Science.gov

Sample records for applied sciences assessment

  1. Cancer Risk Assessment: Should New Science be Applied? Workgroup summary

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Bull; Antone L. Brooks

    2002-12-15

    OAK-B135 A symposium discussing the implications of certain phenomena observed in radiation biology for cancer risk assessment in general. In July of 2002 a workshop was convened that explored some of the intercellular phenomena that appear to condition responses to carcinogen exposure. Effects that result from communication between cells that appear to either increase the sphere of damage or to modify the sensitivity of cells to further damage were of particular interest. Much of the discussion focused on the effects of ionizing radiation that were transmitted from cells directly hit to cells not receiving direct exposure to radiation (bystander cells). In cell culture, increased rates of mutation, chromosomal aberration, apoptosis, genomic instability, and decreased clonogenic survival have all been observed in cells that have experienced no direct radiation. In addition, there is evidence that low doses of radiation or certain chemicals give rise to adaptive responses in which the treated cells develop resistance to the effects of high doses given in subsequent exposures. Data were presented at the workshop indicating that low dose exposure of animals to radiation and some chemicals frequently reduces the spontaneous rate of mutation in vitro and tumor responses in vivo. Finally, it was concluded that considerable improvement in understanding of how genetic variation may modify the impact of these phenomena is necessary before the risk implications can be fully appreciated. The workshop participants discussed the substantive challenge that these data present with respect to simple linear methodologies that are currently used in cancer risk assessment and attempted to identify broad strategies by which these phenomena may start to be used to refine cancer risk assessment methods in the future.

  2. [Basic science and applied science].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  3. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

  4. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

  5. English Language Assessment in the Colleges of Applied Sciences in Oman: Thematic Document Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Hajri, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in…

  6. Applied Cognitive Science.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Cognitive Science Inter action lReplacement Focus on Person Focus on System m~odels ~Ment Models M;7l t Systems change Explanation and Cognitive Undestanding ... relationships between elements but leaves specific attributes of the elements behind. Hence it is a mapping only of the Applied Cognitive Science 12...structural relationships between elements rather than a complete mapping of all the properties of elements in the two systems. We can illustrate these ideas

  7. Applied science. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Such categories as applied science and pure science can be thought of as "ideological." They have been contested in the public sphere, exposing long-term intellectual commitments, assumptions, balances of power, and material interests. This group of essays explores the contest over applied science in Britain and the United States during the nineteenth century. The essays look at the concept in the context of a variety of neighbors, including pure science, technology, and art. They are closely related and connected to contemporary historiographic debate. Jennifer Alexander links the issues raised to a recent paper by Paul Forman. Paul Lucier and Graeme Gooday deal with the debates in the last quarter of the century in the United States and Britain, respectively. Robert Bud deals with the earlier part of the nineteenth century, with an eye specifically on the variety of concepts hybridized under the heading of "applied science." Eric Schatzberg looks at the erosion of the earlier concept of art. As a whole, the essays illuminate both long-term changes and nuanced debate and are themselves intended to provoke further reflection on science in the public sphere.

  8. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  9. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights the NASA Applied Sciences Program. The goal of the program is to extend the results of scientific research and knowledge beyond the science community to contribute to NASA's partners' applications of national priority, such as agricultural efficiency, energy management and Homeland Security. Another purpose of the program's scientific research is to increase knowledge of the Earth-Sun system to enable improved predictions of climate, weather, and natural hazards. The program primarily optimizes benefits for citizens by contributing to partnering on applications that are used by state, local and tribal governments.

  10. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  11. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's strategic Goals: a) Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. b) Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. NASA's partnership efforts in global modeling and data assimilation over the next decade will shorten the distance from observations to answers for important, leading-edge science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences program will continue the Agency's efforts in benchmarking the assimilation of NASA research results into policy and management decision-support tools that are vital for the Nation's environment, economy, safety, and security. NASA also is working with NOAH and inter-agency forums to transition mature research capabilities to operational systems, primarily the polar and geostationary operational environmental satellites, and to utilize fully those assets for research purposes.

  12. Quality in applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sten, T.

    1993-12-01

    Science is in many senses a special kind of craft and only skilled craftsmen are able to distinguish good work from bad. Due to the variation in approaches, methods and even philosophical basis, it is nearly impossible to derive a general set of quality criteria for scientific work outside specific research traditions. Applied science introduces a new set of quality criteria having to do with the application of results in practical situations and policy making. A scientist doing basic research relates mainly to the scientific community of which he is a member, while in applied contract research the scientist has to consider the impact of his results both for the immediate users and upon interest groups possibly being affected. Application thus raises a whole new set of requirements having to do with business ethics, policy consequences and societal ethics in general.

