polymer resin. The optical fiber was sandwiched between additional non-optical, strength-promoting fibers and embedded into the polymer. The additional non-optical fiber provides strength to the container, protects the optical fiber from damage, hides the fiber and acts as a decoy. The optical fiber was wound with a winding density such that a high probability of fiber damage would be expected if the container was penetrated.

  3. Statistical optics applied to high-power glass lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, K.R.; Simmons, W.W.

    1985-04-01

    Multiterawatt laser systems, particularly the Novette system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, are simulated using statistical-optics techniques. The results are compared with experimental observations.

  4. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  5. Optical dispersion spectroscopy using optical frequency comb applied to dual-heterodyne mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Kaishu; Miyamoto, Takayuki; Shioda, Tatsutoshi

    2016-03-01

    The optical dispersion can be obtained from the adjacent relative phase between neighbor peaks in the optical frequency comb. Thus, the dispersion measurement becomes possible by measuring the relative phase spectrum. Our group has experimentally confirmed the operation principle by parallel capturing of the dispersion spectrum using an arrayed waveguide grating. We have proposed a dual-heterodyne mixing that obtained relative phases (ΔΦ) by fitting data of beat intensity versus optical path length difference. The path difference was applied by a delay line. In this study, we removed the delay line to realize a fast measurement by measuring simultaneous three relative phases with path length differences corresponding to π⁄2 or π, with which we have measured the dispersion in millisecond speed (250 sec. in previous ). In general, it is effective to measured chromatic dispersion using high-speed signal transmission in the fundamental scientific research, such as the analysis of material properties and telecommunications. It is, however, that limit of cutoff frequency using measurement is the restriction on increasing of the speed. Our proposed method to observe it on a frequency domain is effective for the high-speed signal processing.

  6. Application of acousto-optic actuator applied in holographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, FuRi; Wang, Biao

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss acousto-optical scanning and deflection, and design an acousto-optical actuator for steering the laser beam in the direction of vertical and horizon. In this system a laser whose wavelength is 532 nm is used and is expanded by a cylindrical lens. This horizontal actuator produces the horizontal deflection and the spherical lens following the horizontal actuator rotates the beam to match the aperture of the vertical actuator. The cylindrical lens restores the beam to its original circular cross-section, after which the microscope optics brings it to a focus in the lithium niobate crystal in which we store information.

  7. Optical design of low glare luminaire applied for tunnel light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. S.; Lee, X. H.; Lo, Y. C.; Sun, C. C.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a low glare and high-efficient tunnel lighting design which consists of a cluster light-emitting diode and a free-form lens is presented. Most of the energy emitted from the proposed luminaire is transmitted onto the surface of the road in front of drivers, and the probability that the energy is emitted directly into drivers' eyes is low. Compared with traditional fluorescent lamps, the proposed luminaire, of which the optical utilization factor, optical efficiency, and uniformity are, respectively, 44%, 92.5%, and 0.72, performs favorably in traffic safety, energy saving, and glare reduction.

  8. Optical imaging applied to microelectronic chip-to-chip interconnections.

    PubMed

    Kostuk, R K; Goodman, J W; Hesselink, L

    1985-09-01

    An imaging system is proposed as an alternative to metallized connections between integrated circuits. Power requirements for metallized interconnects and electrooptic links are compared. A holographic optical element is considered as the imaging device. Several experimental systems have been constructed which have visible LEDs as the transmitters and PIN photodiodes as the receivers. Signals are evaluated at different source-detector separations. Multiple exposure holograms are used as a means of optical fan out allowing one source to simultaneously address several receiver locations. Limitations of this technique are also discussed.

  9. Applied grinding wheel performance evaluation for optical fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Piscotty, M.A.; Taylor, J.S.; Blaedel, K.L.

    1996-06-11

    We are collaborating with the Center for Optics Manufacturing (Rochester NY) to develop fine diamond grinding wheels for spherical grinding of glass optics. A standardized method for evaluating wheel performance includes in-process acoustic emission (AE). This paper includes recent AE measurements taken during the evaluation of several fine diamond grinding wheels and discusses how this new information might relate to the physical performance of the wheels. An interesting observation is also reported on the surface topography of worn bronze wheels using an interferometric profiler.

  10. Effects of urban agglomeration on surface-UV doses: a comparison of Brewer measurements in Warsaw and Belsk, Poland, for the period 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwińska, Agnieszka E.; Krzyścin, Janusz W.; Jarosławski, Janusz; Posyniak, Michał

    2016-11-01

    Specific aerosols and cloud properties over large urban regions seem to generate an island, similar to the well-known urban heat island, leading to lower ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensity compared to the surrounding less polluted areas, thus creating a shield against excessive human exposure to UV radiation. The present study focuses on differences between erythemal and UVA (324 nm) doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers in Warsaw (52.3° N, 21.0° E) and Belsk (51.8° N, 20.8° E). The latter is a rural region located about 60 km south-west of the city. Ratios between erythemal and UVA partly daily doses, obtained during all-sky and cloudless-sky conditions for the period May 2013-December 2015, were analysed to infer a specific cloud and aerosol forcing on the surface UV doses over Warsaw. Radiative model simulations were carried out to find sources of the observed differences between the sites. It was found that Warsaw urban agglomeration induced 8 and 6 % attenuation of the erythemal and UVA doses respectively. This is mostly due to the lower sun elevation in Warsaw during the near-noon measurements and the larger optical depth of the city aerosols and increased cloudiness. It could be hypothesised that the expected stronger absorption of the solar UV radiation by urban aerosols is compensated for here by a higher surface reflectivity over the city.

  11. Fourier transform methods applied to an optical heterodyne profilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-González, A.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, theory and experiment describe the performance of a surface profile measurement device based on optical heterodyne interferometry are presented. The object and reference beams propagating through the interferometer are obtained by single-pass through an acousto-optic modulator. The diffraction orders 0 and the Doppler-shifted +1 (object and reference beams, respectively) are manipulated to propagate collinearly towards the interferometer output where a fast photodetector is placed to collect the irradiance. The modulated optical signal is Fourier transformed using a data acquisition card and RF communications software. The peak centered at the acousto-optic frequency in the power spectrum is filtered and averaged. The irregularities on the surface of the reflective sample are proportional to the height of this peak. The profile of a reflective blazed grating has been sketched by translating laterally the sample using a nanopositioning system. Experimental results are compared to the measurement done with a scanning electron microscope. There has been found a good agreement between both methods.

  12. Fiber optic diagnostic techniques applied to electrical discharge machining sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillans, B. W.; Evensen, M. H.; Taylor, H. F.; Eubank, P. T.; Ma, Lianxi

    2002-02-01

    Plasma sparks from an electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were observed using fiber optics positioned in the dielectric oil. Measurement techniques were developed to observe the spark in the extremely noisy environment. Optical data were used along with current pulse wave forms from the EDM machine to study the temporal characteristics of the spark in both the pulse time and the pause time. During the pause time, extinction of the sparks was longer than previously thought—perhaps due to the remaining infrared radiation after the collapse of the spark. Further, an optical pattern was identified that indicated in advance when an arc was being formed instead of a spark. Spectral data of the plasma spark was obtained by using a scanning grating spectrometer in conjunction with crosscorrelation to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Average spark temperatures from the spectral data were found to be significantly higher than those previously predicted from energy balances. The results showed a shift in the optical spectra to longer wavelengths during the spark, showing that the spark temperature decreased with time.

  13. Geometric and Applied Optics, Science (Experimental): 5318.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Robert C.

    This unit of instruction presents a laboratory-oriented course which relates the sources and behaviors of light to man's control and uses of light. Successful completion of Algebra I and Plane Geometry is strongly recommended as indicators of success. The course is recommended if the student plans further studies in science, optical technology, or…

  14. Methodologies used by Warsaw Pact countries (except USSR) in obtaining US technologies. Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Cheeseman, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    The Warsaw Pact countries obtain U.S. technologies by legal and illegal means. Methods of collection include espionage, overt collection, acquisition by scientific and educational exchange participants, and illegal trade activities. Examples of methods used by the Warsaw Pact countries (except the USSR) are provided. The US faces barriers to preventing loss of its technologies. Among these are resistance from US business interests, insufficient cooperation between US government agencies and overseas allies, lack of US counterintelligence personnel, and the openess of American society. The study concludes that the Warsaw Pact's countries have narrowed NATO's qualitative lead in weaponry as a result of the Warsaw Pact's acquisition effort.

  15. Applying fiber optical methods for toxicological testing in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Buchholz, Rainer; Emmrich, Frank; Fink, Frank; Geddes, Clive L.; Pfeifer, Lutz; Raabe, Ferdinand; Scheper, Thomas-Helmut; Ulrich, Elizabeth; Marx, Uwe

    1999-04-01

    The new medical developments, e.g. immune therapy, patient oriented chemotherapy or even gene therapy, create a questionable doubt to the further requirement of animal test. Instead the call for humanitarian reproductive in vitro models becomes increasingly louder. Pharmaceutical usage of in vitro has a long proven history. In cancer research and therapy, the effect of chemostatica in vitro in the so-called oncobiogram is being tested; but the assays do not always correlate with in vivo-like drug resistance and sensitivity. We developed a drug test system in vitro, feasible for therapeutic drug monitoring by the combination of tissue cultivation in hollow fiber bioreactors and fiber optic sensors for monitoring the pharmaceutical effect. Using two fiber optic sensors - an optical oxygen sensor and a metabolism detecting Laserfluoroscope, we were able to successfully monitor the biological status of tissue culture and the drug or toxic effects of in vitro pharmaceutical testing. Furthermore, we developed and patented a system for monitoring the effect of minor toxic compounds which can induce Sick Building Syndrome.

  16. Full-field optical coherence tomography apply in sphere measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Li, Weiwei; li, Juncheng; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    The geometry of a spherical surface, for example that of a precision optic, is completely determined by the radius -of-curvature at one point and the deviation from the perfect spherical form at all other points of the sphere. Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a parallel detection OCT technique that utilizes a 2D detector array. This technique avoids mechanical scanning in imaging optics, thereby speeding up the imaging process and enhancing the quality of images. The current paper presents an FF-OCT instrument that is designed to be used in sphere measurement with the principle of multiple delays (MD) OCT to evaluate the curvature and radius of curved objects in single-shot imaging. The optimum combination of the MD principle with the FF-OCT method was evaluated, and the radius of a metal ball was measured with this method. The generated 2n-1 contour lines were obtained by using an MDE with n delays in a single en-face OCT image. This method of measurement, it engaged in the measurement accuracy of spherical and enriches the means of measurement, to make a spherical scan techniques flexible application.

  17. Warsaw Breakage Syndrome--A further report, emphasising cutaneous findings.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Claire; Fryer, Alan E; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We report a new case of Warsaw Breakage syndrome (WABS) with 2 confirmed mutations in DDX11. Like the previous reported cases [Capo-Chichi et al., 2012; Van der Lelij et al., 2010], there was evidence of pre- and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. The patient had sensorineural hearing loss with evidence of bilateral hypoplastic cochleas on imaging, another feature which has been reported in the previous cases of WABS. In our case the patient exhibited a chronic rash of livedo reticularis with telangiectasia on her legs. Abnormally pigmented lesions and cutis mamorata were reported in the original WABS case.

  18. The fate of the Warsaw Ghetto Medical Faculty.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Albury, William Randall

    2012-04-01

    The Warsaw Ghetto, in existence from 1940 to 1943, was the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe. The 400,000-500,000 Jews incarcerated within its walls were deprived not only of food and medicine but also of education. Nonetheless, Jewish physicians served the community as befits their profession, and against all odds obtained permission to conduct a course on sanitary measures to combat epidemics, which they transformed into a veritable, clandestine medical school. This review follows the fate of the school faculty, with an emphasis on the achievements of the survivors.

  19. Photogrammetry at the Warsaw University of Technology - Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawieska, Dorota; Kurczyński, Zdzisław

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems at the Warsaw University of Technology is one of six organizational units of the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography. The photogrammetry has been under interest of scientists in Faculty for over 90 years. The last decades has been characterized by the incredible development of photogrammetric technologies, mainly towards wide automation and popularization of derivative products for processing data acquired at satellite, aerial, and terrestrial levels. The paper presents achievements of scientists employed in Photogrammetric Research Group during last decades related to projects that were carried out in this department.

  20. Validation and qualification of surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors using application-independent optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukar, Vivien G.; Kadoke, Daniel; Kusche, Nadine; Münzenberger, Sven; Gründer, Klaus-Peter; Habel, Wolfgang R.

    2012-08-01

    Surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors were investigated using a unique validation facility equipped with application-independent optical reference systems. First, different adhesives for the sensor's application were analysed regarding their material properties. Measurements resulting from conventional measurement techniques, such as thermo-mechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis, were compared with measurements resulting from digital image correlation, which has the advantage of being a non-contact technique. Second, fibre optic strain sensors were applied to test specimens with the selected adhesives. Their strain-transfer mechanism was analysed in comparison with conventional strain gauges. Relative movements between the applied sensor and the test specimen were visualized easily using optical reference methods, digital image correlation and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Conventional strain gauges showed limited opportunities for an objective strain-transfer analysis because they are also affected by application conditions.

  1. Great figures of Polish Nephrology - Participants of the Warsaw Uprising 1944.

    PubMed

    Muszytowski, M; Ostrowski, J; Rutkowski, B

    2016-02-01

    In 1944, during the World War II, many doctors and many medical students participated in the Warsaw Uprising. This group also comprised future nephrologists, professors of medicine, founders of Polish nephrology, dialysis and transplantology centers. We presented 3 of great polish nephrologists who participated in medical services in the Warsaw Uprising: Zygmunt Hanicki, Andrzej Manitius and Tadeusz Orłowski.

  2. 75 FR 27613 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Holocaust (Warsaw...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Holocaust (Warsaw Ghetto... that the documents to be included in the exhibition ``The Holocaust (Warsaw Ghetto),'' imported from... exhibition or display of the documents at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, from on...

  3. Apply lightweight recognition algorithms in optical music recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Viet-Khoi; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Nguyen-Khac, Tung-Anh; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2015-02-01

    The problems of digitalization and transformation of musical scores into machine-readable format are necessary to be solved since they help people to enjoy music, to learn music, to conserve music sheets, and even to assist music composers. However, the results of existing methods still require improvements for higher accuracy. Therefore, the authors propose lightweight algorithms for Optical Music Recognition to help people to recognize and automatically play musical scores. In our proposal, after removing staff lines and extracting symbols, each music symbol is represented as a grid of identical M ∗ N cells, and the features are extracted and classified with multiple lightweight SVM classifiers. Through experiments, the authors find that the size of 10 ∗ 12 cells yields the highest precision value. Experimental results on the dataset consisting of 4929 music symbols taken from 18 modern music sheets in the Synthetic Score Database show that our proposed method is able to classify printed musical scores with accuracy up to 99.56%.

  4. Optical and Probe Diagnostics Applied to Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ticich, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    We plan to explore three major threads during the fellowship period. The first interrogates the flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes using aerosol catalysts. Laser light scattering will reveal changes in particle size at various heights above the burner. Analysis of the flame gas by mass spectroscopy will reveal the chemical composition of the mixture. Finally, absorption measurements will map the nanotube concentration within the flow. The second thread explores soot oxidation kinetics. Cavity ring-down absorption measurements of the carbonaceous aerosol can provide a measure of the mass concentration with time and, hence, an oxidation rate. Spectroscopic and direct probe measurements will provide the temperature of the system needed for subsequent modeling. The third thread will explore the details of turbulent flame dynamics. Laser induced incandescence will be applied to measurements of soot volume fraction in a 2-d configuration. Analysis of seed tracer particles by planar laser light MIE scattering will reveal the elemental fuel mixture fraction in the flames. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, a pulsed transient absorption method, will determine the instantaneous mass loading and its fluctuation. Finally, fluorescence measurements will investigate the formation of PAH's in these flames.

  5. The Lvov-Warsaw School: The forgotten tradition of historical psychology.

    PubMed

    Citlak, Amadeusz

    2016-05-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the psychological achievements of the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School of historical psychology, virtually forgotten and unknown in the world's psychological literature. Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938), founder of the school, developed a philosophical and psychological program on the basis of (among other things) the theory of actions and products, including the research program that is now included in the thread of historical psychology. His student, Wladyslaw Witwicki (1878-1948), developed the cratism theory (the theory of power) on the basis Twardowski's assumptions, providing an alternative to Alfred Adler's theory of striving for superiority while also declaring it a few years before Adler. The consequence of Witwicki's theory and the methodological assumptions was the creation of psychobiography: the first nonpsychoanalytical psychobiography of Socrates (Witwicki, 1909, 1922) and the psychobiography of Jesus Christ (Witwicki, 1958). The school's activities weakened for political reasons, particularly the outbreak of the First World War. The members of the school dispersed after 1918, and they lost international connections with the world of science. Their significant achievements in the field of psychology remained unknown to psychologists for nearly a century. In this article, I would like to present the school's unique but unfinished program of reconstructing mental life through the psychological interpretation of cultural products (literature, arts, diaries), and its value for the practice of research in historical psychology. This program required additional development, but because of the war this never happened. Some of the school's theoretical findings and the first attempts to apply them have still significant value and show us the originality of Lvov-Warsaw School psychology.

  6. APPLIED OPTICS. Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Kuo, B P-P; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-06-26

    Nonlinear optical response of silica imposes a fundamental limit on the information transfer capacity in optical fibers. Communication beyond this limit requires higher signal power and suppression of nonlinear distortions to prevent irreversible information loss. The nonlinear interaction in silica is a deterministic phenomenon that can, in principle, be completely reversed. However, attempts to remove the effects of nonlinear propagation have led to only modest improvements, and the precise physical mechanism preventing nonlinear cancellation remains unknown. We demonstrate that optical carrier stability plays a critical role in canceling Kerr-induced distortions and that nonlinear wave interaction in silica can be substantially reverted if optical carriers possess a sufficient degree of mutual coherence. These measurements indicate that fiber information capacity can be notably increased over previous estimates.

  7. [The assessment of health behaviours among Warsaw Medical University students].

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Alicja; Szewczyńiski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    Some health behaviours among 228 students of Warsaw Medical University (130 women and 98 men) using anonymous questionnaire were examined. Percentage of smokers among female and male students was similar (13.1% and 14.3% respectively). Among respondents the greatest frequency of drinking alcohol was from a few times weekly to a few times monthly. Male students drunk alcohol more often than female ones. Beer was prefered by men, wine and beer--by women. Only male students (10.2%) used drugs (amphetamine, marihuana). About 1/3 of respondents did not do any sports. Female students had better knowledge about objective factors of their health status (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol level) compared to males ones.

  8. Low voltage integrated optics electro-optical modulator applied to optical voltage transformer based on WLI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. C.; Rubini, J.; Silva, L. P. C.; Caetano, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of two electro-optical modulators linked in series, one for sensing and one for recovering signals, was formerly presented by some of the authors as a solution for interrogation of optical fiber sensor systems based on WLI method. A key feature required from such systems is that half-wave voltage (Vπ) of recovering modulator must be as small as possible. Aiming at meeting this requirement, in this paper it is presented the use of an unbalanced Michelson Interferometer implemented using an integrated optics component as recover interferometer in an optical voltage transformer intended for high voltage measurements.

  9. Experimental scrambling and noise reduction applied to the optical encryption of QR codes.

    PubMed

    Barrera, John Fredy; Vélez, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto

    2014-08-25

    In this contribution, we implement two techniques to reinforce optical encryption, which we restrict in particular to the QR codes, but could be applied in a general encoding situation. To our knowledge, we present the first experimental-positional optical scrambling merged with an optical encryption procedure. The inclusion of an experimental scrambling technique in an optical encryption protocol, in particular dealing with a QR code "container", adds more protection to the encoding proposal. Additionally, a nonlinear normalization technique is applied to reduce the noise over the recovered images besides increasing the security against attacks. The opto-digital techniques employ an interferometric arrangement and a joint transform correlator encrypting architecture. The experimental results demonstrate the capability of the methods to accomplish the task.

  10. Education in applied and instrumental optics at the University of Helsinki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenman, Folke

    1997-12-01

    The teaching of applied and instrumental optics at the University of Helsinki Department of Physics originally grew out of the needs of the research group of molecular physics as a basis for the experimental work in the group. The training program starts with a one-year course for senior undergraduates and graduates comprising geometrical optics, eikonal theory, image forming components, matrix methods, optical instruments, the optics of laser beams, radiometry and photometry, ray tracing methods, optics of anisotropic media, diffraction theory, general image formation theory and Fourier optics. The course starts from fundamentals, but the mathematical level is kept adequate for serious work. Further applications are treated in courses on molecular spectroscopy, where ruled and holographic diffraction gratings (both plane and spherical), interferometric spectroscopy and imaging properties of spectral equipment are treated. Aspects of image analysis, information in optics, signal-to-noise ratio, etc. are treated in separate courses on Fourier method and digital spectral analysis. The applicability of optical techniques to various fields of physics and engineering and the analogies with them are especially brought out. Experimental and calculational and skills are stressed throughout. Computer programming is introduced as an indispensable tool for the optics practitioner, and the students are required to write programs of their own. The students gain practical experience, e.g., by working in the molecular physics group. Close cooperation is maintained with other research groups in laser physics, ultrasonics and physical chemistry. The training in optics has proved very useful, with students frequently ending up working in the industry on optics and spectroscopy problems. Parts of these courses have also been given at other universities and to engineers and scientists working in the industry.

  11. Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Klingsporn

    2011-08-01

    Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

  12. Primary expert system applied in design of electron-optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei; Tong, Linsu

    1995-09-01

    It is well known that the structure of electron optical system is complicated, so many factors, such as magnification, geometrical aberrations, and space charge effect must be taken into account in the design. At present, the main work of electron optical system CAD is solving equations and calculating numerical values. However, the designs perhaps need more inference and expertise than numerical calculations. In this paper, a primary expert system which is applied in design of electron optical system is established. This expert system is combined with the simulation software SEU-3D program to design some practical electron optical systems. Although the knowledge base is small and rules are not abundant, this paper has used this system to obtain some very useful results. The initial success with this system suggests that further work need to be done whether more rules and knowledge will be added to extend the ability of expert system.

  13. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity. Exposure to these factors was based on local and international data, and the exposure-response functions (ERFs) were based on published reviews and recommendations. The uncertainties were quantified and propagated with the Monte Carlo method. Local transport generated air pollution, noise and injuries were estimated to cause approximately 58,000 DALYs in the study area. From this burden 44% was due to air pollution and 46% due to noise. Transport related physical activity was estimated to cause a health benefit of 17,000 DALYs. Main quantified uncertainties were related to disability weight for the annoyance (due to noise) and to the ERFs for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and walking. The results indicate that the health burden of transport could be mitigated by reducing motorized transport, which causes air pollution and noise, and by encouraging walking and cycling in the study area. PMID:26516622

  14. Lessons from Norovirus Outbreak in Warsaw, Poland, December 2012.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Sylwia; Kruszewska, Żaneta; Lejbrandt, Elżbieta; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Efficient foodborne outbreak investigations are important for identification of gaps in food safety and public health practice. This article reports on an investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak linked to catering food following a Christmas reception at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw in December 2012. Of 192 employees eating food at the catering event, 97 (50.5%) developed symptoms. Persons eating dishes with recipes containing frozen carrots were five times more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those who did not eat carrots. Laboratory analysis identified norovirus in stool samples taken from symptomatic persons. Leftover food was not available for testing. The investigators did not collect stool specimens from food handlers and did not conduct trace backs for the suspected food ingredients. This investigation underlines the need for a revision of an existing procedures and importance of their complementation with detailed instructions for the local public health authorities for effective completion of foodborne outbreaks investigations in Poland.

  15. All-optical detection of magnetization precession in tunnel junctions under applied voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yuta; Suzuki, Kazuya; Sugihara, Atsushi; Kamimaki, Akira; Iihama, Satoshi; Ando, Yasuo; Mizukami, Shigemi

    2017-02-01

    An all-optical time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurement of a micron-sized tunnel junction with a CoFeB electrode was performed. The femtosecond (fs) laser-induced magnetization precession was clearly observed at various magnetic field angles. The frequency f and relaxation time τ of the magnetization precession varied with the voltage applied via a MgO barrier. The precession dynamics were in accordance with Kittel’s ferromagnetic resonance mode, and the voltage-induced changes in f and τ were well explained by the voltage-induced change in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of -36 fJ/Vm.

  16. The tunable electronic structure and optic absorption properties of phosphorene by a normally applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Duan, Hou-Jian; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic structure and optical absorption properties of phosphorene (a monolayer black phosphorus) under a normally applied electric field. The electric field enlarges the energy gap, weakens the effective mass anisotropy, and increases the effective mass component along the armchair direction (x-direction) for both conduction and valence bands but provides little change to the component along the zigzag direction (y-direction). The band edge optical absorption is completely polarized in the x-direction, and decreases when increasing the electric field. If the exciting frequency is beyond the energy gap, the absorption for the y-polarized light becomes nonzero, but the absorption is still highly polarized.

  17. Warsaw set of emotional facial expression pictures: a validation study of facial display photographs

    PubMed Central

    Olszanowski, Michal; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Kuklinski, Krzysztof; Scibor-Rylski, Michal; Lewinski, Peter; Ohme, Rafal K.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions play a critical role in theories of emotion and figure prominently in research on almost every aspect of emotion. This article provides a background for a new database of basic emotional expressions. The goal in creating this set was to provide high quality photographs of genuine facial expressions. Thus, after proper training, participants were inclined to express “felt” emotions. The novel approach taken in this study was also used to establish whether a given expression was perceived as intended by untrained judges. The judgment task for perceivers was designed to be sensitive to subtle changes in meaning caused by the way an emotional display was evoked and expressed. Consequently, this allowed us to measure the purity and intensity of emotional displays, which are parameters that validation methods used by other researchers do not capture. The final set is comprised of those pictures that received the highest recognition marks (e.g., accuracy with intended display) from independent judges, totaling 210 high quality photographs of 30 individuals. Descriptions of the accuracy, intensity, and purity of displayed emotion as well as FACS AU's codes are provided for each picture. Given the unique methodology applied to gathering and validating this set of pictures, it may be a useful tool for research using face stimuli. The Warsaw Set of Emotional Facial Expression Pictures (WSEFEP) is freely accessible to the scientific community for non-commercial use by request at http://www.emotional-face.org. PMID:25601846

  18. Warsaw set of emotional facial expression pictures: a validation study of facial display photographs.

    PubMed

    Olszanowski, Michal; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Kuklinski, Krzysztof; Scibor-Rylski, Michal; Lewinski, Peter; Ohme, Rafal K

    2014-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions play a critical role in theories of emotion and figure prominently in research on almost every aspect of emotion. This article provides a background for a new database of basic emotional expressions. The goal in creating this set was to provide high quality photographs of genuine facial expressions. Thus, after proper training, participants were inclined to express "felt" emotions. The novel approach taken in this study was also used to establish whether a given expression was perceived as intended by untrained judges. The judgment task for perceivers was designed to be sensitive to subtle changes in meaning caused by the way an emotional display was evoked and expressed. Consequently, this allowed us to measure the purity and intensity of emotional displays, which are parameters that validation methods used by other researchers do not capture. The final set is comprised of those pictures that received the highest recognition marks (e.g., accuracy with intended display) from independent judges, totaling 210 high quality photographs of 30 individuals. Descriptions of the accuracy, intensity, and purity of displayed emotion as well as FACS AU's codes are provided for each picture. Given the unique methodology applied to gathering and validating this set of pictures, it may be a useful tool for research using face stimuli. The Warsaw Set of Emotional Facial Expression Pictures (WSEFEP) is freely accessible to the scientific community for non-commercial use by request at http://www.emotional-face.org.

  19. Nighttime lidar water vapor mixing ratio profiling over Warsaw - impact of the relative humidity profile on cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Surós, Montserrat; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2016-04-01

    A long-term study, assessing ground-based remote Raman lidar versus in-situ radiosounding has been conducted with the aim of improving the knowledge on the water content vertical profile through the atmosphere, and thus the conditions for cloud formation processes. Water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and relative humidity (RH) profiles were retrieved from ADR Lidar (PollyXT-type, EARLINET site in Warsaw). So far, more than 100 nighttime profiles averaged over 1h around midnight from July 2013 to December 2015 have been investigated. Data were evaluated with molecular extinctions calculated using two approximations: the US62 standard atmosphere and the radiosounding launched in Legionowo (12374). The calibration factor CH2O for lidar retrievals was obtained for each profile using the regression method and the profile method to determine the best calibration factor approximation to be used in the final WVMR and RH calculation. Thus, statistically representative results for comparisons between lidar WVMR median profiles obtained by calibrating using radiosounding profiles and using atmospheric synthetic profiles, all of them with the best calibration factor, will be presented. Finally, in order to constrain the conditions of cloud formation in function of the RH profile, the COS14 algorithm, capable of deriving cloud bases and tops by applying thresholds to the RH profiles, was applied to find the cloud vertical structure (CVS). The algorithm was former applied to radiosounding profiles at SGP-ARM site and tested against the CVS obtained from the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) data. Similarly, it was applied for lidar measurements at the Warsaw measurement site.

  20. Applying LED in full-field optical coherence tomography for gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Yu-Yen; Juan, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Sheng-Jie

    2015-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important medical imaging technology due to its non-invasiveness and high resolution. Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) is a scanning scheme especially suitable for en face imaging as it employs a CMOS/CCD device for parallel pixels processing. FF-OCT can also be applied to high-speed endoscopic imaging. Applying cylindrical scanning and a right-angle prism, we successfully obtained a 360° tomography of the inner wall of an intestinal cavity through an FF-OCT system with an LED source. The 10-μm scale resolution enables the early detection of gastrointestinal lesions, which can increase detection rates for esophageal, stomach, or vaginal cancer. All devices used in this system can be integrated by MOEMS technology to contribute to the studies of gastrointestinal medicine and advanced endoscopy technology.

  1. Two-dimensional null subspace algorithm applied for blind optical images deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskiy, Andrey; Goriachkin, Oleg

    2016-03-01

    The article deals with the image blind identification algorithm applied for optical images restoration. The proposed solution is based on the polynomial transform of the signals and allows to reduce multichannel blind image identification to the linear equation solving with the number of equations, equal to the number of the unknown PSF samples. The outcome of the simulation for different SNR is examined during the simulation; the real images, restored by the proposed algorithm are shown.

  2. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  3. Research on fabrication of aspheres at the Center of Optics Technology (University of Applied Science in Aalen); Techical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerret, Rainer; Burger, Jochen; Bich, Andreas; Gall, Christoph; Hellmuth, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    The Center of Optics Technology at the University of Applied Science, founded in 2003, is part of the School of Optics & Mechatronics. It completes the existing optical engineering department with a full optical fabrication and metrology chain and serves in parallel as a technology transfer center, to provide area industries with the most up-to-date technology in optical fabrication and engineering. Two examples of research work will be presented. The first example is the optimizing of the grinding process for high precision aspheres, the other is generating and polishing of a freeform optical element which is used as a phase plate.

  4. Temperature and pressure fiber-optic sensors applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Caroline; Pinet, Éric

    2006-02-01

    We present how fiber-optic temperature or pressure sensors could be applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies. For instance a miniature pressure sensor based on micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS) could solve most of the problems associated with fluidic pressure transduction presently used for triggering purposes. These include intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy and other applications requiring detection of fast and/or subtle fluid pressure variations such as for intracranial pressure monitoring or for urology diagnostics. As well, miniature temperature sensors permit minimally invasive direct temperature measurement in diagnostics or therapies requiring energy transfer to living tissues. The extremely small size of fiber-optic sensors that we have developed allows quick and precise in situ measurements exactly where the physical parameters need to be known. Furthermore, their intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) allows for the safe use of EMI-generating therapeutic or diagnostic equipments without compromising the signal quality. With the trend of ambulatory health care and the increasing EMI noise found in modern hospitals, the use of multi-parameter fiber-optic sensors will improve constant patient monitoring without any concern about the effects of EMI disturbances. The advantages of miniature fiberoptic sensors will offer clinicians new monitoring tools that open the way for improved diagnostic accuracy and new therapeutic technologies.

  5. Experience at Los Alamos with use of the optical model for applied nuclear data calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.

    1994-10-01

    While many nuclear models are important in calculations of nuclear data, the optical model usually provides the basic underpinning of analyses directed at data for applications. An overview is given here of experience in the Nuclear Theory and Applications Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the use of the optical model for calculations of nuclear cross section data for applied purposes. We consider the direct utilization of total, elastic, and reaction cross sections for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, {sup 3}He and alpha particles in files of evaluated nuclear data covering the energy range of 0 to 200 MeV, as well as transmission coefficients for reaction theory calculations and neutron and proton wave functions direct-reaction and Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin analyses. Optical model codes such as SCAT and ECIS and the reaction theory codes COMNUC, GNASH FKK-GNASH, and DWUCK have primarily been used in our analyses. A summary of optical model parameterizations from past analyses at Los Alamos will be given, including detailed tabulations of the parameters for a selection of nuclei.

  6. Threshold thickness for applying diffusion equation in thin tissue optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunyao; Zhu, Jingping; Cui, Weiwen; Nie, Wei; Li, Jie; Xu, Zhenghong

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the suitability of the semi-infinite model of the diffusion equation when using diffuse optical imaging (DOI) to image thin tissues with double boundaries. Both diffuse approximation and Monte Carlo methods were applied to simulate light propagation in the thin tissue model with variable optical parameters and tissue thicknesses. A threshold value of the tissue thickness was defined as the minimum thickness in which the semi-infinite model exhibits the same reflected intensity as that from the double-boundary model and was generated as the final result. In contrast to our initial hypothesis that all optical properties would affect the threshold thickness, our results show that only absorption coefficient is the dominant parameter and the others are negligible. The threshold thickness decreases from 1 cm to 4 mm as the absorption coefficient grows from 0.01 mm-1 to 0.2 mm-1. A look-up curve was derived to guide the selection of the appropriate model during the optical diagnosis of thin tissue cancers. These results are useful in guiding the development of the endoscopic DOI for esophageal, cervical and colorectal cancers, among others.

  7. Multifocus microscopy with precise color multi-phase diffractive optics applied in functional neuronal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, Sara; Ilic, Rob; Wisniewski, Jan; Mehl, Brian; Yu, Liya; Chen, Lei; Davanco, Marcelo; Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Hajj, Bassam; Jin, Xin; Pulupa, Joan; Cho, Christine; Mir, Mustafa; El Beheiry, Mohamed; Darzacq, Xavier; Nollmann, Marcelo; Dahan, Maxime; Wu, Carl; Lionnet, Timothée; Liddle, J. Alexander; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2016-01-01

    Multifocus microscopy (MFM) allows high-resolution instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) imaging and has been applied to study biological specimens ranging from single molecules inside cells nuclei to entire embryos. We here describe pattern designs and nanofabrication methods for diffractive optics that optimize the light-efficiency of the central optical component of MFM: the diffractive multifocus grating (MFG). We also implement a “precise color” MFM layout with MFGs tailored to individual fluorophores in separate optical arms. The reported advancements enable faster and brighter volumetric time-lapse imaging of biological samples. In live microscopy applications, photon budget is a critical parameter and light-efficiency must be optimized to obtain the fastest possible frame rate while minimizing photodamage. We provide comprehensive descriptions and code for designing diffractive optical devices, and a detailed methods description for nanofabrication of devices. Theoretical efficiencies of reported designs is ≈90% and we have obtained efficiencies of > 80% in MFGs of our own manufacture. We demonstrate the performance of a multi-phase MFG in 3D functional neuronal imaging in living C. elegans. PMID:27231594

  8. Can Applied Naturoptics Fund Associates Degrees in Applied Optics Graduates, in the Americas and Elsewhere, into BS/MS/PhD Physics/Applied Physics Programs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Nadja; Andrade, Jennifer; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-04-01

    Youthful females and other disadvantaged minority members sometimes develop visual handicaps when educational and/or other stressors are present. Special methods already available, effective, and underutilized, can be marshaled towards correcting current technologic and academic systems demand-supply mismatches in the sciences. More efficient harvesting of intellectually advantaged youthful students may represent more-highly-productive global scientific output. RDM has found that it is possible to motivate, stimulate, teach, and foster increased science interest by interacting with students at the earliest possible academic moments. The same applied optics of burning paper with a magnifying glass, and prismatic dispersing of light, allows understanding how vision operates, and can be damaged. Providing information to all students that they safely can self-repair damaged vision could only increase their interest in physics and special work-study programs. ``Indians'' are the most poorly represented group at all levels of education and its support services. MOLLOCKET/MULLAH indicates extra-human/higher-power interactions. Why? Obvious survival value suggests possible information-transmission attempts like those accessed by ``Indians.'' To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.2

  9. A device for applying plastic film antireflection coatings to optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augason, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    To simplify the process of thermally bonding thin plastic films to optical elements and to help eliminate the source of the flaws, a film-application device (FAD) is developed. Any plastic film may be used to make the coatings, but thin polyethylene is particularly useful for this application since it is readily available. If more than one layer of polyethylene is required, several layers may be applied, one layer at a time. The coatings may be used for protecting optical elements or to reduce surface reflection of radiation with wavelengths greater than 20 microns. When the FAD is used without the central plate it may be used to stretch single sheets of plastic material to make pellicles or beam-splitters for many applications.

  10. Applied electro-optics educational and training program with multiple entrance and exit pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Patricia; Zhou, Feng; Zilic, Dorothy

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative hands-on training program designed to create a pipeline of highly-skilled technical workers for today's workforce economy. The 2+2+2 Pennsylvania Integrated Workforce Leadership Program in Electro-Optics prepares students for a career in this new high-tech field. With seamless transition from high school into college, the program offers the versatility of multiple entrance and exit pathways. After completion of each educational level, students can exit the program with various skill levels, including certificates, an associate's degree, or a bachelor's degree. Launched by Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Lenape Vocational School (Lenape), the 2+2+2 educational pathway program was implemented to promote early training of high-school students. During the first level, students in their junior and/or senior year enroll in four Electro-Optics courses at Lenape. Upon completion of these courses and an Advanced Placement Equivalency course with an appropriate exam score, students can earn a certificate from Lenape for the 15+ credits, which also can be articulated into IUP's associate degree program in Electro-Optics. During the second level, students can earn an associate's degree in Electro-Optics, offered only at the IUP Northpointe Campus. After completion of the Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.), students are prepared to enter the workforce as senior technicians. During the third level, students who have completed the Associate of Science (A.S.) in Electro-Optics have the opportunity to matriculate at IUP's Indiana Campus to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Applied Physics with a track in Electro-Optics. Hence, the name 2+2+2 refers to getting started in high school, continuing the educational experience with an associate's degree program, and optionally moving on to a bachelor's degree. Consequently, students move from one educational level to the next with advanced credits toward the next

  11. Applying UV cameras for SO2 detection to distant or optically thick volcanic plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff; Lübcke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) camera systems represent an exciting new technology for measuring two dimensional sulfur dioxide (SO2) distributions in volcanic plumes. The high frame rate of the cameras allows the retrieval of SO2 emission rates at time scales of 1 Hz or higher, thus allowing the investigation of high-frequency signals and making integrated and comparative studies with other high-data-rate volcano monitoring techniques possible. One drawback of the technique, however, is the limited spectral information recorded by the imaging systems. Here, a framework for simulating the sensitivity of UV cameras to various SO2 distributions is introduced. Both the wavelength-dependent transmittance of the optical imaging system and the radiative transfer in the atmosphere are modeled. The framework is then applied to study the behavior of different optical setups and used to simulate the response of these instruments to volcanic plumes containing varying SO2 and aerosol abundances located at various distances from the sensor. Results show that UV radiative transfer in and around distant and/or optically thick plumes typically leads to a lower sensitivity to SO2 than expected when assuming a standard Beer–Lambert absorption model. Furthermore, camera response is often non-linear in SO2 and dependent on distance to the plume and plume aerosol optical thickness and single scatter albedo. The model results are compared with camera measurements made at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii) and a method for integrating moderate resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy data with UV imagery to retrieve improved SO2 column densities is discussed.

  12. Dynamic digital speckle interferometry applied to optical diagnosis of gas-liquid phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yaozu; Zhang, Hongling; Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Tianfeng

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, a Dynamic Digital Speckle Interferometry (DDSI) applied to optical diagnosis of gas-liquid phase change is proposed. The basic principle and experimental system of the DDSI are presented. This technology of flow optical diagnosis has the following three main advantages. First, DDSI uses a CCD camera as record device of a specklegram and a microcomputer, which processes the specklegrams to obtain a speckle interferogram. Therefore, the DDSI does not need the photographic film and optical dark room that usually are needed for holographic interferometry and speckle photography. Second, in DDSI technique, the information of density field in flow is obtained by using a double exposure with and without flow variation respectively. As a result, it can automatically eliminate the effect of the density nonuniformity of the optical windows of test section on the density measurement (like holographic interferometry). Third, the DDSI can be used for dynamic visualization and real time measurement of continuous variation of density with time in flow (like M-Z interferometry). The gas-liquid phase change process of freon R13 is investigated experimentally. By means of the DDSI technique, both density distributions in gas phase and liquid phase of R13, which are located on two sides of gas-liquid interface respectively, can be measured when gas-liquid phase change occurs. It is also observed that the interface between gas-phase and liquid-phase has a thickness of the order of hundreds micrometers, when the temperature of R13 flow comes close to its critical temperature. The variation laws of the interface thickness with the temperature of R13 are discussed. The interface behaviors of movement, disappearance and renewal are presented. The investigations show that DDSI is very suitable for the optical diagnosis of gas-liquid phase change in mini or micro scale. It provides an effective method for experimental investigations on heat transfer and flow in mini or micro

  13. Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope applied to the cerebral microcirculation in rats.

    PubMed

    Seki, J; Sasaki, Y; Oyama, T; Yamamoto, J

    1996-01-01

    We have applied our developed fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) for the study of the cerebral microcirculation in the rat. The red cell velocity in single pial microvessels was successfully measured through a closed cranial window for the vessel diameter range from 7.8 to 230 microns. The temporal resolution of the FLDAM was sufficiently high to detect the pulsation in the arterioles. Arterio-venous distributions of the temporal mean red cell velocity and wall shear rate are also described.

  14. Optical coherence tomography: a non-invasive technique applied to conservation of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Haida; Gomez Cid, Marta; Cucu, Radu; Dobre, George; Kudimov, Boris; Pedro, Justin; Saunders, David; Cupitt, John; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    It is current practice to take tiny samples from a painting to mount and examine in cross-section under a microscope. However, since conservation practice and ethics limit sampling to a minimum and to areas along cracks and edges of paintings, which are often unrepresentative of the whole painting, results from such analyses cannot be taken as representative of a painting as a whole. Recently in a preliminary study, we have demonstrated that near-infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can be used directly on paintings to examine the cross-section of paint and varnish layers without contact and the need to take samples. OCT is an optical interferometric technique developed for in vivo imaging of the eye and biological tissues; it is essentially a scanning Michelson's interferometer with a "broad-band" source that has the spatial coherence of a laser. The low temporal coherence and high spatial concentration of the source are the keys to high depth resolution and high sensitivity 3D imaging. The technique is non-invasive and non-contact with a typical working distance of 2 cm. This non-invasive technique enables cross-sections to be examined anywhere on a painting. In this paper, we will report new results on applying near-infrared en-face OCT to paintings conservation and extend the application to the examination of underdrawings, drying processes, and quantitative measurements of optical properties of paint and varnish layers.

  15. Variability of UTCI index in South Warsaw depending on atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozbicka, Katarzyna; Rozbicki, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment and analysis of the variability of human-bioclimatic conditions in southern part of Warsaw, depending on the atmospheric circulation in the long-term (1998-2015). The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI was applied to evaluate the human-bioclimatic conditions using meteorological data for the 12:00 UTC obtained from the WULS Ursynów weather station. In order to determine the relationship between the UTCI and its corresponding synoptic situation, the circulation type classification proposed by Lityński was used. It was found that the period from the second decade of April to the first decade of October is the most favourable one for recreation and relaxation. The situations not caused by thermal loads of humans are the most frequent and the values vary from 42.9% in October to 66.6% in August. Whereas weather conditions causing the `strong' and `very strong heat stresses' and the `strong' and `very strong cold stresses' were relatively rare. The analysis of influence of atmospheric circulation on bioclimatic conditions has shown that the most favourable conditions with no heat load (class 0) of the body occurred during cyclonic circulation in the summer (70%) mainly at advection from the North and South. Particular analysis of selected most strenuous days of the heat wave and the cold wave confirmed the occurrence of a high frequency of conditions stressing the human body with `strong' and `very strong heat' as well as `strong cold' for most of the day during anticyclonic circulation in both cases.

  16. "Not Bread Alone": Clandestine Schooling and Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    In the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust, clandestine schooling became a form of resistance to Nazi attempts to eradicate Jewish culture. A variety of community groups provided schooling that attempted to give a sense of normalcy as well as hope. (Contains 144 endnotes.) (SK)

  17. Analysis of the electric field propagation method: theoretical model applied to perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber links.

    PubMed

    Montero, D S; Vázquez, C

    2011-10-15

    We evaluate a theoretical model based on the electric field propagation method but applied for the first time to amorphous perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (PF GIPOFs). The belief is that a better understanding of the factors that affect the fiber frequency response will prove very useful in increasing the performance of PF-GIPOF-based optical links in real situations. The influence of some parameters involved in the frequency response is addressed, and results show experimental data that validate, with tolerable discrepancy, the model described applied to this kind of optical fibers.

  18. A novel optical calorimetry dosimetry approach applied to an HDR Brachytherapy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, A.; Meyer, J.

    2013-06-01

    The technique of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) is applied to the measurement of radiation absorbed dose distribution in water. An optical interferometer has been developed that captures the small variations in the refractive index of water due to the radiation induced temperature increase ΔT. The absorbed dose D is then determined with high temporal and spatial resolution using the calorimetric relation D=cΔT (where c is the specific heat capacity of water). The method is capable of time resolving 3D spatial calorimetry. As a proof-of-principle of the approach, a prototype DHI dosimeter was applied to the measurement of absorbed dose from a High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy source. Initial results are in agreement with modelled doses from the Brachyvision treatment planning system, demonstrating the viability of the system for high dose rate applications. Future work will focus on applying corrections for heat diffusion and geometric effects. The method has potential to contribute to the dosimetry of diverse high dose rate applications which require high spatial resolution such as microbeam radiotherapy (MRT) or small field proton beam dosimetry but may potentially also be useful for interface dosimetry.

  19. Survey statistics of automated segmentations applied to optical imaging of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bajcsy, Peter; Cardone, Antonio; Chalfoun, Joe; Halter, Michael; Juba, Derek; Kociolek, Marcin; Majurski, Michael; Peskin, Adele; Simon, Carl; Simon, Mylene; Vandecreme, Antoine; Brady, Mary

    2015-10-15

    The goal of this survey paper is to overview cellular measurements using optical microscopy imaging followed by automated image segmentation. The cellular measurements of primary interest are taken from mammalian cells and their components. They are denoted as two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) image objects of biological interest. In our applications, such cellular measurements are important for understanding cell phenomena, such as cell counts, cell-scaffold interactions, cell colony growth rates, or cell pluripotency stability, as well as for establishing quality metrics for stem cell therapies. In this context, this survey paper is focused on automated segmentation as a software-based measurement leading to quantitative cellular measurements. We define the scope of this survey and a classification schema first. Next, all found and manually filteredpublications are classified according to the main categories: (1) objects of interests (or objects to be segmented), (2) imaging modalities, (3) digital data axes, (4) segmentation algorithms, (5) segmentation evaluations, (6) computational hardware platforms used for segmentation acceleration, and (7) object (cellular) measurements. Finally, all classified papers are converted programmatically into a set of hyperlinked web pages with occurrence and co-occurrence statistics of assigned categories. The survey paper presents to a reader: (a) the state-of-the-art overview of published papers about automated segmentation applied to optical microscopy imaging of mammalian cells, (b) a classification of segmentation aspects in the context of cell optical imaging, (c) histogram and co-occurrence summary statistics about cellular measurements, segmentations, segmented objects, segmentation evaluations, and the use of computational platforms for accelerating segmentation execution, and (d) open research problems to pursue. The novel contributions of this survey paper are: (1) a new type of classification of cellular

  20. Optical measurement system applied to continuous displacement monitoring of long-span suspension bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages Martins, L.; Rebordão, J. M.; Ribeiro, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper provides a general description of main issues related to the design of an optical measurement system applied to continuous displacement monitoring of long-span suspension bridges. The proposed system's architecture is presented and its main components - camera and active targets - are described in terms of geometrical and radiometric characteristics required for long distance measurement of the tridimensional displacement of the stiffness girder in the middle section of the bridge's central span. The intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameterization processes, which support the adopted measurement approach, are explained in a specific section. Since the designed measurement system is intended to perform continuous displacement monitoring in long distance observation framework, particular attention is given to environmental effects, namely, refraction, turbulence and sensor saturation phenomena, which can influence the displacement measurement accuracy. Finally, a measurement uncertainty method is discussed in order to provide a suitable solution for the determination of the accuracy related to the proposed measurement approach.

  1. Resonant state expansion applied to two-dimensional open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost, M. B.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The resonant state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method in electrodynamics, is applied to two-dimensional open optical systems. The analytically solvable homogeneous dielectric cylinder is used as an unperturbed system, and its Green's function is shown to contain a cut in the complex frequency plane, which is included in the RSE basis. The complex eigenfrequencies of modes are calculated using the RSE for a selection of perturbations which mix unperturbed modes of different orbital momentum, such as half-cylinder, thin-film, and thin-wire perturbation, demonstrating the accuracy and convergency of the method. The resonant states for the thin-wire perturbation are shown to reproduce an approximative analytical solution.

  2. A 10-year global gridded Aerosol Optical Thickness Reanalysis for climate and applied applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, P.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Westphal, D. L.; Campbell, J. R.; Curtis, C. A.; Hegg, D.; Hyer, E. J.; Sessions, W.; Shi, Y.; Turk, J.

    2013-12-01

    While standalone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need of a best-available fused product on a regular grid for numerous climate and applied applications. Remote sensing and modeling technologies have now advanced to a point where aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers. It is inevitable that, like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see heavy use in the near future. A first long term, 2003-2012 global 1x1 degree and 6-hourly aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product has been generated. The goal of this effort is not only for climate applications, but to generate a dataset that can be used by the US Navy to understand operationally hindering aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and application of electro-optical technologies. The reanalysis utilizes Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled collection 5 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD with minor corrections from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRaditometer (MISR). A subset of this product includes Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar assimilation since its launch in mid-2006. Surface aerosol sources, including dust and smoke, in the aerosol model have been regionally tuned so that fine and coarse mode AOTs best match those resolve by ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT is then used to adjust other aerosol processes, eg., sources, dry deposition, etc. Aerosol wet deposition is constrained with satellite-retrieved precipitation. The final AOT reanalysis is shown to exhibit good agreement with AERONET. Here we review the development of the reanalysis and consider issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses. Considerations are also made for extending such work

  3. Maximising the usefulness of flood risk assessment for the River Vistula in Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiczko, A.; Romanowicz, R. J.; Osuch, M.; Karamuz, E.

    2013-12-01

    extent and flow values to be derived, thus giving a cumulative assessment of flood risk. The methods are illustrated using the Warsaw reach of the River Vistula as a case study. The results indicate that deterministic and stochastic flood inundation maps cannot be quantitatively compared. We show that the proposed simplified approach to flood risk assessment can be applied even when breaching of the embankment occurs, with the condition that the flooded area is small enough to be filled rapidly.

  4. New techniques to apply an optical fiber image guide to harsh radiation environments in nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Takada, Eiji; Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayami, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    To apply optical fiber image guide (IG) to harsh radiation environments, we have developed two new techniques. One technique is a visible type IG with a color correcting system and the other technique is an IR type IG. We irradiated the IGs utilizing a 60Co gamma source. Measured Images with the visible type IG became dark and yellowish because of radiation induced loss. By using a color correction system, the original color of the images can be obtained. In the case of IR type IG, because of low radiation induced loss in the IR region, the degree of darkening was less than half of that for the visible type of IG. For a fixed irradiated length of 2.5m, the dose limit for using IG was estimated to be 4.6 X 108 with the visible type IG and 1.2 X 109 with the IR type IG. These radiation resistivities were more than 103 times of that for usual CCD cameras. With these techniques, IG can be applied to harsh radiation environment.

  5. Nonlinear optical rectification in laterally-coupled quantum well wires with applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanghui; Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Hassanbadi, Hassan; Lu, Liangliang

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear optical rectification coefficient χ0(2) in laterally-coupled AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well wires with an applied electric field is theoretically investigated using the effective mass approximation as well as the numerical energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons. We find that χ0(2) is greatly influenced by the electric field as well as both the distance and the radius of the coupled system. A blue shift of χ0(2) with increasing electric field is exhibited while a red shift followed by a blue shift with increasing distance or radius is exhibited. A nonmonotonic behavior can be found in the resonant peak values of χ0(2) along with the increase of the electric field, the distance or the radius. One or two of the following physical mechanisms: the increased localization of the ground and first-excited states, the reduced coupling and the reduced quantum confinement effect are applied to elucidate the results above. Our results play a potential role in infrared photodetectors based on the coupled system.

  6. Performance evaluation of gratings applied by genetic algorithm for the real-time optical interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin-Seon; Kim, Nam; Suh, HoHyung; Jeon, Seok Hee

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, gratings to apply for the optical interconnection are designed using a genetic algorithm (GA) for a robust and efficient schema. The real-time optical interconnection system architecture is composed with LC-SLM, CCD array detector, IBM-PC, He-Ne laser, and Fourier transform lens. A pixelated binary phase grating is displayed on LC-SLM and could interconnect incoming beams to desired output spots freely by real-time. So as to adapt a GA for finding near globally-cost solutions, a chromosome is coded as a binary integer of length 32 X 32, the stochastic tournament method for decreasing the stochastic sampling error is performed, and a single-point crossover having 16 X 16 block size is used. The characteristics on the several parameters are analyzed in the desired grating design. Firstly, as the analysis of the effect on the probability of crossover, a designed grating when the probability of crossover is 0.75 has a 74.7[%] high diffraction efficiency and a 1.73 X 10-1 uniformity quantitatively, where the probability of mutation is 0.001 and the population size is 300. Secondly, on the probability of mutation, a designed grating when the probability of mutation is 0.001 has a 74.4[%] high efficiency and a 1.61 X 10-1 uniformity quantitatively, where the probability of crossover is 1.0 and the population size is 300. Thirdly, on the population size, a designed grating when the population size is 300 and the generation is 400 has above 74[%] diffraction efficiency, where the probability of mutation is 0.001 and the probability of crossover is 1.0.

  7. Impact of urban environmental pollution on growth, leaf damage, and chemical constituents of Warsaw urban trees

    Treesearch

    Waldemar Chmielewski; Wojciech Dmuchowski; Stanislaw Suplat

    1998-01-01

    In the last 10 years, 3.5 percent of the tree population died annually in PolandÕs largest and most polluted cities, which is a problem of economic importance. Dieback of streetside trees in Warsaw is a long term process. It is an effect of biological reactions of trees to unfavorable conditions in the urban environment, particularly air and soil pollution and water...

  8. Beyond the Warsaw Pact: Russian Foreign Policy in East Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Western Overview." Problems of Communism 37 (May/August 1988): 56-60. 134 Brzezinski , Zbigniew. "East-West Relations and Eastern Europe...A Special...Bonn Press EC Superpower Role." Times (London), 17 October 1991, 10. Brzezinski , Zbigniew. "A Common House, a Common Home." The New York Times, 15...December 1990): 27. Aleksandrowicz, Piotr . "October Economic Performance Indicators Reported" (text). Warsaw Rzeczvospolita in Polish, 10-11 November

  9. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in swimming amongst working residents of warsaw.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of research is to assess the correlation between socio-demographic factors and swimming activity among the working population of Warsaw. The questionnaire survey included 4405 randomly selected residents of Warsaw. The correlation between the swimming activity and the variables characterizing the socio-demographic structure of the respondents were assessed by log-linear modelling. The significance of the impact of factors included in the analysis was determined using the chi-square test. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents declared recreational swimming. Gender, age, BMI, education, occupation, and income were significantly related to the swimming activity. Women (33%) - compared to men (38%) - were almost 1.2 times less likely to participate in swimming; similarly, overweight people (33%, OR = 0.90) and obese people (33%, OR = 0.92). People from Warsaw from 20-29 years (43%), with higher education (40%), incomes above the national average (40%), and representing the profession of an actor (52%), swam relatively more often. The results of the study might help in developing marketing plans and market segmentation strategies, as well as in forecasting the development trends of the leisure activity.

  10. Activity of RWC Warsaw in the contest of next Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislawska, Iwona; Stanislawska, Iwona; Klos, Zbigniew

    RWC Warsaw is operating as the Heliogeophysical Prediction Service of Space Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences is involved in current collection of large portion of data received directly from various international observatories and Polish operated geophysical stations. The monitoring of radio wave propagation conditions over Poland is continuously carried out with the ionosonde in Warsaw. On the basis of continuous flow of data daily expected influence of heliogeofisical activity on monthly forecasts of communication conditions trough-out the world is prepared for Governmental and commercial customers. The SRC-developed software package for data processing and system of prediction of HF communication was continuously modified. Look forward the future the RWC‘s Warsaw team is involved in European space weather common programs and programs like COST and those related to Framework programs of UE. Our focus is on space weather as "a space weather services" with well defined service products - demand oriented and recognized as Space Weather Service Provider for communication, navigation and aviation to support the operational phase of selected needs. The associated disturbances in Earth's magnetic field produced large gradients in the total electron content (TEC) in the mid-latitudes crucial for GNSS signal in space application for different field of science are example of our interest.

  11. Maximizing the usefulness of flood risk assessment for the River Vistula in Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiczko, A.; Romanowicz, R. J.; Osuch, M.; Karamuz, E.

    2013-06-01

    The derivation of flood risk maps requires an estimation of maximum inundation extent for a flood with a given return period, e.g. 100 or 500 yr. The results of numerical simulations of flood wave propagation are used to overcome the lack of relevant observations. In practice, deterministic 1-D models are used for flow routing, giving a simplified image of flood wave propagation. The solution of a 1-D model depends on the initial and boundary conditions and estimates of model parameters which are usually identified using the inverse problem based on the available noisy observations. Therefore, there is a large uncertainty involved in the derivation of flood risk maps. Bayesian conditioning based on multiple model simulations can be used to quantify this uncertainty; however, it is too computer-time demanding to be applied in flood risk assessment in practice, without further flow routing model simplifications. In order to speed up the computation times the assumption of a gradually varied flow and the application of a steady state flow routing model may be introduced. The aim of this work is an analysis of the influence of those simplifying model assumptions and uncertainty of observations and modelling errors on flood inundation mapping and a quantitative comparison with deterministic flood extent maps. Apart from the uncertainty related to the model structure and its parameters, the uncertainty of the estimated flood wave with a specified probability of return period (so-called 1-in-10 yr, or 1-in-100 yr flood) is also taken into account. In order to derive the uncertainty of inundation extent conditioned on the design flood wave, the probabilities related to the design wave and flow model uncertainties are integrated. In the present paper we take into account the dependence of roughness coefficients on discharge. The roughness is parameterised based on the available observed historical flood waves. The approach presented allows for the relationship between flood

  12. Accelerated Optical Projection Tomography Applied to In Vivo Imaging of Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Correia, Teresa; Lockwood, Nicola; Kumar, Sunil; Yin, Jun; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Andrews, Natalie; Katan, Matilda; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J; McGinty, James; Frankel, Paul; French, Paul M W; Arridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) provides a non-invasive 3-D imaging modality that can be applied to longitudinal studies of live disease models, including in zebrafish. Current limitations include the requirement of a minimum number of angular projections for reconstruction of reasonable OPT images using filtered back projection (FBP), which is typically several hundred, leading to acquisition times of several minutes. It is highly desirable to decrease the number of required angular projections to decrease both the total acquisition time and the light dose to the sample. This is particularly important to enable longitudinal studies, which involve measurements of the same fish at different time points. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an iterative algorithm to reconstruct sparsely sampled OPT data sets can provide useful 3-D images with 50 or fewer projections, thereby significantly decreasing the minimum acquisition time and light dose while maintaining image quality. A transgenic zebrafish embryo with fluorescent labelling of the vasculature was imaged to acquire densely sampled (800 projections) and under-sampled data sets of transmitted and fluorescence projection images. The under-sampled OPT data sets were reconstructed using an iterative total variation-based image reconstruction algorithm and compared against FBP reconstructions of the densely sampled data sets. To illustrate the potential for quantitative analysis following rapid OPT data acquisition, a Hessian-based method was applied to automatically segment the reconstructed images to select the vasculature network. Results showed that 3-D images of the zebrafish embryo and its vasculature of sufficient visual quality for quantitative analysis can be reconstructed using the iterative algorithm from only 32 projections-achieving up to 28 times improvement in imaging speed and leading to total acquisition times of a few seconds.

  13. Accelerated Optical Projection Tomography Applied to In Vivo Imaging of Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Teresa; Yin, Jun; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Andrews, Natalie; Katan, Matilda; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J.; McGinty, James; Frankel, Paul; French, Paul M. W.; Arridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) provides a non-invasive 3-D imaging modality that can be applied to longitudinal studies of live disease models, including in zebrafish. Current limitations include the requirement of a minimum number of angular projections for reconstruction of reasonable OPT images using filtered back projection (FBP), which is typically several hundred, leading to acquisition times of several minutes. It is highly desirable to decrease the number of required angular projections to decrease both the total acquisition time and the light dose to the sample. This is particularly important to enable longitudinal studies, which involve measurements of the same fish at different time points. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an iterative algorithm to reconstruct sparsely sampled OPT data sets can provide useful 3-D images with 50 or fewer projections, thereby significantly decreasing the minimum acquisition time and light dose while maintaining image quality. A transgenic zebrafish embryo with fluorescent labelling of the vasculature was imaged to acquire densely sampled (800 projections) and under-sampled data sets of transmitted and fluorescence projection images. The under-sampled OPT data sets were reconstructed using an iterative total variation-based image reconstruction algorithm and compared against FBP reconstructions of the densely sampled data sets. To illustrate the potential for quantitative analysis following rapid OPT data acquisition, a Hessian-based method was applied to automatically segment the reconstructed images to select the vasculature network. Results showed that 3-D images of the zebrafish embryo and its vasculature of sufficient visual quality for quantitative analysis can be reconstructed using the iterative algorithm from only 32 projections—achieving up to 28 times improvement in imaging speed and leading to total acquisition times of a few seconds. PMID:26308086

  14. Resonant-state expansion applied to three-dimensional open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost, M. Â. B.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. Â. A.

    2014-07-01

    The resonant-state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method in electrodynamics, is developed for three-dimensional open optical systems. Results are presented using the analytically solvable homogeneous dielectric sphere as unperturbed system. Since any perturbation which breaks the spherical symmetry mixes transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes, the RSE is extended here to include TM modes and a zero-frequency pole of the Green's function. We demonstrate the validity of the RSE for TM modes by verifying its convergence towards the exact result for a homogeneous perturbation of the sphere. We then apply the RSE to calculate the modes for a selection of perturbations sequentially reducing the remaining symmetry, given by a change of the dielectric constant of half-sphere and quarter-sphere shape. Since no exact solutions are known for these perturbations, we verify the RSE results by comparing them with the results of state of the art finite element method (FEM) and finite difference in time domain (FDTD) solvers. We find that for the selected perturbations, the RSE provides a significantly higher accuracy than the FEM and FDTD for a given computational effort, demonstrating its potential to supersede presently used methods. We furthermore show that in contrast to presently used methods, the RSE is able to determine the perturbation of a selected group of modes by using a limited basis local to these modes, which can further reduce the computational effort by orders of magnitude.

  15. Was the drought of 2015 on the River Vistula in Warsaw the lowest ever observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Hubert; Magnuszewski, Artur; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The River Vistula has a hydrological regime controlled by rainfall and snowmelt. The flood of 22 V 2010 r. had the highest discharge ever measured in Warsaw (Q=5898 m3/s). After this flood extreme low flows occurred in 12 IX 2012 (Q=172 m3/s) and in 28 VIII 2015 (157 m3/s). The low flow of 2015 set the lowest stage record (H=42 cm). The conditions during the low flow were favourable for archaeologists working on the River Vistula channel and banks. A group of archaeologists from the University of Warsaw discovered in the middle of the channel at 517 km a treasury of 17 century marbles and other finds. In 1656 Poland was in the state of war with Sweden. Marble sculptures were stolen and evacuated by the Swedish army from Warsaw to Gdansk harbor down the River Vistula. The barge transporting marbles sunk, leaving the treasure in the channel of the River Vistula. Since that time until now, the water levels in the river were too high to discover the treasures. The question is whether the drought of 2015 was the lowest in history and to what extent the lowest ever observed stage is related to the process of channel erosion in a regulated reach of the river. The specific conditions at the archaeological site have been studied using both long term hydrological data and hydrodynamic the 2D model CCHE2D, to the estimate erosion rate and velocities. The results show that the bottom erosion is quite strong and has caused lowering of the river bottom by 205 cm since 1919 (first rating curve published). The River Vistula reach in Warsaw forms a narrowing, called a "corset" which is controlled by the geological structures (river over flood terraces and glacial sills). Additionally the channel has been regulated by hydrotechnical structures and dredging work. The sequence of the 2010 year flood that increased the erosion rate in the reach and two deep low flows in 2012 and 2015 were favourable for archaeologists working in Warsaw on the River Vistula. The hydraulic conditions

  16. Statistical Track-Before-Detect Methods Applied to Faint Optical Observations of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Yanagisawa, T.; Uetsuhara, M.

    Automated detection and tracking of faint objects in optical, or bearing-only, sensor imagery is a topic of immense interest in space surveillance. Robust methods in this realm will lead to better space situational awareness (SSA) while reducing the cost of sensors and optics. They are especially relevant in the search for high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects, as their apparent brightness can change significantly over time. A track-before-detect (TBD) approach has been shown to be suitable for faint, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images of resident space objects (RSOs). TBD does not rely upon the extraction of feature points within the image based on some thresholding criteria, but rather directly takes as input the intensity information from the image file. Not only is all of the available information from the image used, TBD avoids the computational intractability of the conventional feature-based line detection (i.e., "string of pearls") approach to track detection for low SNR data. Implementation of TBD rooted in finite set statistics (FISST) theory has been proposed recently by Vo, et al. Compared to other TBD methods applied so far to SSA, such as the stacking method or multi-pass multi-period denoising, the FISST approach is statistically rigorous and has been shown to be more computationally efficient, thus paving the path toward on-line processing. In this paper, we intend to apply a multi-Bernoulli filter to actual CCD imagery of RSOs. The multi-Bernoulli filter can explicitly account for the birth and death of multiple targets in a measurement arc. TBD is achieved via a sequential Monte Carlo implementation. Preliminary results with simulated single-target data indicate that a Bernoulli filter can successfully track and detect objects with measurement SNR as low as 2.4. Although the advent of fast-cadence scientific CMOS sensors have made the automation of faint object detection a realistic goal, it is nonetheless a difficult goal, as measurements

  17. Entropy Applied to Morphological Analysis and Modelisation of Nanomaterial Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraud, Christine; Lafait, Jacques; Beghdadi, Azeddine; Peiro, Joaquina

    1997-03-01

    The normalized configuration entropy, based on the theory of information, when applied to the image of heterogeneous media, points out a characteristic length of the disorder, ell_opt, at which we calculate the optical properties. The models we propose make a partition of the image between percolated and non percolated cells of size ell_opt, in which we calculate effective dielectric functions. Two models are then developed performing respectively a coherent and a non coherent treatment in the calculation of the optical properties of the whole medium. The coherent model gives a good account of the metallic grain resonance and of the infrared behavior of both reflectance and transmittance of granular gold films, close to the percolation threshold, domain where the effective medium theories fail. L'entropie de configuration normalisée, basée sur la théorie de l'information et appliquée à l'image d'un milieu hétérogène, permet de mettre en évidence une longueur caractéristique du désordre, ell_opt, à laquelle nous calculons les propriétés optiques. Les modèles que nous proposons effectuent une partition de l'image entre cellules de taille ell_opt, percolées et non percolées, dans lesquelles nous calculons une fonction diélectrique effective. Deux modèles ont ainsi été développés, réalisant respectivement un traitement cohérent et incohérent lors du calcul des propriétés optiques du milieu global. Le modèle cohérent rend bien compte de la résonance de grains métalliques et du comportement infrarouge de la réflexion et de la transmission de films d'or granulaires, aux alentours du seuil de percolation, hors du domaine de validité des théories de milieu effectif.

  18. New method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion of inorganic crystals applied to some samples of Carpathian Quartz.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-10-15

    A new method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) in the visible range, based on a channeled spectrum obtained with a uniax inorganic crystal introduced between two crossed polarizers with its optical axis parallel to the light propagation direction is detailed in this paper. When the studied inorganic crystals are transparent, this method permits the estimation of the optical rotatory dispersion in the visible range, for which the cheap polarizers are available. The speed of the measurements is very high, because the estimations are made from the channeled spectrum obtained for a single arrangement of the optical components. By using a computer, ORD is quickly determined for the visible range. The results obtained by this method for some Carpathian Quartz samples are consistent with those from literature. The proposed method can be also applied in UV and IR spectral ranges, when the anisotropic layers are transparent and the linearly polarized radiations can be obtained.

  19. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats.

  1. Wavelet image processing applied to optical and digital holography: past achievements and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2005-08-01

    The link between wavelets and optics goes back to the work of Dennis Gabor who both invented holography and developed Gabor decompositions. Holography involves 3-D images. Gabor decompositions involves 1-D signals. Gabor decompositions are the predecessors of wavelets. Wavelet image processing of holography, both optical holography and digital holography, will be examined with respect to past achievements and future challenges.

  2. Huygens-Feynman-Fresnel principle as the basis of applied optics.

    PubMed

    Gitin, Andrey V

    2013-11-01

    The main relationships of wave optics are derived from a combination of the Huygens-Fresnel principle and the Feynman integral over all paths. The stationary-phase approximation of the wave relations gives the correspondent relations from the point of view of geometrical optics.

  3. Spatial Distribution and Conservation of Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the Southeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28–33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25–27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3–8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14–29% of

  4. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  5. Novel optical interconnect devices applying mask-transfer self-written method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Nobuhiko; Matsuzawa, Yusuke; Tokiwa, Yu; Nakama, Kenichi; Mikami, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of optical interconnect technology is expected to solve problems of conventional electric wiring. One of the promising technologies realizing optical interconnect is the self-written waveguide (SWW) technology with lightcurable resin. We have developed a new technology of the "Mask-Transfer Self-Written (MTSW)" method. This new method enables fabrication of arrayed M x N optical channels at one shot of UV-light. Using this technology, several new optical interconnect devices and connection technologies have been proposed and investigated. In this paper, first, we introduce MTSW method briefly. Next, we show plug-in alignment approach using optical waveguide plugs (OWP) and a micro-hole array (MHA) which are made of the light-curable resin. Easy and high efficiency plug-in alignment between fibers and an optoelectronic-printed wiring board (OE-PWB), between a fiber and a VCSEL, so on will be feasible. Then, we propose a new three-dimensional (3D) branch waveguide. By controlling the irradiating angle through the photomask aperture, it will be possible to fabricate 2-branch and 4-branch waveguides with a certain branch angle. The 3D branch waveguide will be very promising in the future optical interconnects and coupler devices of the multicore optical fiber.

  6. Comparing geometrical and wave-optical algorithms of a novel propagation code applied to the VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Rainer

    2001-12-01

    Time-dependent modeling of controlled opto-mechanical systems (e.g. astronomical telescopes) is part of the VLTI system engineering work at ESO. For creation of optical models to be integrated within a dynamic Matlab/ Simulink simulation, a novel optical modeling tool has been developed. It offers a versatile set of geometrical and wave optical propagation algorithms each with its specific strengths. The article describes the algorithms -both from a theoretical and practical point of view. The VLTI as a "real world" application example is presented.

  7. Optical properties of thin gold films applied to Schottky barrier solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    YEH Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    The Schottky barrier solar cell is considered a possible candidate for converting solar to electrical energy both for space and terrestrial applications. Knowledge of the optical constants of the ultrathin metal film used in the cell is essential for analyzing and designing higher efficiency Schottky barrier cells. The optical constants of 7.5 -nm (75-A) gold films on gallium arsenide have been obtained. In addition, the absolute collection efficiency of Schottky barrier solar cells has been determined from measured spectral response and optical constants of the gold film.

  8. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Andrades, Miguel; Cardona, Juan de la Cruz; Ionescu, Ana Maria; Mosse, Charles A; Brown, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM) for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts. Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS) and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM) samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) technique, which is the gold standard method. All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR) value of 80.3 ± 2.8%, with a blurring index (BI) of 50.6 ± 4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6|) with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005). The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring. This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair.

  9. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Andrades, Miguel; Cardona, Juan de la Cruz; Ionescu, Ana Maria; Mosse, Charles A.; Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM) for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts. Methods Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS) and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM) samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) technique, which is the gold standard method. Results All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR) value of 80.3±2.8%, with a blurring index (BI) of 50.6±4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6|) with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005). The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring. Conclusions This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair. PMID:26566050

  10. Wurtzite silicon as a potential absorber in photovoltaics: Tailoring the optical absorption by applying strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödl, C.; Sander, T.; Bechstedt, F.; Vidal, J.; Olsson, P.; Laribi, S.; Guillemoles, J.-F.

    2015-07-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and the optical properties of wurtzite Si (Si-IV). We find an indirect band gap of 0.95 eV (Γ5→M1 ) and an optically forbidden direct gap of 1.63 eV (Γ5→Γ10 ), which is due to a backfolding of the L1 state of Si in the diamond structure (Si-I). Optical absorption spectra including excitonic and local-field effects are calculated. Further, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial strain, and biaxial strain on the absorption properties are investigated. Biaxial tensile strains enhance the optical absorption of Si-IV in the spectral range which is relevant for photovoltaic applications. High biaxial tensile strains (>4 % ) even transform Si-IV into a direct semiconductor.

  11. Genocide by Attrition 1939­1993: The Warsaw Ghetto, Cambodia, and Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fein

    1997-01-01

    Genocide by attrition occurs when a group is stripped of its human rights, political, civil and economic. This leads to deprivation of conditions essential for maintaining health, thereby producing mass death. Genocide by attrition is epitomized by the Warsaw Ghetto (1939­43), Democratic Kampuchea (1975­79), and Sudan (1983­93). Potentialities of response are considered, as well as state and international interests in overlooking genocide, and the inadequacy and misuses of humanitarian aid. Lastly, guidelines are offered for future policy to prevent genocide by attrition, involving governments, health professionals, and aid workers.

  12. Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm applied to a translational-variant optical setup.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-Orozco, Ricardo; Mejía-Barbosa, Yobani

    2013-08-12

    The standard Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm is normally used to find the phase (measured on two different parallel planes) of a propagating optical field (usually far-field propagation), given that the irradiance information on those planes is known. This is mostly used to calculate the modulation function of a phase mask so that when illuminated by a plane wave, it produces a known far-field irradiance distribution, or the equivalent, to calculate the phase mask to be used in a Fourier optical system so the desired pattern is obtained on the image plane. There are some extensions of the GS algorithm that can be used when the transformations that describe the optical setup are non-unitary, for example the Yang-Gu algorithm, but these are usually demonstrated using nonunitary translational-invariant optical systems. In this work a practical approach to use the GS algorithm is presented, where raytracing together with the Huygens-Fresnel principle are used to obtain the transformations that describe the optical system, so the calculation can be made when the field is propagated through a translational-variant optical system (TVOS) of arbitrary complexity. Some numerical results are shown for a system where a microscope objective composed by 5 lenses is used.

  13. The Radiopharmaceuticals Production and Research Centre established by the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choiński, J.; Jastrzębskia, J.; Kilian, K.; Mazur, I.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Pękal, A.; Szczepaniak, D.

    2014-03-01

    The Radiopharmaceuticals Production and Research Centre was recently installed on the premises of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw. Equipped with a medical PETtrace p/d cyclotron , radiochemistry synthesis and dispensing units and a modern quality control laboratory the Centre is intended to produce regularly for commercial purposes the classic PET radiopharmaceuticals ( such -as e.g. FDG- ). Situated on the largest Warsaw scientific campus OCHOTA, an important part of the Centre's activities will also be devoted to the production of known species for preclinical studies and research into innovative radiopharmaceuticals in collaboration with other scientific units of this Campus as well as with members of the Warsaw Consortium for PET Collaboration. Research into the accelerator production route of 99mTc will also begin shortly.

  14. Projection-reduction method applied to deriving non-linear optical conductivity for an electron-impurity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Nam Lyong; Lee, Sang-Seok; Choi, Sang Don

    2013-07-15

    The projection-reduction method introduced by the present authors is known to give a validated theory for optical transitions in the systems of electrons interacting with phonons. In this work, using this method, we derive the linear and first order nonlinear optical conductivites for an electron-impurity system and examine whether the expressions faithfully satisfy the quantum mechanical philosophy, in the same way as for the electron-phonon systems. The result shows that the Fermi distribution function for electrons, energy denominators, and electron-impurity coupling factors are contained properly in organized manners along with absorption of photons for each electron transition process in the final expressions. Furthermore, the result is shown to be represented properly by schematic diagrams, as in the formulation of electron-phonon interaction. Therefore, in conclusion, we claim that this method can be applied in modeling optical transitions of electrons interacting with both impurities and phonons.

  15. Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2015-12-31

    While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometer motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.

  16. Combined spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging applied for tissue analysis: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontu, S.; Miclos, S.; Savastru, D.; Tautan, M.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years many optoelectronic techniques have been developed for improvement and the development of devices for tissue analysis. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a new medical interferometric imaging modality that provides depth resolved tissue structure information with resolution in the μm range. However, SD-OCT has its own limitations and cannot offer the biochemical information of the tissue. These data can be obtained with hyperspectral imaging, a non-invasive, sensitive and real time technique. In the present study we have combined Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) with Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for tissue analysis. The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two methods that have demonstrated significant potential in this context. Preliminary results using different tissue have highlighted the capabilities of this technique of combinations.

  17. High-resolution image reconstruction technique applied to the optical testing of ground-based astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhenyu; Lin, Jing; Liu, Zhong

    2008-07-01

    By study of the classical testing techniques (such as Shack-Hartmann Wave-front Sensor) adopted in testing the aberration of ground-based astronomical optical telescopes, we bring forward two testing methods on the foundation of high-resolution image reconstruction technology. One is based on the averaged short-exposure OTF and the other is based on the Speckle Interferometric OTF by Antoine Labeyrie. Researches made by J.Ohtsubo, F. Roddier, Richard Barakat and J.-Y. ZHANG indicated that the SITF statistical results would be affected by the telescope optical aberrations, which means the SITF statistical results is a function of optical system aberration and the atmospheric Fried parameter (seeing). Telescope diffraction-limited information can be got through two statistics methods of abundant speckle images: by the first method, we can extract the low frequency information such as the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the telescope PSF to estimate the optical quality; by the second method, we can get a more precise description of the telescope PSF with high frequency information. We will apply the two testing methods to the 2.4m optical telescope of the GMG Observatory, in china to validate their repeatability and correctness and compare the testing results with that of the Shack-Hartmann Wave-Front Sensor got. This part will be described in detail in our paper.

  18. [Willingness of Warsaw inhabitants to cooperate with health service. I. Opinions on health reforms].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Social participation in undertaking public decisions is one of the main determinants of good governance. Recognizing to what extent people are ready to participate in the process of reforming health care as an active partners seems to be necessary. Therefore, in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Education Department of NIPH-NIH the study aimed at examining citizen's willingness to cooperate with health staff and gathering their opinions on health reform was carried out. The not-addressed questionnaires were conveyed to 1700 households in Warsaw and 402 correct completed were received. Our findings indicate that one of four Warsaw citizens was ready to participate jointly with health workers in health reform. The willingness was higher in women, older people, higher educated and pensioners. From perspective of their own health, respondents perceived the following issues as requiring a change in the time of health reform: easier access to specialist treatment (60,9%), changing the health insurance system (17,3%), reduction in medicines price (14,8%), improving the quality of medical services (14,0%), easier access to diagnostic tests (13,6%) and to primary care physicians (10,7%), improving the health and social security of old people (9,0%), easier access and wider range of preventive examinations (7,4%), facilitate the sanatorium treatment (4,1%) and rehabilitation (3,7%).