  13. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  14. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  15. Social Science at the Center for Adaptive Optics: Synergistic Systems of Program Evaluation, Applied Research, Educational Assessment, and Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goza, B. K.; Hunter, L.; Shaw, J. M.; Metevier, A. J.; Raschke, L.; Espinoza, E.; Geaney, E. R.; Reyes, G.; Rothman, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction of four elements of social science as they have evolved in concert with the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). We hope these examples persuade early-career scientists and engineers to include social science activities as they develop grant proposals and carry out their research. To frame our discussion we use a metaphor from astronomy. At the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), the CfAO PDP and the Educational Partnership Center (EPC) are two young stars in the process of forming a solar system. Together, they are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust made up of program evaluation, applied research, educational assessment, and pedagogy. An idea from the 2001 PDP intensive workshops program evaluation developed into the Assessing Scientific Inquiry and Leadership Skills (AScILS) applied research project. In iterative cycles, AScILS researchers participated in subsequent PDP intensive workshops, teaching social science while piloting AScILS measurement strategies. Subsequent "orbits" of the PDP program evaluation gathered ideas from the applied research and pedagogy. The denser regions of this disk of social science are in the process of forming new protoplanets as tools for research and teaching are developed. These tools include problem-solving exercises or simulations of adaptive optics explanations and scientific reasoning; rubrics to evaluate the scientific reasoning simulation responses, knowledge regarding inclusive science education, and student explanations of science/engineering inquiry investigations; and a scientific reasoning curriculum. Another applied research project is forming with the design of a study regarding how to assess engineering explanations. To illustrate the mutual shaping of the cross-disciplinary, intergenerational group of educational researchers and their projects, the paper ends with a description of the professional trajectories of some of the

  16. Oklahoma administrators' perceptions of applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Stanley James

    1998-12-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Oklahoma Public School Superintendents when applied science courses such as Applied Biology/Chemistry and Applied Physics (Principles of Technology) are compared to traditional science courses such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. The study was conducted with a population of 69 Oklahoma comprehensive school superintendents who were under contract during the 1997/98 school year. Each participant was employed by a school district that offered either Applied Biology/Chemistry, Applied Physics (also known as Principles of Technology) or both. All participants completed an 18-question telephone survey. Combined means and percentages of participants responses to the survey were recorded to draw conclusions about the study. Findings and conclusions. Superintendents perceive teachers and students as having good acceptance of applied science courses. Superintendents believe students think of applied science courses as excellent hands-on science, and teachers think of them as acceptable alternative science. Superintendents are somewhat satisfied with applied science courses. They believe it makes no difference if a student is college bound, non-college bound, more motivated or less motivated as to whom benefits from applied science courses. Superintendents feel there is no difference in applied science courses and traditional science courses when teaching science concepts of "PASS Skills," or preparing students for college or work. They perceive the cost of applied science courses to be somewhat greater than traditional science courses. They also think additional training for applied science teachers should be in the form of a seminar. Superintendents feel full credit toward high school graduation and college entrance requirements should be given to the students of applied science courses. Superintendents believe there is no difference as to which course, applied science or traditional

  17. Security Science as an Applied Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a security science degree as the emerging applied science of the protection of individuals and assets. Proposes the themes of physical, electronic, information security and facility management as scientific applications for the course. (Author/MM)

  18. Applied Science in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various topics and issues related to the scientific enterprise in Cuba. Notes that Cuban science is emphasizing biotechnology and research on the island's chief crop (sugarcane), although hampered by limited personnel and lack of modern laboratory equipment. (JN)

  19. Applied Science in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various topics and issues related to the scientific enterprise in Cuba. Notes that Cuban science is emphasizing biotechnology and research on the island's chief crop (sugarcane), although hampered by limited personnel and lack of modern laboratory equipment. (JN)

  20. From art to applied science.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Before "applied science" and "technology" became keywords, the concept of art was central to discourse about material culture and its connections to natural knowledge. By the late nineteenth century, a new discourse of applied science had replaced the older discourse of art. This older discourse of art, especially as presented in Enlightenment encyclopedias, addressed the relationship between art and science in depth. But during the nineteenth century the concept of fine art gradually displaced the broader meanings of "art," thus undermining the utility of the term for discourse on the relationship between knowledge and practice. This narrowed meaning of "art" obscured key aspects of the industrial world. In effect, middle-class agents of industrialism, including "men of science," used the rhetoric of "applied science" and, later, "technology" to cement the exclusion of artisanal knowledge from the discourse of industrial modernity.