  19. Vistula River bed erosion processes and their influence on Warsaw's flood safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuszewski, A.; Moran, S.

    2015-03-01

    Large cities have historically been well protected against floods as a function of their importance to society. In Warsaw, Poland, located on a narrow passage of the Vistula River valley, urban flood disasters were not unusual. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, the construction of river embankment and training works caused the narrowing of the flood passage path in the downtown reach of the river. The process of bed erosion lowered the elevation of the river bed by 205 cm over the 20th century, and the consequences of bed lowering are reflected by the rating curve change. Conditions of the flood passage have been analysed by the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model both in retro-modelling and scenario simulation modelling. The high water mark of the 1844 flood and iterative calculations in retro-modelling made possible estimation of the discharge, Q = 8250 m3 s-1. This highest observed historical flood in a natural river has been compared to recent conditions of the Vistula River in Warsaw by scenario modelling. The result shows dramatic changes in water surface elevation, velocities, and shear stress. The vertical velocity in the proximity of Port Praski gauge at km 513 can reach 3.5 m s-1, a very high value for a lowland river. The average flow conveyance is improving due to channel erosion but also declining in the case of extreme floods due to high resistance from vegetation on the flood plains.

  20. Enola Gay: an integrated modelling optical toolbox applied to a wide-field telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Perrotta, F.

    2008-07-01

    The integrated modelling approach is fundamental in telescopes design where it is necessary to merge different disciplines together. This paper describes the integration of optical ray-tracing capabilities within the Matlab computational environment. This approach allows to write automatic procedures to implement a huge number of computations, that are very unpractical to perform in interactive mode by ray tracing software packages. Data produced by computations are stored and automatically analyzed. One of the main benefits from this approach comes from the traceability of the work, that is intrinsically impossible when the optical designer works in interactive mode. The right procedure is built and tuned just the first time and the computation software is available for inspection and check. Furthermore computations and results are easily reproducible simply re-running Matlab scripts. An automatic approach is especially helpful in wide-field telescope projects where the optical quality has to be studied over a wide field of view. This leads to repeat the same computations many times in a number of fields. In interactive mode this would cause a significant waste of optical designer time to repeat many times the same manual procedures. The solution proposed here allows to save time and prevent occasional mistakes.

  1. Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

    2010-12-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

  2. Conoscopic polarized interference applied in measuring uniaxial axis direction of electro-optic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Jiang, Hongzhen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Dong; Liu, Xu; Zheng, Fanglan

    2016-10-01

    The crystal can be used to be electro-optic switch because of its electro-optic modulation. Generally the uniaxial axis of electro-optic crystal is perpendicular to the light injection surface. Due to the manufacturing precision, the uniaxial axis direction has a little angle with the normal of the light injection surface, which affects the electro-optic modulation ability. In conoscopic polarized inference, due to birefraction the ordinary ray and extraordinary ray from crystal interferes after the polarizer. The interference pattern of crystal component is circle fringes with dark cross. The center of interference pattern has relation to the uniaxial axis direction. Using digital camera to capture the pattern and the center position of interferogram can be determinate by image processing program. In repeatability experiments the rms of center position is around 1 pixel. To measure the uniaxial axis direction, the normal direction of the crystal component should also be accurately determinate. Michelson interference method is introduced to determinate the normal direction. If rotate the crystal component around the normal direction in conoscopic polarized interference, the track of interferogram center is a circle theoretically. The circle center is related to the normal direction of crystal component, and the radii is related to the angle uniaxial axis, which can be determinate by least square fitting method. Experiment result shows that the measuring precision can achieves several tens of microradians.

  3. RAPID, a revolutionary fast optical to NIR camera applied to interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, S.; Feautrier, P.; Zins, G.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Stadler, E.; Kern, P.; Rothman, J.; Tauvy, M.; Coussement, J.; de Borniol, E.; Gach, J.-L.; Jacquard, M.; Moulin, T.; Rochat, S.; Delboulb, A.; Derelle, S.; Robert, C.; Vuillermet, M.; Mérand, A.; Bourget, P.

    2014-07-01

    The RAPID camera is an Avalanche Photo Diode array allowing very fast observation from the optical to the infrared with still a low noise per read. The camera born from a large collaboration within the FUI/FOCUS is intensively tested at IPAG (Grenoble) on an interferometric bench and will soon replace the actual camera of the PIONIER interferometer mounted on the visitor focus of the VLTi. We shortly present here the PIONIER instrument design and success to then focus on the RAPID tested performances. We will then resume the performance tests made on sky with the PIONIER. The RAPID camera is the first IR APD matrix ever mounted on an on-sky astronomical instrument. We show here how this fast, low-noise, large-band and sensitive camera improves PIONIER and the optical interferometry in general.

  4. Proven high-reliability assembly methods applied to avionics fiber-optics high-speed transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas; Larose, Robert; Dion, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Harsh environment avionics applications require operating temperature ranges that can extend to, and exceed -50 to 115°C. For obvious maintenance, management and cost arguments, product lifetimes as long as 20 years are also sought. This leads to mandatory long-term hermeticity that cannot be obtained with epoxy or silicone sealing; but only with glass seal or metal solder or brazing. A hermetic design can indirectly result in the required RF shielding of the component. For fiber-optics products, these specifications need to be compatible with the smallest possible size, weight and power consumption. The products also need to offer the best possible high-speed performances added to the known EMI immunity in the transmission lines. Fiber-optics transceivers with data rates per fiber channel up to 10Gbps are now starting to be offered on the market for avionics applications. Some of them are being developed by companies involved in the "normal environment" telecommunications market that are trying to ruggedize their products packaging in order to diversify their customer base. Another approach, for which we will present detailed results, is to go back to the drawing boards and design a new product that is adapted to proven MIL-PRF-38534 high-reliability packaging assembly methods. These methods will lead to the introduction of additional requirements at the components level; such as long-term high-temperature resistance for the fiber-optic cables. We will compare both approaches and demonstrate the latter, associated with the redesign, is the preferable one. The performance of the fiber-optic transceiver we have developed, in terms of qualification tests such as temperature cycling, constant acceleration, hermeticity, residual gaz analysis, operation under random vibration and mechanical shocks and accelerated lifetime tests will be presented. The tests are still under way, but so far, we have observed no performance degradation of such a product after more than

  5. Research in Image Understanding as Applied to 3-D Microwave Tomographic Imaging with Near Optical Resolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-10

    Severe Clutter .... ........ 1I-i III . Optical Implementation of the HopfieldModel .I -? .- . ." Model........................ . . BY...can be employed in future broad-band imaging radar networks capable of providing 3-D projective or . - tomographic images of remote aerospace targets...We expect the results of this effort to tell us how to achieve centimeter resolution on remote aerospace objects cost-effectively using microwave

  6. Phase-retrieval algorithms applied in a 4-f system for optical image encryption: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Guohai; Zhang, Jingjuan

    2005-01-01

    Phase retrieval algorithms based on 4-f system for optical image encryption are compared in respect of the image retrieval quality and the convergence. Simulation results show that enlarging the searching space can decrypt the image with extremely high quality, while employing the searching strategy of modifying both the phase-distributions in the input and the frequency planes can result in much faster convergence for the algorithm.

  7. Measuring the effects of topically applied skin optical clearing agents and modeling the effects and consequences for laser therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkruysse, Wim; Khan, Misbah; Choi, Bernard; Svaasand, Lars O.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2005-04-01

    Human skin prepared with an optical clearing agent manifests reduced scattering as a result of de-hydration and refractive index matching. This has potentially large effects for laser therapies of several skin lesions such as port wine stain, hair removal and tattoo removal. With most topically applied clearing agents the clearing effect is limited because they penetrate poorly through the intact superficial skin layer (stratum corneum). Agent application modi other than topical are impractical and have limited the success of optical clearing in laser dermatology. In recent reports, however, a mixture of lipofylic and hydrofylic agents was shown to successfully penetrate through the intact stratum corneum layer which has raised new interest in this field. Immediately after application, the optical clearing effect is superficial and, as the agent diffuses through the skin, reduced scattering is manifested in deeper skin layers. For practical purposes as well as to maximize therapeutic success, it is important to quantify the reduced scattering as well as the trans-cutaneous transport dynamics of the agent. We determined the time and tissue depth resolved effects of optically cleared skin by inserting a microscopic reflector array in the skin. Depth dependent light intensity was measured by quantifying the signal of the reflector array with optical coherence tomography. A 1-dimensional mass diffusion model was used to estimate a trans-cutaneous transport diffusion constant for the clearing agent mixture. The results are used in Monte Carlo modeling to determine the optimal time of laser treatment after topical application of the optical clearing agent.

  8. Optical performance of a PDMS tunable lens with automatically controlled applied stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Felix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín.; Hernández-Méndez, Arturo; Reyes-Pérez, Emilio R.; Tepichín-Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    The advances in the field of adaptive optics and in the fabrication of tunable optical components capable to automatically modify their physical features are of great interest in areas like machine vision, imaging systems, ophthalmology, etc. Such components like tunable lenses are used to reduce the overall size of optical setups like in small camera systems and even to imitate some biological functions made by the human eye. In this direction, in the last years we have been working in the development and fabrication of PDMS-made tunable lenses and in the design of special mechanical mounting systems to manipulate them. A PDMS-made tunable lens was previously designed by us, following the scheme reported by Navarro et al. in 1985, in order to mimic the accommodation process made by the crystalline lens of the human eye. The design included a simulation of the application of radial stress onto the lens and it was shown that the effective focal length was indeed changed. In this work we show the fabrication process of this particular tunable lens and an optimized mechanism that is able to automatically change the curvature of both surfaces of the lens by the application of controlled stress. We also show results of a study and analysis of aberrations performed to the Solid Elastic Lens (SEL).

  9. Optical absorption in transparent PDMS materials applied for multimode waveguides fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D. K.; Neyer, A.; Kuckuk, R.; Heise, H. M.

    2008-03-01

    The optical properties of transparent PDMS polymer materials, which can be integrated into general printed circuit board (PCB) for data communication, are of great interest due to the substantial market expectations for the near future. For the present paper, it was found that the absorption loss in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is mainly caused by the vibrational overtone and combination bands of the CH 3-groups of the polymer in the spectral datacom region of 600-900 nm. Based on observed positions of fundamental, overtone and combination bands of the methyl-group, as recorded within the mid- and near-infrared spectra, anharmonicity constants and normal vibration frequencies were determined. Thus, an empirical equation for estimating the wavelengths with the most significant intrinsic absorption loss due to the corresponding band positions was formulated, which was found to agree well with the experimental data. In addition, PDMS multimode waveguides were fabricated and the respective optical insertion loss was measured at 850 nm, which is commercially used for optical datacom transmission and finally the thermal stability of PDMS multimode waveguides was verified as well.

  10. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  11. [The results of combined treatment patients with olfactory neuroblastoma in material of Cancer Center in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Jarząbski, Andrzej; Kiprian, Dorota; Szutkowski, Zbigniew; Kawecki, Andrzej; Michalski, Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    The results of combined treatment patients with olfactory neuroblastoma in material of Cancer Center in Warsaw The analysis of the results of combined treatment patients with olfactory neuroblastoma in material of Cancer Center in Warsaw. Authors present material of 27 cases olfactory neuroblastoma treated in Cancer Center of Warsaw from 1965 to 2008. The median age was 44 years (range 10-74). The median observation was 72 months (range 2-235).The tumors were seen in 15 women and 12 men. According to Kadish staging there were one A, eight B, and seventeen C stage tumor. The patients in stage A and B was treated by surgery and radiotherapy (mean dose in whole material was 57.15 Gy range 44-70). Five patients in stage C was treated by surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Five patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Six patients underwent surgery and radiotherapy. One patient was died during adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient in stage B had local recurrence, one local recurrence and metastases and one had only metastases. In stage C 4 patients was died because of metastases, one had local recurrence and, 3 was died because of other reasons. Patients who was failed, underwent surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it was dependent of clinical situation. A complete regression was seen in 100% patients in early stages (A and B) and 82% patients in stage C. The 5-year local progression-free survival rate was 91% in early stages and 60% in stage C. The LPFS in whole group was 66.7%. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 91% in early stages, 46% in stage C. The DSF rate in whole group was 44.4%. The 5-year overall survival rate was 80% in stages A and B, 41.2% in stage C. The OS in whole group was 55.6%. The 5-year survival rate was 20% for patients who had recurrence and/or metastases. A combination of surgery and radiotherapy appears to be adequate treatment for early stages (A and B) olfactory neuroblastoma. There are still no

  12. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic, April 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce...

  13. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the liability of carriers to passengers for death or personal injury to approximately $10,000... death or injury under the Warsaw Convention. 221.105 Section 221.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.105 Special notice of limited liability for death...

  14. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the liability of carriers to passengers for death or personal injury to approximately $10,000... death or injury under the Warsaw Convention. 221.105 Section 221.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.105 Special notice of limited liability for death...

  15. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the liability of carriers to passengers for death or personal injury to approximately $10,000... death or injury under the Warsaw Convention. 221.105 Section 221.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.105 Special notice of limited liability for death...

  16. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the liability of carriers to passengers for death or personal injury to approximately $10,000... death or injury under the Warsaw Convention. 221.105 Section 221.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.105 Special notice of limited liability for death...

  17. Short Communications Prepared for the Second Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (Warsaw, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

    Presented are 24 brief papers prepared by members of the Institute of Defectology in the Soviet Union for a congress on the scientific study of mental deficiency held in Warsaw in 1970. Major papers have the following titles: "Principal Directions of the Study of Anomalous Children in the U.S.S.R.", "Etiopathogenesis and…

  18. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention. 221.105 Section 221.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... International Passengers on Limitations of Liability Passengers embarking upon a journey involving an ultimate...

  19. From hyperons to applied optics: {open_quotes}Winston Cones{close_quotes} during and after ZGS era

    SciTech Connect

    Swallow, E.C. |

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses developments in light collection which had their origin in efforts to construct high performance gas Cerenkov detectors for precision studies of hyperon beta decays at the ZGS. The resulting devices, know generally as {open_quotes}compound parabolic concentrators,{close_quotes} have found applications ranging from nuclear and particle physics experiments to solar energy concentration, instrument illumination, and understanding the optics of visual receptors. Interest in these devices and the ideas underlying them stimulated the development of a substantial new subfield of physics: nonimaging optics. This progression provides an excellent example of some ways in which unanticipated - and often unanticipatable - applied science and {open_quotes}practical{close_quotes} devices naturally emerge from first-rate basic science. The characteristics of this process suggest that the term {open_quotes}spinoff{close_quotes} commonly used to denote it is misleading and in need of replacement.

  20. A new microscope optics for laser dark-field illumination applied to high precision two dimensional measurement of specimen displacement.

    PubMed

    Noda, Naoki; Kamimura, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    With conventional light microscopy, precision in the measurement of the displacement of a specimen depends on the signal-to-noise ratio when we measure the light intensity of magnified images. This implies that, for the improvement of precision, getting brighter images and reducing background light noise are both inevitably required. For this purpose, we developed a new optics for laser dark-field illumination. For the microscopy, we used a laser beam and a pair of axicons (conical lenses) to get an optimal condition for dark-field observations. The optics was applied to measuring two dimensional microbead displacements with subnanometer precision. The bandwidth of our detection system overall was 10 kHz. Over most of this bandwidth, the observed noise level was as small as 0.1 nm/radicalHz.

  1. Anisotropic optical distribution of powder phosphor materials applied in medical imaging instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaparinos, P. F.

    2016-02-01

    Image quality for medical purposes is related to the useful diagnostic information that can be extracted from an image. The performance of indirect X-ray detectors, which in turn affects the quality of the medical image, can be significantly influenced by the characteristics of the phosphor, employed to convert incident radiation into emitted light. Given the technological and medical importance of phosphor materials, understanding the fundamental effects of optical anisotropy is crucial. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the influence of optical anisotropy in optical diffusion within the powder phosphor-based X-ray detectors. The present investigation was based on Mie scattering theory and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The variation of the anisotropy factor was examined for: (1) light wavelengths in the range 400-700 nm, (2) particle refractive index between 1.5 and 2 and (3) three regions of particle sizes: nanoscale (from 10 up to 100 nm), submicron scale (from 100 nm up to 1 μm), and microscale (from 1 up to 10 μm). In addition, optical diffusion performance was carried out considering: (a) anisotropy factor values 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 which represent different aspects of light propagation after scattering and (b) phosphors of different layer thickness, 100 (thin layer) and 300 μm (thick layer), respectively. Results showed that the highest variation on the anisotropy factor was observed in the submicron scale, and, in particular, for grain diameters between 100 and 600 nm (increase from 0.1 up to 0.8). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the spread of light photons decreases (i.e., high spatial resolution) with the decrease in the anisotropy factor. In particular, the FWHM was found to decrease with the anisotropy factor: (1) 11.4 % at 100 μm and 4.2 %, at 300 μm layer thickness, for light extinction coefficient 0.217 μm-1 and (2) 1.9 % at 100 μm and 2.0 %, at 300 μm layer thickness, for light extinction coefficient 3 μm-1

  2. The early-stage diagnosis of albinic embryos by applying optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Yen; Cai, Jyun-Jhang; Chang, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Albinism is a kind of congenital disease of abnormal metabolism. Poecilia reticulata (guppy fish) is chosen as the model to study the development of albinic embryos as it is albinic, ovoviviparous and with short life period. This study proposed an imaging method for penetrative embryo investigation using optical coherence tomography. By imaging through guppy mother’s reproduction purse, we found the embryo’s eyes were the early-developed albinism features. As human’s ocular albinism typically appear at about four weeks old, it is the time to determine if an embryo will grow into an albino.

  3. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  4. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: applied to low voltage circuit breakers.

    PubMed

    McBride, J W; Balestrero, A; Ghezzi, L; Tribulato, G; Cross, K J

    2010-05-01

    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1 x 10(6) images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  5. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: Applied to low voltage circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J. W.; Balestrero, A.; Tribulato, G.; Ghezzi, L.; Cross, K. J.

    2010-05-15

    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1x10{sup 6} images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  6. Etendue-preserving mixing and projection optics for high-luminance LEDs, applied to automotive headlamps.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Dross, Oliver; Chaves, Julio; Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C; Mohedano, Rubén

    2006-12-25

    By having a single optical element combine the light of several high luminance LEDs, a high luminance light source can be formed, with shape and emission characteristics adaptable to nearly all illumination problems. The illuminance distribution of this virtual source facilitates the generation of the desired intensity pattern via its imaging-stye projection into the far field. This projection is achieved by one refractive and one reflective freeform surface, both calculated simultaneously by the 3D SMS method, which is herein demonstrated for an LED automotive headlamp.

  7. New light-trapping concept by means of several optical components applied to compact holographic 3D concentration solar module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamarín Villegas, Ayalid M.; Pérez López, Francisco J.; Calo López, Antonio; Rodríguez San Segundo, Hugo-José

    2014-05-01

    A new light-trapping concept is presented, which joins broad bandwidth volume phase reflection holograms (VPRH) working together with three other optical components: specifically designed three-dimensional (3D) cavities, Total Internal Reflection (TIR) within an optical medium, and specular reflection by means of a highly reflective surface. This concept is applied to the design and development of both low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) and solar thermal modules reaching a concentration factor of up to 3X. Higher concentrations are feasible for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) devices. The whole system is entirely made of polymeric materials (except for the solar cells or fluid carrying pipes), thus reducing cost by up to 40%. The module concentrates solar light onto solar cells - or fluid carrying pipes - with no need for active tracking of the sun, covering the whole seasonal and daily incident angle spectrum while it also minimizes optical losses. In this work we analyze the first experimentally measured optical characteristics and performance of VPRH in dichromated gelatin film (DCG) in our concept. The VPRH can reach high diffraction efficiencies (˜98%, ignoring Fresnel reflection losses). Thanks to specifically designed raw material, coating and developing process specifications, also very broad selective spectral (higher than 300 nm) and angular bandwidths (˜+20º) per grating are achieved. The VPRH was optimized to use silicon solar cells, but designs for other semiconductor devices or for fluid heating are feasible. The 3D shape, the hologram's and reflective surface's optical quality, the TIR effect and the correct coupling of all the components are key to high performance of the concentration solar module.

  8. Calculation of accurate channel spacing of an AWG optical demultiplexer applying proportional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyringer, D.; Hodzic, E.

    2015-06-01

    We present the proportional method to correct the channel spacing between the transmitted output channels of an AWG. The developed proportional method was applied to 64-channel, 50 GHz AWG and the achieved results confirm very good correlation between designed channel spacing (50 GHz) and the channel spacing calculated from simulated AWG transmission characteristics.

  9. APPLYING OPEN-PATH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY TO HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-dispersive infrared absorption has been used to measure gaseous emissions for both stationary and mobile sources. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used for stationary sources as both extractive and open-path methods. We have applied the open-path method for bo...

  10. Optical imaging of cell membrane potential changes induced by applied electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, D; Loew, L M; Webb, W W

    1986-01-01

    We report the first imaging of the spatial distributions of transmembrane potential changes induced in nonexcitable cells by applied external electric fields. These changes are indicated by the fluorescence intensity of a charge-shift potentiometric dye incorporated in the cell plasma membrane and measured by digital intensified video microscopy. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:3741986

  11. Historic Buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology - Selected Issues of Renovation, Modernisation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anna Agata

    2016-06-01

    The historic buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology display not only outstanding architectural values, but are also representative of the trends in preservation, restoration, and adaptation that were prevalent at the time of their modernization. The post-war rebuilding of the WUT was more akin to modernization than reconstruction. But the freedom to shape modern architectural forms in the 1960s and '70s brought with it a lack of respect for their historic environment. A change in the approach to historic buildings and their integration with modern architecture came in the late 1970s. The most recent modernization of the WUT's historic buildings, especially after Poland's accession to the EU, resulted in many good examples of proper, harmonious integration between the `modern' and the `traditional'.

  12. 2004 on Warsaw Stock Exchange via Zipf Analysis, Scatter and Lag Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachnik, W.; Chomiuk, P.; Faltynowicz, Sz.; Gawin, M.; Gorajek, W.; Kedzierski, J.; Kosk, K.; Kucharczyk, A.; Leszczynski, P.; Podsiadlo, R.; Makowiec, D.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the last year on Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) and world stock exchanges by graphical analysis: Scatter Plot, Zipf Analysis and Lag Plot of selected Polish (WIG, WIG20, WIG-BANKI, TECHWIG) and foreign (NIKKEI, DOW JONES Industrial Average) indices, and also selected companies listed on WSE. Zipf analysis proves that although, generally, holding securities was the best way to earn money in the last year, however, Zipf based strategy also could be profitable. Scatter Plots show no similarities between Polish and foreign indices, however, behaviour of Polish ones is similar. The volatility of indices and most companies was highest on Monday and lowest on Friday. Distribution of returns in continuous trading is neither Gaussian nor uniform.

  13. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Frey, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Hänsel, S.; Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Kucharski, K.; Macchiolo, A.; Marczewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  14. [Frequency of intake and energy value of breakfast for students from selected primary schools in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Hamułka, J; Gronowska-Senger, A; Witkowska, K

    2000-01-01

    Energy value and frequency breakfast intake in Warsaw primary schools were estimated in a group of 330 children aged 7-15 years. The research was carried out in autumn 1998 year. The nutrition mode was assessed by questionnaire interviews and of 24-hour recall [4] and computer programme "Zywienie". The size of the consumed portion was determined with an album containing colour photographs of products and dishes of different size [14]. Food consumption quality was estimated using test of Bielińska modified by Kulesza et al. [8]. Frequency breakfast intake decreased at older schoolchildren. Breakfast milk and products, vegetables and fruits intake was too low; intake of fat sweets and beverages like "coca-cola" was too high. Breakfast energy value was too low compared with recommended dietary allowances.

  15. Dosimetry in radiobiological studies with the heavy ion beam of the Warsaw cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaźmierczak, U.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Czub, J.; Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A.; Kruszewski, M.; Lankoff, A.; Lisowska, H.; Malinowska, A.; Stępkowski, T.; Szefliński, Z.; Wojewódzka, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify various dosimetry methods in the irradiation of biological materials with a 12C ion beam at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. To this end the number of ions hitting the cell nucleus, calculated on the basis of the Si-detector system used in the set-up, was compared with the number of ion tracks counted in irradiated Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors and with the number of ion tracks detected in irradiated Chinese Hamster Ovary cells processed for the γ-H2AX assay. Tests results were self-consistent and confirmed that the system serves its dosimetric purpose.

  16. A survey of foodstuffs fortified with vitamins available on the market in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Masalska, Katarzyna; Wronowski, Sylwester

    2013-01-01

    Foodstuffs fortified with vitamins and/or minerals are nowadays continually being developed, leading to an increasing diversity of these products being available on the market. This contributes to increased consumption of added nutrients, which can be an effective tool for improving public health. To identify and characterise products fortified with vitamins, available on the Warsaw foodstuff market, which can thereby be used as a source of information for the assessment of dietary micronutrient intake. Data were gathered using the information provided on labels from foodstuff products found in 14 Warsaw supermarkets during March to October 2012. There were 588 products found to be fortified with vitamins. The number of vitamins added ranged from one in 193 products to twelve in 14 products. The group of vitamins used for enrichment consisted of: A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin. Juices, non-alcoholic beverages (29.4%) and cereal products (18.9%) constituted the largest product groups. In addition, fortified vitamins were also significantly present in sweets (15.8%), instant beverages and desserts (13.6%), milk products, fat spreads and soy products. The most frequently added vitamins were: vitamin C (58% products), vitamin B6 (46%) and B12 (45%), whilst the least frequently added was biotin (16%). The highest content of vitamins A and D were seen in fat spreads, whereas the highest levels of B vitamins, vitamin C and E were observed in certain sweets. The wide range of fortified products available can serve to increase vitamin intake in many population groups, especially in children and teenagers. In order that consumers can make informed choices in buying these product types, appropriate education is necessary to raise public awareness of the health issues involved.

  17. [Willingness of Warsaw inhabitants to cooperate with health service. III. Use of different types of treatment].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The global economic crisis led to the need to reduce the public expenditure, including health care. In a situation of reduction of the publicly guaranteed benefits, some services may be available only in private physicians for particular patients. Therefore, there is a need to examine factors determining the use of both types of health care. The aim of the study was to assess the association between the use of free treatment of general practitioner and the use of private physician services on one hand, and health and its disorders, assessment of physician, and expenditure on treatment of the Warsaw inhabitants on other hand. The data were collected from 402 Warsaw inhabitants by not-addressed questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Education Department of the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene. Our findings showed that the majority of respondents used the both types of health care. Males, people from the youngest and the oldest group, those having elementary education, students and unemployed were more likely to use only free treatment from general practitioner, whereas people aged 30-44 years, higher educated, employed and those depending on other people were more often treated only by private physicians. The beneficiaries of only private physician services higher evaluated their health, physically felt better, perceived stronger social support and rarely remained at home due to illness. Private physicians were evaluated more positively in comparison with general practitioner practicing in public health care, nevertheless, the difference was not large. With respect to their own financial situation, the people using private physician services did not find higher medical expenses than those using only the general practitioner of public health care. CONCLUSIONS. Our research indicates that uncontrolled development of private medical services market may increase inequality in access to health care, if not protected

  18. A model of the density of solar radiation energy on an arbitrary plane identification for Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarek, Stefan

    The author presents a mathematical model of the density of solar radiation energy on an arbitrarily inclined surface of the earth. The model is described by means of vector calculus within the framework of spherical geometry and the theory of the extinction and propagation of solar radiation. The concept of the model was borrowed from publications in the field cited in the article and was supplemented with the author's own ideas. They include the condition of the shadow of the plate, the concept of the radiation effect as the sum of two states, one corresponding to total cloudlessness and the other corresponding to total cloudiness, and a numerical realization of a discrete description. The use of a discrete description made it possible to calculate the components of the intensity of the radiation at any point on the earth, at any time of day, and at any time of the year as well as a composite representation, namely energy density in any time period. The possibility of determining energy density in any time period makes the model an extremely useful practical tool in the construction and operation of solar energy conversion systems. The author used his model to write a numerical program in Pascal for calculating solar radiation energy density on a plane with any azimuth and any angle of inclination relative to the horizon. The author identified the model on the basis of statistics on the average daily amounts of radiation in specific months of the year on a horizontal plane in Warsaw. The article includes tables with the results of calculations of average daily solar radiation energy fluxes in specific months of the year as well as the components of solar radiation energy density in the warm season on plates with specific azimuths and angles of inclination in the vicinity of Warsaw.

  19. APPLIED OPTICS. Voltage-tunable circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, Eugene J; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-14

    Electronic bands in crystals can support nontrivial topological textures arising from spin-orbit interactions, but purely orbital mechanisms can realize closely related dynamics without breaking spin degeneracies, opening up applications in materials containing only light elements. One such application is the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), which is the generation of photocurrents whose magnitude and polarity depend on the chirality of optical excitation. We show that the CPGE can arise from interband transitions at the metal contacts to silicon nanowires, where inversion symmetry is locally broken by an electric field. Bias voltage that modulates this field further controls the sign and magnitude of the CPGE. The generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism will enable new functionalities in silicon that can be integrated with conventional electronics.

  20. Single sensor for multiple analytes in different optical channel: Applying for multi-ion response modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunshuang; Jiang, Shimei

    2017-08-01

    A Schiff-base, (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2-hydroxyphenyl-imino)-methyl)phenol) (L), has been improved to function as a simultaneous multi-ion probe in different optical channel. The probe changes from colorless to orangish upon being deprotonated by F-, while the presence of Al3+ significantly enhances the fluorescence of the probe due to the inhibition of Cdbnd N isomerization, cation-induced inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), and chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). Dual-channel ;off-on; switching behavior resulted from the sequential input of F- and Al3+, reflecting the balance of independent reactions of Al3+ and F- with L and with one another. This sensing phenomenon realizes transformation between multiple states and beautifully mimics a ;Write-Read-Erase-Read; logic circuit with two feedback loops.

  1. Applying of the optical time-of-flight spectroscopy for the paper and pulp characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluciński, Jerzy

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents benefits of optical time-of-flight spectroscopy for the pulp and paper characterization. A semiconductor pulse laser and a streak camera as the photodetector were utilized in experimental part of research described in this paper. Distribution of the time of flight of photons through various kinds of wood pulp (e.g. pulp after mechanical treatment coming both fi-om tree species giving hard and soft wood and pulp after thermo-mechanical treatment) was measured. The pulp samples used in the measurements had consistency ranging from 0 to 5% of dry mass in the suspension. The influence of additives (kaolin, talc and calcium carbonate) present in the suspension on the time of flight distribution of photons was studied as well. Finally, dependence of the time of flight of photons through various kinds of the paper (i.e. newspaper, copy paper, and tissue) on the thickness of the sample was investigated.

  2. Under-Coupling Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Applied to Resonant Micro-Optic Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Kun; Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-01-01

    As an important sensing element, the whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) parameters seriously affect the resonant micro-optic gyroscope (RMOG) performance. This work proposes an under-coupling resonator to improve the resonator’s Q value and to optimize the coupling coefficient to maximize the RMOG’s sensitivity. GeO2-doped silica waveguide-type resonators with different coupling coefficients were simulated, designed, fabricated and tested. An under-coupling ring resonator with a quality factor of 10 million is reported. The RMOG system was built based on this resonator and the scale factor was tested on a uniaxial high-precision rotating platform. Experimental results show that this resonator could improve the RMOG sensitivity by five times. PMID:28067824

  3. Under-Coupling Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Applied to Resonant Micro-Optic Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-01-06

    As an important sensing element, the whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) parameters seriously affect the resonant micro-optic gyroscope (RMOG) performance. This work proposes an under-coupling resonator to improve the resonator's Q value and to optimize the coupling coefficient to maximize the RMOG's sensitivity. GeO₂-doped silica waveguide-type resonators with different coupling coefficients were simulated, designed, fabricated and tested. An under-coupling ring resonator with a quality factor of 10 million is reported. The RMOG system was built based on this resonator and the scale factor was tested on a uniaxial high-precision rotating platform. Experimental results show that this resonator could improve the RMOG sensitivity by five times.

  4. Ultrafast Rotation of Light Fields Applied to Highly Non-Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Femtosecond laser beams can exhibit spatio-temporal couplings (STC), i.e. a temporal dependence of their spatial properties, or vice versa. Although these couplings have long been considered as detrimental for high-intensity and ultrafast experiments, moderate and controlled STC provide a powerful means of controlling high-intensity laser-matter interactions. This talk will first explain the basics of a particular STC, where the propagation direction of laser light rotates in time on the femtosecond time scale. Laser pulses with such ultrafast wavefront rotation can be used to generate attosecond pulses of light through non-linear optical processes. We show that these pulses, periodically generated in each laser cycle, can then be emitted in spatially separated beamlets. This effects provides a new type of light sources called attosecond lighthouses, and can be exploited for ultrafast measurements with femtosecond resolution, in a scheme called photonic streaking.

  5. Laser-electron beam interaction applied to optical amplifiers and oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantell, R. H.; Piestrup, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Momentum modulation of a relativistic electron beam by a Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The electrons, at 100 MeV energy, interact with the laser light in helium gas at standard temperature and pressure. At an angle of 6.55 mrad between the two wavevectors, corresponding to the Cerenkov angle, a given electron remains in a field of constant phase as it passes through the light beam. The experimental arrangement is illustrated showing the trajectories of the electron and light. The particle momentum is measured by a mass spectrometer, and the angle between the wavevectors is controlled by a rotatable mirror. Experimental results indicate that momentum modulation of an electron beam may be used for amplification. A possible configuration for an optical klystron is illustrated.

  6. Optics system design applying a micro-prism array of a single lens stereo image pair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yue; Yang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Wen-Shing

    2008-09-29

    In this study we apply a micro-prism array technique to enable a single lens CCD to capture a stereo image for the simulation of double lens vision. A micro-prism array plate serves as the basis for design, which also improves the lightweight and portability of the overall system in addition to lowering the mass-production costs. Most important of all, this design possesses the characteristics of integration compatibility between general-purpose and video camera.

  7. Social Science at the Center for Adaptive Optics: Synergistic Systems of Program Evaluation, Applied Research, Educational Assessment, and Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goza, B. K.; Hunter, L.; Shaw, J. M.; Metevier, A. J.; Raschke, L.; Espinoza, E.; Geaney, E. R.; Reyes, G.; Rothman, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction of four elements of social science as they have evolved in concert with the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). We hope these examples persuade early-career scientists and engineers to include social science activities as they develop grant proposals and carry out their research. To frame our discussion we use a metaphor from astronomy. At the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), the CfAO PDP and the Educational Partnership Center (EPC) are two young stars in the process of forming a solar system. Together, they are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust made up of program evaluation, applied research, educational assessment, and pedagogy. An idea from the 2001 PDP intensive workshops program evaluation developed into the Assessing Scientific Inquiry and Leadership Skills (AScILS) applied research project. In iterative cycles, AScILS researchers participated in subsequent PDP intensive workshops, teaching social science while piloting AScILS measurement strategies. Subsequent "orbits" of the PDP program evaluation gathered ideas from the applied research and pedagogy. The denser regions of this disk of social science are in the process of forming new protoplanets as tools for research and teaching are developed. These tools include problem-solving exercises or simulations of adaptive optics explanations and scientific reasoning; rubrics to evaluate the scientific reasoning simulation responses, knowledge regarding inclusive science education, and student explanations of science/engineering inquiry investigations; and a scientific reasoning curriculum. Another applied research project is forming with the design of a study regarding how to assess engineering explanations. To illustrate the mutual shaping of the cross-disciplinary, intergenerational group of educational researchers and their projects, the paper ends with a description of the professional trajectories of some of the

  8. [Centile charts of body height, body weight and skinfold thickness of Warsaw's children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kurniewicz-Witczakowa, R; Miesowicz, I; Niedźwiecka, Z; Pietrzak, M

    1983-01-01

    The tables and centile charts of height, weight and thickness of 3 skinfolds of Warsaw children from birth up to the age of 18 are presented. The data was collected in the years 1976-80. The results were compared with the data of the 60s for Warsaw children and with present figures for urban children from other towns of Poland. The acceleration of growth of Warsaw children has been established and it was stated that they were the tallest of all Polish children.

  9. Acquisition, simulation, and test replication of weapon firing shock applied to optical sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Kenneth D.; Gardner, Dave

    2011-09-01

    With the ever increasing desire for range and delivery capabilities of ballistic defence equipment, weapons and sight systems are constantly evolving in complexity. As a result current systems now incorporate more sophisticated technology than ever before. This paper describes the non-intrusive mechanical field data acquisition and subsequent analysis and test integration techniques performed on complex opto-mechanical weapon mounted systems. As a result of physical acquisition, innovative techniques have been developed to enable the synthesis of the transient recordings for the purpose of finite element analysis. Further investigations have revealed new possibilities in applying more accurately controlled 'in house' loads, for low cost representative test purposes.

  10. Excimer laser ablation lithography applied to the fabrication of reflective diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, M.; Benatmane, A.; Gérard, P.; Montgomery, P. C.; Fontaine, J.; Engel, T.; Schunck, J. P.; Fogarassy, E.

    2003-03-01

    We propose a low cost technique for the production of diffractive optical elements (DOE). These elements are devoted to high power lasers beam shaping in the mid-infrared wavelengths. This process called laser ablation lithography (LAL), may seem similar to laser beam writing (LBW) in the way the whole DOE's design is reproduced pixel by pixel on the substrate placed on a computer controlled XY translation stage. A first difference is that the photoresist is not exposed with UV light but is directly ablated with short excimer laser pulses. Furthermore, with LAL technique the size of the smallest pixel ( 5 μm×5 μm) is more than 10 times greater than those produced by LBW. We discuss in details the experimental set-up for LAL and demonstrate that it gives a resolution up to 10 times greater than photolithography with flexible masks. This makes LAL a promising solution for the production of DOE for use with Nd:YAG lasers. New applications of DOEs are finally introduced with high power lasers sources, such as laser marking or multi-point brazing.

  11. Optical coherence tomography applied to the evaluation of wear of composite resin for posterior teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Guerra, Bruna A.; Machado, Brena S. A.; Cabral, Adolfo J.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2015-06-01

    Resin composites are widely used as restorative materials due to their excellent aesthetical and mechanical properties. Posterior teeth are constantly submitted to occlusal stress and upon restoration require more resistant resins. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the wear suffered over time by restorations in resin composite in posterior teeth, by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). 30 molars had occlusal cavities prepared and were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and restored with resin composite: G1: Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE), G2: Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent); G3: Filtek P60 (3M/ESPE). Specimens were subjected to initial analysis by OCT (OCP930SR, Thorlabs, axial resolution 6.2 μm) and stereoscopic microscope. Specimens were submitted to thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55 °C) and subjected to simulated wear through a machine chewing movements (Wear Machine WM001), projecting four years of use. After mechanical cycles, the specimens were submitted to a second evaluation by the OCT and stereoscopic microscopy. As a result, it was observed that 90% of the restorations of both groups had fractures and/or points of stress concentration, considered niches for early dissemination of new fracture lines. It was also found that G1 and G2 had more points of stress concentration, whereas G3 had a higher incidence of fracture lines already propagated. It was concluded that the G3 showed more brittle behavior at the masticatory wear when compared to G1 and G2.

  12. Comparative evaluation of topographical data of dental implant surfaces applying optical interferometry and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kournetas, N; Spintzyk, S; Schweizer, E; Sawada, T; Said, F; Schmid, P; Geis-Gerstorfer, J; Eliades, G; Rupp, F

    2017-08-01

    Comparability of topographical data of implant surfaces in literature is low and their clinical relevance often equivocal. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of scanning electron microscopy and optical interferometry to assess statistically similar 3-dimensional roughness parameter results and to evaluate these data based on predefined criteria regarded relevant for a favorable biological response. Four different commercial dental screw-type implants (NanoTite Certain Prevail, TiUnite Brånemark Mk III, XiVE S Plus and SLA Standard Plus) were analyzed by stereo scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry. Surface height, spatial and hybrid roughness parameters (Sa, Sz, Ssk, Sku, Sal, Str, Sdr) were assessed from raw and filtered data (Gaussian 50μm and 5μm cut-off-filters), respectively. Data were statistically compared by one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. For a clinically relevant interpretation, a categorizing evaluation approach was used based on predefined threshold criteria for each roughness parameter. The two methods exhibited predominantly statistical differences. Dependent on roughness parameters and filter settings, both methods showed variations in rankings of the implant surfaces and differed in their ability to discriminate the different topographies. Overall, the analyses revealed scale-dependent roughness data. Compared to the pure statistical approach, the categorizing evaluation resulted in much more similarities between the two methods. This study suggests to reconsider current approaches for the topographical evaluation of implant surfaces and to further seek after proper experimental settings. Furthermore, the specific role of different roughness parameters for the bioresponse has to be studied in detail in order to better define clinically relevant, scale-dependent and parameter-specific thresholds and ranges. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Blob identification algorithms applied to laser speckle to characterize optical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, Galen D.; Wayne, David T.

    2015-09-01

    Laser beam speckle resulting from atmospheric turbulence contains information about the propagation channel. The number and size of the speckle cells can be used to infer the spatial coherence and thus the Cn2 along a path. The challenge with this technique is the rapidly evolving speckle pattern and non-uniformity of the speckle cells. In this paper we investigate modern blob counting techniques used in biology, microscopy, and medical imaging. These methods are then applied to turbulent speckle images to estimate the number and size of the speckle cells. Speckle theory is reviewed for different beam types and different regimes of turbulence. Algorithms are generated to calculate path Cn2 from speckle information and path geometry. The algorithms are tested on speckle images from experimental data collected over a turbulent 1km path and compared to Cn2 measurements collected in parallel.

  14. Polymer optical microstructured fiber with birefringence induced by stress-applying elements.

    PubMed

    Mergo, Pawel; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2014-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of a birefringent microstructured PMMA fiber with polystyrene stress-applying elements located in the solid part of the cladding. A microstructured part of the cladding composed of three rings of holes was made of a technical-grade PMMA by a drilling method. The fiber shows a relatively high birefringence of the order of 4×10(-5), which weakly depends upon wavelength in the investigated spectral range from 0.6 to 1 μm. The cross talk between polarization modes is lower than -20  dB for a 1 m long fiber, while the fiber loss is about 8  dB/m at 0.83 μm. We also studied the fiber response to temperature in the range from 20°C to 60°C. The temperature induced birefringence change is negative and shows a significant hysteresis in the first cycle, which gradually disappears in successive cycles.

  15. Studying the reversal mode of the magnetization vector versus applied field angle using generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pufall, M. R.; Berger, A.

    1999-10-26

    The authors used the technique of vector Generalized Magneto-optical Ellipsometry to study the behavior of the magnetization vector of a 50 Co thin film as a function of external field magnitude and direction. With this method, which determines the both the direction and magnitude of the magnetization, averaged over the 1 mm incident laser beam, they were able to determine the relative contributions of magnetization rotation and domain formation to the reversal of M. The Co sample had a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. The authors found that when the angle between the applied field and the easy axis was greater than {approximately} 40 degrees, the reversal occurred primarily by rotation of the magnetization, accompanied by a small reduction of the magnitude of M. In this angular region, the critical field-the field at which there is a large jump in the angle of M -- as a function of applied field angle followed a coherent rotation model. However, at applied field angles less than 40 degrees to the easy axis, they found a larger reduction in {vert_bar}M{vert_bar} occurring before and during the jump in the magnetization angle. The jump also occurred at fields much lower than those predicted by the coherent rotation model, indicating a reversal mode initiated by domain formation.

  16. A Polypeptide-DNA Hybrid with Selective Linking Capability Applied to Single Molecule Nano-Mechanical Measurements Using Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Tans, Sander J.

    2013-01-01

    Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN) and the peptide StrepTag II (ST). We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST). In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV) linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV)-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications. PMID:23336001

  17. The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuelin; Peng, Jian

    2008-03-01

    The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market. The scan system consists of the CMOS image sensor and embedded chip S3C2401X, when the two dimensional bar code is read, the results show the inaccurate and wrong code bar, resulted from image defile, disturber, reads image condition badness, signal interference, unstable system voltage. So we put forward the method which uses the matrix evaluation and Read-Solomon arithmetic to solve them. In order to construct the whole wireless optics of bar code system and to ensure its ability of transmitting bar code image signals digitally with long distances, ZigBee is used to transmit data to the base station, and this module is designed based on image acquisition system, and at last the wireless transmitting/receiving CC2430 module circuit linking chart is established. And by transplanting the embedded RTOS system LINUX to the MCU, an applying wireless CMOS optics bar code scanner and multi-task system is constructed. Finally, performance of communication is tested by evaluation software Smart RF. In broad space, every ZIGBEE node can realize 50m transmission with high reliability. When adding more ZigBee nodes, the transmission distance can be several thousands of meters long.

  18. Determining the use of health care services by obese inhabitants of Warsaw. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław Jan; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Gromulska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    The excessive use of health care services by obese people constitutes a serious financial burden to all highly developed countries. As yet however, this has not been recognised to be a problem in Poland. To provide a preliminary analysis of Warsaw inhabitants in their use of and quality of received health care by comparing obese subjects with those of normal weight. Study subjects were fifty three obese (BMI > 30) and one hundred eighty one normal weight (18.5 < BMI < 25) inhabitants of Warsaw, who had taken part in a study on social participation in health care reforms. The use of health care services covered: visits to public health care physicians, hospitalisation and visiting private physicians. Assessing health care quality was by evaluating overall the health care system and the family doctor as well as out-of-pocket treatment expenses and any difficulties in accessing physicians. Obese subjects perceived their health to be significantly worse than those of normal weight and significantly more of them never attended private practice. Consultation with public health physicians was also frequently, but not significantly, higher in the former whilst hospital admissions were the same in both groups. Obese subjects gave considerably lower general assessments of the quality of the health care system and more often perceived their medical expenses as being very high, nevertheless, both these differences were statistically insignificant. The obtained findings have allowed us to formulate new recommendations for future research. These will examine various uses of health care services by the obese, i.e. family doctors and other specialists of public primary health care, out-patient clinic physicians and private physicians (according to their defined specialisations), hospitals according to location and rehabilitation centres. Account will be taken of visiting frequency, admission waiting time for physicians, length of visits, amounts of prescribed medication, out

  19. Parasitic infections detected by FLOTAC in zoo mammals from Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Maesano, Gianpaolo; Capasso, Michele; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in groups of mammals kept in the Warsaw zoological garden (Poland). 71 pools of fecal samples were analyzed using the FLOTAC techniques. 48% of animals were positive and 47% of positivities showed multiple infections. Toxocara cati (71.4%) was found in felines; marsupials were infected with Coccidia (90%). Giardia spp. (24.0%), Blastocystis spp. (12.3%), Iodamoeba spp. (10.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (6.0%) and Entamoeba coli (3.3%) were found in primates. Gastrointestinal strongyles (60.5%) were prevalent in ruminants which resulted positive also to Coccidia (Eimeria spp. = 50.0%), Trichuris spp. (25.0%) and Nematodirus (14.0%). Strongyles (34.0%) were the most frequent parasites in monogastric herbivores, followed by Parascaris equorum (17.0%). None of the animals showed any symptom associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections. According to our results the need to prevent, diagnose, control, and treat intestinal parasitism trough specific control programs is mandatory for animal welfare in order to limit the spread of parasitic infections in animals and humans.

  20. Interstellar Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere from IBEX Observations. II. The Warsaw Test Particle Model (WTPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a refined and optimized version of the Warsaw Test Particle Model of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere, specially tailored for analysis of IBEX-Lo observations. The former version of the model was used in the analysis of neutral He observed by IBEX that resulted in an unexpected conclusion that the interstellar neutral He flow vector was different than previously thought and that a new population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, exists in the heliosphere. It was also used in the reanalysis of Ulysses observations that confirmed the original findings on the flow vector, but suggested a significantly higher temperature. The present version of the model has two strains targeted for different applications, based on an identical paradigm, but differing in the implementation and in the treatment of ionization losses. We present the model in detail and discuss numerous effects related to the measurement process that potentially modify the resulting flux of ISN He observed by IBEX, and identify those of them that should not be omitted in the simulations to avoid biasing the results. This paper is part of a coordinated series of papers presenting the current state of analysis of IBEX-Lo observations of ISN He. Details of the analysis method are presented by Swaczyna et al. and results of the analysis are presented by Bzowski et al.

  1. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. II. THE WARSAW TEST PARTICLE MODEL (WTPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P.

    2015-10-15

    We have developed a refined and optimized version of the Warsaw Test Particle Model of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere, specially tailored for analysis of IBEX-Lo observations. The former version of the model was used in the analysis of neutral He observed by IBEX that resulted in an unexpected conclusion that the interstellar neutral He flow vector was different than previously thought and that a new population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, exists in the heliosphere. It was also used in the reanalysis of Ulysses observations that confirmed the original findings on the flow vector, but suggested a significantly higher temperature. The present version of the model has two strains targeted for different applications, based on an identical paradigm, but differing in the implementation and in the treatment of ionization losses. We present the model in detail and discuss numerous effects related to the measurement process that potentially modify the resulting flux of ISN He observed by IBEX, and identify those of them that should not be omitted in the simulations to avoid biasing the results. This paper is part of a coordinated series of papers presenting the current state of analysis of IBEX-Lo observations of ISN He. Details of the analysis method are presented by Swaczyna et al. and results of the analysis are presented by Bzowski et al.

  2. Psychiatric hospitalizations for affective disorders in Warsaw, Poland: Effect of season and intensity of sunlight.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Monika; Swiecicki, Lukasz; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2015-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess any associations between the number of hospitalizations for affective disorders, seasons of the year and the intensity of sunlight in Poland, a country with a very changeable climate and significant seasonal fluctuations. We analyzed 2837 admissions with affective disorders hospitalized in the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, between 2002 and 2010 (mania, n=380, mixed episode, n=131, bipolar depression, n=736, recurrent depression, n=681, single depressive episode, n=909). For each diagnostic group admission time series were created and categorized into subgroups according to sex and age, and these were analyzed by means of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method. Regression models and correlations were used to assess the influence of the intensity of sunlight on the number of hospitalizations. Most mania admissions were noted in spring/summer months and in midwinter, mixed episode-late spring and winter, and depression (bipolar, recurrent and single depressive episode)-spring and autumn months. The association between frequency of admissions and monthly hours of sunshine was observed in some age and sex subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder and single depressive episode. The results support the seasonality of admissions of patients with affective disorders.

  3. [Willingness of Warsaw inhabitants to cooperate with health service. II. Evaluation of health and retirement security].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Providing citizens with health security is one of the main challenges for health policy. For the effective modifying the health an social care system it is very important to recognize how citizens themselves perceived their health and retirement assurance. The article presents the analysis of assessment of health care system, out-of-pocket payments for treatment, and retirement system by Warsaw inhabitants in relation to demographic characteristics and health indicators. Data were collected using not-addressed questionnaire. Our findings indicated that women, people aged 30-64 years, those having vocational education and unemployed, the others out of work as well as employed more negatively assessed health care system in comparison to the other demographic groups. The youngest and oldest people, those having elementary education and those who were economically inactive relatively frequently declared bearing very high expenses for treatment. The retirement system was more negatively assessed by women, people under 45 years, unemployed and the others out of work. The analysis of the relationship between perceived health and out-of-pocket payments for treatment and selected health indicators showed that people, who positively assessed existing health care and declared low expenses for treatment, higher evaluated their health, less frequently stayed at home because of ill-health, less frequently were in contact with physician and rarely were treated in hospital. Such differences were not noted (except one) for retirement security.

  4. [Contents of calcium and phosphorus in the diet of youth from Warsaw elementary schools].

    PubMed

    Chwojnowska, Zofia; Charzewska, Jadwiga; Chabros, Elzbieta; Wajszczyk, Bozena; Rogalska-Niedswieds, Małgorzata; Jarosz, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an assessment average daily intake of calcium and phosphorus by prepubertal adolescents (aged 11 and 12) during monitoring their diets in last 10 years. In 1989-1999 years, it was investigated 767 randomly selected girls and 817 boys, aged 11 and 12 in Warsaw. Information on dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour recall method, always spring, having representation of weekdays and weekends. Among environmental factors, nutrition, and particularly calcium intake is assumed to influence whether the genetically determined maximal peak bone mass is reached. However, near half of examined prepubertal adolescents have intake less than 600 mg calcium per day. It was also observed low calcium to phosphorus ratio in diets and stated Ca:P < 0.25 among 10% diet in different groups of girls and boys. Consequently, due to consider the activity educational efforts directed to prepubertal adolescent with reference to means realization of calcium RDA in daily diet through increase milk and dairy products consumption.

  5. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    PubMed

    Enchev, Yavor; Eftimov, Tihomir

    2010-05-01

    After 45 years as a closest ally of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw Pact, founded mainly against the US and the Western Europe countries, and 15 years of democratic changes, since 2004 Bulgaria has been a full member of NATO and an equal and trusted partner of its former enemies. The unprecedented transformation has affected all aspects of the Bulgarian society. As a function of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarian military medicine and in particular Bulgarian military neurosurgery is indivisibly connected with their development. The history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery is the history of the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics military system and military medicine to NATO standards in every aspect. The career of the military neurosurgeon in Bulgaria is in many ways similar to that of the civilian neurosurgeon, but there are also many peculiarities. The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization.

  6. [Knowledge of coronary heart disease risk factors among students of Warsaw universities].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Robert; Nowak, Agnieszka; Adamus, Jerzy

    2002-12-01

    Prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most effective way in fighting with epidemic of this illness in our country. Risk factors of CHD are divided into modifying and non-modifying. General knowledge of cardiac risk factors in young population is the most important point in prophylactic. Our aim was to elucidate knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors in students. We distributed a questionnaire to 544 students (264 women and 280 men) of 3 Universities in Warsaw in the middle age 22 +/- 0.79. The survey contained 22 answers: general risk factors (obesity--O, high cholesterol level--Ch, smoking--S. hypertension--HA, wrong diet--D, family history--F, life style--S, age--A, diabetes--DM, male--M, down limbs arteriosclerosis--DLA, myocardial infarction in family under 55 years old-MI) and wrong answers (allergic, female, mobile phone...). Data were taken under analyze. Right risk factors were mentioned by the following number of students: O--92%, Ch--89%, S--85%, HA--75.8%, D--71%, F--65.2%, DM--50.4%, M--49.3%. DLA--36.9%, MI--36.0%. General knowledge of modifying cardiac risk factors, not including diabetes, is high among polish students. However, the knowledge is poor about non-modifying factors, like gender, age, early MI in family. The results of our study let us hope that the students will correctly use their knowledge to reduce risk of CHD in their families.

  7. Characterization of low-pressure microwave and radio frequency discharges in oxygen applying optical emission spectroscopy and multipole resonance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, Simon; Styrnoll, Tim; Mitschker, Felix; Bienholz, Stefan; Nikita, Bibinov; Awakowicz, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and multipole resonance probe (MRP) are adopted to characterize low-pressure microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) discharges in oxygen. In this context, both discharges are usually applied for the deposition of permeation barrier SiOx films on plastic foils or the inner surface of plastic bottles. For technological reasons the MW excitation is modulated and a continuous wave (cw) RF bias is used. The RF voltage produces a stationary low-density plasma, whereas the high-density MW discharge is pulsed. For the optimization of deposition process and the quality of the deposited barrier films, plasma conditions are characterized using OES and MRP. To simplify the comparison of applied diagnostics, both MW and RF discharges are studied separately in cw mode. The OES and MRP diagnostic methods complement each other and provide reliable information about electron density and electron temperature. In the MW case, electron density amounts to ne = (1.25 ± 0.26) × 1017 m-3, and kTe to 1.93 ± 0.20 eV, in the RF case ne = (6.8 ± 1.8)×1015 m-3 and kTe = 2.6 ± 0.35 eV. The corresponding gas temperatures are 760±40 K and 440±20 K.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of sensitizer drug photorelease chemistry: Micro-optic method applied to singlet oxygen generation and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Goutam

    This thesis summarizes a new micro-optic method for singlet oxygen generation and sensitizer drug delivery, which include i) synthesis and evaluation of a first generation device for drug delivery from native and fluorinated silica probe tips, ii) synthesis of PEG conjugated sensitizers to study phototoxicity in ovarian cancer cells, and iii) synthesis and evaluation of tris-PEGylated chlorin conjugated fluorinated silica for its future integration into the device to use as a 2nd generation device. A first generation micro-optic device was developed that works by sparging O2 gas and light generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen that cleaves the covalently attached drug (sensitizer) from the probe tip at the distal end of the fiber. The aim is to develop a 1st and 2nd generation device for site specific delivery of photosensitizer and singlet oxygen to overcome the challenges involved in systemic administration of the sensitizer. Synthesis and evaluation of drug (pheophorbide-a) delivery applying micro-optic method from native and fluorinated silica probe tip was achieved. The amount of sensitizer photocleavage depends on the loading level of sensitizer onto the probe tips. We also found that photorelease efficiency depends on the nature of the solvents where sensitizer is photocleaved. For example, no photorelease was observed in an aqueous solvent where sensitizer remained adsorbed to the native silica probe-tip. But, 90% photocleavage was obtained in octanol. A significant amount of photosensitizer (formate ester of pyropheophorbide- a) diffused into the liposome when photocleavage study was carried out in liposome. Substantial increase of photorelease was observed in organic solvent when pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) sensitizer was attached to the partially fluorinated porous Vycor glass. We also explored sensitizer photorelease from the fluorinated silica surface at various temperatures and we found that autocatalytic photorelease happened at room temperature and above

  9. Improving optical properties of silicon nitride films to be applied in the middle infrared optics by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-Huei; Hsiao, Chien-Nan

    2014-02-01

    Silicon nitride films are prepared by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/UBMS) deposition technique. Different unbalance coefficients and pulse on/off ratios are applied to improve the optical properties of the silicon nitride films. The refractive indices of the Si3N4 films vary from 2.17 to 2.02 in the wavelength ranges of 400-700 nm, and all the extinction coefficients are smaller than 1×10(-4). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry measurements reveal the amorphous structure of the Si3N4 films with extremely low hydrogen content and very low absorption between the near IR and middle IR ranges. Compared to other deposition techniques, Si3N4 films deposited by the combined HIPIMS/UBMS deposition technique possess the highest refractive index, the lowest extinction coefficient, and excellent structural properties. Finally a four-layer coating is deposited on both sides of a silicon substrate. The average transmittance from 3200 to 4800 nm is 99.0%, and the highest transmittance is 99.97% around 4200 nm.

  10. [Prevalence of tobacco smoking and knowledge of harmful effects of smoking among school children in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Polus-Szeniawska, E; Supranowicz, P

    1993-01-01

    The study was carried out on 1493 school children (740 girls and 753 boys) from randomly selected Warsaw schools. Among them 1006 attended classes 6 and 8 of elementary schools, and 487 attended 2nd classes of secondary schools; vocational schools, technical schools and general education secondary schools. The inquiry for data collecting was based on the variable serving for description of the prevalence of smoking and determination of the extent of knowledge possessed by the children on harmful effects of smoking. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that 51% of these children, more boys than girls, had already tried smoking. Most boys smoked their first cigarette at the age or 10 and 12 years, and girls at 14 years. The first contact with cigarettes had already been made by 31% children in class 6, 55% of those in class 8 of elementary schools, 53% of students in class 2 of general education secondary schools, 71% of those in class 2 of technical schools and 79% of those in vocational schools. The first contact with smoking was not meaning that these children continued smoking; from 46% to 77% of them in various classes or schools do not smoke at all. In the studied population 84% (more often girls than boys) do not smoke, but 7% smoke daily (twice as many boys as girls) and the mean number of daily smoked cigarettes is 11. At least one weekly smoke 4% of children. The mean number of weekly cigarettes is 40, but girls smoke 29 and boys 47, on average. Less than once weekly smoke 5% of children, both girls and boys. Most children smoking daily attend 2nd classes of vocational schools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Simplification approach to detect urban areas vulnerable to flash floods using GIS: a case study Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Marzena; Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a consistent methodology to determine urban areas that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of torrential rains. They are, as a result of climate change, more and more prevalent in the temperate climate, usually spring - summer from mid-May to late August - and involve the risk of flash floods. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of such phenomena is noticeable throughout the whole Europe. It is assumed that through the analysis of environmental and infrastructural conditions, using the developed methodology, it is possible to determine areas vulnerable to flooding due to torrential rains. This may lead to a better management, quicker response in case of a phenomenon, and even to take measures to prevent the occurrence of adverse effects of torrential rains (for instance modernization of the urban drainage system and development of methods to get rid of rapidly collected water). Designation of areas particularly vulnerable to the effects of heavy rains can be achieved by adapting hydrological models, but they require an appropriate adjustment and highly accurate input data: (based on spot or radar measurements of precipitation, land cover, soil type, humidity, wind speed, vegetation species in a given area, growing season, the roughness and porosity of the cover and soil moisture) but such detailed data are generally hard to obtain or not available for less developed areas. It could also be achieved by performing spatial analysis in GIS, which is a more simplified form of modelling, but it gives results more quickly and the methodology can be adapted to the commonly available data. A case study of Warsaw's district Powiśle has been undertaken for three epochs - from 2008 to 2010 and areas, that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of flash floods and heavy rains, have been designated.

  12. Factors Affecting Attitude Toward Organ Donation Among Nursing Students in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mikla, M; Rios, A; Lopez-Navas, A; Gotlib, J; Kilanska, D; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramirez, P; Lopez Montesinos, M J

    2015-11-01

    The opinion of future nursing professionals can influence the number of transplants. The objective of this study was to analyze the attitude of nursing students at the Medical University of Warsaw in the center of Poland toward organ donation and determine the factors that affect this attitude. The study was conducted in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The study population consisted of nursing students. Type of sampling consisted of sampling in points of compulsory attendance, in the 5 nursing courses with the higher degree of fulfillment of 80%. Measuring instrument used was the validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Rios). The questionnaire was completed anonymously and was self-administered. The completion rate was 96% (793 of 828). Of the students surveyed (n = 793), 69% (n = 547) were in favor of organ donation and transplantation, 25% (n = 201) were undecided, and 6% (n = 45) were against. This attitude was related to being in favor of donating the organs of a relative (OR = 3.174; P < .001); discussion of the subject with the family (OR = 2.188; P < .001); positive attitude toward donation and transplantation of the father (OR = 3.039; P = .001); considered to having good information on the subject (OR = 8.695; P < .001); being a regular donor blood (OR = 3.597; P = .001); not worried by the possible mutilation of the body after donation (OR = 6.802; P < .001); and accepting other treatment options of the body such as the burial (OR = 1.683; P = .015). More than 30% of the nursing students are not in favor of organ donation, but this attitude is conditioned by several psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrasting academic and tobacco industry estimates of illicit cigarette trade: evidence from Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2014-05-01

    To compare two different methods for estimating the size of the illicit cigarette market with each other and to contrast the estimates obtained by these two methods with the results of an industry-commissioned study. We used two observational methods: collection of data from packs in smokers' personal possession, and collection of data from packs discarded on streets. The data were obtained in Warsaw, Poland in September 2011 and October 2011. We used tests of independence to compare the results based on the two methods, and to contrast those with the estimate from the industry-commissioned discarded pack collection conducted in September 2011. We found that the proportions of cigarette packs classified as not intended for the Polish market estimated by our two methods were not statistically different. These estimates were 14.6% (95% CI 10.8% to 19.4%) using the survey data (N=400) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2% to 18.4%) using the discarded pack data (N=754). The industry estimate (22.9%) was higher by nearly a half compared with our estimates, and this difference is statistically significant. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence of the tobacco industry exaggerating the scope of illicit trade and with the general pattern of the industry manipulating evidence to mislead the debate on tobacco control policy in many countries. Collaboration between governments and the tobacco industry to estimate tobacco tax avoidance and evasion is likely to produce upward-biased estimates of illicit cigarette trade. If governments are presented with industry estimates, they should strictly require a disclosure of all methodological details and data used in generating these estimates, and should seek advice from independent experts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Grain-size dependence of the magnetic properties of street dusts from Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytłow, Sylwia; Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, in connection with a substantial development of transportation in urban areas, vehicular traffic increased its importance as source of pollution and consequent cause of health problems in urban environments. In fact, it is well established that the concentration and size of pollution related particulate matter (PM) are important factors affecting human health. The aim of this study is to identify the variations of the magnetic properties and of the chemical composition of different granulometric fractions from street dusts collected at four locations in Warsaw: the city center, a suburb, a tramline and a big crossroad. Dust samples were mechanically sieved and classified using the laboratory shaker with a standard sieve set (0.5 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.1 mm and 0.071 mm). Data show a distribution of magnetic susceptibility (χ) in the wide range of 80-370 × 10-8 m3kg-1. Comparison of magnetic parameters shows that the street dust contains the pollution characteristics for air and soil. The samples were characterized by uniform magnetic mineralogy, typical for fine-grained magnetite, in a grain size range between pseudo-single-domain and fine multi-domain, with a small contribution from ultrafine superparamagnetic particles (~2-3.5 %). The street dust contains, as usual for the urban areas, spherical magnetic particles produced by fossil fuel combustion processes and mixture of irregular angular iron-oxides grains containing other elements. The magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis properties of the dusts have been analyzed in detail; the temperature variation of the saturation of remanent magnetization and of the magnetic susceptibility revealed that the main magnetic mineral, for all the fractions, is almost stoichiometric magnetite, with the finest fractions (d=0.1 mm, 0.071 mm and d

  15. Micro-optics for simultaneous multi-spectral imaging applied to chemical/biological and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2012-06-01

    Using diffractive micro-lenses configured in an array and placed in close proximity to the focal plane array will enable a small compact simultaneous multispectral imaging camera. This approach can be applied to spectral regions from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR). The number of simultaneously imaged spectral bands is determined by the number of individually configured diffractive optical micro-lenses (lenslet) in the array. Each lenslet images at a different wavelength determined by the blaze and set at the time of manufacturing based on application. In addition, modulation of the focal length of the lenslet array with piezoelectric or electro-static actuation will enable spectral band fill-in allowing hyperspectral imaging. Using the lenslet array with dual-band detectors will increase the number of simultaneous spectral images by a factor of two when utilizing multiple diffraction orders. Configurations and concept designs will be presented for detection application for biological/chemical agents, buried IED's and reconnaissance. The simultaneous detection of multiple spectral images in a single frame of data enhances the image processing capability by eliminating temporal differences between colors and enabling a handheld instrument that is insensitive to motion.

  16. Warsaw Pact: The Question of Cohesion. Phase II, Volume 1. The Greater Socialist Army: Integration and Reliability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    planning and organization of the armed forces of the allied socialist states. In papers and diploma dissertations the students as a rule work out those...AD-A142 531 WARSAW PACT THE QUESTION OF COHESION PHASE 11VOLUME I 1/ 4. THE GREATEN SOCIA..U) PERATIONAL RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS ESTARLISHMENT 0TTAWA... RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS ESTABLISHMENT | s docpufx-’ .,t h,,, b appioved1 aluuo- pI ’t t.d.* -if OTTAWA Canad 84 06 21 176 F S.UNCLASSIFIED4 *1

  17. Quantitative measurement of high intensity focused ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method applying non-continuous phase unwrapping algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahid, Mohd; Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    A fast and accurate ultrasound pressure field measurement is necessary for the progress of ultrasound application in medicine. In general, a hydrophone is used to measure the ultrasound field, which takes a long measurement time and might disturb the ultrasound field. Hence, we proposed a new method categorized in an optical method called Phase Contrast method to overcome the drawback in the hydrophone method. The proposed method makes use of the spatial DC spectrum formed in the focal plane to measure the modulated optical phase induced by ultrasound propagation in water. In this study, we take into account the decreased intensity of the DC spectrum at high ultrasound intensity to increase the measurement accuracy of the modulated optical phase. Then, we apply a non-continuous phase unwrapping algorithm to unwrap the modulated optical phase at high ultrasound intensity. From, the unwrapped result, we evaluate the quantitativeness of the proposed method.

  18. Magneto-optical study of the intermediate state in type-I superconductors: Effects of sample shape and applied current

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberg, Jacob Ray

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic flux structures in the intermediate state of bulk, pinning-free Type-I superconductors are studied using a high resolution magneto-optical imaging technique. Unlike most previous studies, this work focuses on the pattern formation of the coexisting normal and superconducting phases in the intermediate state. The influence of various parameters such as sample shape, structure defects (pinning) and applied current are discussed in relation to two distinct topologies: flux tubes (closed topology) and laminar (open topology). Imaging and magnetization measurements performed on samples of different shapes (cones, hemispheres and slabs), show that contrary to previous beliefs, the tubular structure is the equilibrium topology, but it is unstable toward defects and flux motion. Moreover, the application of current into a sample with the geometric barrier can replace an established laminar structure with flux tubes. At very high currents, however, there exists a laminar 'stripe pattern.' Quantitative analysis of the mean tube diameter is shown to be in good agreement with the prediction proposed by Goren and Tinkham. This is the first time that this model has been confirmed experimentally. Further research into the flux tube phase shows a direct correlation with the current loop model proposed in the 1990's by Goldstein, Jackson and Dorsey. There also appears a range of flux tube density that results in a suprafroth structure, a well-formed polygonal mesh, which behaves according to the physics of foams, following standard statistical laws such as von Neumann and Lewis. The reaction of flux structures to a fast-ramped magnetic field was also studied. This provided an alignment of the structure not normally observed at slow ramp rates.

  19. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  20. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Color Probability Codes in Myopic Glaucoma Eyes After Applying a Myopic Normative Database.

    PubMed

    Seol, Bo Ram; Kim, Dong Myung; Park, Ki Ho; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the optical coherence tomography (OCT) color probability codes based on a myopic normative database and to investigate whether the implementation of the myopic normative database can improve the OCT diagnostic ability in myopic glaucoma. Comparative validity study. In this study, 305 eyes (154 myopic healthy eyes and 151 myopic glaucoma eyes) were included. A myopic normative database was obtained based on myopic healthy eyes. We evaluated the agreement between OCT color probability codes after applying the built-in and myopic normative databases, respectively. Another 120 eyes (60 myopic healthy eyes and 60 myopic glaucoma eyes) were included and the diagnostic performance of OCT color codes using a myopic normative database was investigated. The mean weighted kappa (Kw) coefficients for quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness were 0.636, 0.627, and 0.564, respectively. The myopic normative database showed a higher specificity than did the built-in normative database in quadrant RNFL thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and GCIPL thickness (P < .001, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve values increased when using the myopic normative database in quadrant RNFL thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and GCIPL thickness (P = .011, P = .004, P < .001, respectively). The diagnostic ability of OCT color codes for detection of myopic glaucoma significantly improved after application of the myopic normative database. The implementation of a myopic normative database is needed to allow more precise interpretation of OCT color probability codes when used in myopic eyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-coherence spectral interferometry with a Michelson interferometer applied to dispersion measurement of a two-mode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlubina, Petr

    1999-12-01

    Intermodal dispersion in a two-mode optical fiber can be measured in the spectral domain when the spectral interference between modes at the output of the optical fiber shows up as a periodic modulation of the source spectrum that can be processed. However, this technique cannot be used to measure intermodal dispersion in the two- mode optical fiber when the period of modulation is too small to be resolved by a spectrometer. Consequently, we proposed a new measuring technique utilizing a tandem configuration of a dispersive Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber in which the spectral interference can be resolved even if a low-resolution spectrometer is used. In the tandem configuration of the Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber, the optical path difference (OPD) in the Michelson interferometer is adjusted close to the group OPD between modes of the optical fiber so that the low-frequency spectral modulation that can be processed is produced. Using the Fourier transform method in processing the measured spectral modulations and subtracting the effect of the dispersive Michelson interferometer, the feasibility of this technique has successfully been demonstrated in obtaining the intermodal dispersion in the two-model optical fiber.

  2. Fractional Market Model and its Verification on the Warsaw STOCK Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowska, Marzena; Kasprzak, Andrzej; Kutner, Ryszard

    We analyzed the rising and relaxation of the cusp-like local peaks superposed with oscillations which were well defined by the Warsaw Stock Exchange index WIG in a daily time horizon. We found that the falling paths of all index peaks were described by a generalized exponential function or the Mittag-Leffler (ML) one superposed with various types of oscillations. However, the rising paths (except the first one of WIG which rises exponentially and the most important last one which rises again according to the ML function) can be better described by bullish anti-bubbles or inverted bubbles.2-4 The ML function superposed with oscillations is a solution of the nonhomogeneous fractional relaxation equation which defines here our Fractional Market Model (FMM) of index dynamics which can be also called the Rheological Model of Market. This solution is a generalized analog of an exactly solvable fractional version of the Standard or Zener Solid Model of viscoelastic materials commonly used in modern rheology.5 For example, we found that the falling paths of the index can be considered to be a system in the intermediate state lying between two complex ones, defined by short and long-time limits of the Mittag-Leffler function; these limits are given by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) law for the initial times, and the power-law or the Nutting law for asymptotic time. Some rising paths (i.e., the bullish anti-bubbles) are a kind of log-periodic oscillations of the market in the bullish state initiated by a crash. The peaks of the index can be viewed as precritical or precrash ones since: (i) the financial market changes its state too early from the bullish to bearish one before it reaches a scaling region (defined by the diverging power-law of return per unit time), and (ii) they are affected by a finite size effect. These features could be a reminiscence of a significant risk aversion of the investors and their finite number, respectively. However, this means that the

  3. Occurrence of cardiovascular drugs in the sewage-impacted Vistula River and in tap water in the Warsaw region (Poland).

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Stankiewicz, Albert; Wroczyński, Piotr; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, cardiovascular diseases were the second most common cause of death worldwide. Therefore, the consumption of drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases is high. So far, there were no such comprehensive reports regarding the presence of cardiovascular drugs in surface and tap waters, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of 30 pharmaceutically active compounds and some of their metabolites, at specific points of the Vistula River and in tap water samples in the Warsaw region. The analysis was performed using the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method, coupled to solid-phase extraction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time where the presence of ciprofibrate in the environment was investigated. Cardiovascular drugs found at the highest concentrations (reaching 1 μg/L or higher) in surface water were beta-blockers, sartans and diuretics. In tap water samples, trace amounts of pharmaceuticals were detected, for almost all target compounds. This highlights their inadequate elimination by the treatment facility used in the Warsaw region. The presence of cardiovascular compounds in the aquatic environment could have a long-term effect even at a low exposure level, since synergy effects amongst pharmaceuticals may occur.

  4. Validation of an optical model applied to the beam down CSP facility at the Masdar Institute Solar Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, Benjamin; Kumar, Vikas; Torres, Juliana Beltran; Perez, Victor G.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Slocum, Alexander; Calvet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the CSPonD Demo project, the optical characterization of the Beam Down Optical Experiment (BDOE) heliostats field is an important step to certify the required power is provided. To achieve this goal, an experiment involving a single heliostat is carried out. The results of the experiment and the comparison with simulated results are presented in this paper. Only the reflection on the heliostat is observed in order to have a better assessment of its optical performance. The heliostat reflectance is modified and the experimental and simulated concentration distribution are confronted. Results indicate that the shapes of the concentration distributions are quite similar, hence validating the optical model respects the geometry of the BDOE. Moreover these results lead to an increase of the optimized heliostat reflectance when the incident angle on the heliostat decreases. Further investigation is required to validate this method with all the individual heliostats of the BDOE solar field.

  5. In vivo skin absorption dynamics of topically applied pharmaceuticals monitored by fiber-optic diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hong; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2007-03-01

    A simple non-invasive ultra-violet/visible (UV/vis) diffusive reflectance spectroscopy combined with fiber-optics was investigated to elicit the dynamics of skin penetration in vivo of a pharmaceutical, aminolevulinic acid polyethylene glycol cream (5-ALA-PEG cream). Temporal data of the reflectance, R( λ), were measured from a bare skin region and from a skin region treated with 5-ALA cream. The difference in apparent optical density [(ΔAOD) = Δ log[1/ R( λ)

  6. Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Torres, Néstor D; la Luz, David Hernández-de; Flores-Gracia, José Francisco J; Luna-López, José A; Martínez-Juárez, Javier; Vázquez-Valerdi, Diana E

    2014-01-01

    In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films.

  7. Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films. PMID:25276105

  8. A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, M. J.; Costa, C. G.; Silva, M. F.; Gonçalves, S. B.; Peixoto, A. C.; Ribeiro, A. Fernando; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology for the wafer-level fabrication of an optical Michelson interferometer, which is an essential component in a micro opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) for a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The MOEMS consists on a titanium dioxide/silicon dioxide dielectric beam splitter and chromium/gold micro-mirrors. These optical components are deposited on 45° tilted surfaces to allow the horizontal/vertical separation of the incident beam in the final micro-integrated system. The fabrication process consists of 45° saw dicing of a glass substrate and the subsequent deposition of dielectric multilayers and metal layers. The 45° saw dicing is fully characterized in this paper, which also includes an analysis of the roughness. The optimum process results in surfaces with a roughness of 19.76 nm (rms). The actual saw dicing process for a high-quality final surface results as a compromise between the dicing blade’s grit size (#1200) and the cutting speed (0.3 mm s-1). The proposed wafer-level fabrication allows rapid and low-cost processing, high compactness and the possibility of wafer-level alignment/assembly with other optical micro components for OCT integrated imaging.

  9. SITHON: A Wireless Network of in Situ Optical Cameras Applied to the Early Detection-Notification-Monitoring of Forest Fires

    PubMed Central

    Tsiourlis, Georgios; Andreadakis, Stamatis; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    The SITHON system, a fully wireless optical imaging system, integrating a network of in-situ optical cameras linking to a multi-layer GIS database operated by Control Operating Centres, has been developed in response to the need for early detection, notification and monitoring of forest fires. This article presents in detail the architecture and the components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of an experimental test with small controlled fires over Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. The system has already been scheduled to be installed in some fire prone areas of Greece. PMID:22408536

  10. The use of copula functions for modeling the risk of investment in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domino, Krzysztof; Błachowicz, Tomasz

    2014-11-01

    In our work copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using the local Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) were used to investigate the risk of investment made in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The combination of copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using local DFA is a new approach. For copula function analysis bivariate variables composed of shares prices of the PEKAO bank (a big bank with high capitalization) and other banks (PKOBP, BZ WBK, MBANK and HANDLOWY in decreasing capitalization order) and companies from other branches (KGHM-mining industry, PKNORLEN-petrol industry as well as ASSECO-software industry) were used. Hurst exponents were calculated for daily shares prices and used to predict high drops of those prices. It appeared to be a valuable indicator in the copula selection procedure, since Hurst exponent’s low values were pointing on heavily tailed copulas e.g. the Clayton one.

  11. [Calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in drinking water and status biomarkers of these minerals among elder people from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Madej, Dawid; Kaluza, Joanna; Antonik, Anna; Brzozowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents in drinking water on chosen parameters of nutritional status of these minerals in 164 elder people, 75-80 age, living in Warsaw region. Blood, hair and saliva were collected to assess the calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc nutritional status, while the samples of drinking water were collected to determine these minerals in water Mineral concentrations in blood, hair saliva and water were assessment using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption method It was showed that contribution of drinking water to calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc intake was: 15%, 4%, 5%, 9%, respectively. The relationship between the contents of these minerals in drinking water and their levels in the blood, hair and saliva had low correlation coefficients. It probably showed that homeostasis was maintained in the human body and other factors such as demographic or lifestyle factors were important.

  12. Penetration studies of topically applied substances: Optical determination of the amount of stratum corneum removed by tape stripping.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Ilgevicius, A; Zurbau, O; Liess, H D; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H J; Antoniou, C; Pelchrzim, R V; Sterry, W

    2006-01-01

    Tape stripping is a standard measuring method for the investigation of the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances using adhesive films. These tape strips are successively applied and removed from the skin after application and penetration of topically applied substances. Thus, layers of corneocytes and some amount of topical applied substances are removed. The amount of substances and the amount of stratum corneum removed with a single tape strip has to be determined for the calculation of the penetration profile. The topically applied substances removed from the skin can be determined by classical analytical methods like high-pressure liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and spectroscopic measurements. The amount of corneocytes on the tape strips can be easily detected by their pseudoabsorption. In the present paper, an easy and cheap corneocyte density analyzer is presented that is based on a slide projector. Comparing the results of the measurements obtained by the corneocyte density analyzer and by uv-visible spectrometry, identical results were obtained.