  1. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  2. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  3. Implementing an Applied Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Presson, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The work implied in the NASA Applied Science Program requires a delicate balancing act for the those doing it. At the implementation level there are multiple tensions intrinsic to the program. For example each application of an existing product to a decision support process requires deep knowledge about the data and deep knowledge about the decision making process. It is highly probable no one person has this range of knowledge. Otherwise the decision making process would already be using the data. Therefore, a team is required. But building a team usually requires time, especially across agencies. Yet the program mandates efforts of relatively short duration. Further, those who know the data are scientists, which makes them essential to the program. But scientists are evaluated on their publication record. Anything which diverts a scientist from the research for his next publication is an anathema to him and potential death to their career. Trying to get another agency to use NASA data does not strike most scientists as material inherently suitable for publication. Also, NASA wishes to rapidly implement often substantial changes to another agency's process. For many reasons, such as budget and program constraints, speed is important. But the owner of a decision making process is tightly constrained, usually by law, regulation, organization and custom. Changes when made are slow, cautious, even hesitant, and always done according a process specific to the situation. To manage this work MSFC must balance these and other tensions. Some things we have relatively little control over, such as budget. These we try to handle by structural techniques. For example by insisting all of our people work on multiple projects simultaneously we inherently have diversification of funding for all of our people. In many cases we explicitly use some elements of tension to be productive. For example the need for the scientists to constantly publish is motivation to keep tasks short and

  4. Implementing an Applied Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Presson, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The work implied in the NASA Applied Science Program requires a delicate balancing act for the those doing it. At the implementation level there are multiple tensions intrinsic to the program. For example each application of an existing product to a decision support process requires deep knowledge about the data and deep knowledge about the decision making process. It is highly probable no one person has this range of knowledge. Otherwise the decision making process would already be using the data. Therefore, a team is required. But building a team usually requires time, especially across agencies. Yet the program mandates efforts of relatively short duration. Further, those who know the data are scientists, which makes them essential to the program. But scientists are evaluated on their publication record. Anything which diverts a scientist from the research for his next publication is an anathema to him and potential death to their career. Trying to get another agency to use NASA data does not strike most scientists as material inherently suitable for publication. Also, NASA wishes to rapidly implement often substantial changes to another agency's process. For many reasons, such as budget and program constraints, speed is important. But the owner of a decision making process is tightly constrained, usually by law, regulation, organization and custom. Changes when made are slow, cautious, even hesitant, and always done according a process specific to the situation. To manage this work MSFC must balance these and other tensions. Some things we have relatively little control over, such as budget. These we try to handle by structural techniques. For example by insisting all of our people work on multiple projects simultaneously we inherently have diversification of funding for all of our people. In many cases we explicitly use some elements of tension to be productive. For example the need for the scientists to constantly publish is motivation to keep tasks short and

  5. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  6. Exploring Flexible and Multidisciplinary Approaches to Applied Science Research Project Assessments: Case Studies from the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepps, G.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Favors, J. E.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Within the NASA DEVELOP National Program, teams conduct rapid prototype and feasibility projects, applying NASA Earth Observations to a broad range of problems in diverse focus areas, including water resources, agriculture, disaster management, and ecological forecasting, with the goal of assisting partner organizations in their decision making processes. Projects vary in scope, design, and satellite data utilized. As a result, there is no "fixed" set of indicators that encompasses all relevant impacts of all projects. Rather, a flexible toolkit of both shared indicators and individualized approaches is needed to capture the diverse outcomes of these projects, while still allowing for comparability of the projects. This has been done through the creation of pre- and post-project partner assessments that capture partner needs, capabilities, and expectations. This provides both baseline data and an overview of project impacts on partners. Selected projects are then individually assessed in greater detail through partner follow-ups and research into the quantification of project impacts utilizing interdisciplinary approaches to fit each project. This process is discussed through three examples of project impact assessments that draw from varied discipline approaches including cost benefit analysis and ecosystem services.

  7. NASA Applied Sciences Program Intro

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Earth Science has a program that helps government agencies and non-profit organizations use Earth observations to inform decision-making and develop practical solutions to real-world problems ...

  8. Science Objectives. 1990 Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    This booklet describes the assessment objectives of the sixth national assessment of science by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Chapters included are: (1) "Introduction" (describing the development process for the objectives and the purpose and elements of school science); (2) "The Assessment Framework"…

  9. Introduction: Applying Clinical Psychological Science to Practice.

    PubMed

    Cha, Christine B; DiVasto, Katherine A

    2017-02-10

    Mental illness is a prevalent and extraordinarily complex phenomenon. Psychologists have developed distinct approaches toward understanding and treating mental illness, rooted in divergent epistemology. This introduction to the Special Issue on Clinical Psychological Science and Practice provides a brief overview of the scientist-practitioner gap, and explores one step (of many) toward bridging this divide. Seven compelling case illustrations featured in this Special Issue apply empirical findings to case formulation, treatment selection, and assessment across complex and varied clinical presentations. This issue thereby demonstrates the feasibility of integrating research and clinical expertise in mental healthcare.