  13. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program.

  14. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9–11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is “healthy as a fish” meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of “healthy fish” results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords—health and fish—which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program. PMID:27028803

  15. Hemovigilance survey of pathogen-reduced blood components in the Warsaw Region in the 2009 to 2013 period.

    PubMed

    Łętowska, Magdalena; Przybylska, Zofia; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Lachert, Elżbieta; Rosiek, Aleksandra; Rzymkiewicz, Lech; Cardoso, Marcia

    2016-03-01

    In 2009 the Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) was introduced to the routine blood component production of the Regional Blood Transfusion Center in Warsaw (RBTCW). The goal of this study was to investigate the safety of Mirasol-treated blood components. The accumulated passive hemovigilance data of Mirasol-treated blood components collected at the RBTCW are presented and compared to historical and contemporary data. Furthermore, active hemovigilance data collected from patients with different hematologic disorders transfused with Mirasol-treated or untreated blood components at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM) are presented and discussed. The adverse reaction (AR) reporting rate by hospitals to the RBTCW after the implementation of the Mirasol technology was 0.39% for Mirasol-treated platelet concentrates (M-PCs) and 0.05% for Mirasol-treated fresh-frozen plasma. When comparing contemporary rates of ARs recorded by RBTCW in the time period 2011 to 2012, no statistical difference was observed between Mirasol-treated and untreated blood components. No serious AR was attributed to Mirasol-treated components. At the IHTM a lower rate of ARs after transfusion of M-PCs was observed than with untreated PCs. Despite the fact that very large amounts of Mirasol-treated plasma have been transfused to patients with congenital or acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, no significant increase in AR rates was observed. Treatment of blood components with the Mirasol PRT System has proven to be safe for patients and is not associated with increased rates and grades of adverse events in patients of hospitals in the Warsaw Region. © 2015 AABB.

  16. Classification of Antarctic algae by applying Kohonen neural network with 14 elements determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, L.; Smichowski, P.; Farias, S.; Arruda, M. A. Z.; Vodopivez, C.; Poppi, R. J.

    2005-06-01

    Optical emission spectrometers can generate results, which sometimes are not easy to interpret, mainly when the analyses involve classifications. To make simultaneous data interpretation possible, the Kohonen neural network is used to classify different Antarctic algae according to their taxonomic groups from the determination of 14 analytes. The Kohonen neural network architecture used was 5×5 neurons, thus reducing 14-dimension input data to two-dimensional space. The input data were 14 analytes (As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V) with their concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry in 11 different species of algae. Three taxonomic groups ( Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Cholorophyta) can be differentiated and classified through only their Cu content.

  17. Applying RGB LED in full-field optical coherence tomography for real-time full-color tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Yu-Yen; Lin, Yu-Min; Juan, Yu-Shan; Chen, Hung-Te; Ying, Shang-Ping

    2014-08-01

    A conventional handheld skin camera is suitable for 2D inspection of shallow skin. Due to its high resolution and noninvasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a popular medical-imaging technology. Among OCT schemes, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) is suitable for rapid en face imaging, as it uses a 2D imaging device for pixel processing of a sample plane. Because of its wide bandwidth and long lifetime, an RGB LED was chosen in an FF-OCT system among three source candidates in this study. A full-color tissue image and real-time video were obtained from the system to demonstrate the potential of the RGB LED FF-OCT system in medical imaging. All devices used here can be integrated by micro-optoelectromechanical technology into a handheld model. Noninvasive, real-time, full-color handheld imaging capability contributes to advance dermatology and cosmetology.

  18. On the possibility of applying a mirror ellipsoid of revolution to determining optical properties of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, M. A.; Yarych, A. V.; Botvinovskii, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    Possibilities of a measuring system that uses an ellipsoidal mirror for determining the coefficients of scattering μ s and absorption μ a , as well as the anisotropy factor g, of a biological tissue are studied. Based on the measured values of diffuse reflection and total and collimated transmission and on a simulation by the inverse Monte Carlo method, the values of optical parameters of porcine epidermis were obtained in vitro at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  19. Preliminary investigations on changes in speckle patterns projected from a multimode optical fiber due to external disturbances to be applied onto the fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Changes in speckle patterns due to certain external disturbances to be applied onto a multimode optical fiber were observed. In the first attempt, a multimode optical glass fiber was placed onto a support plate and a speckle pattern in an output light spot projected from the fiber was observed while rotating or tilting the support plate. The resultant speckle pattern appeared to be rotating in accordance with the rotation or tilt motion of the support plate, and the pattern rotation angle was almost proportional to the rotation angle of the support plate. In the second attempt, a jacket-covered communication-grade multimode optical glass fiber was placed in a load application section so that corrugated bending of the fiber was intentionally induced by means of alternately disposed plurality of ridges. When a certain level of load (up to 15 kg) was applied onto the fiber in the load application section and then removed, the number of speckles observed in an output light spot projected from the fiber showed decreases upon load application onto the fiber and then recovery with the load removal.

  20. Optical Observations of GRB981226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Przemyslaw R.

    1998-12-01

    An attempt to observe optical transient of GRB981226 was made in BeppoSAX 6' radius region reported by Di Ciolo et al. (IAUCirc 7074). On three nights following the announcement, Dec 27-29, approximately between 1:15 and 2:30 UT I collected 10 and 15-minute frames in I band, with the 1.3 m Warsaw University Observatory Telescope on Las Campanas. This amounted to 70,70,80 minutes of integration each night at 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2" seeing respectively.

  1. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497

  2. Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Siavash; Qin, Jia; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2013-08-01

    Lymphatic vessels are a part of the circulatory system that collect plasma and other substances that have leaked from the capillaries into interstitial fluid (lymph) and transport lymph back to the circulatory system. Since lymph is transparent, lymphatic vessels appear as dark hallow vessel-like regions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross sectional images. We propose an automatic method to segment lymphatic vessel lumen from OCT structural cross sections using eigenvalues of Hessian filters. Compared to the existing method based on intensity threshold, Hessian filters are more selective on vessel shape and less sensitive to intensity variations and noise. Using this segmentation technique along with optical micro-angiography allows label-free noninvasive simultaneous visualization of blood and lymphatic vessels in vivo. Lymphatic vessels play an important role in cancer, immune system response, inflammatory disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. Development of imaging techniques and visualization tools for lymphatic vessels is valuable in understanding the mechanisms and studying therapeutic methods in related disease and tissue response.

  3. Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Qin, Jia; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-08-01

    Lymphatic vessels are a part of the circulatory system that collect plasma and other substances that have leaked from the capillaries into interstitial fluid (lymph) and transport lymph back to the circulatory system. Since lymph is transparent, lymphatic vessels appear as dark hallow vessel-like regions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross sectional images. We propose an automatic method to segment lymphatic vessel lumen from OCT structural cross sections using eigenvalues of Hessian filters. Compared to the existing method based on intensity threshold, Hessian filters are more selective on vessel shape and less sensitive to intensity variations and noise. Using this segmentation technique along with optical micro-angiography allows label-free noninvasive simultaneous visualization of blood and lymphatic vessels in vivo. Lymphatic vessels play an important role in cancer, immune system response, inflammatory disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. Development of imaging techniques and visualization tools for lymphatic vessels is valuable in understanding the mechanisms and studying therapeutic methods in related disease and tissue response.

  4. Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Siavash; Qin, Jia; Zhi, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Lymphatic vessels are a part of the circulatory system that collect plasma and other substances that have leaked from the capillaries into interstitial fluid (lymph) and transport lymph back to the circulatory system. Since lymph is transparent, lymphatic vessels appear as dark hallow vessel-like regions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross sectional images. We propose an automatic method to segment lymphatic vessel lumen from OCT structural cross sections using eigenvalues of Hessian filters. Compared to the existing method based on intensity threshold, Hessian filters are more selective on vessel shape and less sensitive to intensity variations and noise. Using this segmentation technique along with optical micro-angiography allows label-free noninvasive simultaneous visualization of blood and lymphatic vessels in vivo. Lymphatic vessels play an important role in cancer, immune system response, inflammatory disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. Development of imaging techniques and visualization tools for lymphatic vessels is valuable in understanding the mechanisms and studying therapeutic methods in related disease and tissue response. PMID:23922124

  5. Development of feature extraction analysis for a multi-functional optical profiling device applied to field engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Xie, Guangping; Laflen, Brandon; Jia, Ming; Song, Guiju; Harding, Kevin G.

    2015-05-01

    In the real application environment of field engineering, a large variety of metrology tools are required by the technician to inspect part profile features. However, some of these tools are burdensome and only address a sole application or measurement. In other cases, standard tools lack the capability of accessing irregular profile features. Customers of field engineering want the next generation metrology devices to have the ability to replace the many current tools with one single device. This paper will describe a method based on the ring optical gage concept to the measurement of numerous kinds of profile features useful for the field technician. The ring optical system is composed of a collimated laser, a conical mirror and a CCD camera. To be useful for a wide range of applications, the ring optical system requires profile feature extraction algorithms and data manipulation directed toward real world applications in field operation. The paper will discuss such practical applications as measuring the non-ideal round hole with both off-centered and oblique axes. The algorithms needed to analyze other features such as measuring the width of gaps, radius of transition fillets, fall of step surfaces, and surface parallelism will also be discussed in this paper. With the assistance of image processing and geometric algorithms, these features can be extracted with a reasonable performance. Tailoring the feature extraction analysis to this specific gage offers the potential for a wider application base beyond simple inner diameter measurements. The paper will present experimental results that are compared with standard gages to prove the performance and feasibility of the analysis in real world field engineering. Potential accuracy improvement methods, a new dual ring design and future work will be discussed at the end of this paper.

  6. Influence of applied electric fields on the electron-related second and third-order nonlinear optical responses in two dimensional elliptic quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo-Tobón, Eugenio; Ospina, Walter; Miranda-Pedraza, Guillermo L.; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E.

    2015-07-01

    The coefficients of the second-order nonlinear optical rectification and the generation of second and third harmonics, related to electron energy transitions in a two-dimensional elliptical quantum dot are calculated. The conduction band states are obtained using the finite element method to numerically solve the effective mass Schrödinger differential equation in the parabolic approximation, including the influence of an externally applied static electric field. It comes about that the geometry of the ellipse has a strong influence on the optical response, being the large eccentricity case the more favorable one. Furthermore, it is shown that the application of an electric field is of most importance for achieving well-resolved higher harmonics signals.

  7. Langley method applied in study of aerosol optical depth in the Brazilian semiarid region using 500, 670 and 870 nm bands for sun photometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, J. G.; Fernandez, J. H.; Hoelzemann, J. J.; Leme, N. M. P.; Sousa, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the high costs of commercial monitoring instruments, a portable sun photometer was developed at INPE/CRN laboratories, operating in four bands, with two bands in the visible spectrum and two in near infrared. The instrument calibration process is performed by applying the classical Langley method. Application of the Langley’s methodology requires a site with high optical stability during the measurements, which is usually found in high altitudes. However, far from being an ideal site, Harrison et al. (1994) report success with applying the Langley method to some data for a site in Boulder, Colorado. Recently, Liu et al. (2011) show that low elevation sites, far away from urban and industrial centers can provide a stable optical depth, similar to high altitudes. In this study we investigated the feasibility of applying the methodology in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, far away from pollution areas with low altitudes, for sun photometer calibration. We investigated optical depth stability using two periods of measurements in the year during dry season in austral summer. The first one was in December when the native vegetation naturally dries, losing all its leaves and the second one was in September in the middle of the dry season when the vegetation is still with leaves. The data were distributed during four days in December 2012 and four days in September 2013 totaling eleven half days of collections between mornings and afternoons and by means of fitted line to the data V0 values were found. Despite the high correlation between the collected data and the fitted line, the study showed a variation between the values of V0 greater than allowed for sun photometer calibration. The lowest V0 variation reached in this experiment with values lower than 3% for the bands 500, 670 and 870 nm are displayed in tables. The results indicate that the site needs to be better characterized with studies in more favorable periods, soon after the rainy season.

  8. Biochemical and Physiological Characterization: Development & Apply Optical Methods for Charaterizing Biochemical Protein-Protein Interactions in MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Shimon

    2006-08-30

    The objectives of this report are to: Develop novel site-specific protein labeling chemistries for assaying protein-protein interactions in MR-1; and development of a novel optical acquisition and data analysis method for characterizing protein-protein interactions in MR-1 model systems. Our work on analyzing protein-protein interactions in MR-1 is divided in four areas: (1) expression and labeling of MR-1 proteins; (2) general scheme for site-specific fluorescent labeling of expressed proteins; (3) methodology development for monitoring protein-protein interactions; and (4) study of protein-protein interactions in MR-1. In this final report, we give an account for our advances in all areas.

  9. Applying tattoo dye as a third-harmonic generation contrast agent for in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Lin, Chen-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy has been reported to provide intrinsic contrast in elastic fibers, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, actin filaments, lipid bodies, hemoglobin, and melanin in human skin. For advanced molecular imaging, exogenous contrast agents are developed for a higher structural or molecular specificity. We demonstrate the potential of the commonly adopted tattoo dye as a THG contrast agent for in vivo optical biopsy of human skin. Spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were performed on cultured cells with tattoo dyes, in tattooed mouse skin, and in tattooed human skin to demonstrate the THG enhancement effect. Compared with other absorbing dyes or nanoparticles used as exogenous THG contrast agents, tattoo dyes are widely adopted in human skin so that future clinical biocompatibility evaluation is relatively achievable. Combined with the demonstrated THG enhancement effect, tattoo dyes show their promise for future clinical imaging applications.

  10. High-efficiency heterojunction crystalline Si solar cell and optical splitting structure fabricated by applying thin-film Si technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Adachi, Daisuke; Uzu, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Mitsuru; Terashita, Toru; Meguro, Tomomi; Nakanishi, Naoaki; Yoshimi, Masashi; Hernández, José Luis

    2015-08-01

    Thin-film Si technology for solar cells has been developed for over 40 years. Improvements in the conversion efficiency and industrialization of thin-film Si solar cells have been realized through continuous research and development of the thin-film Si technology. The thin-film Si technology covers a wide range of fields such as fundamental understanding of the nature of thin-film Si, cell/module production, simulation, and reliability technologies. These technologies are also significant for solar cells other than the thin-film Si solar cells. Utilizing the highly developed thin-film Si solar cell technology, we have achieved ∼24% efficiency heterojunction crystalline Si solar cells using 6-in. wafers and >26% efficiency solar cells with an optical splitting structure. These results indicate that further improvement of thin-film Si technology and its synergy with crystalline Si solar cell technology will enable further improvement of solar cells with efficiencies above 26%.

  11. Polarized optical spectroscopy applied to investigate two poly(phenylene-vinylene) polymers with different side chain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâlsson, Lars-Olof; Vaughan, Helen L.; Monkman, Andrew P.

    2006-10-01

    Two related poly(phenylene-vinylene) (PPV) light-emitting polymers have been investigated by means of polarized optical spectroscopy. The purpose of the investigation was to investigate the nature of the interactions in thin films and to examine what impact the difference in side chain structure and molecular weight in poly(2'-methoxy-5-2-ethyl-hexoxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and poly(2-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (OC1C10-PPV) has on the electronic and optical properties of the two polymers. Aligning the polymers by dispersing them in anisotropic solvents and stretched films shows that the side chains have an impact on the relative orientations of the transition dipole moments. In anisotropic solvents the linear dichroism is larger for MEH-PPV than for the related polymer OC1C10-PPV, while in stretched films the opposite situation prevails. A lower polarization of the luminescence from OC1C10-PPV, relative to MEH-PPV, was also obtained independent of alignment medium used. The data therefore suggest that while mechanical stretching may align the OC1C10-PPV to a greater degree, the emitting species is distinct from the absorbing species. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra of both polymers undergo dramatic changes when the liquid phase and the solid state (film) are compared. The solution CD spectra shows no evidence of interchain interactions; instead the spectra of both systems indicate a helical conformation of the polymers. The CD spectra of films are dramatically different with the strong Cotton effect being observed. This points to the formation of an aggregate in the film, with an associated ground state interaction, an interchain species such as a physical dimer, or a more complex higher aggregate.

  12. A Comprehensive Dust Model Applied to the Resolved Beta Pictoris Debris Disk from Optical to Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Gáspár, András

    2016-06-01

    We investigate whether varying the dust composition (described by the optical constants) can solve a persistent problem in debris disk modeling—the inability to fit the thermal emission without overpredicting the scattered light. We model five images of the β Pictoris disk: two in scattered light from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at 0.58 μm and HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC 3) at 1.16 μm, and three in thermal emission from Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) at 24 μm, Herschel/PACS at 70 μm, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 870 μm. The WFC3 and MIPS data are published here for the first time. We focus our modeling on the outer part of this disk, consisting of a parent body ring and a halo of small grains. First, we confirm that a model using astronomical silicates cannot simultaneously fit the thermal and scattered light data. Next, we use a simple generic function for the optical constants to show that varying the dust composition can improve the fit substantially. Finally, we model the dust as a mixture of the most plausible debris constituents: astronomical silicates, water ice, organic refractory material, and vacuum. We achieve a good fit to all data sets with grains composed predominantly of silicates and organics, while ice and vacuum are, at most, present in small amounts. This composition is similar to one derived from previous work on the HR 4796A disk. Our model also fits the thermal spectral energy distribution, scattered light colors, and high-resolution mid-IR data from T-ReCS for this disk. Additionally, we show that sub-blowout grains are a necessary component of the halo.

  13. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    PubMed

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  14. Magneto-optical controlled transmittance alteration of PbS quantum dots by moderately applied magnetic fields at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.

  15. Magneto-optical controlled transmittance alteration of PbS quantum dots by moderately applied magnetic fields at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno E-mail: bruno.ullrich@yahoo.com

    2014-12-15

    We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.

  16. PLASMA-2013: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (Warsaw, Poland, 2-6 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The PLASMA-2013 International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas was held in Warsaw (Poland) from 2 to 6 September 2013. The conference was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, under the auspices of the Polish Physical Society. The scope of the PLASMA conferences, which have been organized every two years since 1993, covers almost all issues of plasma physics and fusion research as well as selected problems of plasma technology. The PLASMA-2013 conference topics included: •Elementary processes and general plasma physics. •Plasmas in tokamaks and stellarators (magnetic confinement fusion). •Plasmas generated by laser beams and inertial confinement fusion. •Plasmas produced by Z-pinch and plasma-focus discharges. •Low-temperature plasma physics. •Space plasmas and laboratory astrophysics. •Plasma diagnostic methods and applications of plasmas. This conference was designed not only for plasma researchers and engineers, but also for students from all over the world, in particular for those from Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 140 participants had the opportunity to hear 9 general lectures, 11 topical talks and 26 oral presentations, as well as to see and discuss around 120 posters. From about 140 contributions, after the preparation of about 100 papers and the peer review process, only 74 papers have been accepted for publication in this topical issue. Acknowledgments Acting on behalf of the International Scientific Committee I would like to express our thanks to all the invited speakers and all the participants of the PLASMA-2013 conference for their numerous contributions. In particular, I wish to thank all of the authors of papers submitted for publication in this topical issue of Physica Scripta . Particular thanks are due to all of the reviewers for their valuable reports and comments, which helped to improve the quality of many of the papers. International Scientific Committee Marek J Sadowski, NCBJ

  17. Fast optical signals in the sensorimotor cortex: General Linear Convolution Model applied to multiple source-detector distance-based data.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Antonio Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Merla, Arcangelo

    2014-01-15

    In this study, we applied the General Linear Convolution Model to detect fast optical signals (FOS) in the somatosensory cortex, and to study their dependence on the source-detector separation distance (2.0 to 3.5 cm) and irradiated light wavelength (690 and 830 nm). We modeled the impulse response function as a rectangular function that lasted 30 ms, with variable time delay with respect to the stimulus onset. The model was tested in a cohort of 20 healthy volunteers who underwent supra-motor threshold electrical stimulation of the median nerve. The impulse response function quantified the time delay for the maximal response at 70 ms to 110 ms after stimulus onset, in agreement with classical somatosensory-evoked potentials in the literature, previous optical imaging studies based on a grand-average approach, and grand-average based processing. Phase signals at longer wavelength were used to identify FOS for all the source-detector separation distances, but the shortest one. Intensity signals only detected FOS at the greatest distance; i.e., for the largest channel depth. There was no activation for the shorter wavelength light. Correlational analysis between the phase and intensity of FOS further confirmed diffusive rather than optical absorption changes associated with neuronal activity in the activated cortical volume. Our study demonstrates the reliability of our method based on the General Linear Convolution Model for the detection of fast cortical activation through FOS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of antidepressant residues in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata rivers and in tap water in Warsaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants, even at low concentrations, can reveal some adverse effects on aquatic life due to disturbing homeostasis throughout the central and peripheral nervous system both in vertebrates and invertebrates. To date there have not been any reports regarding the presence of these pharmaceuticals in surface and tap waters in Eastern Europe. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 21 antidepressant pharmaceuticals at specific points of the main Polish river - the Vistula, a smaller river of the Warsaw region - the Utrata, as well as in tap water samples of Warsaw. Samples were collected twice at one month intervals and analysed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique coupled with the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method operated under the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). This is the first study where active compounds such as moclobemid or trazodone in the environment have been investigated. Environmental risk assessment of antidepressants in Poland was estimated on the basis of annuals sale data extracted from the NFZ (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia-National Health Service) base of reimbursed pharmaceuticals(1). Predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of target pharmaceuticals were compared with their measured concentration (MEC). Moreover, the application of the EMEA/CHMP guideline for environmental risk assessment of the antidepressants was discussed. The highest concentration of antidepressants was observed in the small river Utrata. In tap water only trace amounts of antidepressants including citalopram (up to 1.5ng/l), mianserin (up to 0.9ng/l), sertraline (<3.1ng/l), moclobemid (up to 0.3ng/l) and venlafaxine (up to 1.9ng/l) were detected. However this highlights their inadequate elimination in the drinking waste treatment facility. The presence of antidepressants in drinking water and the aquatic environment could have long-term effects even at low exposure level

  19. Optical study of diffraction grating/Fresnel lens combinations applied to a spectral-splitting solar concentrator for space applications.

    PubMed

    Michel, Céline; Loicq, Jérôme; Thibert, Tanguy; Habraken, Serge

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator with spectral splitting of light for space applications. This concentrator spectrally splits the incident light into mainly two parts. Each part is then focused onto specific spatially separated photovoltaic cells allowing for independent control of respective cells' output power. These advantages of both spectral splitting and light focusing are combined here because of a specific diffraction grating superimposed on a Fresnel lens. The theoretical principle of the optical design is presented with optimization of each element and improvement steps including optimization of grating period evolution along the lens and testing of two kinds of gratings (a blazed and a lamellar one). First numerical results are presented highlighting the possibility to design a concentrator at about 10× or more for each cell with an output power larger than that of a classical concentrator focusing on a GaAs single junction cell and less than 10% of losses for tracking errors up to ±0.8°. Some experimental results are also presented.

  20. Dynamic optical interferometry applied to analyse out of plane displacement fields for crack propagation in brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedan, S.; Pop, O.; Valle, V.; Cottron, M.

    2006-08-01

    We propose in this paper, to analyse, the evolution of out-of-plane displacement fields for a crack propagation in brittle materials. As the crack propagation is a complex process that involves the deformation mechanisms, the out-of-plane displacement measurement gives pertinent information about the 3D effects. For investigation, we use the interferometric method. The optical device includes a laser source, a Michelson interferometer and an ultra high-speed CCD camera. To take into account the crack velocity, we dispose of a maximum frame rate of 1Mfps. The experimental tests have been carried out for a SEN (Single Edge Notch) specimen of PMMA material. The crack propagation is initiated by adding a dynamic energy given by the impact of a cutter on the initial crack. The obtained interferograms are analysed with a new phase extraction method entitled MPC [6]. This analysis, which has been developed specially for dynamic studies, gives the out-of-plane displacement with an accuracy of about 10 nm.

  1. Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkellner, Oliver; Gruber, Clemens; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Jelzow, Alexander; Steinbrink, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; MacDonald, Rainer; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2010-11-01

    We present results of a clinical study on bedside perfusion monitoring of the human brain by optical bolus tracking. We measure the kinetics of the contrast agent indocyanine green using time-domain near-IR spectroscopy (tdNIRS) in 10 patients suffering from acute unilateral ischemic stroke. In all patients, a delay of the bolus over the affected when compared to the unaffected hemisphere is found (mean: 1.5 s, range: 0.2 s to 5.2 s). A portable time-domain near-IR reflectometer is optimized and approved for clinical studies. Data analysis based on statistical moments of time-of-flight distributions of diffusely reflected photons enables high sensitivity to intracerebral changes in bolus kinetics. Since the second centralized moment, variance, is preferentially sensitive to deep absorption changes, it provides a suitable representation of the cerebral signals relevant for perfusion monitoring in stroke. We show that variance-based bolus tracking is also less susceptible to motion artifacts, which often occur in severely affected patients. We present data that clearly manifest the applicability of the tdNIRS approach to assess cerebral perfusion in acute stroke patients at the bedside. This may be of high relevance to its introduction as a monitoring tool on stroke units.

  2. Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P.

    2015-02-28

    To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for CCS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 a contract to design, build and test a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Paulsson, Inc. has completed a design or a unique borehole seismic system consisting of a novel drill pipe based deployment system that includes a hydraulic clamping mechanism for the sensor pods, a new sensor pod design and most important – a unique fiber optic seismic vector sensor with technical specifications and capabilities that far exceed the state of the art seismic sensor technologies. These novel technologies were all applied to the new borehole seismic system. In combination these technologies will allow for the deployment of up to 1,000 3C sensor pods in vertical, deviated or horizontal wells. Laboratory tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed during this project have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown that the system can record events at magnitudes much smaller than M-2.3 at frequencies up to 2,000 Hz. The sensors have also proved to be about 100 times more sensitive than the regular coil geophones that are used in borehole seismic systems today. The fiber optic seismic sensors have furthermore been qualified to operate at temperatures over 300°C (572°F). The fibers used for the seismic sensors in the system are used to record Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) data allowing additional value added data to be recorded simultaneously with the seismic vector sensor data.

  3. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  4. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences.

  5. Minimalistic optic flow sensors applied to indoor and outdoor visual guidance and odometry on a car-like robot.

    PubMed

    Mafrica, Stefano; Servel, Alain; Ruffier, Franck

    2016-11-10

    Here we present a novel bio-inspired optic flow (OF) sensor and its application to visual  guidance and odometry on a low-cost car-like robot called BioCarBot. The minimalistic OF sensor was robust to high-dynamic-range lighting conditions and to various visual patterns encountered thanks to its M(2)APIX auto-adaptive pixels and the new cross-correlation OF algorithm implemented. The low-cost car-like robot estimated its velocity and steering angle, and therefore its position and orientation, via an extended Kalman filter (EKF) using only two downward-facing OF sensors and the Ackerman steering model. Indoor and outdoor experiments were carried out in which the robot was driven in the closed-loop mode based on the velocity and steering angle estimates. The experimental results obtained show that our novel OF sensor can deliver high-frequency measurements ([Formula: see text]) in a wide OF range (1.5-[Formula: see text]) and in a 7-decade high-dynamic light level range. The OF resolution was constant and could be adjusted as required (up to [Formula: see text]), and the OF precision obtained was relatively high (standard deviation of [Formula: see text] with an average OF of [Formula: see text], under the most demanding lighting conditions). An EKF-based algorithm gave the robot's position and orientation with a relatively high accuracy (maximum errors outdoors at a very low light level: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] over about [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) despite the low-resolution control systems of the steering servo and the DC motor, as well as a simplified model identification and calibration. Finally, the minimalistic OF-based odometry results were compared to those obtained using measurements based on an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a motor's speed sensor.

  6. Educational system for transplant coordinators in Poland: postgraduate studies at Warsaw Medical University; 2 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Becler, R; Kubik, T; Milecka, A; Sekta, S; Pabisiak, K; Malanowski, P; Rowinński, W

    2009-10-01

    Donor hospital transplant coordinators play crucial roles in the donation process. There are only a few coordinators in Poland, while there are about 400 hospitals with intensive care units (ICU). Coordinators must be professionals in medical sciences, clinical psychology, law, organization, management, and statistics. Coordinators acquire these skills during the Transplant Coordinators Postgraduate Studies at Warsaw Medical University which began in 2007. Lectures, seminars and exercises (99 hours, 6 weekends) are run by experts. The studies end with an examination and a diploma. The main criterion for acceptance of a candidate is employment in a key department in the donation process. The aim of studies is to educate coordinators for each hospital in the country. Until now 4 editions of the course have been completed. Among 123 graduates, 71 (60%) are employed in strategic departments of 48 hospitals. Preliminary results of graduates' activities in donor detection were compared in the periods before (2005-2006) and after the course (2007-2008). The background was the overall activity in Poland, where in 2007-2008 the activity fell to 79% of 2005-2006. This fall for hospitals with the graduates of this program was 82% versus hospitals without them (76%). Of the 48 hospitals that employed the graduates: 14 improved donation 5 were the same, in 12 in both periods showed no donations; whereas in 11 it was much lower (>20%), and in 6 lower but consistent with the national trend.

  7. Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-08-08

    Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons. Urban recreationists' preference for slightly warm thermal conditions, sunny, windless and cloudless weather, were identified as well as PET values considered to be optimal for sightseeing were defined between 27.3 and 31.7 °C. The results confirmed existence of phenomena called alliesthesia, which manifested in divergent thermal perception of comparable biometeorological conditions in transitional seasons. The results suggest that recreationist thermal sensations differed from other interviewees' responses and were affected not only by physiological processes but they were also conditioned by psychological factors (i.e. attitude, expectations). Significant impact of respondents' place of origin and its climate on creating thermal sensations and preferences was observed. Sex and age influence thermal preferences, whereas state of acclimatization is related with thermal sensations to some point.

  8. [The problems of food adulteration in the publications of a Warsaw pharmacist Alfons Bukowski (1858-1921)].

    PubMed

    Trojanowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, the economic changes, industrial development and migration of the population from rural to urban areas in Europe, there was an increasing demand for cheap foodstuffs, which contributed to the growth of mass food production, as well as to the increase in adulteration of foodstuffs. In the Kingdom of Poland, the research on this problem was conducted by a Warsaw pharmacist and chemist, Alfons Bukowski (1858-1921), the author of the first Polish textbook on bromatology Podrqcznik do badania pokarmów (1884) ("A manual for food testing"). The methods and results of his research were published in magazines, among others, in "WiadomoSci Farmaceutyczne" ("Pharmasist News"), "Zdrowie" ("The Health") and "Czasopisma Towarzystwa Aptekarskiego" ("Journals of the Pharmasist Association"). He paid attention to the social noxiousness of the adulterations, indicating that it is especially the poor people, who buy the cheapest products that are particularly vulnerable to adulteration of foodstuffs. In this paper, there have been presented selected issues related to adulteratibn of food products, issues to which Bukowski paid particular attention, and which were significantly affected by contemporary development of food chemistry, among other the development of methods of chemical and microscopic analysis and the generation of new surrogates, which replaced the natural food products.

  9. Analysis of Deformations of the Skylight Construction at the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odziemczyk, Waldemar

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents technology and results of measurements of the steel construction of the skylight of the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology. The new version of the automated measuring system has been used for measurements. This system is based on Leica TCRP1201+ total station and the TCcalc1200 software application, developed by the author, which operates on a laptop computer connected with the total station by the wire. Two test measurements were performed. Each of them consisted of cyclic measurement using the polar method, from one station; points located on the skylight construction, as well as control points located on concrete, bearing poles, were successively measured. Besides geometrical values (such as Hz, V angles and the slope distance D), the changes of temperature and atmospheric pressure, were also recorded. Processed results of measurements contained information concerning the behaviour of the skylight; asymmetry of horizontal displacements with respect to the X axis have been proved. Changes of parameters of the instrument telescope and changes of the instrument orientation were also stated; they were connected with changes of the temperature. The most important results of works have been presented in the form of diagrams.

  10. Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons. Urban recreationists' preference for slightly warm thermal conditions, sunny, windless and cloudless weather, were identified as well as PET values considered to be optimal for sightseeing were defined between 27.3 and 31.7 °C. The results confirmed existence of phenomena called alliesthesia, which manifested in divergent thermal perception of comparable biometeorological conditions in transitional seasons. The results suggest that recreationist thermal sensations differed from other interviewees' responses and were affected not only by physiological processes but they were also conditioned by psychological factors (i.e. attitude, expectations). Significant impact of respondents' place of origin and its climate on creating thermal sensations and preferences was observed. Sex and age influence thermal preferences, whereas state of acclimatization is related with thermal sensations to some point.

  11. Geostatistical study of spatial correlations of lead and zinc concentration in urban reservoir. Study case Czerniakowskie Lake, Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The article presents detailed geostatistical analysis of spatial distribution of lead and zinc concentration in water, suspension and bottom sediments of large, urban lake exposed to intensive anthropogenic pressure within a large city. Systematic chemical measurements were performed at eleven cross-sections located along Czerniakowskie Lake, the largest lake in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. During the summer, the lake is used as a public bathing area, therefore, to better evaluate human impacts, field measurements were carried out in high-use seasons. It was found that the spatial distributions of aqueous lead and zinc differ during the summer and autumn. In summer several Pb and Zn hot-spots were observed, while during autumn spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were rather homogenous throughout the entire lake. Large seasonal differences in spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were found in bottom sediments. Autumn concentrations of both heavy metals were ten times higher in comparison with summer values. Clear cross-correlations of Pb and Zn concentrations in water, suspension and bottom sediments suggest that both Pb and Zn came to Czerniakowskie Lake from the same source.

  12. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.; Stafford, L.

    2014-03-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C2 molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH3)x and O-Si-(CH3)x bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O2 in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiOx. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O2 in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the average size of the titanate nanoparticles was smaller

  13. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Stafford, L.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.

    2014-03-21

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C{sub 2} molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} and O-Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O{sub 2} in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiO{sub x}. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O{sub 2} in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the

  14. Investigation of magnetically smart films applied to correct the surface profile of light weight X-ray optics in two directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Cao, Jian; Vaynman, Semyon; Graham, Michael E.; Liu, Tianchen; Ulmer, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    Our goal is to improve initially fabricated X-ray optics figures by applying a magnetic field to drive a magnetic smart material (MSM) coating on the non-reflecting side of the mirror. The consequent deformation of the surface should be three-dimensional. Here we will report on the results of working with a glass sample of 50x50x0.2 mm that has been coated with MSMs. The coated glass can be deformed in 3 dimensions and its surface profile was measured under our Zygo NewView white light interferometer (WLI). The driving magnetic field was produced via a pseudo-magnetic write head made up of two permanent magnet posts. The magnet posts were moved about the bottom of the glass sample with a 3-d computer controlled translation stage. The system allowed four degrees of freedom of motion, i.e., up and down, side to side, back and forth, and rotation of the posts (3.175 mm diameter) about the vertical axis to allow us to change the orientation of the magnetic field in the (horizontal) plane of the sample. We established a finite element analysis (FEA) model to predict deformations and compare with the observed results in order to guide the application of the magnetically controlled MSMs to improve the future X-ray optics figures.

  15. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Sue, Ruei-Siang; Lin, Jian-Cheng; Syu, Hong-Jang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs) and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode with periodic holes (perforations) under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively. PMID:28773801

  16. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Sue, Ruei-Siang; Lin, Jian-Cheng; Syu, Hong-Jang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2016-08-10

    This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs) and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode with periodic holes (perforations) under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  17. E.A.O. guidelines for the use of diagnostic imaging in implant dentistry 2011. A consensus workshop organized by the European Association for Osseointegration at the Medical University of Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Harris, David; Horner, Keith; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Helmrot, Ebba; Benic, Goran I; Bornstein, Michael M; Dawood, Andrew; Quirynen, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Diagnostics imaging is an essential component of patient selection and treatment planning in oral rehabilitation by means of osseointegrated implants. In 2002, the EAO produced and published guidelines on the use of diagnostic imaging in implant dentistry. Since that time, there have been significant developments in both the application of cone beam computed tomography as well as in the range of surgical and prosthetic applications that can potentially benefit from its use. However, medical exposure to ionizing radiation must always be justified and result in a net benefit to the patient. The as low a dose as is reasonably achievable principle must also be applied taking into account any alternative techniques that might achieve the same objectives. This paper reports on current EAO recommendations arising from a consensus meeting held at the Medical University of Warsaw (2011) to update these guidelines. Radiological considerations are detailed, including justification and optimization, with a special emphasis on the obligations that arise for those who prescribe or undertake such investigations. The paper pays special attention to clinical indications and radiographic diagnostic considerations as well as to future developments and trends. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. [Reliability and validity of assessment of educational outcomes obtained by students of Medical Rescue at Medical University of Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Mariusz; Stachacz, Grzegorz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Gotlib, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of preservation of high degree of objectivity of information about students' educational outcomes, a system of assessment needs to meet criteria of appropriate reliability and validity. Analysis of reliability and validity of the system of assessment of students' educational outcomes for courses followed by an examination and covered by a curriculum in Medical Rescue at Medical University of Warsaw (MU W). A retrospective study enrolling a group of 421 students of eight subsequent full education cycles. Detailed data concerning grades for fourteen courses followed by an examination in the entire course of studies were collected. Reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) and criteria validity (Spearman's rank correlation) were assessed. Internal consistency was estimated using a multiple regression model. The levels of assessment reliability for the general university, pre-clinical, and clinical scopes amounted to alpha: 0.42, 0.53, and 0.70, respectively. The strongest positive correlations between the results of pre-clinical and clinical trainings were found for the Anatomy course (r ≈ 0.30). Only in the case of the Pharmacology course it was found that students' achievements in this field were significantly correlated with all other courses of clinical training. The influence of educational outcomes in particular areas of clinical training on the final grade for the entire course of studies was diverse (β regression between 0.04 and 0.11). While the Pharmacology course had the strongest impact on final results, the Surgery course had the least influence on students' final grades (β = 0.04). 1. Sufficient reliability of the system of assessment of educational outcomes in Medical Rescue showed good precision and repeatability of assessment. 2. A low level of validity was caused by a failure to keep the appropriateness of the assessment of educational outcomes in several clinical courses. 3. Prognostic and diagnostic validity of methods used for

  19. [The scientific conference: Konstanty Janicki (1876-1932): Professor of Warsaw University, eminent zoologist and protistologist, creator of the Polish parasitological school].

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bozena; Siński, Edward; Kazubski, Stanisław L

    2005-01-01

    The conference was organized for celebrating the memory of professor Konstanty Janicki, one of the most important Polish zoologist, protistologist and parasitologist. Professors Joanna Pijanowska, Edward Siński and Maria Doligalska were the hosts of the meeting at the Warsaw University. Four lectures were given during the conference. Professor Leszek Kuźnicki presented professor Janicki's life and followers who continued his research. Professor Stanisław Kazubski reminded the main topics of the parasitological studies conducted by professor Janicki. That lecture was illustrated by coloured diagrams taken from original papers published by Janicki. In the next lecture, professor Teresa Pojmańska reminded "the theory of the cercomer". She viewed some polemics and discussions made by the opponents of the theory. Professor Alicja Guttowa presented a paper on the history of the exploration of the D. latum life cycle and the main scientific researches carried out on each life stages of the broad tapeworm. Afterwards the lectures, professor Kazubski showed several pictures taken inside and outside of the Main School of the Warsaw University at the time when professor Janicki had been working there. The professor's students were also seen in these pictures. Next, associate professor Bozena Moskwa, the President of the Polish Parasitological Society presented the Konstanty Janicki Medal, awarded for outstanding activities for the benefit of parasitology. Up to data, 17 scientists and one school: the Warsaw Uniwersity was honored with this Medal. After the conference, participants visited the Powazki Cementary, where the renovated sepulchral monument of professor Konstanty Janicki was uncovered.

  20. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  1. Calculations of synthesis cross sections of Z = 104-113 superheavy nuclei in the fusion-by-diffusion model with the Warsaw macro-micro-model fission barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Cap, T.; Kowal, M.; Wilczyński, J.

    2013-05-01

    The results of experiments carried out at GSI Darmstadt, LBNL Berkeley and RIKEN Tokyo on the synthesis of superheavy nuclei of Z = 104-113 in cold fusion reactions have been analyzed within the fusion-by-diffusion (FBD) model by using the fission barriers, ground-state masses, shell effects and deformations calculated with the Warsaw macroscopic-microscopic model. An empirical parametrization of the injection-point distance has been established for this new theoretical input to the FBD model that enables one to reproduce existing data with reasonable accuracy and predict synthesis cross sections and optimum bombarding energies in as yet unexplored cold fusion reactions.

  2. Energy and nutritional value of diets used in patients alimentation and their assessment by patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Krzysztof; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Jałocha, Lukasz; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Abramowicz, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the work was laboratory assessment of energy and nutritional value of general and light diets used in patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw alimentation. Using questionnaire method the assessment of diets was done by patients too. Meals given to patients in hospital not always fulfilled nutritional requirements. Additional consumption of supplementary products did not always meet the requirements of proper nutrition. Half of examined patients appraised nutrition variety as good but at the same time claimed the there was not enough fruits and vegetables.

  3. Multivariate optimization by exploratory analysis applied to the determination of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba

    2009-06-01

    A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.

  4. Applying a new computational method for biological tissue optics based on the time-dependent two-dimensional radiative transfer equation.

    PubMed

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Fumeron, Sebastien

    2012-07-01

    Optical tomography is a medical imaging technique based on light propagation in the near infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. We present a new way of predicting the short-pulsed NIR light propagation using a time-dependent two-dimensional-global radiative transfer equation in an absorbing and strongly anisotropically scattering medium. A cell-vertex finite-volume method is proposed for the discretization of the spatial domain. The closure relation based on the exponential scheme and linear interpolations was applied for the first time in the context of time-dependent radiative heat transfer problems. Details are given about the application of the original method on unstructured triangular meshes. The angular space (4πSr) is uniformly subdivided into discrete directions and a finite-differences discretization of the time domain is used. Numerical simulations for media with physical properties analogous to healthy and metastatic human liver subjected to a collimated short-pulsed NIR light are presented and discussed. As expected, discrepancies between the two kinds of tissues were found. In particular, the level of light flux was found to be weaker (inside the medium and at boundaries) in the healthy medium than in the metastatic one.

  5. Applied light-side coupling with optimized spiral-patterned zinc oxide nanorod coatings for multiple optical channel alcohol vapor sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Abdul Rahim, Hazli Rafis; Bin Lokman, Muhammad Quisar; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Hornyak, Gabor Louis; Sterckx, Karel; Mohammed, Waleed Soliman; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-07-01

    The width of spiral-patterned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings on plastic optical fiber (POF) was optimized theoretically for light-side coupling and found to be 5 mm. Structured ZnO nanorods were grown on large core POFs for the purpose of alcohol vapor sensing. The aim of the spiral patterns was to enhance signal transmission by reduction of the effective ZnO growth area, thereby minimizing light leakage due to backscattering. The sensing mechanism utilized changes in the output signal due to adsorption of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol vapors. Three spectral bands consisting of red (620 to 750 nm), green (495 to 570 nm), and blue (450 to 495 nm) were applied in measurements. The range of relative intensity modulation (RIM) was determined to be for concentrations between 25 to 300 ppm. Methanol presented the strongest response compared to ethanol and isopropanol in all three spectral channels. With regard to alcohol detection RIM by spectral band, the green channel demonstrated the highest RIM values followed by the blue and red channels, respectively.

  6. Anomalously large electro-optic Pockels effect at the air-water interface with an electric field applied parallel to the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuto; Osawa, Kengo; Yukita, Shunpei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    The optical Pockels effect was observed at the air-water interface by electromodulation spectroscopy. When an AC electric field of frequency f was applied parallel to a water surface between Pt electrodes, the field induced a change in the transmitted light intensity synchronized at 1f proportional to the field strength. The 1f signals dominated over 2f signals by one order of magnitude and the signal disappeared when the electrodes were completely immersed under the water surface, strongly suggesting that the observed phenomena were due to the Pockels effect at the air-water interface. The Pockels coefficient was estimated to be | r | = 1.4 × 105 pm/V, which is much larger than that at the solid-water interface. However, this is unusual because the parallel electric field does not induce the break in inversion symmetry required for the appearance of the Pockels effect. The electrowetting effect was experimentally ruled out as a mechanism for the Pockels effect, and this made the existence of a field perpendicular to the surface, although extremely weak, the most likely explanation.

  7. Family influences on breakfast frequency and quality among primary school pupils in Warsaw and its surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Monika; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajda, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Regular consumption of a well balanced breakfast is a pre-requisite for normal growth and child development, along with the acquisition of proper eating habits. The family environment is crucial place where children learn such patterns of behaviour that form the basis for their development. To determine how family factors affect the regular eating of breakfast and types of foodstuffs consumed in primary school pupils, including food purchases made from vending machines and school tuck shops. Subjects were 836 pupils (435 girls and 401 boys, aged 6 - 13) from Warsaw and the surrounding areas. Appropriate socio-demographic data and relevant eating habits were obtained from direct interviewing of the subjects by means of a custom designed questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kohonen type cluster analysis model and Chi-square test (Chi(2)); (p≤0.05). Three clusters of pupils were identified by their differing socio-demographics and eating habits (eg. rates of breakfast consumption, buying from vending machines or school tuck shops). The first and third clusters were mainly pupils from two-parent families with parents proportionally spending similar times at work, where respective breakfast (87% and 91%) and second breakfast (77% and 72%) consumption rates were also similar together with food shopping rates during school time (respectively 69% and 63%). Pupils with single-parents, multi-generation families or if both parents were profession- ally active, predominated in the second cluster. These ate breakfast (73%) and second breakfast (67%) more rarely, but more frequently shopped for food at school (84%). A small number of pupils had a packed second breakfast from home, rarely ate sandwiches, fruit and/or vegetables and dairy products but ate more sweets, sweet rolls and savoury snacks. However, a large number of subjects bought sandwiches, fresh fruit and/or vegetables and fast-food at school. Family factors were found to affect eating habits

  8. [The adventures of doctor Jean Matuszinski, friend of Frédéric Chopin, from Warsaw in 1808 to Paris in 1842].

    PubMed

    Hazard, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Jean Matuszinski, a Pole born in Warsaw, happened to be the student of a Frenchman who had emigrated to Poland: Nicolas Chopin. French was still widely spoken at that time in Matuszinski's native land. For a while, Matsuzinski was even a boarder in Warsaw, lived with this Franco-Polish family and became a close friend to Nicolas' son, Frederic Chopin. He was the only one who kept in touch with Chopin, despite the many international dramatic events of the time: an insurrection in Poland rapidly squashed by the Russians. Paris became the heart of the intellectual and artistic life for Polish citizens who took refuge there. After spending some time in Germany where Jean Matuszinski received a doctorate in medicine from the university of Tubingen in 1834, he went to Paris where he was delighted to meet again with Frederic Chopin, and received another doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine of Paris. During his short medical career, he was able to observe several forms of tuberculsis: an acute that killed Frederic's younger sister, and a chronic one that affected Frederic for more than fifteen years. But Matuszinski could take care of Chopin only during the first six years of the latter's illness because himself died from a severe subacute form of tuberculosis, when he was only 33 years old.

  9. Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, W. M.; Geldart, L. P.; Sheriff, R. E.

    1990-10-01

    Completely revised and updated, this new edition of the popular and highly regarded textbook, Applied Geophysics, describes the physical methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons and minerals. These tools include gravity, magnetic, seismic, electrical, electromagnetic, and radioactivity studies. All aspects of these methods are described, including theoretical considerations, data acquisition, and data processing and interpretation, with the objective of locating concentrations of natural resources and defining their extent. In the past fourteen years or so since the writing of Applied Geophysics, there have been many changes in the field of exploration geophysics. The authors give full treatment to changes in this field, which include improved techniques for calculating gravity fields, the use of proton-precession and optically-pumped magnetometers, improved quality of seismic data, magnetotelluric as a practical exploration method, new electromagnetic exploration methods, the use of gamma-ray spectrometers in radioactive exploration, and improved well-logging techniques. The intent is to be practical, and thus many actual examples and problems are given. Moreover, wherever possible in this edition the authors adopt the use of Système Internationale (SI) units, which were not in standared use at the time of the first edition. The reader needs only a general background knowledge of geology, physics, and mathematics. Most of the math can be skipped by those interested only in the results. Advanced mathematical concepts are explained in the appendix.

  10. Novel Integral Equation Methods Applied to the Analysis of New Guiding and Radiating Structures and Optically-Inspired Phenomena at Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian

    This PhD. dissertation presents a multidisciplinary work, which involves the development of different novel formulations applied to the accurate and efficient analysis of a wide variety of new structures, devices, and phenomena at themicrowave frequency region. The objectives of the present work can be divided into three main research lines: (1) The first research line is devoted to the Green's function analysis of multilayered enclosures with convex arbitrarily-shaped cross section. For this purpose, three accurate spatial-domain formulations are developed at the Green's functions level. These techniques are then efficiently incorporated into a mixed-potential integral equation framework, which allows the fast and accurate analysis of multilayered printed circuits in shielded enclosures. The study of multilayered shielded circuits has lead to the development of the novel hybridwaveguide-microstrip filter technology, which is light, compact, low-loss and presents important advantages for the space industry. (2) The second research line is related to the impulse-regime study ofmetamaterial-based composite right/left-handed (CRLH) structures and the subsequent theoretical and practical demonstration of several novel optically-inspired phenomena and applications at microwaves, in both, the guided and the radiative region. This study allows the development of new devices for ultra wide band and high data-rate communications systems. Besides, this research line also deals with the simple and accurate characterization of CRLH leaky-wave antennas using transmission line theory. (3) The third and last research line presents a novel CRLH parallel-plate waveguide leaky-wave antenna structure, and a rigorous iterative modal-based technique for its fast and complete characterization, including a systematic calculation of the antenna physical dimensions. It is important to point out that all the theoretical developments and novel structures presented in thiswork have been

  11. Effectiveness of optical illusions 
applied on a single composite resin veneer for the diastema closure 
of maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Thomai; Antoniadou, Maria; Papazoglou, Efstratios

    To assess the esthetic effectiveness of four illusion techniques applied to a composite resin veneer for diastema closure between maxillary central incisors. An acrylic model with six natural maxillary anterior teeth was fabricated with a 2-mm diastema between the central incisors. Resin veneers were constructed on the left central incisor and the following cases were derived: V0: no veneer; V1: veneer without optical illusion features; V2: veneer with centralized interproximal ridges; V3: veneer with curved incisal edges; V4: veneer with gray pigment mesially/distally; V5: veneer with gray pigment on the developmental lobes. Digital printed photos of the models (13.2 x 17.8 cm, and 6.1 x 8 cm), with low, medium, and high smile lines and without a smile line (processed by Adobe Photoshop CS6) were shown to three groups of people (faculty members, senior undergraduate students, and patients; n = 25/group) for them to assess the overall size and width of the two central incisors. The results were analyzed by Pearson's and chi-square goodness of fit tests. There was no significant influence in the estimation of the two central incisors as being the same size, according to the technique used (P = 0.869) and group of evaluators (P = 0.209). The estimated probability of assessing the tested incisor as wider was indicatively lower in V2 compared to V1 (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; P = 0.088). The height of the smile line affected the evaluation of the veneers only in the large-sized photos. No interference is the best esthetic decision concerning a 2-mm diastema closure when restoring only one central incisor with a laminate veneer. The next best option is to deliver a veneer with centralized interproximal ridges.

  12. Towards a long-term global aerosol optical depth record: applying a consistent aerosol retrieval algorithm to MODIS and VIIRS-observed reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Patadia, F.; Remer, L. A.; Holz, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    To answer fundamental questions about aerosols in our changing climate, we must quantify both the current state of aerosols and how they are changing. Although NASA's Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have provided quantitative information about global aerosol optical depth (AOD) for more than a decade, this period is still too short to create an aerosol climate data record (CDR). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched on the Suomi-NPP satellite in late 2011, with additional copies planned for future satellites. Can the MODIS aerosol data record be continued with VIIRS to create a consistent CDR? When compared to ground-based AERONET data, the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (V_EDR) has similar validation statistics as the MODIS Collection 6 (M_C6) product. However, the V_EDR and M_C6 are offset in regards to global AOD magnitudes, and tend to provide different maps of 0.55 μm AOD and 0.55/0.86 μm-based Ångstrom Exponent (AE). One reason is that the retrieval algorithms are different. Using the Intermediate File Format (IFF) for both MODIS and VIIRS data, we have tested whether we can apply a single MODIS-like (ML) dark-target algorithm on both sensors that leads to product convergence. Except for catering the radiative transfer and aerosol lookup tables to each sensor's specific wavelength bands, the ML algorithm is the same for both. We run the ML algorithm on both sensors between March 2012 and May 2014, and compare monthly mean AOD time series with each other and with M_C6 and V_EDR products. Focusing on the March-April-May (MAM) 2013 period, we compared additional statistics that include global and gridded 1° × 1° AOD and AE, histograms, sampling frequencies, and collocations with ground-based AERONET. Over land, use of the ML algorithm clearly reduces the differences between the MODIS and VIIRS-based AOD. However, although global offsets are near zero, some regional biases remain, especially in

  13. Towards a long-term global aerosol optical depth record: applying a consistent aerosol retrieval algorithm to MODIS and VIIRS-observed reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Patadia, F.; Remer, L. A.; Holz, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    To answer fundamental questions about aerosols in our changing climate, we must quantify both the current state of aerosols and how they are changing. Although NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have provided quantitative information about global aerosol optical depth (AOD) for more than a decade, this period is still too short to create an aerosol climate data record (CDR). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched on the Suomi-NPP satellite in late 2011, with additional copies planned for future satellites. Can the MODIS aerosol data record be continued with VIIRS to create a consistent CDR? When compared to ground-based AERONET data, the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (V_EDR) has similar validation statistics as the MODIS Collection 6 (M_C6) product. However, the V_EDR and M_C6 are offset in regards to global AOD magnitudes, and tend to provide different maps of 0.55 μm AOD and 0.55/0.86 μm-based Ångström Exponent (AE). One reason is that the retrieval algorithms are different. Using the Intermediate File Format (IFF) for both MODIS and VIIRS data, we have tested whether we can apply a single MODIS-like (ML) dark-target algorithm on both sensors that leads to product convergence. Except for catering the radiative transfer and aerosol lookup tables to each sensor's specific wavelength bands, the ML algorithm is the same for both. We run the ML algorithm on both sensors between March 2012 and May 2014, and compare monthly mean AOD time series with each other and with M_C6 and V_EDR products. Focusing on the March-April-May (MAM) 2013 period, we compared additional statistics that include global and gridded 1° × 1° AOD and AE, histograms, sampling frequencies, and collocations with ground-based AERONET. Over land, use of the ML algorithm clearly reduces the differences between the MODIS and VIIRS-based AOD. However, although global offsets are near zero, some regional biases remain, especially in

  14. Genetic Identification of Communist Crimes' Victims (1944-1956) Based on the Analysis of One of Many Mass Graves Discovered on the Powazki Military Cemetery in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Diepenbroek, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz; Bykowska-Witowska, Milena; Zielińska, Grażyna; Dembińska, Teresa; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    As the result of the communist terror in Poland, during years 1944-1956 more than 50,000 people died. Their bodies were buried secretly, and most places are still unknown. The research presents the results of identification of people buried in one of many mass graves, which were found at the cemetery Powązki Military in Warsaw, Poland. Exhumation revealed the remains of eight people, among which seven were identified genetically. Well-preserved molars were used for the study. Reference material was collected from the closest living relatives. In one case, an exhumation of victim's parents had to be performed. DNA from swabs was extracted with a PrepFiler(®) BTA Forensic DNA Extraction Kit and organic method. Autosomal, Y-STR amplification, and mtDNA sequencing were performed. The biostatistical calculations resulted in LR values from 1608 to 928 × 10(18) . So far, remains of more than 50 victims were identified.

  15. Analysis of selected anthropometric parameters of 6-year-old children in Warsaw compared to the peer population in the years 1996-1999.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Dorota; Tabor, Piotr; Olszewska, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    Beside the positive tendencies in somatic development seen in the population of children and adolescents in Poland (e.g. the trend of increasing body height that has continued over many years), certain unfavorable phenomena are also observed. In recent decades, disorders connected with a deficiency or excess of body mass - excessive adiposity in particular - have become important health and social problems. This poses a considerable threat for being overweight, for obesity, and for other diseases of civilization. The research targeted the evaluation of selected anthropometric parameters: height-weight indices, circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses in the population of 6-year-old children in Warsaw in comparison with their peer population in 1996-1999, as well as estimation of the frequency of abnormal percentile values of the aforementioned anthropometric parameters: values below the 10th percentile and above the 90th percentile. The research included a sample of 160 randomly chosen children (81 boys and 79 girls) born in 2005 who attended public and private kindergartens in Warsaw. The average age of this group was 5.71 ± 0.28 years. The study was carried out in the first quarter of 2011. The following somatic parameters were measured: body height, body mass, chest and arm circumference, triceps, and subscapular and abdominal skinfold thickness. The height-weight indices including Rohrer's Index and Body Mass Index (BMI) were calculated. Using a method of normalization of numerical data, the obtained measurements were compared to the measurements of the peer population (n=233) from 1996 to 1999, and the significance of differences between mean values in both groups was assessed with Student's t-tests. The percentage tables with the ranges of the below normative (<10th percentile) and above normative (>90th percentile) percentile values of the studied parameters and indices were prepared on the basis of the percentile charts that presented the anthropometric

  16. Donor-impurity-related second and third harmonic generation and optical absorption in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As 3D coupled quantum dot-rings under applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Correa, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The features of some donor-impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in coupled dot-ring nanostructures are investigated with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The electron confinement is modeled via a recently reported analytical potential, and the influence of an externally applied static electric field is taken into account. The results show that the increase in the applied field strength causes the blueshift of all the optical responses considered, whereas they can be redshifted or blueshifted depending of the impurity position. For the parameters and interlevel transitions considered in this work, the third harmonic generation is absent when the impurity moves along the same direction of the polarization of the incident resonant radiation.

  17. Effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation within the framework of effective mass approximation. The analytic expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The numerical results are presented for a typical GaAs/Ga1- x Al x As quantum well. The results show that the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation coefficients are considerably affected by the electromagnetic fields and intense laser field.

  18. Exciton-related nonlinear optical properties in cylindrical quantum dots with asymmetric axial potential: combined effects of hydrostatic pressure, intense laser field, and applied electric field

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The exciton binding energy of an asymmetrical GaAs-Ga1−xAlxAs cylindrical quantum dot is studied with the use of the effective mass approximation and a variational calculation procedure. The influence on this quantity of the application of a direct-current electric field along the growth direction of the cylinder, together with that of an intense laser field, is particularly considered. The resulting states are used to calculate the exciton-related nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification, whose corresponding resonant peaks are reported as functions of the external probes, the quantum dot dimensions, and the aluminum molar fraction in the potential barrier regions. PMID:22971418

  19. The optical band gap of LiTaO3 and Nb2O5-doped LiTaO3 thin films based on Tauc Plot method to be applied on satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, R.; Djohan, N.; Pasole, D.; Dahrul, M.; Kurniawan, A.; Iskandar, J.; Hardhienata, H.; Irzaman

    2017-01-01

    This research observed the optical band gap of thin films made from LiTaO3 undoped (0%) and doped (5% and 10%) with Nb2O5 in the 1 M-solubility deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates. The thin films are manufactured with coating process of substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) method using a spin coater device at a rotation speed of 3000 rpm for 30 seconds and annealed in furnace (Nabertherm B180) at a temperature of 850°C for 15 hours. The optical absorption data of thin films are obtained by using an Ocean Optics USB2000 device in the wavelength of visible light. The band gap curve is determined from optical absorption data processing using Tauc Plot method. The Tauc Plot with indirect transition shows that LiTaO3 doped with Nb2O5 provides increased optical band gap value in a range less than 3.5 eV. Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that LiTaO3 and Nb2O5-doped LiTaO3 thin films on n-type Si (111) substrate are semiconductor materials and has the potential to be applied on satellite.

  20. The influence of optical properties of paints and coatings on the efficiency of infrared nondestructive testing applied to aluminum aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, D.; Vavilov, V. P.; Pawar, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    IR NDT (Infrared Nondestructive Testing) is a popular method for detecting defects in composite, ceramic, and metallic structures. The effectiveness of IR NDT depends on various thermal and optical properties of the material being tested. The thermal properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density are important and have been discussed extensively in many treatises on IR NDT. However the optical properties of the surface are equally important and while the thermal properties cannot be changed, sometimes the optical properties can be. Bare metal surfaces have high reflectivities and low emissivities, and as a result, they are generally not good candidates for IR NDT. Painted, coated, anodized, and oxidized metal surfaces can, in some cases, be successfully tested with IR NDT, but the effectiveness depends on the optical properties of the surface. It is well known by IR NDT practitioners that the easy solution to the testing of reflective materials is to paint the surface black. However, this is not always practical and it may not be permitted by the "owner" of the part. This paper demonstrates a process of analyzing the interaction of spectral curves that are relevant to the IR NDT process. This process can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of an IR NDT process for use on real parts with specific coatings and can help select a coating that may improve the effectiveness. This paper shows examples of optical properties for some typical paints and coatings that may be used on aluminum aircraft structures. It shows the spectrum of a generic incandescent radiant heat source and how the energy from this source is absorbed by several of these paints. Further, it shows the interaction between an IR camera detector response curve and the other curves. And finally, it shows how these three can be combined to produce an "IR NDT" efficiency rating for several examples.

  1. Optical closure for an aerosol column: Method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, Markus; Petzold, Andreas; Wandinger, Ulla; Wendisch, Manfred; Kiemle, Christoph; Stifter, Armin; Ebert, Martin; Rother, Tom; Leiterer, Ulrich

    2002-11-01

    During the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98), airborne measurements of aerosol size distribution, fine-particle concentration, particle absorption coefficient, backscatter coefficient, depolarization, and chemical composition as well as ground-based measurements of spectral particle optical depth and of spectral backscatter and extinction coefficients were performed in the aerosol column above Lindenberg, Germany. We compare the measured optical parameters with calculations from the size distributions, which assume the aerosol to consist of sulfuric acid near the tropopause and mixtures of ammonium sulfate and soot in the remaining column. We obtain closure to within 25% for the optical depth of a column, which includes a biomass-burning aerosol of North American origin, and infer a soot volume fraction of 35% for this aerosol. Assuming spheroidal particles of prolate shape and the average aspect ratio of the particles to be 1.3 in the biomass-burning aerosol layer, the calculated depolarization agrees with the lidar measurement, whereas comparing the spectral backscatter coefficient shows the soot to be externally mixed with the nonabsorbing particles. With the two-stream approximation, we estimate the local, instantaneous, cloud-free radiative forcing of the biomass-burning aerosol at the tropopause to -5.8 W/m2 with a corresponding optical depth of 0.09 at 710 nm wavelength and solar zenith angle of 56°. The radiative forcing for the biomass-burning aerosol is as sensitive to a change in state of mixture, either external or internal, as to a change in surface albedo, ocean to coniferous forest.

  2. Observation of applied voltage response of dye-doped liquid crystal by optical measurement of real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Bannai, Kenta; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ono, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of liquid crystal (LC) molecules and dye molecules in a dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) under a voltage application condition was quantitatively investigated. To observe the reorientation of these molecules, the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were simultaneously and individually measured using an optical interferometer. The obtained results indicate that the alignment of dye molecules doped in DDLC occurs following the electrically responding LC molecules, near the Freedericksz transition region of LC.

  3. An Optical Flow Method Applied to Co-Registration of Remote Sensing Images: Example for SAR/SAR, SAR/LIDAR, SAR/Optical Images of BIOSAR 2010 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin-Koeniguer, Elise

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes an optical flow type method for coregistration of forest remote sensing images. The principle of the algorithm called GeFolki is first explained. Results are shown on the images of the BioSAR 3 campaign, for the production of SAR interferograms, the coregistration a SAR and LIDAR image, and the coregistration an optical image and SAR image.The advantages of such an algorithm over conventional algorithms are explained. Finally, we propose various applications within the operating data for future BIOMASS mission: massive interferometry, ground truth production, upscaling by fusion of LIDAR and SAR data, and image mining.

  4. Future of bone pathology, bone grafting, and osseointegration in oral and maxillofacial surgery: how applying optical advancements can help both fields.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, advances in technology are propelling the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery into new realms. With a relatively thin alveolar mucosa overlying the underlying bone, significant diagnostic and therapeutic advantages are present; however, there remains an enormous gap between advancements in physics, in particular optics, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Improvements in diagnosis, classification, and treatment of the various bone pathologies are still being sought after as advancements in technology continue to progress. Combining the clinical, histological, and pathological characteristics with these advancements, patients with debilitating pathologies may have more promising treatment options and prognosis. Defects in the facial bones, particularly in the jaws, may be due to a number of reasons: pathology, trauma, infections, congenital deformities, or simply due to atrophy. Bone grafting is commonly employed to correct such defects, and allows new bone formation through tissue regeneration. Growing use of dental implants has focused attention on osseointegration and its process. Osseointegration refers to the actual process of the direct contact between bone and implant, without an intervening soft tissue layer. The theories proposed regarding this process are many, yet a clear, unified stance on the actual process and its mechanisms has not emerged. Further investigation using optical probes could provide that unifying answer. The primary goal of this manuscript is to introduce pioneers in the field of optics to the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. With a brief introduction into the procedures and techniques, we are hopeful to bridge the ever-widening gap between the clinical science and the basic sciences.

  5. A Novel Algorithm Applied to Common Thermal-Optical Transmission Data for Determining Mass Absorption Cross Sections of Atmospheric Black Carbon: Applications to the Indian Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, A.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Gustafsson, O.

    2010-12-01

    High wintertime concentrations of black carbon aerosols (BCA) over South Asia and the Northern Indian Ocean are thought to have a large impact on the regional climate. Direct absorption of sunlight by BCAs causes heating of the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. To quantify such effects it is important to characterize a number of different properties of the aerosols. Here we present a novel application of the thermal-optical (OCEC) instrument in which the laser beam is used to obtain optical information about the aerosols. In particular, the novel algorithm accounts for non-carbon contributions to the light extinction. Combining these light extinction coefficients with the simultaneously constrained Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations, the Mass Absorption Cross Section (MAC) is computed. Samples were collected during a continuous 14-month campaign Dec 2008 - Mar 2009 at Sinaghad in Western India and on Hanimaadhoo, the Northernmost Island in the Maldives. This data set suggests that the MAC of the BCAs are variable, sometimes by a factor of 3 compared to the mean. This observation adds to the complexity of calculating the radiative forcing for BCAs, reinforcing previous observations that parameters such as aerosol mixing state and sources need to be taken into account.

  6. PiezoForce and Contact Resonance Microscopy Correlated with Raman Spectroscopy applied to a Non-linear Optical Material and to a Lithium Battery Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Zeltzer, Gabi; Zinoviev, Oleg; Roth, Michael; Roling, Bernhard; Lewis, Aaron; Dekhter, Rimma

    2014-03-01

    A non-linear optical material (KTP) and a lithium-ion conductive glass ceramic (LICGC) for lithium batteries have been studied with Raman Spectroscopy on-line with Piezo Force and Contact Resonance Microscopies. This is allowed by a unique design of the scanned probe microscopy platform used in these studies and the electrical probes that have been developed that keep the optical axis completely free from above so that such combinations are feasible. The integration allows the investigation of alterations in the strain induced in the chemical structure of the materials as a result of the induction of piezo force. The combination of chemical characterization with both piezo force and contact resonance [1] microscopy allows for the monitoring of structural and ionic changes using Raman scattering correlated with these modalities. In KTP, it has been seen that the largest changes take place in TiO6 octahedral structure symmetric and antisymmetric stretch in the interfaces between the regions of the poling of the structure. In the LICGC, defined Raman changes are observed that are related to the contact resonance frequency. The combination adds considerable insight into both the techniques of Piezo Force Microscopy and Contact Resonance Microscopy.

  7. [Prevalence of hypertension in the population of the right-bank Warsaw districts based on research from the Pol-Monica study].

    PubMed

    Wagrowska, H; Rywik, S

    In 1984 a group of 1309 men and 1337 women aged 35-64 years were studied in the population of Warsaw. The standardized mean systolic blood pressure was 143.4 mm Hg in men and 144.0 mm Hg in women (p less than 0.05), the mean values for the diastolic pressure were 89.7 mm Hg in men and 85.8 mm Hg in women (p less than 0.05). The standardized per cent values of borderline hypertension were 23.4% for men and 21.9% for women (p less than 0.05), according to WHO criteria the prevalence of hypertension was 35.8% in men and 28.0% in women (p less than 0.05). Only 55% of hypertensive men and 73% of hypertensive women knew that they had had hypertension, and 42% of male patients and 64% of female patients had had any treatment for hypertension. In the present study a correlation was demonstrated between hypertension and socioeconomic class (significantly higher blood pressure was found in people at lower educational level), besides that higher pressure was noted in married men and in women working artisans in relation to hose doing clerical work. The proportion of hypertensive subjects increased with increasing cholesterol level and with increasing overweight. A negative correlation was showed between hypertension and cigarette smoking. Ischaemic heart disease was significantly more frequent in hypertensive subjects as in normotensive ones.

  8. Occurrence of immunosuppressive drugs and their metabolites in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata Rivers and in tap water from the Warsaw region (Poland).

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppresive therapy following organ transplant frequently includes treatment with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid derivatives. These pharmaceuticals may enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and may have a potentially harmful effect on aquatic biota. Tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and their metabolites were measured at specific points of a large Polish river (Vistula), a smaller river (Utrata) and in tap water samples from the Warsaw region. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, after solid phase extraction for water samples, or QuEChERS extraction for sediments. Residues of tacrolimus were below quantitation limits in both water and sediment samples. However, in water samples mycophenolic acid concentrations were measured at up to 180 ng L(-1) downstream of WWTP outfalls. No immunosuppressive drugs were detected in tap water. Concentrations of mycophenolic acid exceeded the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value in some Polish surface water, and risk calculations predicted at least twice higher concentrations in some other countries of the European Union. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of these immunosuppressive drug concentrations in the environment.

  9. Management of osteoporosis in central and eastern Europe (CEE): conclusions of the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE", 21-22 November 2008, Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Roman S; Resch, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    In November 2008, the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)" was held in Warsaw, Poland. Discussions at this meeting focused on the identification and discussion of diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures used in CEE. Evaluated information was used to identify issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis in these countries to facilitate the subsequent setup of appropriate support and development strategies. The main debate was structured according to the following five subjects: (1) present status and future perspectives for implementation of FRAX(R) into local (CEE) diagnostic algorithms, (2) principles of drug selection in osteoporosis treatment in CEE countries, (3) nonpharmacological interventions in osteoporosis treatment and prophylaxis in CEE countries, (4) treatment benefit evaluation, and (5) cost-effectiveness and evaluation of reimbursement policies in CEE countries. The most important and substantial comments of the delegates are summarized in the present article. The multinational panel of experts with representatives from many CEE countries as well as Austria and Switzerland made the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" a perfect platform to identify issues and needs regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis as well as the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis management in CEE countries. The information gained will serve as a basis for the development of strategies to resolve the identified issues at the "3rd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" in November 2009.

  10. Bending and turbulent enhancement phenomena of neutral gas flow containing an atmospheric pressure plasma by applying external electric fields measured by schlieren optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Sakakita, Hajime; Tsunoda, Syuichiro; Kasahara, Jiro; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kato, Susumu; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of turbulent enhancement phenomena of a neutral gas flow containing plasma ejected from the nozzle of plasma equipment, the schlieren optical method was performed to visualize the neutral gas behavior. It was confirmed that the turbulent starting point became closer to the nozzle exit, as the amplitude of discharge voltage (electric field) increased. To study the effect of electric field on turbulent enhancement, two sets of external electrodes were arranged in parallel, and the gas from the nozzle was allowed to flow between the upper and lower electrodes. It was found that the neutral gas flow was bent, and the bending angle increased as the amplitude of the external electric field increased. The results obtained using a simple model analysis roughly coincide with experimental data. These results indicate that momentum transport from drifted ions induced by the electric field to neutral particles is an important factor that enhances turbulence.

  11. In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Gregory M; Fontanella, Andrew N; Shan, Siqing; Hanna, Gabi; Zhang, Guoqing; Fraser, Cassandra L; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Optical techniques for functional imaging in mice have a number of key advantages over other common imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography or computed tomography, including high resolution, low cost and an extensive library of available contrast agents and reporter genes. A major challenge to such work is the limited penetration depth imposed by tissue turbidity. We describe a window chamber technique by which these limitations can be avoided. This facilitates the study of a wide range of processes, with potential endpoints including longitudinal gene expression, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis, and tumor growth and invasion. We further describe several quantitative imaging and analysis techniques for characterizing in vivo fluorescence properties and functional endpoints, including vascular morphology and oxygenation. The procedure takes ~2 h to complete, plus up to several weeks for tumor growth and treatment procedures. PMID:21886101

  12. Pristine and quantum dots dispersed nematic liquid crystal: Impact of dispersion and applied voltage on dielectric and electro-optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Pankaj Kumar; Joshi, Bipin; Singh, Shri

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we have dispersed Cd1-xZnxS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in nematic liquid crystal (LC) BBHA which shows negative dielectric anisotropy (Δε = -2.90) [1]. The impact of QDs dispersion, applied bias and concentration of QDs on the dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, response time, transmittance and birefringence as a function of frequency and temperature for planar alignment has been studied. We have observed that dispersion of QDs in pure nematic LC influences these properties. Due to QDs dispersion the birefringence increases and this helps in the alignment and ordering of nematic molecules. Under applied bias the ionic contributions to the dielectric loss as observed in low frequency region are suppressed and the relaxation frequency is shifted towards higher frequency side. We have made an effort to explain the observed behaviour of pristine and dispersed systems on the basis of interactions between QDs and nematic molecules.

  13. AN OPTICAL CATALOG OF GALAXY CLUSTERS OBTAINED FROM AN ADAPTIVE MATCHED FILTER FINDER APPLIED TO SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 6

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, T.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pipino, A.; Dong, F.; Gunn, J. E-mail: pierpaol@usc.edu

    2011-07-20

    We present a new cluster catalog extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6) using an adaptive matched filter (AMF) cluster finder. We identify 69,173 galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.045 {<=} z < 0.78 in 8420 deg{sup 2} of the sky. We provide angular position, redshift, richness, core, and virial radii estimates for these clusters, as well as an error analysis for each of these quantities. We also provide a catalog of more than 205,000 galaxies representing the three brightest galaxies in the r band which are possible brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) candidates. We show basic properties of the BCG candidates and study how their luminosity scales in redshift and cluster richness. We compare our catalog with the maxBCG and GMBCG catalogs, as well as with that of Wen et al. We match between 30% and 50% of clusters between catalogs over all overlapping redshift ranges. We find that the percentage of matches increases with the richness for all catalogs. We cross match the AMF catalog with available X-ray data in the same area of the sky and find 539 matches, 119 of which with temperature measurements. We present scaling relations between optical and X-ray properties and cluster center comparison. We find that both {Lambda}{sub 200} and R{sub 200} correlate well with both L{sub X} and T{sub X} , with no significant difference in trend if we restrict the matches to flux-limited X-ray samples.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann methods applied to large-scale three-dimensional virtual cores constructed from digital optical borehole images of the karst carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Sukop,; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Digital optical borehole images at approximately 2 mm vertical resolution and borehole caliper data were used to create three-dimensional renderings of the distribution of (1) matrix porosity and (2) vuggy megaporosity for the karst carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida. The renderings based on the borehole data were used as input into Lattice Boltzmann methods to obtain intrinsic permeability estimates for this extremely transmissive aquifer, where traditional aquifer test methods may fail due to very small drawdowns and non-Darcian flow that can reduce apparent hydraulic conductivity. Variogram analysis of the borehole data suggests a nearly isotropic rock structure at lag lengths up to the nominal borehole diameter. A strong correlation between the diameter of the borehole and the presence of vuggy megaporosity in the data set led to a bias in the variogram where the computed horizontal spatial autocorrelation is strong at lag distances greater than the nominal borehole size. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow across a 0.4 × 0.4 × 17 m (2.72 m3 volume) parallel-walled column of rendered matrix and vuggy megaporosity indicates a high hydraulic conductivity of 53 m s−1. This value is similar to previous Lattice Boltzmann calculations of hydraulic conductivity in smaller limestone samples of the Biscayne aquifer. The development of simulation methods that reproduce dual-porosity systems with higher resolution and fidelity and that consider flow through horizontally longer renderings could provide improved estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and help to address questions about the importance of scale.

  15. Non-linear switching based on dual-core non-linear optical fiber couplers with XPM and Raman intrapulse applied to femtosecond pulse propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves Correia, Dayse; Viana Ávila, Kilvia Maria; Cavalcante, Daniel do Nascimento e. Sá; Ferreira Pinto, Paulo Victor; Tadeu de Carvalho Belchior Magalhães, Francisco; Pinheiro de Moura, Lucas; da Conceição Ferreira, Alisson; Mendonça Menezes, Jose Wally; de Freitas Guimarães, Glendo

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the optical switching process for three shapes of femtosecond pulses (soliton, Gaussian and super-Gaussian) propagating inside a symmetrical dual-core non-linear directional coupler by simulating their propagation via the coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations. In all simulations, we considered the dispersive effects of second and third order, besides the self-phase modulation and self-steepening non-linear effects. We studied three scenarios for each of the three pulse shapes under investigation. In the first scenario, we added only cross-phase modulation (XPM); in the second approach, we added only Raman scattering; in the third one, we combined both. The study was performed for distinct polarization modes and for different values of the Raman factor, with power range varying from 1 to 300 W. We noted that the XPM non-linear effect results in a decrease in the critical power threshold, whereas the Raman scattering causes an increase. For the first scenario (only XPM effect), the critical power threshold reduced from 113.72 to 104.69 W for the soliton pulse, from 111.49 to 100.77 W for the Gaussian and from 92.79 to 80.47 W for the Super-Gaussian pulse shape. For the second scenario (only Raman scattering), the critical power increased for a Raman factor varying from 1 to 10 fs, and the three pulse shapes reached thresholds above 150 W from a 5 fs factor, reaching more than 200 W for the super-Gaussian pulse as the Raman factor increased. For the third scenario (with both effects combined), we highlight that for a fixed XPM factor of 2, the critical power remained unchanged with the variation of the Raman factor. Hence, we observed that the Super-Gaussian pulse reached lower values for critical power when compared to the other pulse shapes.

  16. Applied Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  17. Numerical analysis of residual stresses in preforms of stress applying part for PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fibers in view of technological imperfections of the doped zone geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trufanov, Aleksandr N.; Trufanov, Nikolay A.; Semenov, Nikita V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental data analysis of the stress applying rod section geometry for the PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fiber has been performed. The dependencies of the change in the radial dimensions of the preform and the doping boundary on the angular coordinate have been obtained. The original algorithm of experimental data statistic analysis, which enables determination of the specimens' characteristic form of section, has been described. The influence of actual doped zone geometry on the residual stress fields formed during the stress rod preform fabrication has been investigated. It has been established that the deviation of the boundary between pure silica and the doped zone from the circular shape results in dissymmetry and local concentrations of the residual stress fields along the section, which can cause preforms destruction at high degrees of doping. The observed geometry deviations of up to 10% lead to the increase of the maximum stress intensity value by over 20%.