  10. Integrated Science Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Integrated Science Assessments are reports that represent a concise evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science for reviewing the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the six principal pollutants.

  11. 75 FR 60484 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Applied Science...

  12. 77 FR 55863 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Applied Science Advisory Group. This...

  13. Ecological modeling for applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Forrest; Lobitz, Brad; Turner, Woody; Sheffner, Edwin; Haynes, John

    Ecological modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool for uniting biological observations with remote sensing and ground-based data networks to develop predictive tools for resource management and human health.The availability of over three petabytes of data from the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) alone provides an unprecedented opportunity to develop Earth science applications for decision support. In combination with data networks such as the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climate Data Center, the nonprofit NatureServe's network of biological inventories, the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and many others, there is a vast wealth of Earth observation data on parameters as diverse as land cover, sea surface temperature, precipitation, species distribution, and disease occurrence.

  14. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  15. Basic science and applied science instruction: are they compatible?

    PubMed

    Harmon, B G

    1992-08-01

    Basic science and applied science instruction are compatible and essential for animal science professionals to succeed in their chosen career. Application of science is a continuum. Although production methods are constantly evolving, the science on which changes are made is fixed and fundamental. Only our understanding changes. We are educating students in preparation for a life-long learning process. Viability of animal science departments depends on attracting and challenging students with curricula that are demanding, create curiosity, and prepare students to understand the "whys and hows" of the phenomena of animal biology.

  16. Advances in the NASA Earth Science Division Applied Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L.; Bonniksen, C. K.; Escobar, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Science Program advances the understanding of and ability to used remote sensing data in support of socio-economic needs. The integration of socio-economic considerations in to NASA Earth Science projects has advanced significantly. The large variety of acquisition methods used has required innovative implementation options. The integration of application themes and the implementation of application science activities in flight project is continuing to evolve. The creation of the recently released Earth Science Division, Directive on Project Applications Program and the addition of an application science requirement in the recent EVM-2 solicitation document NASA's current intent. Continuing improvement in the Earth Science Applications Science Program are expected in the areas of thematic integration, Project Applications Program tailoring for Class D missions and transfer of knowledge between scientists and projects.

  17. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  18. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  19. Engineering and Applied Science, Recent Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate of Engineering and Applied Science.

    This collection contains abstracts of technical reports and journal articles resulting from research funded by the National Science Foundation. Included in the collection are abstracts arranged in several categories: (1) electrical, computer, and systems engineering; (2) civil and mechanical engineering; (3) applied research; (4) problem-focused…

  20. Populations, Natural Selection, and Applied Organizational Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Bill; Aldrich, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Deficiencies in existing models in organizational science may be remedied by applying the population approach, with its concepts of taxonomy, classification, evolution, and population ecology; and natural selection theory, with its principles of variation, natural selection, heredity, and struggle for existence, to the idea of organizational forms…

  1. Lessons from NASA Applied Sciences Program: Success Factors in Applying Earth Science in Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L. A.; Cox, L.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program collaborates with organizations to discover and demonstrate applications of NASA Earth science research and technology to decision making. The desired outcome is for public and private organizations to use NASA Earth science products in innovative applications for sustained, operational uses to enhance their decisions. In addition, the program facilitates the end-user feedback to Earth science to improve products and demands for research. The Program thus serves as a bridge between Earth science research and technology and the applied organizations and end-users with management, policy, and business responsibilities. Since 2002, the Applied Sciences Program has sponsored over 115 applications-oriented projects to apply Earth observations and model products to decision making activities. Projects have spanned numerous topics - agriculture, air quality, water resources, disasters, public health, aviation, etc. The projects have involved government agencies, private companies, universities, non-governmental organizations, and foreign entities in multiple types of teaming arrangements. The paper will examine this set of applications projects and present specific examples of successful use of Earth science in decision making. The paper will discuss scientific, organizational, and management factors that contribute to or impede the integration of the Earth science research in policy and management. The paper will also present new methods the Applied Sciences Program plans to implement to improve linkages between science and end users.