  18. Interstudy reproducibility of the second generation, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease and comparison with intravascular ultrasound: a study applying automated contour detection.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Z; Tearney, G; Bruining, N; Sihan, K; van Soest, G; Ligthart, J; van Domburg, R; Bouma, B; Regar, E

    2013-01-01

    .36, 0.26 ± 0.54, 0.05 ± 0.47 mm(2), respectively). FD-OCT shows excellent reproducibility and very low inter-study variability in both, native and stented coronary segments. No significant differences in quantitative lumen morphometry were observed between FD-OCT and IVUS. Evaluating these results suggest that FD-OCT is a reliable imaging tool to apply in longitudinal coronary artery disease studies.

  19. Fiber optic crossbar switch for automatically patching optical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system for automatically optically switching fiber optic data signals between a plurality of input optical fibers and selective ones of a plurality of output fibers is described. The system includes optical detectors which are connected to each of the input fibers for converting the optic data signals appearing at the respective input fibers to an RF signal. A plurality of RF to optical signal converters are arranged in rows and columns. The output of each of the optical detectors are each applied to a respective row of optical signal converted for being converters back to an optical signal when the particular optical signal converter is selectively activated by a dc voltage.

  20. Applied oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book combines oceanography principles and applications such as marine pollution, resources, and transportation. It is divided into two main parts treating the basic principles of physical oceanography, and presenting a unique systems framework showing how physical oceanography, marine ecology, economics, and government policy may be combined to define the newly developing field of applied oceanography.

  1. Applied Enzymology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  2. Applied Enzymology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  3. Applied Nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W; Roberts, Stephen M; Shvedova, Anna A; Warheit, David B; Hinkley, Georgia K; Guy, Robin C

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and nanoobjects, are being incorporated into everyday products at an increasing rate. These products include consumer products of interest to toxicologists such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, food packaging, household products, and so on. The manufacturing of products containing or utilizing nanomaterials in their composition may also present potential toxicologic concerns in the workplace. The molecular complexity and composition of these nanomaterials are ever increasing, and the means and methods being applied to characterize and perform useful toxicologic assessments are rapidly advancing. This article includes presentations by experienced toxicologists in the nanotoxicology community who are focused on the applied aspect of the discipline toward supporting state of the art toxicologic assessments for food products and packaging, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, inhaled nanoparticle and gastrointestinal exposures, and addressing occupational safety and health issues and concerns. This symposium overview article summarizes 5 talks that were presented at the 35th Annual meeting of the American College of Toxicology on the subject of "Applied Nanotechnology." © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Applied Nanotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, David W.; Roberts, Stephen M.; Shvedova, Anna A.; Warheit, David B.; Hinkley, Georgia K.; Guy, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and nanoobjects, are being incorporated into everyday products at an increasing rate. These products include consumer products of interest to toxicologists such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, food packaging, household products, and so on. The manufacturing of products containing or utilizing nanomaterials in their composition may also present potential toxicologic concerns in the workplace. The molecular complexity and composition of these nanomaterials are ever increasing, and the means and methods being applied to characterize and perform useful toxicologic assessments are rapidly advancing. This article includes presentations by experienced toxicologists in the nanotoxicology community who are focused on the applied aspect of the discipline toward supporting state of the art toxicologic assessments for food products and packaging, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, inhaled nanoparticle and gastrointestinal exposures, and addressing occupational safety and health issues and concerns. This symposium overview article summarizes 5 talks that were presented at the 35th Annual meeting of the American College of Toxicology on the subject of “Applied Nanotechnology.” PMID:26957538

  5. Spatial distribution of anthropogoenic pollution acumulated on tree leaves, soil and street dust in the park area in the centre of Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytłow, Sylwia; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic method has been successfully used to evaluate and characterise the degree of air pollution. This method is based on investigation of properties of magnetic particles of pollution such as magnetic susceptibility, parameters of hysteresis loops and temperature-dependence of magnetic parameters etc. The motivation to undertake this study was to find the distribution of pollution emitted by traffic vehicles in a green area situated in urban environment. The investigated area is the oldest public park named Saxon Garden in the centre of Warsaw, Poland. The Saxon Garden is located between the very busy main road with tram line, two local streets (low traffic volume) and big plaza without car traffic and trees. In order to quantify the degree of pollution we measured magnetic susceptibility of pollution deposited on chestnut leaves (the most abundant tree species in the park), surface of the roads (street dust) and in soil from the park area. The highest values of magnetic susceptibility of pollution were observed on tree leaves located along the edges/borders of park area (190 [m3/kg]), directly adjacent to busy roads. The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility (20 [m3/kg]) were obtained for leave samples from the borders of park, directly adjacent to plaza and roads with low traffic volume. It was observed that the intensity of magnetic susceptibility decreases with the distance of pollution source i.e. main streets. A similar distribution of intensity of magnetic susceptibility was observed for the soil samples collected from park area. With the exception of a few samples, the magnetic susceptibility of soil samples were higher than for leave samples. Our study showed that the distribution of magnetic susceptibility of soil and leave samples correlate with the intensity of magnetic susceptibility of street dust taken from the road surfaces situated along the boundary of the park area. On the basis of the detailed research of the domain structure and

  6. Tunable Optical Filters Having Electro-optic Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable optical filters using whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are described. The WGM optical resonator in a filter exhibits an electro-optical effect and hence is tunable by applying a control electrical signal.

  7. Quarterly Applied Optics Research Report (Third)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    TAOES 47 It. SECURITY CLASS. (»I lAit f.pe«; Unclassified 11*. OECLASSIFICATION. OOWNORAOlNO SCHEDULE Approved for public release...mirror Brayton cycle power system," International Conference on Solar Electricity, CNRS, Toulouse, France, 3 March 1976. A. B. Meinel, "The exotic...Washington, D. C, .12-28 February 1976. H. Gurev, K. D. Masterson and R. E. Hahn, "High temperature stable, spec- trally selective solar absorbers for

  8. Guided Learning Applied to Optical Mineralogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, S. C.; Hunter, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an individual programmed study method used in a second year Geology course at the University of Melbourne. Outlines the criteria that make this instructional style useful and presents the student questionnaire used to evaluate the course. (GS)

  9. Applied geodesy

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc.

  10. Multiaperture optical system research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Richard T.

    1987-11-01

    A basic and applied research program concerned with multiaperture optics is described. The intent is to explore to what extent the principles of the insect eye can be incorporated into the design of optical instruments. The advantages and disadvantages of multiaperture optics are investigated in the basic part of the program. The applied part of the program was devoted to the design and construction of prototype instruments based on the design information generated during the basic part of the program.

  11. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  12. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  13. Automatic segmentation of coronary morphology using transmittance-based lumen intensity-enhanced intravascular optical coherence tomography images and applying a localized level-set-based active contour method.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shiju; Adnan, Asif; Adlam, David

    2016-10-01

    Lumen segmentation from clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) images has clinical relevance as it provides a full three-dimensional perspective of diseased coronary artery sections. Inaccurate segmentation may occur when there are artifacts in the image, resulting from issues such as inadequate blood clearance. This study proposes a transmittance-based lumen intensity enhancement method that ensures only lumen regions are highlighted. A level-set-based active contour method that utilizes the local speckle distribution properties of the image is then employed to drive an image-specific active contour toward the true lumen boundaries. By utilizing local speckle properties, the intensity variation issues within the image are resolved. This combined approach has been successfully applied to challenging clinical IV-OCT datasets that contains multiple lumens, residual blood flow, and its shadowing artifact. A method to identify the guide-wire and interpolate the lost lumen segments has been implemented. This approach is fast and can be performed even when guide-wire boundaries are not easily identified. Lumen enhancement also makes it easy to identify vessel side branches. This automated approach is not only able to extract the arterial lumen, but also the smaller microvascular lumens that are associated with the vasa vasorum and with atherosclerotic plaque.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in retinal ganglion cell layer and effect of topically applied brimonidine tartrate 0.2% therapy on this expression in an endothelin-1-induced optic nerve ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Zeynep; Gurelik, Gokhan; Göçün, Pinar Uyar; Akyürek, Nalan; Onol, Merih; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the impact of topically applied brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (BMD) on this expression in an endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced chronic optic nerve (ON) ischemia model of rabbit. Osmotically driven minipumps were implanted in one eye of 16 New Zealand albino rabbits to deliver ET-1 at the constant rate of 0.5 microl/h for 2 weeks. ET-1 was given with (group 3) and without topical BMD therapy (group 1). Groups 2 and 4 were taken as controls. MMP-9 expression by immunohistochemically and proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis in RGC layer were investigated. The correlation between the MMP-9 immunopositivity and the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis in the RGC layer was evaluated. MMP-9 immunopositivity was found to be significantly higher in both groups 1 and 3 compared to that of the controls. There was no difference between groups 1 and 3 regarding MMP-9 expression (p = 0.495). A positive correlation was found between the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis and MMP-9 expressions in the RGC layer in group 1 (p = 0.031, r = 0.754). MMP-9 expression in the RGC layer seems to significantly increase in the ET-1-induced chronic ON ischemia model. Topical BMD therapy does not seem to affect this MMP-9 expression.

  15. [Forms of taking care of a mother and a child in Warsaw on the pages of Polish monthly "Opiekun Społeczny" published from 1936 to 1939].

    PubMed

    Dworecka, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The issue of care of a mother and a child appeared to be nothing new during the period of II Rzeczpospolita. It used to be one of the most vital problems of social policy of the country. It was the local governments, gmina. poviat's unions as well as the voivodship. Social Security Committees responsibility to protect motherhood and care for children imposed on them by the 16th August 1923 act. The regulation of Department of Public Health the city of Warsaw from 1929 stated in the 1st and that aforementioned care included: "sanitary, medical and nursery care provided by Department of Public Health information bureaus or the social institutions subsided by the magistrat and authorized by it". "Opiekun Społeczny" as the monthly having dealt with the social policy issues in the capital city, in detail discussed certain problems of social and health care for a family, explained the valid legislation and informed about the new Health Department acts. The magazine was above all addressed to Health Department workers and social workers. The issue of care for a mother and a child used to be the leading subject-matter of the magazine since the beginnings of its existence. It was numerously pointed out that taking care for motherhood and a baby, a child at pre-school and school age and the youth is the main job of the care department. The material and moral relief used to be lead by the social workers. As far as the legal assistance is concerned, it was the special information bureaus workers' organized by Zarzad Miejski and "Osiedle" committee responsibility to help mothers in need. One of the most essential problems on one hand and the most difficult on the other faced by the capital city welfare was the problem of illegitimate children, especially the abandoned ones constituting a numerous group. The welfare's aim was to decrease their number and improve their living conditions. The main principle was to make each mother to raise her child on her own. That is why the

  16. Optical technology for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayanagi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Optical applications to the flight control system including optical data bus, sensors, and transducers are analyzed. Examples of optical data bus include airborne light optical fiber technology (ALOFT), F-5E, YA-7D, MIL-STD-1553 fiber optic data bus and NAL-optic data bus. This NAL-optic data bus is applied to STOL, and its characteristics are stressed. Principles and advantages of optical pulse-digital transducers are discussed.

  17. The 2009-2012 Ionosonde and IRI2012 Variability of foF 2, hmF 2, M3000F2, B 0, B1 Parameters over Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwabowski, Michał; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata; Pożoga, Mariusz; Tomasik, Łukasz

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents comparisons of variability and accordance of ionospheric parameters foF2, hmF2, M3000 F2, B0, B1 over the middle latitude station in Warsaw (52.21°N, 21.06°E). Examination included observational data from Space Research Centre ionosonde in Poland and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model, for the time period of increasing solar activity from 2009 to 2012. The analysis concerned: trend, monthly median differences in twenty-four hours variability, local minima and maxima. Results are presented as tables of semi-annual data, and plots of difference in four-year period. The study indicated good agreement of foF2 and hmF2 parameters. Underestimations of B1 and M3000 F2, variability of B0 parameter in Bil-2000, Gul-1987, and ABT- 2009 option, were taken into consideration.

  18. [Sanitation of the health service centre in Warsaw (Samodzielny Zespół Publicznych Zakładów Lecznictwa Otwartego Warszawa-Mokotów). Financial and economic analysis].

    PubMed

    Buczak-Stec, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the financial and economic analysis, conducted in March 2010, was to identify all significant factors that had a positive influence on the restructuring process in the health service centre (Samodzielny Zespół Publicznych Zakładów Lecznictwa Otwartego Warszawa--Mokotów) in Warsaw. Within the framework of the analysis, financial data form time period 1999-2009 were analyzed. Also the managing director and financial director were interviewed. Taking into consideration research results it can be stated that not a single factor but a collection of the purposeful efforts influenced the improvement of the health service centre condition. Apart from received public help, the most significant factors include: rational restructuring process, managing of personnel development, professionally managed financial department, cooperation between departments, good internal communication and use of modern management techniques.

  19. Optical computing: introduction by the feature editors.

    PubMed

    Hinton, H S; Soffer, B; Tooley, F A; Yukimatsu, K

    1994-03-10

    This feature of Applied Optics: Information Processing on optical computing comprises thirty papers. Most of the papers evolved from papers presented at the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optical Computing held in March 1993 in Palm Springs, California.

  20. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  1. Fiber-Optic Sensing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Milnes, M.; Baylor, L.C.; Bave, S.

    1996-10-24

    This article offers a basic review of fiber-optic sensing technology, or more specifically, fiber-optic sensing technology as applied to the qualitative or quantitative identification of a chemical sample, and how it works,

  2. Quarter Modernization of Construction Residential "New Praga" in Warsaw - Risks and Possibilities/ Modernizacja Kwartału Zabudowy Mieszkaniowej "Nowej Pragi" W Warszawie, Zagrożenia I Możliwości

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, Anna; Denis, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    The district "New Praga" is located on the right-bank of Warsaw in North Praga which is one of the oldest districts of the city. The citizens of this district, where an analyzed building quarter is located, are people with a lower social status than the rest of Warsaw's population, who benefit from the social assistance (30%); moreover, there are a large number of crimes and high unemployment among young people in this area. These data show how difficult is to modernize this area because the improvement of a construction tissue is not enough to fully help the local community. Financial resources are needed to increase the level of education that allows finding new jobs and improves the quality of life. Afterwards, the modernization of tenements should be taken care for. Rejon "Nowa Praga" usytuowany jest na Pradze Północ, która jest jedną z najstarszych dzielnic miasta. Mieszkańcy tego rejonu, w którym usytuowany jest analizowany kwartał zabudowy, to osoby często o niższym statusie społecznym niż reszta ludności stolicy. Często są to enklawy biedy, bezrobocia i przestępczości. Teren ten jest trudny do modernizacji, ponieważ poprawa tkanki budowlanej, to nie wszystko, aby w pełni pomóc społeczności lokalnej. Potrzebne są środki finansowe również na działania społeczne, które umożliwią mieszkańcom na poprawę jakości życia. W artykule przedstawiono propozycję modernizacji wybranego kwartału zabudowy, co wymaga interdyscyplinarnego podejścia do danego zagadnienia.

  3. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  4. Automation in optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicove, Harvey M.; Moore, Duncan T.

    1991-01-01

    The optics industry has not followed the lead of the machining and electronics industries in applying advances in computer aided engineering (CAE), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), automation or quality management techniques. Automation based on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and flexible machining systems (FMS) has been widely implemented in these industries. Optics continues to rely on standalone equipment that preserves the highly skilled, labor intensive optical fabrication systems developed in the 1940's. This paper describes development initiatives at the Center for Optics Manufacturing that will create computer integrated manufacturing technology and support processes for the optical industry.

  5. Automation for optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicove, Harvey M.; Moore, Duncan T.

    1990-11-01

    The optics industry has not followed the lead of the machining and electronics industries in applying advances In computer aided engineering (CAE), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), automation or quality management techniques. Automationbased on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and flexible machining systems (FMS) has been widely implemented In these industries. Optics continues to rely on standalone equipment that preserves the highly skilled, labor intensive optical fabrication systems developed in the 1940's. This paper describes development initiatives at the Center for Optics Manufacturing that will create computer integrated manufacturing technology and support processes for the optical industry.

  6. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  7. Pulsed Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  8. Optics and Symbolic Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    28, No. 10, 795 "- 979v 5. 6. A. Huang and S. Knauer, Starlite : A Wideband Digital Switch, Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta...4 31 : .-. I ?4 2A 8. A. Huang, The Relationship Between STARLITE , a Wideband Digital Switch and Optics, Proc. International Conference on...34 Applied Optics, voL 27, No. 2, pp. 202-203 (1988). [10] A. Huang. "The relationship between STARLITE . a wideband digital switch and optics". Proceedings of

  9. Applied Impact Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Applied impact physics research is based on the capability to examine impact processes for a wide range of impact conditions with respect to velocity as well as mass and shape of the projectile. For this reason, Fraunhofer EMI operates a large variety of launchers that address velocities up to ordnance velocities as single stage powder gun but which can also be operated as two-stage light gas guns achieving the regime of low earth orbital velocity. Thereby for projectile masses of up to 100 g hypervelocity impact phenomena up to 7.8 km/s can be addressed. Advanced optical diagnostic techniques like microsecond video are used as commercial systems but - since impact phenomena are mostly related with debris or dust - specialized diagnostics are developed in-house like x-ray cinematography and x-ray tomography. Selected topics of the field of applied impact physics will be presented like the interesting behavior of long rods penetrating low-density materials or experimental findings at hypervelocity for this class of materials as well as new x-ray diagnositic techniques.

  10. Optical clock networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, optical atomic clocks have surpassed the best cesium clocks, which are used to realize the unit of time and frequency, in terms of accuracy and stability by about two orders of magnitude. When remote optical atomic clocks are connected by links without degradation in the clock signals, an optical clock network is formed, with distinct advantages for the dissemination of time, geodesy, astronomy and basic and applied research. Different approaches for time and frequency transfer in the microwave and optical regime, via satellites and free-space links, optical fibre links, or transportable optical atomic clocks, can be used to form a hybrid clock network that may allow a future redefinition of the unit of time based on an optical reference transition.

  11. Femtosecond Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jiahui; Wang, Lei; Sokolov, Alexei

    2004-10-01

    Optical tweezers has drawn much attention of people since recent years, which shows great advantages on biological applications due to quite straightforward ideas and simple configurations. Optical tweezers rely upon the extremely high gradient in the electric field produced near the beam waist of a tightly focused laser beam, which creates a force sufficient to trap micron-sized dielectric particles in three dimensions.(J.E. Molloy and M.J. Padgett, Light, Action: Optical Tweezers, Contemporary P)hysics, 43 241 (2002). We applied a femtosecond laser on optical tweezers as light source and got successfully ``optical trapping'' and ``optical tweezers.'' Further, due to the characters of short pulse width and extremely high intensity of laser, femtosecond optical tweezers may direct us to new optics field. Under such strong intensity many non-linear optical phenomena could be observable, such like optical Kerr effect, stimulated Raman effect and so on. Our work will shows that it may be applied into the recently proposed FAST CAR (Femtosecond Adaptive Spectroscopic Techniques for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) by M. Scully et. al.(M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, ``FAST CARS: Engineering a Laser Spectroscopic Technique for Rapid Identification of Bacterial Spores,'' Proceedings of NASE (2002).)

  12. Transcription Against an Applied Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hong; Wang, Michelle D.; Svoboda, Karel; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.; Gelles, Jeff

    1995-12-01

    The force produced by a single molecule of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase during transcription was measured optically. Polymerase immobilized on a surface was used to transcribe a DNA template attached to a polystyrene bead 0.5 micrometer in diameter. The bead position was measured by interferometry while a force opposing translocation of the polymerase along the DNA was applied with an optical trap. At saturating nucleoside triphosphate concentrations, polymerase molecules stalled reversibly at a mean applied force estimated to be 14 piconewtons. This force is substantially larger than those measured for the cytoskeletal motors kinesin and myosin and exceeds mechanical loads that are estimated to oppose transcriptional elongation in vivo. The data are consistent with efficient conversion of the free energy liberated by RNA synthesis into mechanical work.

  13. Fiber-optic Michelson interferometer using an optical power divider.

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Ohashi, T; Ohtsuka, Y

    1980-10-01

    A fiber-optic interferometer consisting of a multimode fiber-optical power divider was constructed in the Michelson arrangement and applied to measure a micrometer-order displacement of the vibrating object based on an optical homodyne technique. Improvement in the sensitivity of the apparatus is discussed from the viewpoint of increasing the minimum detectable beat signal.

  14. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  15. Space life sciences: biological research and space radiation. Proceedings of the F1.2, F1.3, F2.2 and F2.6 Symposia of COSPAR Scientific Commission F which were held during the Thirty-third COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Warsaw, Poland, July, 2000.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research contains a large number of manuscripts in the discipline of Space Life Sciences including papers from the following sessions of the Warsaw COSPAR Assembly: Gravity-related research with animals--past, present, future; The nervous system: space flight environmental factors effects--present results and new perspectives; Investigating space radiation effects at particle accelerators--biology and physics experiments; Perspectives on radiation risks on long space missions: deterministic and stochastic effects.

  16. Intrinsic optical modulation mechanism in electro-optic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzarella, A.; Hinton, R. J.; Qadri, S. B.; Wu, Dong Ho

    2008-06-01

    An intrinsic mechanism of optical intensity modulation occurring in electro-optic devices such as field sensors and modulators under applied fields is described. The optical modulation results from interactions between internally generated Fizeau interference patterns and electro-optic effects within the nonlinear crystal. Our results indicate that when phase matched with the conventional polarimetric signal, the intrinsic modulation mechanism can nearly double device sensitivity.

  17. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John; Woodruff, Steven

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  18. The possibility of establishing causes of death on the basis of the exhumed remains of prisoners executed during the communist regime in Poland: the exhumations at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Jurek, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of forensic examinations of the remains of 194 prisoners exhumed at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. In all probability, most of those buried there were judicially sentenced to death by firing squad or hanging in connection with activities of the Polish independence underground in its struggles with the postwar communist regime. Forensic medical research focussed on determining causes of death and reconstructing the mechanisms of injury leading to death. Most probable causes of death were found in 108 of 194 cases; of these, 76 were isolated gunshot wounds to the head, mostly directed to the occipital region. In 29 of 194 cases, only extensive skull fractures were observed, making it impossible to determine the mechanism of injury. The condition of these skulls do not permit the exclusion of injuries due to gunshots, which were very likely given the historical context of the studied location. In one case, it is assumed that the cause of death could be blunt force trauma to the head. In 86 of 194 cases, it was not possible to determine the cause of death. Of these cases, 20 skeletons were in such poor condition that erosive changes could have completely obliterated even very extensive head injuries leading to death. No injuries were observed that could be associated with execution by hanging.

  19. Report on Foundation and Organization of Econophysics Graduate Courses at Faculty of Physics of University of Warsaw and Department of Physics and Astronomy of the Wrocław University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutner, R.; Grech, D.

    2008-09-01

    Two different, working examples of organization of econophysics graduate courses at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw and the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the Wrocław University are considered. In the first example we have a system where the interdisciplinary, econophysical education begins only after three years study of physics. Within this system the M.Sc. as well as Ph.D. theses in econophysics are conducted only at the Faculty of Physics. In the second example the B.Sc. theses in econophysics are accomplished in the Department of Physics and Astronomy again after three years study but higher degrees can be prepared either in physics in the Institute of Theoretical Physics or in economy in the Institute of Economical Sciences. M.Sc. and Ph.D. theses can also be conducted. For both examples, the graduate students of econophysics are obliged to participate in traditional (typical) economical lectures and trainings which are offered them by economical departments while lectures and trainings (tutorials and/or laboratory classes) in econophysics are offered them by physics departments themselves. Thus Poland is one of a few countries, where so modern interdisciplinary knowledge is systematically offered to students.

  20. Optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  1. Optical technology in medicine and biology: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Stephen A.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    1996-07-01

    This feature issue on Optical Technology in Medicine and Biology is the inaugural feature issue for a new section of Applied Optics devoted to the application of advanced optical techniques to problems in biology, medicine, and biotechnology. Although Applied Optics has always been open to research in these areas, the Optical Society's board of editors decided that the importance of this type of research merited a more prominent and focused presentation. As a result the Optical Technology division of Applied Optics was renamed the Optical Technology and Biomedical Optics division, and four new members were appointed to the Applied Optics editorial board. In addition, a call for papers was issued for an inaugural feature issue. The papers appearing in the current issue are those that were submitted in response to that call for papers and that passed the rite of peer review. The quality and breadth of the papers demonstrate the wisdom of the society's decision. We have important contributions affecting such diverse areas as biologic imaging, drug delivery, tissue optics, and laser surgery. In addition, Applied Optics has seen a sharp increase in the number of regular submissions involving biomedical optics, and the quality and breadth of these papers also bode well for the future of the publication. In addition there is already another joint Applied Optics/Journal of the Optical Society of America A Feature Issue in process, entitled Diffusing Photons in Turbid Media, scheduled for publication in January 1997. We invite you to read the papers and to participate in the future of Biomedical Optics and Optical Biotechnology by submitting manuscripts for review by your peers. We thank the OSA board of editors for this opportunity, and we encourage our colleagues to submit their papers directly to the Optical Society in the future and to share ideas and thoughts on this new area of Applied Optics.

  2. Securing Information with Complex Optical Encryption Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-11

    optical setups and principles have been analyzed and sifted for the optical cryptography topology. The combination of different topology types is...feasible to create a new and complex topology type for optical cryptography . (5) A multiple-CCD system has been designed and applied in the...high flexibility and multi- dimensional capabilities. Compared with electronic cryptography , unique characteristics of optical encryption are

  3. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction.

    PubMed

    Angelsky, Oleg V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Gbur, Gregory J; Hanson, Steen G; Lee, Tim; Miyamoto, Yoko; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Wyant, James C

    2016-04-20

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers.

  4. Tunable optical assembly with vibration dampening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical assembly is formed by one or more piezoelectric fiber composite actuators having one or more optical fibers coupled thereto. The optical fiber(s) experiences strain when actuation voltage is applied to the actuator(s). Light passing through the optical fiber(s) is wavelength tuned by adjusting the actuation voltage.

  5. Holographic optics

    SciTech Connect

    Cindrich, I

    1988-01-01

    These proceeding collect paper on holographic optics. Topics include: holographic helmet displays; optical performance of holographic kinoforms; lR, visible, UV and XUV Bragg holograms; diffractive optics; holographic laser-protective eyewear; interferometry; and hologon deflectors.

  6. Fiber-optic rotational seismic system for investigation of the rotational events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Jerzy; Zinówko, Paweł

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents a new telemetric system for direct measurement and investigation the rotational components exist in seismic events. The FORS - fiber optic rotational seismometer and seismographs constructed on the base of the Sagnac interferometer are the elements of the system. The special construction of the system protects their elements remote control in real time via internet utilize the GSP/GSM connections. The first results according application autonomous FORS (AFORS) with accuracy in the range 4.9.10-9 - 6.1.10-8 rad/s in detection bandpass 1.66 - 212.30 Hz located in Ksiαz and Warsaw, as well as older one FORS-II (mounted in Ojców) are reported.

  7. Nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.W. . Inst. of Optics)

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics.

  8. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Gu, M

    2007-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  9. Optical Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  10. Woven fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A C; Courtney-Pratt, J S; Ross, E A

    1975-02-01

    In this paper we describe how the art of weaving can be applied to fiber optics in order to produce precisely controlled reproducible image guides and image dissectors. As examples of the types of device for which woven fiber optics are applicable, we describe a 3:1 interleaver for use with a cathode-ray tube to produce color images, and a high speed alpha numeric output device. The techniques of weaving fiber optics are discussed in sufficient detail in order to allow for further work. Although, in principle, one might be able to weave glass optical fibers, all the work described here made use of plastic optical fibers 0.25 mm in diameter.

  11. Electro-Optic Modulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An electro - optic modulator is used to modulate coherent light beams by the application of an electric potential. It combines a Fabry-Perot etalon and...a diffraction grating in a single unit. An etalon is constructed with an electro - optic material between reflecting surfaces. A voltage applied...between alternate, spaced-apart electrodes of a metal grid attached to one reflecting surface induces a diffraction grating in the electro optic material. Light entering the etalon is diffracted, reflected and efficiently coupled out.

  12. Knowledge of the Concept of Encephalic Death: Is This an Obstacle in the Acceptance of Donation and Transplantation of Organs Among Students of Nursing at the Medical University of Warsaw in Poland?

    PubMed

    Mikla, M; Rios, A; Lopez-Navas, A; Gotlib, J; Kilanska, D; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramirez, P; Lopez Montesinos, M J

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge and acceptance of the concept of brain death among future health professionals is essential. The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge of the concept of brain death among nursing students at the Medical University of Warsaw and determine the factors that affect it. Academic year 2011-2012, nursing students of the University of Poland. Sampling points in 5 compulsory-attendance nursing courses with a completion rate >80%. Validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Rios), anonymous and self-administered. The completion rate was 96% (793/828); 71% (n = 561) knew the concept of brain death, 22% (n = 178) did not know it, and 7% (n = 54) did not know that it implies the death of the patient. Variables related to the correct knowledge: 1) to be studying in 4th year compared with 1st year (85% vs 60%; P ≤ .001); 2) discuss the subject with family (76% vs 61%; P ≤ .001); 3) discuss with friends (73% vs 63%; P = .009); and 4) having a favorable attitude toward organ donation (74% vs 65%; P = .011). In the multivariate analysis, the variables that remained independent were studying in 4th year (odds ratio [OR], 3.809; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.006-5.823; P ≤ .001) and discussed with family concerning donation and transplantation (OR, 1.718; 95% CI, 1.241-2.381; P ≤ .001). One-third of the nursing students were unfamiliar with the concept of brain death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cefotaxime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from a Hospital in Warsaw, Poland: Identification of a New CTX-M-3 Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase That Is Closely Related to the CTX-M-1/MEN-1 Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gniadkowski, Marek; Schneider, Ines; Pałucha, Andrzej; Jungwirth, Renate; Mikiewicz, Barbara; Bauernfeind, Adolf

    1998-01-01

    A group of cefotaxime-resistant Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli isolates were collected by a clinical laboratory in a hospital in Warsaw, Poland, in July 1996. Detailed analysis has shown that all of these produced a β-lactamase (pI, 8.4) belonging to the CTX-M family, one of the minor extended-spectrum β-lactamase families with a strong cefotaxime-hydrolyzing activity. Sequencing has revealed that C. freundii isolates produced a new CTX-M-3 enzyme which is very closely related to the CTX-M-1/MEN-1 β-lactamase, sporadically identified in Europe over a period of 6 years. Amino acid sequences of these two β-lactamases differ at four positions: Val77Ala, Asp114Asn, Ser140Ala, and Asn288Asp (the first amino acid of each pair refers to CTX-M-1/MEN-1 and second refers to CTX-M-3). The partial sequence of the E. coli CTX-M gene was identical to the corresponding region of blaCTX-M-3, but a transconjugant of the E. coli isolate expressed higher levels of resistance to β-lactams than did C. freundii transconjugants. These resistance differences correlated with differences in plasmid DNA restriction patterns. Our results suggest that CTX-M genes have been spread among different species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the hospital and that the CTX-M-3-expressing C. freundii strain causing routine urinary tract infections has been maintained for a relatively long time in the hospital environment. PMID:9559791

  14. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  15. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  16. Optical microspectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  17. Assessment of Physical Activity by Applying IPAQ Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta; Stupnicki, Romuald; Lebiedzinski, Bartlomiej; Janczewska, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the suitability of the short 7-day IPAQ (self-completed) adapted to Polish population. Material and methods: Two surveys were conducted in 2005 on 296 random subjects (aged 20-60 years) from Warsaw and the Mazowiecki region. From these, 54 men and 79 women were requested to fill questionnaires, and 70 men and 93 women, were…

  18. Optical Symbolic Processor for Expert System Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-30

    editions are obsolete. F. - 2 - 1. EXISTING OPTICAL SHUFFLE-EXCHANGE NETWORK DESIGNS There has been increasing interest recently in the implementation...resolution is incorporated in the switch depends on how the mask or the age of a message is encoded and updated. 3.2. Acousto - optic gate The acoutooptic gate...J. Seymour, ’ Optical Computing and the Fredkin Gates,’ Applied Optics , 15 May 1986. [9] R. Cuykendall and D . McMillin, ’Control-specific Optical

  19. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  20. Applied Lasers (Selected Articles).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-20

    neglected, then the saturated magnetic field required to magnetize the specimen is Hs = N4’tMs (1) where N is the demagnetization factor which is...then the Faraday rotation of magnetic saturation is O = O2hcosy (2) where y is the angle between the direction of magnetization andH the direction of...optic ratio QF/o/ and an adjustable saturated magnetization . Therefore, it can be used in magneto-optic modulators, magneto- optic insulators, laser tops

  1. Nutritional optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy.

  2. [Analysis of causes and treatment of hearing loss in children from Department of Infant Diseases the Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Milewska-Bobula, Bogumiła; Lipka, Bozena; Radziszewska-Konopka, Marzanna; Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Niepokój, Katarzyna; Wertheim-Tyssarowska, Katarzyna; Mueller-Malesińska, Małgorzata; De Ines, Maja; Lechowicz, Urszula; Ksiazek-Zielińska, Edyta; Paprota, Agnieszka; Gajewska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify the frequency of different causes of congenital hearing loss and to investigate the age of treatment intervention. 197 children with hearing loss, hospitalized in the Department of Infant Diseases between 2007-2009. Three-level audiological examinations, clinical investigations, specific tests for selected congenital infections and GJB2 mutations, neuroimaging. In 14 children with negative screening test hearing loss was confirmed; in 14 with positive was excluded; in 5 newborns screening test was not performed. In 179/197 the confirmation of hearing impairment was obtained up to 6 months (90%). Sensorineural (176/197), bilateral (157/197) hearing loss dominated; conductive and mixed was in 21/197. In 97/176 children with sensorineural hearing loss, congenital CMV infection was confirmed; in 47/176 - GJB2 mutations; in 21 simultaneous CMV infection and GJB2 mutation; in 26 the reason was not identified. The hearing aids were applied in 128, in 76 up to 6 months; the cochlear implants received 36, mainly in the 1st. and 2nd. year of life. The improvement of hearing was obtained in 33. 1. Early identification of infants with hearing loss allows for an earlier introducing of comprehensive treatment and improvement of hearing. 2. The significant proportion of children with hearing loss in the course of congenital cytomegalovirus infection indicates the need to carry out tests to identify infection in newborns with abnormal hearing screening test. 3. Cochlear implants are now in Poland the standard method of treatment in partial and complete deafness in children, also the youngest.

  3. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  4. Bidirectional all-optical switches based on highly nonlinear optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Chunyu; Liu, Mengli; Yu, Weitian; Zhang, Yujia; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi

    2017-05-01

    All-optical switches have become one of the research focuses of nonlinear optics due to their fast switching speed. They have been applied in such fields as ultrafast optics, all-optical communication and all-optical networks. In this paper, based on symbolic computation, bidirectional all-optical switches are presented using analytic two-soliton solutions. Various types of soliton interactions are analyzed through choosing the different parameters of high-order dispersion and nonlinearity. Results indicate that bidirectional all-optical switches can be effectively achieved using highly nonlinear optical fibers.

  5. Electrochemical Design of Optical Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, V. E.; Kharintsev, S. S.; Salakhov, M. Kh.

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemical techniques for fabricating tapered gold nanoantennas (tips) are discussed. In the paper, the tunable design of nanoantennas is demonstrated. Tip parameters such as a tip apex curvature, mesoscopic morphology, aspect ratio and enhancement factor can be varied with etching electrolyte and applied voltage. The low-cost method makes tipehnahced optical spectroscopy and microscopy feasible for routine optical measurements beyond the diffraction limit.

  6. Optical waveguides for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    1992-07-01

    Possibilities of employing thin film optical waveguides for chemical analysis are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of integrated or planar optical elements in sensors which may be applied to continuous or in situ monitoring in biomedical, environmental, and chemical processes.

  7. Towards practical biocatalytic Baeyer-Villiger reactions: applying a thermostable enzyme in the gram-scale synthesis of optically-active lactones in a two-liquid-phase system

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Frank; Leca, François; Hollmann, Frank; Reetz, Manfred T

    2005-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are extremely promising catalysts useful for enantioselective oxidation reactions of ketones, but organic chemists have not used them widely due to several reasons. These include instability of the enzymes in the case of in vitro and even in vivo systems, reactant/product inhibition, problems with upscaling and the necessity of using specialized equipment. The present study shows that the thermally stable phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) and recently engineered mutants can be used as a practical catalysts for enantioselective Baeyer-Villiger oxidations of several ketones on a preparative scale under in vitro conditions. For this purpose several parameters such as buffer composition, the nature of the solvent system and the co-factor regeneration system were optimized. Overall a fairly versatile and efficient catalytic system for enantioselective laboratory scale BV-oxidations of ketones was developed, which can easily be applied even by those organic chemists who are not well versed in the use of enzymes. PMID:16542025

  8. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  9. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  10. Optical Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  11. Optical Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1992-04-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  12. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  13. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  14. Integrated Optical Circuit Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    with a carrier frequency exactly at phase match (w ■ OJQ). 68 I I’ I HI III I "I ■ ^^^^^m^r^^ REFLECTION COEFFICIENT...34 Applied Optics, v9, n 11,p 2444-2452, November 1^70 Marcuse , D., "TL Modes of Graded-Index Slab Waveguides," IFFt J of Quantum Electronics v QF

  15. Introduction to Optical Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias D; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2017-01-01

    Thirty years after their invention by Arthur Ashkin and colleagues at Bell Labs in 1986 [1], optical tweezers (or traps) have become a versatile tool to address numerous biological problems. Put simply, an optical trap is a highly focused laser beam that is capable of holding and applying forces to micron-sized dielectric objects. However, their development over the last few decades has converted these tools from boutique instruments into highly versatile instruments of molecular biophysics. This introductory chapter intends to give a brief overview of the field, highlight some important scientific achievements, and demonstrate why optical traps have become a powerful tool in the biological sciences. We introduce a typical optical setup, describe the basic theoretical concepts of how trapping forces arise, and present the quantitative position and force measurement techniques that are most widely used today.

  16. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  17. Optical keyboard

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  18. Automation of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Chang, Bo-Jui; Hsu, Long

    2000-07-01

    Optical tweezers is a newly developed instrument, which makes possible the manipulation of micro-optical particles under a microscope. In this paper, we present the automation of an optical tweezers which consists of a modified optical tweezers, equipped with two motorized actuators to deflect a 1 W argon laser beam, and a computer control system including a joystick. The trapping of a single bead and a group of lactoacidofilus was shown, separately. With the aid of the joystick and two auxiliary cursers superimposed on the real-time image of a trapped bead, we demonstrated the simple and convenient operation of the automated optical tweezers. By steering the joystick and then pressing a button on it, we assign a new location for the trapped bead to move to. The increment of the motion 0.04 (mu) m for a 20X objective, is negligible. With a fast computer for image processing, the manipulation of the trapped bead is smooth and accurate. The automation of the optical tweezers is also programmable. This technique may be applied to accelerate the DNA hybridization in a gene chip. The combination of the modified optical tweezers with the computer control system provides a tool for precise manipulation of micro particles in many scientific fields.

  19. Co-existence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants and mutations in gyrA and parC among fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a tertiary hospital in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Katarzyna; Wołkowicz, Tomasz; Zacharczuk, Katarzyna; Rzeczkowska, Magdalena; Chróst, Anna; Bareja, Elżbieta; Olak, Monika; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2015-03-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and the distribution of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC were investigated in 215 ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC>1mg/L) clinical Enterobacteriaceae collected during a 6-month prospective study in a tertiary hospital in Warsaw, Poland. PMQR determinants were present in 49 isolates (22.8%), among which aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB1 predominated (85.7% and 26.5%, respectively). Mutations in gyrA and parC QRDRs were detected among 89.8% of isolates (MIC≥4mg/L). Changes in Ser-83, Ala-84 and Asp-87 in GyrA and Ser-80 and Glu-84 in ParC were detected. Five isolates with ciprofloxacin MICs in the range 1.5-16 mg/L were found to have unaltered QRDRs, with PMQR as the only fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance trait detected. The remaining 44 PMQR-positive isolates were found to carry altered QRDRs. Three substitutions (two in GyrA and one in ParC) were detected in 23 isolates, whilst 8 isolates carried four mutations (two in GyrA and two in ParC). One isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae with two amino acid substitutions in the ParC QRDR in the presence of aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB1 had a ciprofloxacin MIC of 16mg/L. The results presented here show that FQ resistance in these clinical Enterobacteriaceae is a complex interplay between PMQR determinants and mutations in gyrA and parC rather than a single stepwise accumulation of mutations in the gyrase and topoisomerase subunits. In addition, these results show the role of PMQR determinants in promoting QRDR mutations and the acquisition of high-level FQ resistance in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Maragò, Onofrio M.; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    1. Introduction; Part I. Theory: 2. Ray optics; 3. Dipole approximation; 4. Optical beams and focusing; 5. Electromagnetic theory; 6. Computational methods; 7. Brownian motion; Part II. Practice: 8. Building an optical tweezers; 9. Data acquisition and optical tweezers calibration; 10. Photonic force microscope; 11. Wavefront engineering and holographic optical tweezers; 12. Advanced techniques; Part III. Applications: 13. Single molecule biophysics; 14. Cell biology; 15. Spectroscopy; 16. Optofluidics and lab on a chip; 17. Colloid science; 18. Microchemistry; 19. Aerosol science; 20. Statistical physics; 21. Nanothermodynamics; 22. Plasmonics; 23. Nanostructures; 24. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms; 25. Towards the quantum regime at the mesoscale; Index.