  2. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments. This final report presents a case study of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); it focuses on the specific example of MWCNTs as used in flame-retardant coatings applied to upholstery textiles. This case study is organized around the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which structures available information pertaining to the product life cycle, environmental transport and fate, exposure-dose in receptors (i.e., humans, ecological populations, and the environment), and potential impacts in these receptors. A group of experts representing multiple disciplines and multiple sector perspectives used an earlier draft of the case study in conjunction with a structured workshop process to identify and prioritize research gaps that, if pursued, could inform future MWCNT assessment efforts. The final report is not a health, risk, or exposure assessment and as such does not draw conclusions about potential risks, or present an exhaustive review of the literature. Rather, it presents the MWCNT research priorities that experts identified in this application of CEA in order to aid research planning throughout the scientific community. The outcomes of these research efforts may subsequ

  3. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments. This final report presents a case study of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); it focuses on the specific example of MWCNTs as used in flame-retardant coatings applied to upholstery textiles. This case study is organized around the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which structures available information pertaining to the product life cycle, environmental transport and fate, exposure-dose in receptors (i.e., humans, ecological populations, and the environment), and potential impacts in these receptors. A group of experts representing multiple disciplines and multiple sector perspectives used an earlier draft of the case study in conjunction with a structured workshop process to identify and prioritize research gaps that, if pursued, could inform future MWCNT assessment efforts. The final report is not a health, risk, or exposure assessment and as such does not draw conclusions about potential risks, or present an exhaustive review of the literature. Rather, it presents the MWCNT research priorities that experts identified in this application of CEA in order to aid research planning throughout the scientific community. The outcomes of these research efforts may subsequ

  4. An AMSTAR assessment of the methodological quality of systematic reviews of oral healthcare interventions published in the Journal of Applied Oral Science (JAOS)

    PubMed Central

    SEQUEIRA-BYRON, Patrick; FEDOROWICZ, Zbys; JAGANNATH, Vanitha A.; SHARIF, Mohammad Owaise

    2011-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are not an assembly of anecdotes but a distillation of current best available evidence on a particular topic and as such have an important role to play in evidence-based healthcare. A substantial proportion of these systematic reviews focus on interventions, and are able to provide clinicians with the opportunity to understand and translate the best available evidence on the effects of these healthcare interventions into clinical practice. The importance of systematic reviews in summarising and identifying the gaps in evidence which might inform new research initiatives is also widely acknowledged. Their potential impact on practice and research makes their methodological quality especially important as it may directly influence their utility for clinicians, patients and policy makers. The objectives of this study were to identify systematic reviews of oral healthcare interventions published in the Journal of Applied Oral Science (JAOS) and to evaluate their methodological quality using the evaluation tool, AMSTAR. Methods Potentially eligible systematic reviews in JAOS were identified through an electronic search of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Details of the relevant aspects of methodology as reported in these systematic reviews were extracted from the full text publications. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two reviewers using the AMSTAR questionnaire. Results Five systematic reviews were identified, one of which was subsequently excluded as it was a review of a diagnostic test. Summary AMSTAR scores for the four included reviews were: 1, 5, 2 and 4 out of a maximum score of 11 (range 1-5, mean 3) with only one of the reviews scoring 5. Conclusion AMSTAR evaluation of the methodological quality of the relatively small number of systematic reviews published in JAOS illustrated that there was room for improvement. Pre-publication and editorial appraisal of future systematic reviews might

  5. Assessing Ethics in Secondary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of science courses now include consideration of the ethical implications of science. However, there is little agreement about how ethical reasoning in science should be assessed. This article highlights the conclusions of a seminar on the assessment of ethics in science that was organized by the Nuffield Foundation Curriculum…

  6. Assessing Ethics in Secondary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of science courses now include consideration of the ethical implications of science. However, there is little agreement about how ethical reasoning in science should be assessed. This article highlights the conclusions of a seminar on the assessment of ethics in science that was organized by the Nuffield Foundation Curriculum…

  7. International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2014-03-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26-27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15-16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: Economical sciences Engineering sciences Fundamental sciences Medical sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timişoara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora Hărău, ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babeş'' Timişoara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers

  8. Surface chemistry at Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences.

    PubMed

    Brodard, Pierre; Pfeifer, Marc E; Adlhart, Christian D; Pieles, Uwe; Shahgaldian, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences, a number of research groups are involved in surface science, with different methodological approaches and a broad range of sophisticated characterization techniques. A snapshot of the current research going on in different groups from the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland (HES-SO), the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW) is given.

  9. Multilevel Assessments of Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    The Multilevel Assessment of Science Standards (MASS) project is creating a new generation of technology-enhanced formative assessments that bring the best formative assessment practices into classrooms to transform what, how, when, and where science learning is assessed. The project is investigating the feasibility, utility, technical quality,…

  10. Enhancing implementation science by applying best principles of systems science.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S

    2016-10-04

    Implementation science holds promise for better ensuring that research is translated into evidence-based policy and practice, but interventions often fail or even worsen the problems they are intended to solve due to a lack of understanding of real world structures and dynamic complexity. While systems science alone cannot possibly solve the major challenges in public health, systems-based approaches may contribute to changing the language and methods for conceptualising and acting within complex systems. The overarching goal of this paper is to improve the modelling used in dissemination and implementation research by applying best principles of systems science. Best principles, as distinct from the more customary term 'best practices', are used to underscore the need to extract the core issues from the context in which they are embedded in order to better ensure that they are transferable across settings. Toward meaningfully grappling with the complex and challenging problems faced in adopting and integrating evidence-based health interventions and changing practice patterns within specific settings, we propose and illustrate four best principles derived from our systems science experience: (1) model the problem, not the system; (2) pay attention to what is important, not just what is quantifiable; (3) leverage the utility of models as boundary objects; and (4) adopt a portfolio approach to model building. To improve our mental models of the real world, system scientists have created methodologies such as system dynamics, agent-based modelling, geographic information science and social network simulation. To understand dynamic complexity, we need the ability to simulate. Otherwise, our understanding will be limited. The practice of dynamic systems modelling, as discussed herein, is the art and science of linking system structure to behaviour for the purpose of changing structure to improve behaviour. A useful computer model creates a knowledge repository and a

  11. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  12. Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…

  13. Technological Applications in Science Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L.; Kumar, David D.

    Educational technology has been a focus of development and research in science teaching and learning. This document reviews research dealing with computer and hypermedia applications to assessment in science education. The paper reports the findings first for computer applications for assessment and then for hypermedia applications in assessment.…

  14. Creating Science Assessments that Support Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Martha; Stobaugh, Rebecca; Tassell, Janet; Neiman, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the resources available for teachers to apply higher-level thinking and cognitive complexity to their instruction and assessments. While designing higher-level assessments might be a challenging task, doing so not only can improve student achievement in science, it also prepares students for a changing world. Students learn…

  15. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    other students' outcomes by employing data from a matched sample of S&E doctoral students trained at the Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers, I/UCRCs (N=173), and doctoral students from the same universities and disciplines who were trained more traditionally (N=87). Two exploratory path models demonstrate the important role of availability of network resources and proxy for mobilizing them on students' perceived career preparedness and satisfaction with their training. Study 2 is a case study of one I/UCRC's whole social network. The researcher attempts to provide a better understanding of the embeddedness components of students' social capital in their I/UCRC network. The case study has significant limitations in that findings cannot be generalized to the population of I/UCRC students. Nevertheless, findings are interesting for the one I/UCRC. The students scored significantly higher on preparedness when they had higher out-degree centrality, indicator of how much they reach out to other center's personnel. Also, a visual representation of the whole I/UCRC social network could be used to understand better students' embeddedness. Both studies show that social capital is a very hard concept to measure mainly because of its different dimensions. Nevertheless, they also show that social capital is a useful tool for comparing students' outcomes in different STI programs. A focus on students and social capital is one of the ways the S&T human capital model can be applied in evaluation of the STI programs. Such focus provides a considerable contrast to linear STI metrics that focus on long-term outcomes and often exclude students all together. It is important to provide information about the human side of science in its current state including students' graduate training, experiences and social networks. In addition, inclusion of students provides a view into the future - an opportunity to look at science of tomorrow as the same students will be part of the

  16. Science Teaching and International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2007-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the international assessments Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and a review of results from 2003. International comparisons, especially in the media, have elevated interest in science education and stimulated discussions…

  17. 78 FR 31977 - NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...) announces a meeting of the Applied Sciences Advisory Committee (ASAC). This Committee functions in an advisory capacity to the Director, Earth Science Division. The meeting will be held for the purpose of...

  18. Science, skepticism, and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Normand, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice.

  19. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice. PMID:22477687

  20. [Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

  1. Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

  2. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  3. Infusion of Science Software: Applying Gagne's Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldino, Sharon; Thompson, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    Proposed are the use of implementation strategies available to teachers through the application of Robert Gagne's nine instructional events. The application of computer technology in science education is discussed. (CW)

  4. Values in science and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wandall, Birgitte

    2004-09-25

    It is a widely accepted claim that scientific practice contains value judgments, i.e. decisions made on the basis of values. This paper clarifies the concepts involved in this claim and explains its implications for risk assessment. It is explained why values are necessarily a part of science and of risk assessment. A certain type of values that contribute to the aim of science, so-called epistemic values, are identified as rationally justified as basis for judgment in science. It is argued that the aims of pure science and risk assessment differ in some aspects and that consequently pure science's epistemic values are not sufficient for risk assessment. I suggest how the epistemic values may be supplemented in order to align better with the aim of risk assessment. It is concluded that since risk assessment is no less value-laden than pure science, it is important (a) that risk assessors become aware of what values they are (often implicitly) relying on, (b) that the values are justifiable, and (c) that transparency is ensured, i.e. that the values and value-based assumptions applied in particular risk assessments are explicitly acknowledged.