  1. Fluidic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  2. Optical Micromachining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) with Marshall Space Flight Center, Potomac Photonics, Inc., constructed and demonstrated a unique tool that fills a need in the area of diffractive and refractive micro-optics. It is an integrated computer-aided design and computer-aided micro-machining workstation that will extend the benefits of diffractive and micro-optic technology to optical designers. Applications of diffractive optics include sensors and monitoring equipment, analytical instruments, and fiber optic distribution and communication. The company has been making diffractive elements with the system as a commercial service for the last year.

  3. Bio-optical Dynamics and the Forecasting of Bio-optical Variability in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    LONG-TERM GOAL. Research on oceanic bio -optical processes and the prediction of ocean bio -optical properties requires coupled physical-biological...develop the bio -optical model component of the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS); ii) to apply the bio -optical model to the study of real ocean...dynamical processes which govern the variability of bio -optical properties and associated effects on biogeochemical and ecosystem dynamical processes; iii

  4. Bio-optical Dynamics and the Forecasting of Bio-optical Variability in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    LONG-TERM GOAL. Research on oceanic bio -optical processes and the prediction of ocean bio -optical properties requires coupled physical-biological...prove such models, focusing specifically on the bio -optical component. Ultimately, this research is directed towards the understanding of optical and...technical objectives of this project are i) to develop the bio -optical model component of the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS); ii) to apply the bio

  5. Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Lynn K

    2016-10-28

    Optic nerve diseases arise from many different etiologies including inflammatory, neoplastic, genetic, infectious, ischemic, and idiopathic. Understanding some of the characteristics of the most common optic neuropathies along with therapeutic approaches to these diseases is helpful in designing recommendations for individual patients. Although many optic neuropathies have no specific treatment, some do, and it is those potentially treatable or preventable conditions which need to be recognized in order to help patients regain their sight or develop a better understanding of their own prognosis. In this chapter several diseases are discussed including idiopathic intracranial hypertension, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathies, hereditary optic neuropathies, trauma, and primary tumors of the optic nerve. For each condition there is a presentation of the signs and symptoms of the disease, in some conditions the evaluation and diagnostic criteria are highlighted, and where possible, current therapy or past trials are discussed.

  6. Optical thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  7. NATO’s Warsaw Summit: In Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-14

    fighting in Ukraine. Russia’s actions in Ukraine and Eastern Europe more broadly have upended NATO’s post- Cold War transformation from a military...as the biggest reinforcement of NATO’s collective defense since the end of the Cold War. At the Wales summit, the allies agreed to a Readiness...particularly in sensitive areas such as cyber policy. Despite the fact that they have 22 members in common , NATO and the EU have historically

  8. NATO-Warsaw Pact. Force Mobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Light Aviation Corps (Aviation Ligre de I’ Arme de Terre ) and today these air- fields house two combat helicopter regiments of the Force d’Action Rapide...Boyon convoque des dtats gdndraux de rservistes de l’armde de Terre ," Le Monde, 16 January 1988. 314 RUIZ PALMER 30. For a more extensive treatment of the...34Attention ’J-100,’" Terre , Air, Mer (TAM), No. 431, 25 February 1982, p. 6. 40. Jacques Isnard, "M. Quilts r~pond aux critiques des g6ndraux Arnold et Mry

  9. Method of shifting and fixing optical frequency of an optical resonator, and optical resonator made by same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Martin, Jan M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of shifting and fixing an optical frequency of an optical resonator to a desired optical frequency, and an optical resonator made by such a method are provided. The method includes providing an optical resonator having a surface and a refractive index, and obtaining a coating composition having a predetermined concentration of a substance and having a refractive index that is substantially similar to the refractive index of the optical resonator. The coating composition inherently possesses a thickness when it is applied as a coating. The method further includes determining a coating ratio for the surface of the optical resonator and applying the coating composition onto a portion of the surface of the optical resonator based upon the determined coating ratio.

  10. Stiffness of RBC optical confinement affected by optical clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    In vivo optical trapping is a novel applied direction of an optical manipulation, which enables one to noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of cells and tissues in living animals directly. But an application area of this direction is limited because strong scattering of many biological tissues. An optical clearing enables one to decrease the scattering and therefore increase a depth of light penetration, decrease a distortion of light beam, improve a resolution in imaging applications. Now novel methods had appeared for a measurement an optical clearing degree at a cellular level. But these methods aren't applicable in vivo. In this paper we present novel measurement method of estimate of the optical clearing, which are based on a measurement of optical trap stiffness. Our method may be applicable in vivo.

  11. The Applied Mathematics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martha J.

    This report describes the Applied Mathematics Laboratory (AML) operated by the Department of Mathematics at Towson State University, Maryland. AML is actually a course offered to selected undergraduates who are given the opportunity to apply their skills in investigating industrial and governmental problems. By agreement with sponsoring…

  12. What are applied ethics?

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  13. Optical link upgrade by DDMS technique with compensating fiber in optical cable closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, Vladimir A.; Dashkov, Michael V.; Bourdine, Anton V.; Volkov, Kirill A.

    2010-01-01

    A well-known dense dispersion management soliton (DDMS) technique is applied to increase bandwidth of metropolitan area network fiber optic links. This technique requires an installation of optical cables with dispersion compensating fibers (DCFs), which leads to high costs for upgrading of installed fiber optic links. To become the DDMS more applicable, we propose to place DCFs in optical fiber closures. Here results of numerical simulations of optical pulse propagation and following bit-error-ratio estimation in fiber optic link with DCFs in optical closures are represented.

  14. Optical computer motherboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Xu, Guoda; Bartha, John M.; Gruntman, Michael A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the application of precision plastic optics into a communication/computer sub-system, such as a hybrid computer motherboard. We believe that using optical waveguides for next-generation computer motherboards can provide a high performance alternative for present multi-layer printed circuit motherboards. In response to this demand, we suggest our novel concept of a hybrid motherboard based on an internal-fiber-coupling (IFC) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical backplane. The IFC/WDM backplane provides dedicated Tx/Rx connections, and applies low-cost, high-performance components, including CD LDs, GRIN plastic fibers, molding housing, and nonimaging optics connectors. Preliminary motherboard parameters are: speed 100 MHz/100 m, or 1 GHz/10 m; fiber loss approximately 0.01 dB/m; almost zero fan-out/fan-in optical power loss, and eight standard wavelength channels. The proposed hybrid computer motherboard, based on innovative optical backplane technology, should solve low-speed, low-parallelism bottlenecks in present electric computer motherboards.

  15. EDITORIAL: Polarization Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Jari; Friesem, Asher A.; Friberg, Ari T.

    2004-03-01

    transmission of intense light enable research into the chirality of nanogratings. Pump-probe techniques allow one to visualize the effects of the nanostructure topology on the surface mode excitation. In quantum optics the coherent control of polarization may lead to new and fascinating applications. Some authors of invited papers at the conference have written review-type introductory sections—they were encouraged to do so—but all contributions are genuine research papers with original results, and were judged according to the normal publication criteria of the journal. It is our pleasure to thank all authors for making this a splendid special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics.

  16. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  17. Electro-Optical Resonant Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Robinson, Deborah L.; Hemmati, Hamid

    1993-01-01

    Electro-optical phase modulator includes electro-optical crystal in resonant cavity suitable for use in transmitting digital data on laser beam at data rate of 10 MHz. Switching voltages applied to crystal, thereby switching cavity onto and off resonance, and large phase dispersion occurring near resonance provides output phase modulation. Driving voltages smaller than those of nonresonant modulators. Laser-damage thresholds of apparatus, incorporating bulk optics, inherently greater than modulators based on integrated optics.

  18. Corrective Optics For Camera On Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Meinel, Aden B.

    1994-01-01

    Assembly of tilted, aspherical circularly symmetric mirrors used as corrective optical subsystem for camera mounted on telescope exhibiting both large spherical wave-front error and inherent off-axis astigmatism. Subsystem provides unobscured camera aperture and diffraction-limited camera performance, despite large telescope aberrations. Generic configuration applied in other optical systems in which aberations deliberately introduced into telescopes and corrected in associated cameras. Concept of corrective optical subsystem provides designer with additional degrees of freedom used to optimize optical system.

  19. Optical fiber technology in Poland: four decades of development 1975-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dorosz, Jan; Wójcik, Waldemar; Mergo, Paweł; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a subjective yet critical authors' description of arbitrarily chosen series of events associated with the development of optical fibre technology (OFT) in Poland. There are reminding pioneering research activities in the second half of the seventies in Optical Fibre Technological Centres in Lublin (UMCS), in Warsaw (in ONPMP), which were joined soon after by Białystok (Polytechnics and Glass Works). There are mentioned with friendliness the key persons of that period, and in particular the pioneers of OFT in Poland, which are not with us anymore. There is emphasized the role of the first national symposia on "Optical Fibres and Their Applications", which played an integration role for the newly established research community of OFT and photonics. Omitting the complex history of the development of OFT in Poland during the intermediate years, we bravely jump to today, a day which would have not existed now, if the pioneering period had not been so rich in research results. The authors would like to show in particular these research, scientific and logistic activities, which despite difficult conditions of science development in Poland, when looked at from some distance in time and space, seemed to be then well ahead of their time.

  20. Optical computing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  1. Optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Block, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention just over 20 years ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology and physics. Capabilities have evolved from simple manipulation to the application of calibrated forces on—and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of—optically trapped objects. We review progress in the development of optical trapping apparatus, including instrument design considerations, position detection schemes and calibration techniques, with an emphasis on recent advances. We conclude with a brief summary of innovative optical trapping configurations and applications. PMID:16878180

  2. Optical computing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  3. Optical Metacages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-11-01

    We suggest a novel strategy for spectrally selective optical shielding of arbitrary shaped volumes by arranging specifically designed two- or three-layer nanowires around an area that needs to be protected. We show that such nanowire shields preserve their functionality for almost arbitrary geometry, and we term such structures optical metacages. We analyze several designs of such optical metacages made from either metallic or dielectric materials with experimentally measured parameters. We employ a semianalytical approach and also verify our results by numerical simulations. We further study optical properties of the introduced metacages in both near- and far-field regions, as well as analyze their frequency selectivity and the vanishing backscattering regime.

  4. Optical engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T T

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Engineering thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was created in the summer of 1996 with the following main objectives: (1) to foster and stimulate leading edge optical engineering research and efforts key to carrying out LLNL's mission and enabling major new programs; (2) to bring together LLNL's broad spectrum of high level optical engineering expertise to support its programs. Optical engineering has become a pervasive and key discipline, with applications across an extremely wide range of technologies, spanning the initial conception through the engineering refinements to enhance revolutionary application. It overlaps other technologies and LLNL engineering thrust areas.

  5. Applied Physics at Strathclyde.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, H.; Twidell, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines and describes the content of an applied physics course offered for the four year honors and the three year pass degrees. The course stresses three components: principal subjects, industrial projects, and subsidiary subjects. (GA)

  6. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Mesothelioma Awareness Day: Find out ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2017 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  7. Geomorphology: Pure and applied

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The book summarizes the history of intellectual debate in geomorphology and describes modern developments both ''pure'' and ''applied.'' The history begins well before W.M. Davis and follows through to such debates as those concerned with the Pleistocene. Modern developments in pure geomorphology are cast in terms of chapters on form, process, materials, and methods analysis. The applied chapters concentrate on environmental hazards and resources, and their management.

  8. Applied Learning Networks (ALN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2007-7 Final Technical Report January 2007 APPLIED LEARNING NETWORKS (ALN) University of Southern California...any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them...1-0051 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLIED LEARNING NETWORKS (ALN) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62301E 5d. PROJECT NUMBER T981 5e. TASK NUMBER US

  9. Optically controlled integrated optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soref, R. A.

    1986-02-01

    This invention relates to an optically controlled integrated optical switch having a body made up of entirely crystalline silicon. More specifically, the body has a pair of channel waveguides intersecting at an X-like configuration forming therein an intersection crossover region. An electrically controlled optical source is positioned over the crossover region to shine intense, short-wave light on the crossover region in order to generate numerous electron-hole pairs in the waveguide material. These charge carriers alter the refractive index of the intersection region. A controllable current source is used to adjust the optical output power of the optical source. This, in turn, changes the amount of optical cross coupling of light between the intersecting waveguides.

  10. Computational optical sensing and imaging: introduction to feature issue.

    PubMed

    Gerwe, David R; Harvey, Andrew; Gehm, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    The 2012 Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging (COSI) conference of the Optical Society of America was one of six colocated meetings composing the Imaging and Applied Optics Congress held in Monterey, California, 24-28 June. COSI, together with the Imaging Systems and Applications, Optical Sensors, Applied Industrial Optics, and Optical Remote Sensing of the Environment conferences, brought together a diverse group of scientists and engineers sharing a common interest in measuring and processing of information carried by optical fields. This special feature includes several papers based on presentations given at the 2012 COSI conference as well as independent contributions, which together highlight several important trends.

  11. Entropy and information optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper we shall begin our discussion with the relationship between optics and humans, in which we see that light has indeed provided us with a very valuable source of information. A general optical communication concept is discussed, in which we see that a picture is indeed worth more than a thousand words. Based on Shannon's information theory, one can show that entropy and information can be simply traded. One of the most intriguing laws of thermodynamics must be the second law, in which we have found that there exists a profound relationship between the physical entropy and information. Without this relationship, information theory would be totally useless in physical science. By applying this relationship, Maxwell and diffraction-limited demons are discussed. And finally, samples of information optics are provided.

  12. Electrically driven optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  13. Optical interconnection of optical modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamschula, Marius P.; Caulfield, H. J.; Shamir, Joseph

    1990-12-01

    The most plausible possible uses of nonlinear optics as the bases for interconnections among complex optical modules are evaluated, with a view to such applications as neural networks that entail large numbers of interconnections and numerous stages. Optical interconnection allows such a system to be composed of many modules as well as to incorporate switching- and amplification-function optical nonlinearities. While it is possible to achieve a pixel-by-pixel, diffraction-limited flat-field relay with nonlinearity, where the interconnect allows for cascadability, the wave-particle duality is destroyed between stages.

  14. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases…

  15. Camera Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    The camera presents an excellent way to illustrate principles of geometrical optics. Basic camera optics of the single-lens reflex camera are discussed, including interchangeable lenses and accessories available to most owners. Several experiments are described and results compared with theoretical predictions or manufacturer specifications.…

  16. Optical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyant, James; Hochberg, Eric; Breault, Robert; Greivenkamp, John; Hunt, Gary; Mason, Pete; Mcguire, James; Meinel, Aden; Morris, Mike; Scherr, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Optical testing is one of the most vital elements in the process of preparing an optical instrument for launch. Without well understood, well controlled, and well documented test procedures, current and future mission goals will be jeopardized. We should keep in mind that the reason we test is to provide an opportunity to catch errors, oversights, and problems on the ground, where solutions are possible and difficulties can be rectified. Consequently, it is necessary to create tractable test procedures that truly provide a measure of the performance of all optical elements and systems under conditions which are close to those expected in space. Where testing is not feasible, accurate experiments are required in order to perfect models that can exactly predict the optical performance. As we stretch the boundaries of technology to perform more complex space and planetary investigations, we must expand the technology required to test the optical components and systems which we send into space. As we expand the observational wavelength ranges, so must we expand our range of optical sources and detectors. As we increase resolution and sensitivity, our understanding of optical surfaces to accommodate more stringent figure and scatter requirements must expand. Only with research and development in these areas can we hope to achieve success in the ever increasing demands made on optical testing by the highly sophisticated missions anticipated over the next two decades. Technology assessment and development plan for surface figure, surface roughness, alignment, image quality, radiometric quantities, and stray light measurement are presented.

  17. Camera Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    The camera presents an excellent way to illustrate principles of geometrical optics. Basic camera optics of the single-lens reflex camera are discussed, including interchangeable lenses and accessories available to most owners. Several experiments are described and results compared with theoretical predictions or manufacturer specifications.…

  18. Optical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Optical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  20. GREAT optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Gentner, Armin; Graf, Urs U.; Philipp, Martin; Rabanus, David; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2004-10-01

    The German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) is a first generation PI instrument for the SOFIA telescope, developed by a collaboration between the MPIfR, KOSMA, DLR, and the MPAe. The first three institutes each contribute one heterodyne receiver channel to operate at 1.9, 2.7 and 4.7 THz, respectively. A later addition of a e.g. 1.4 THz channel is planned. The GREAT instrument is developed to carry two cryostats at once. That means that any two of the three frequencies can be observed simultaneously. Therefore, we need to be able to quickly exchange the optics benches, the local oscillator (LO) subsystems, and the cryostats containing the mixer devices. This demands a high modularity and flexibility of our receiver concept. Our aim is to avoid the need for realignment when swapping receiver channels. After an overview of the common GREAT optics, a detailed description of several parts (optics benches, calibration units, diplexer, focal plane imager) is given. Special emphasis is given to the LO optics of the KOSMA 1.9 THz channel, because its backward wave oscillator has an astigmatic output beam profile, which has to be corrected for. We developed astigmatic off-axis mirrors to compensate this astigmatism. The mirrors are manufactured in-house on a 5 axis CNC milling machine. We use this milling machine to obtain optical components with highest surface accuracy (about 5 microns) appropriate for these wavelengths. Based on the CNC machining capabilities we present our concept of integrated optics, which means to manufacture optical subsystems monolithically. The optics benches are located on three point mounts, which in conjunction with the integrated optics concept ensure the required adjustment free optics setup.

  1. Applied Astronomy: An Optical Survey for Space Debris at GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriquez, H.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph is presented to discuss space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The topics include: 1) Syncom1 launched February 14, 1963 Failed on orbit insertion 1st piece of GEO debris!; 2) Example of recent GEO payload: XM-2 Rock satellite for direct broadcast radio; 3) MODEST Michigan Orbital DEbrisSurvey Telescope the telescope formerly known as the Curtis-Schmidt; 4) GEO Debris Survey; 5) Examples of Detections; 6) Brightness Variations Common; 7) Observed Angular Rates; 8) Two Populations at GEO; 9) High Area-to-Mass Ratio Material (A/M); 10) Examples of MLI; 11) Examples of MLI Release in LEO; 12) Liou & Weaver (2005) models; 13) ESA 1-m Telescope Survey; 14) Two Telescopes March 2007 Survey and Follow-up; 15) Final Eccentricity; and 16) How control Space Debris?

  2. Atmospheric detection applying Laguerre optics to femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Garcia, C.

    Development of new femtosecond lasers has revolutionized the active remote sensing systems Detection techniques based on light detection and ranging LIDAR have significantly improved thanks to this laser features All instruments based on LIDAR use a laser that transmits light out to a target This light interacts with and is reflected or scattered back to the instrument where it is analyzed Changes in the properties of the light enable to determine some characteristics of the target Different kinds of lasers are used depending on what is intended to measure A very important field of application has been found in the atmosphere The worrying levels of pollution and aerosol have made necessary the study of ozone profile atmospheric ozone solar radiation terrestrial radiation etc The presence of elements in the atmosphere such as ozone O3 oxygen O2 O4 nitrogen dioxide NO2 sulphur dioxide SO2 chlorine monoxide ClO or chlorine dioxide ClO2 can be detected using light in the infrared spectrum from 700 nm to 350um Each component has a different response to wavelength what allows determining if it appears and in what concentration At the same time the development of lasers specially those that generate ultrashort pulses obtains higher power levels higher spatial resolution and less distortion on the measurement producing better results They allow dynamic analysis in real time of chemical reactions and studies of ultrashort physics processes something not possible until now The purpose of this paper is not only for making a

  3. Fabrication of stable lightweight Be-38Al optics and optical support structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes recent aerospace applications where Be-38Al (AlBeMet) has been successfully applied to produce optics and stable support structures. The information presented touches on historical uses of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum in satellite optical systems, and then presents recent uses and developments of Be-38Al and its application to optical substrates and stable support structures.

  4. Optical Fiber Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  5. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass. 6 figs.

  6. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  7. Optical materials research.

    PubMed

    Parsons, W F

    1972-01-01

    There are eras in research when days are filled with excitement because unique materials are being produced and researchers "think what nobody else has thought" (Albert von Szent Gyorgyi). Such were the periods when many new optical glasses emerged from the laboratories of the Eastman Kodak Company and when the hot pressing technology was applied to produce new polycrystalline materials. This paper discusses the people and accomplishments of those periods.

  8. Optical Settling Tube.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-21

    Publishing Company 358 * of the authors quoted used simple optical devices with a white light source and employed detectors which were not temperture ...attenuation efficiency factor K(D) (also known as the effective area coeffi- *l q° .’.’-C. - .. 𔄁 :-: ? ....- " .- --. 2 2.: : ... - 360 c ien t). It then...measurements, the effect of the curve obtained by Rose (1952) is not generally valid since it applies to a ..: collimation angle of 10 and was obtained for

  9. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  10. On applying cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Optical Pickup Feeding Velocity Profile Design of Optical Disk Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juhn Ho; Seo, Heui-Sik; Lee, Jung Joon; Min, Byunghoon; Son, Heuigi

    2001-03-01

    Residual vibrations and jerks of a pickup body caused by the flexibility of an optical pickup feeding system in optical disk storage may degrade the quality of reading and writing, and increase the track access time. In this study, a feeding velocity profile that suppresses the residual vibrations and jerks is calculated and applied to a stepping-motor-driven feeding system. The calculated feeding velocity profile shows good results compared to the conventional feeding velocity profile of trapezoidal shape.

  12. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  13. Eliminating crystals in non-oxide optical fiber preforms and optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R. (Inventor); Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for eliminating crystals in non-oxide optical fiber preforms as well as optical fibers drawn therefrom. The optical-fiber-drawing axis of the preform is aligned with the force of gravity. A magnetic field is applied to the preform as it is heated to at least a melting temperature thereof. The magnetic field is applied in a direction that is parallel to the preform's optical-fiber-drawing axis. The preform is then cooled to a temperature that is less than a glass transition temperature of the preform while the preform is maintained in the magnetic field. When the processed preform is to have an optical fiber drawn therefrom, the preform's optical-fiber-drawing axis is again aligned with the force of gravity and a magnetic field is again applied along the axis as the optical fiber is drawn from the preform.

  14. Roadmap on optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbas, Augustine M.; Jacob, Zubin; Dal Negro, Luca; Engheta, Nader; Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Menon, Vinod; Ferrera, Marcello; Kinsey, Nathaniel; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Shalaev, Vladimir; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Valentine, Jason; Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony; Narimanov, Evgenii; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Alù, Andrea; Poutrina, Ekaterina; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Noginov, Mikhail A.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Liu, Xiaoying; Nealey, Paul F.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Optical metamaterials have redefined how we understand light in notable ways: from strong response to optical magnetic fields, negative refraction, fast and slow light propagation in zero index and trapping structures, to flat, thin and perfect lenses. Many rules of thumb regarding optics, such as μ = 1, now have an exception, and basic formulas, such as the Fresnel equations, have been expanded. The field of metamaterials has developed strongly over the past two decades. Leveraging structured materials systems to generate tailored response to a stimulus, it has grown to encompass research in optics, electromagnetics, acoustics and, increasingly, novel hybrid material responses. This roadmap is an effort to present emerging fronts in areas of optical metamaterials that could contribute and apply to other research communities. By anchoring each contribution in current work and prospectively discussing future potential and directions, the authors are translating the work of the field in selected areas to a wider community and offering an incentive for outside researchers to engage our community where solid links do not already exist.

  15. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    PubMed

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  16. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  17. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  18. Applied research on glucansucrases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although glycansucrases have been known for over 70 years, they remain relatively unknown except to a small group of researchers. Practical, applied research on glycansucrases has been focused on certain key areas. The earliest of these was the development of blood plasma extenders from dextran, d...

  19. Applied Vocational Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Developed for use in teaching a two-semester, one-unit course, this course guide is intended to aid the high school instructor in teaching mathematical problem-solving and computational skills to vocational education students. The state-adopted textbook for general mathematics III, "Applied General Mathematics" serves as the major…

  20. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of Western Europe; Labor migration from the south to…

  1. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  2. Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  3. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  4. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  5. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of Western Europe; Labor migration from the south to…

  6. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  7. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  8. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  9. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  10. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  11. A study of optical design and optimization of laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.-M.; Fang, Yi-Chin

    2013-09-01

    This paper propose a study of optical design of laser beam shaping optics with aspheric surface and application of genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using collimated laser beam light, aspheric lenses in order to achieve best results.

  12. Electrically Tunable Optical Delay Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    conjointly pursued for improved monolithic ODL device design was attempts to shed the simple DBR approach, and investigate other novel, perhaps aperiodic...tunable optical delay lines. Our approach focuses on monolithic semiconductor multilayer heterostructures (Distributed Bragg Reflector) to produce true...time delays for incident transmitted optical pulses. Quantum wells are grown in every other layer of the DBR stack. When a field is applied across

  13. Compact optical microfiber phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueliang; Belal, M; Chen, G Y; Song, Zhangqi; Brambilla, G; Newson, T P

    2012-02-01

    A compact optical microfiber phase modulator with MHz bandwidth is presented. A micrometer-diameter microfiber is wound on a millimeter-diameter piezoelectric ceramic rod with two electrodes. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic, the rod is strained, leading to a phase change along the microfiber; because of the small size, the optical microfiber phase modulator can have as high as a few MHz bandwidth response.

  14. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  15. Fiber optic combiner and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The investigation of the possible development of two optical devices, one to take two images as inputs and to present their arithmetic sum as a single output, the other to take one image as input and present two identical images as outputs is described. Significant engineering time was invested in establishing precision fiber optics drawing capabilities, real time monitoring of the fiber size and exact measuring of fiber optics ribbons. Various assembly procedures and tooling designs were investigated and prototype models were built and evaluated that established technical assurance that the device was feasible and could be fabricated. Although the interleaver specification in its entirety was not achieved, the techniques developed in the course of the program improved the quality of images transmitted by fiber optic arrays by at least an order of magnitude. These techniques are already being applied to the manufacture of precise fiber optic components.

  16. Secure optical communication using antisqueezing

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaru, Tatsuya; Ban, Masashi

    2006-09-15

    When considering an application of quantum-information technology, we should consider realistic conditions first. From this point of view, we propose using antisqueezed light as a resource for optical communication because antisqueezing maintains its nature even after loss and amplification. Applying antisqueezed light to cipher communication using randomized sender bases, we can increase, by high order of magnitude, the bit-error rate of eavesdroppers who do not have the basis information. Even at macroscopic optical intensity, an ordinary level of optical communication, we can cause the bit-error rate of eavesdroppers to be as high as it would be at low intensity, through increased antisqueezing depending on optical intensity, leading to more secure optical communication.

  17. All optical phase stepping for optical imaging with nonlinearity in specialty fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Seok; Kim, Joo Ha; Kim, Bok-Hyeon; Eom, Tae Joong; Choi, Eun-Seo

    2015-03-01

    Refractive index variation in rare-earth doped specialty fiber can be possible through resonantly enhanced optical nonlinearity with the assistance of an optical pumping. The quantity of the variation under low-power optical pumping is enough to induce phase shift of 2π. By using this nonlinear effect in the specialty fiber, optical imaging system can perform phase shift-based optical imaging without mechanically controlled phase stepping. The pump-induced refractive index from the specialty fiber in reference arm of interferometer can produce optical delay depending on applied optical pumping power. At low optical power under few hundred mW, optical delay corresponding to 2π can be yielded in the reference arm efficiently. Contrast to the conventional mechanical phase stepping method, optically actuated phase stepping with the specialty optical fiber can avoid drawback of mechanical hysteresis and requirement of high voltage controllable electronics. The feasibility of the proposed method on optical imaging is suggested with demonstrating full range imaging in optical coherence tomography. Extended imaging range under optical phase stepping was successfully presented. The proposed method could be applied for detailed control of phase shift-based interferometry.

  18. Optic Neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision. The Eye MD also examines the optic nerve with ophthalmoscopy for swelling and dilated blood vessels. Other tests performed may include an MRI, a spinal tap (lumbar puncture), and blood tests. What is the prognosis ...

  19. Optical disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Swafford, B.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the different types of optical storage technology is presented. Research efforts to integrate this technology into the VAX/VMS environment are discussed. In addition, plans for future applications of optical disk technology are described. The applications should prove to be beneficial to the NSSDC user community as a whole. Of particular interest is the concentration on the collaboration with the Dynamics Explorer project.

  20. Optical Firmware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1989-01-01

    Data-processing system exploits high speeds inherent in optical elements. Instruction sets for different computer operations reside on different external memory chips. Laser diodes activated for each operation generate light, reflected by holographic optical element to designated receptors in arithmetic and logic unit. Pattern of light beams embodies instruction set at given instant. With potential ability to reprogram in real time, conceptual system applicable to task-driven programming or artificial intelligence.

  1. Ocean optics

    SciTech Connect

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  2. Quality in applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sten, T.

    1993-12-01

    Science is in many senses a special kind of craft and only skilled craftsmen are able to distinguish good work from bad. Due to the variation in approaches, methods and even philosophical basis, it is nearly impossible to derive a general set of quality criteria for scientific work outside specific research traditions. Applied science introduces a new set of quality criteria having to do with the application of results in practical situations and policy making. A scientist doing basic research relates mainly to the scientific community of which he is a member, while in applied contract research the scientist has to consider the impact of his results both for the immediate users and upon interest groups possibly being affected. Application thus raises a whole new set of requirements having to do with business ethics, policy consequences and societal ethics in general.

  3. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  4. Nanoengineering Applied to Tungsten

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    and R. Z. Valiev ARL-RP- 123 May 2006 A reprint from the Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tungsten, Refractory...Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-RP- 123 May 2006 Nanoengineering Applied to Tungsten Q. Wei University of North Carolina-Charlotte B. E...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-RP- 123 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 11. SPONSOR

  5. Applied Cognitive Science.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Cognitive Science Inter action lReplacement Focus on Person Focus on System m~odels ~Ment Models M;7l t Systems change Explanation and Cognitive Undestanding ... relationships between elements but leaves specific attributes of the elements behind. Hence it is a mapping only of the Applied Cognitive Science 12...structural relationships between elements rather than a complete mapping of all the properties of elements in the two systems. We can illustrate these ideas

  6. Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean P; Brongersma, Mark L; Cai, Wenshan

    2014-08-11

    Metamaterials have not only enabled unprecedented flexibility in producing unconventional optical properties that are not found in nature, they have also provided exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with high-order properties correlated to linear behaviour. Two particularly compelling directions are active metamaterials, whose optical properties can be purposely tailored by external stimuli in a reversible manner, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light waves. Here, by exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically controlled nonlinear optical processes from a metamaterial. Both second harmonic generation and optical rectification, enhanced by the resonance behaviour in the metamaterial absorber, are modulated externally with applied voltage signals. Our results reveal an opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electro-optic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities.

  7. Applied biotechnology in nematology.

    PubMed

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B

    1993-12-01

    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  8. Applied science. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Such categories as applied science and pure science can be thought of as "ideological." They have been contested in the public sphere, exposing long-term intellectual commitments, assumptions, balances of power, and material interests. This group of essays explores the contest over applied science in Britain and the United States during the nineteenth century. The essays look at the concept in the context of a variety of neighbors, including pure science, technology, and art. They are closely related and connected to contemporary historiographic debate. Jennifer Alexander links the issues raised to a recent paper by Paul Forman. Paul Lucier and Graeme Gooday deal with the debates in the last quarter of the century in the United States and Britain, respectively. Robert Bud deals with the earlier part of the nineteenth century, with an eye specifically on the variety of concepts hybridized under the heading of "applied science." Eric Schatzberg looks at the erosion of the earlier concept of art. As a whole, the essays illuminate both long-term changes and nuanced debate and are themselves intended to provoke further reflection on science in the public sphere.

  9. Optical micromachined pressure sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Diogenes; Parsons, Philip

    1992-08-01

    An optical pressure sensor has been designed using silicon micromachining technology. A resonant silicon beam is mounted above a diaphragm and its resonant frequency changes with applied pressure. The sensor is temperature compensated by way of a second pressure-insensitive resonator. Both resonators are optically addressed via the same optical fiber. The sensor is designed to give an overall accuracy of 0.5 percent full-scale pressure, which is currently between 130 kPa or 3 MPa. Optical technology allows the optical pressure sensor to operate in a harsh aerospace environment where electronic pressure sensors cannot survive.

  10. Dynamic testbed laboratory and micro-optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T.; Erwin, K.; Froehlich, F.; Kann, J.; Li, W.; Schlichting, W.; Shetty, R.; Walker, E.; Wang, M.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of this research are as follows: to understand the three classes of superresolution and their behavior in optical data storage systems; to investigate new and improved components and techniques in the optical system for data detection and servo control; to apply micro-optic components to the optical system to reduce size and weight; to investigate techniques, such as near-field optical probes, for recording data densities beyond that possible with superresolution; and to understand and find solutions for problems associated with dynamic testing, especially those that arise when evaluating blue-sensitive media.

  11. Optical metrology at the Optical Sciences Center: an historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creath, Katherine; Parks, Robert E.

    2014-10-01

    The Optical Sciences Center (OSC) begun as a graduate-level applied optics teaching institution to support the US space effort. The making of optics representative of those used in other space programs was deemed essential. This led to the need for optical metrology: at first Hartmann tests, but almost immediately to interferometric tests using the newly invented HeNe laser. Not only were new types of interferometers needed, but the whole infrastructure that went with testing, fringe location methods, aberration removal software and contour map generation to aid the opticians during polishing needed to be developed. Over the last half century more rapid and precise methods of interferogram data reduction, surface roughness measurement, and methods of instrument calibration to separate errors from those in the optic have been pioneered at OSC. Other areas of research included null lens design and the writing of lens design software that led into the design of computer generated holograms for asphere testing. More recently work has been done on the reduction of speckle noise in interferograms, methods to test large convex aspheres, and a return to slope measuring tests to increase the dynamic range of the types of aspheric surfaces amenable to optical testing including free-form surfaces. This paper documents the history of the development of optical testing projects at OSC and highlights the contributions some of the individuals associated with new methods of testing and the infrastructure needed to support the testing. We conclude with comments about the future trends optical metrology.

  12. Distance-learning postgraduate education in optics and optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, John

    2005-02-01

    Although optics is a common area of activity among professional physicists and engineers, the subject itself is typically not a significant component of Bachelor degrees in physics or engineering. Consequently, large numbers of scientists and engineers find themselves working in the field of optics without formal education in the subject. Although such education would often prove valuable to them, it is not conveniently available via conventional full-time courses. Another group of persons includes those who are not working in an optics-related field, but would like to be, and yet cannot contemplate the cost and dislocation associated with a conventional full-time Masters course. For both these groups, a flexible Masters course in optics by distance-learning could be appropriate. It is for these reasons that interest has arisen recently in such forms of optics education. This paper describes a flexible distance-learning model for postgraduate education in optics that has been implemented at the University of Reading, England, where there has been a full-time optics Masters course in Applied and Modern Optics for almost 40 years. The model is modular and credit-based, and includes various levels of qualification from CPD to Masters. A distance-learning module on optical design is discussed as an example, and it is hoped to make this module freely available on-line via the internet to delegates at this conference for them to explore in their own time. The importance of choosing optical-design case studies appropriate to this learning style is discussed. The problem of lab work within a distance-learning optics course is described, and current and possible future solutions are discussed.

  13. Optical trapping of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Jarrah; Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Ghaffari, Saeedeh; Pang, Yuanjie; Gordon, Reuven

    2013-01-15

    Optical trapping is a technique for immobilizing and manipulating small objects in a gentle way using light, and it has been widely applied in trapping and manipulating small biological particles. Ashkin and co-workers first demonstrated optical tweezers using a single focused beam. The single beam trap can be described accurately using the perturbative gradient force formulation in the case of small Rayleigh regime particles. In the perturbative regime, the optical power required for trapping a particle scales as the inverse fourth power of the particle size. High optical powers can damage dielectric particles and cause heating. For instance, trapped latex spheres of 109 nm in diameter were destroyed by a 15 mW beam in 25 sec, which has serious implications for biological matter. A self-induced back-action (SIBA) optical trapping was proposed to trap 50 nm polystyrene spheres in the non-perturbative regime. In a non-perturbative regime, even a small particle with little permittivity contrast to the background can influence significantly the ambient electromagnetic field and induce a large optical force. As a particle enters an illuminated aperture, light transmission increases dramatically because of dielectric loading. If the particle attempts to leave the aperture, decreased transmission causes a change in momentum outwards from the hole and, by Newton's Third Law, results in a force on the particle inwards into the hole, trapping the particle. The light transmission can be monitored; hence, the trap can become a sensor. The SIBA trapping technique can be further improved by using a double-nanohole structure. The double-nanohole structure has been shown to give a strong local field enhancement. Between the two sharp tips of the double-nanohole, a small particle can cause a large change in optical transmission, thereby inducing a large optical force. As a result, smaller nanoparticles can be trapped, such as 12 nm silicate spheres and 3.4 nm hydrodynamic radius

  14. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Leonard; Wolf, Emil

    1995-09-01

    The advent of lasers in the 1960s led to the development of many new fields in optical physics. This book is a systematic treatment of one of these fields--the broad area that deals with the coherence and fluctuation of light. The authors begin with a review of probability theory and random processes, and follow this with a thorough discussion of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics. They next treat the theory of photoelectric detection of light and photoelectric correlation. They then discuss in some detail quantum systems and effects. The book closes with two chapters devoted to laser theory and one on the quantum theory of nonlinear optics. The sound introduction to coherence theory and the quantum nature of light and the chapter-end exercises will appeal to graduate students and newcomers to the field. Researchers will find much of interest in the new results on coherence-induced spectral line shifts, nonclassical states of light, higher-order squeezing, and quantum effects of down-conversion. Written by two of the world's most highly regarded optical physicists, this book is required reading of all physicists and engineers working in optics.

  15. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  16. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  19. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights the NASA Applied Sciences Program. The goal of the program is to extend the results of scientific research and knowledge beyond the science community to contribute to NASA's partners' applications of national priority, such as agricultural efficiency, energy management and Homeland Security. Another purpose of the program's scientific research is to increase knowledge of the Earth-Sun system to enable improved predictions of climate, weather, and natural hazards. The program primarily optimizes benefits for citizens by contributing to partnering on applications that are used by state, local and tribal governments.

  20. Optical DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaywargi, Deepak; Lewis, Dave; Kirovski, Darko

    A certificate of authenticity (COA) is an inexpensive physical object with a random and unique structure S which is hard to near-exactly replicate. An inexpensive device should be able to scan object’s physical “fingerprint,” a set of features that represents S. In this paper, we explore one set of requirements that optical media such as DVDs should satisfy, to be considered as COAs. As manufacturing of such media produces inevitable errors, we use the locations and count of these errors as a “fingerprint” for each optical disc: its optical DNA. The “fingerprint” is signed using publisher’s private-key and the resulting signature is stored onto the optical medium using a post-production process. Standard DVD players with altered firmware that includes publisher’s public-key, should be able to verify the authenticity of DVDs protected with optical DNA. Our key finding is that for the proposed protocol, only DVDs with exceptional wear-and-tear characteristics would result in an inexpensive and viable anti-counterfeiting technology.