  5. Applied Social Science, Teaching, and Political Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Edward; Garrido-Pinto, German

    1977-01-01

    Behind differences in style of North and Latin American social scientists lie profound divergences of conceptions of social science and of typical levels of analysis. Important consequences of these differences follow for styles of teaching, research, or community involvement. This paper explores these cleavages and exemplifies how one might teach…

  6. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  7. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  8. Applied Social Science, Teaching, and Political Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Edward; Garrido-Pinto, German

    1977-01-01

    Behind differences in style of North and Latin American social scientists lie profound divergences of conceptions of social science and of typical levels of analysis. Important consequences of these differences follow for styles of teaching, research, or community involvement. This paper explores these cleavages and exemplifies how one might teach…

  9. Applying Gadamer's Concept of Disposition to Science and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borda, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I recall previous arguments for a hermeneutic approach to science and claim that such an approach necessitates attention to the development of dispositions. I undertake an analysis of Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to identify and describe dispositions relevant to a hermeneutic approach to science. I then apply…

  10. Applying colour science in colour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2006-06-01

    Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

  11. Applied climate science: the risk management route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    While several Masters programmes on climate science exist in the British Isles, until recently there has been little regard for the requirements of business, local government and the insurance market in the provision of postgraduate taught programmes. This talk will discuss the issue of climate change risk management as a way of embedding climate science into the decision-making protocols for commercial and governmental organisations. It will outline several issues for business decision-making that have implications for climate change. These include: climate sensitivity, model uncertainty and rapid climate change. The experience of developing and running the MSc in Climate Change and Risk management at Exeter University will be used to highlight these issues.

  12. Applying spatial thinking in social science research

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools. PMID:20431703

  13. Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the status of the Centrifuge Facility being developed by ARC for flight on the International Space Station Alpha. The assessment includes technical status, schedules, budgets, project management, performance of facility relative to science requirements, and identifies risks and issues that need to be considered in future development activities.

  14. Science Assessments for All: Integrating Science Simulations into Balanced State Science Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.; Buckley, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the collaboration of six states to study how simulation-based science assessments can become transformative components of multi-level, balanced state science assessment systems. The project studied the psychometric quality, feasibility, and utility of simulation-based science assessments designed to serve formative purposes…

  15. Science Assessments for All: Integrating Science Simulations into Balanced State Science Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.; Buckley, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the collaboration of six states to study how simulation-based science assessments can become transformative components of multi-level, balanced state science assessment systems. The project studied the psychometric quality, feasibility, and utility of simulation-based science assessments designed to serve formative purposes…

  16. Applied Behavior Analysis as Technological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Brian A.

    1991-01-01

    To the extent that applied behavior analysis represents a scientific and practical approach to the study of behavior, its technological character is essential. The most serious problem evident in the field is not that the research being done is too technical but that more good research of all types is needed. (JDD)

  17. Is Reintroduction Biology an Effective Applied Science?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma; Canessa, Stefano; Clarke, Rohan H; Ingwersen, Dean; Armstrong, Doug P; Seddon, Philip J; Ewen, John G

    2017-08-28

    Reintroduction biology is a field of scientific research that aims to inform translocations of endangered species. We review two decades of published literature to evaluate whether reintroduction science is evolving in its decision-support role, as called for by advocates of evidence-based conservation. Reintroduction research increasingly addresses a priori hypotheses, but remains largely focused on short-term population establishment. Similarly, studies that directly assist decisions by explicitly comparing alternative management actions remain a minority. A small set of case studies demonstrate full integration of research in the reintroduction decision process. We encourage the use of tools that embed research in decision-making, particularly the explicit consideration of multiple management alternatives because this is the crux of any management decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoparticles applied to plant science: a review.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Sandra Cristina Capaldi; Silva, Alisson Luiz Diniz; Galazzi, Rodrigo Moretto; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses certain important aspects regarding nanoparticles and the environment, with an emphasis on plant science. The production and characterization of nanoparticles is the focus of this review, providing an idea of the range and the consolidation of these aspects in the literature, with modifications on the routes of synthesis and the application of the analytical techniques for characterization of the nanoparticles (NPs). Additionally, aspects related to the interaction between the NPs and plants, their toxicities, and the phytoremediation process, among others, are also discussed. Future trends are also presented, supplying evidence for certain possibilities regarding new research involving nanoparticles and plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The DEVELOP Program as a Unique Applied Science Internship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiles, J. W.; Schmidt, C. L.; Ruiz, M. L.; Cawthorn, J.

    2004-12-01

    produced by the students. Projects have included Homeland Security in Virginia, Energy Management in New Mexico, Water Management in Mississippi, Air Quality Management in Alabama, Invasive Species mapping in Nevada, Public Health risk assessment in California, Disaster Management in Oklahoma, Agricultural Efficiency in South Dakota, Coastal Management in Louisiana and Carbon Management in Oregon. DEVELOP students gain experience in applied science, computer technology, and project management. Several DEVELOP projects will be demonstrated and discussed during this presentation. DEVELOP is sponsored by the Applications Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Applied wetlands science and technology. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The book provides the fundamentals for defining and regulating wetlands, as well as identifying and delineating wetlands. Functions and values, ecological assessments, and minimization of impacts to wetlands are covered as is background information on wetland enhancement, restoration, creation, and monitoring.

  1. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  2. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  3. Applying adult development theories to improvement science.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Sofia; Andersson, Ann-Christine

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address how adult development (AD) theories can contribute to quality improvement (QI). Design/methodology/approach A theoretical analysis and discussion on how personal development empirical findings can relate to QI and Deming's four improvement knowledge domains. Findings AD research shows that professionals have qualitatively diverse ways of meaning-making and ways to approach possibilities in improvement efforts. Therefore, professionals with more complex meaning-making capacities are needed to create successful transformational changes and learning, with the recognition that system knowledge is a developmental capacity. Practical implications In QI and improvement science there is an assumption that professionals have the skills and competence needed for improvement efforts, but AD theories show that this is not always the case, which suggests a need for facilitating improvement initiatives, so that everyone can contribute based on their capacity. Originality/value This study illustrates that some competences in QI efforts are a developmental challenge to professionals, and should be considered in practice and research.

  4. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  5. Technology as "Applied Science": A Serious Misconception that Reinforces Distorted and Impoverished Views of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Perez, Daniel; Vilches, Amparo; Fernandez, Isabel; Cachapuz, Antonio; Praia, Joao; Valdes, Pablo; Salinas, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The current consideration of technology as "applied science", this is to say, as something that comes "after" science, justifies the lack of attention paid to technology in science education. In our paper we question this simplistic view of the science-technology relationship, historically rooted in the unequal appreciation of intellectual and…

  6. Technology as "Applied Science": A Serious Misconception that Reinforces Distorted and Impoverished Views of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Perez, Daniel; Vilches, Amparo; Fernandez, Isabel; Cachapuz, Antonio; Praia, Joao; Valdes, Pablo; Salinas, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The current consideration of technology as "applied science", this is to say, as something that comes "after" science, justifies the lack of attention paid to technology in science education. In our paper we question this simplistic view of the science-technology relationship, historically rooted in the unequal appreciation of intellectual and…

  7. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  9. Teaching Social Science Research: An Applied Approach Using Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, M. Janice; And Others

    A four-week summer project for 100 rural tenth graders in the University of Alabama's Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep) enabled students to acquire and apply social sciences research skills. The students investigated drinking water quality in three rural Alabama counties by interviewing local officials, health workers, and…

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  11. Applied Science and Research Applications: Recent Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications.

    This report contains abstracts of new technical reports and other documents resulting from research supported by the directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications of the National Science Foundation. Research reports from current programs include work in the areas of public policy and regulation; public service delivery and urban…

  12. Assessing quality in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, Hugh

    1999-05-01

    Quality is an elusive concept — hard to define, but you recognise it when you come across it. This paper reviews the meaning of quality as applied in Higher Education and shows that there are, of necessity, a number of workable definitions of quality in Higher Education. The assessment of quality in Earth Science Higher Education in England during 1994-1995 is described. A number of general features of quality in Earth Sciences Education are drawn from this case study and the future direction of quality assurance is mapped. Three principles drawn from the definitions of quality and from the English teaching quality assessment exercise are applied to Earth Science Education in Africa. It is argued that different definitions of quality will apply in different societal contexts in Africa and that these may be used to shape the relevance of Geoscience Education. Increasing mobility of labour means that comparability of academic standards between African countries within a region is desirable and should be worked for. Finally, research in the UK shows that teaching quality is not necessarily dependent upon the size or research potential of a department, indicating that Africa can deliver high quality Earth Science Education.

  13. Developing a Framework for Science Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunjin; Park, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Ho-Kam; Noh, Suk-Goo

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Framework for Performance Assessment in Science Education (F-PASE). Science educators in the past have paid more attention to science curriculum and teaching strategies than assessment. In recent years attention has turned toward performance assessment which addresses the concerns of science curriculum…

  14. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  15. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change

    PubMed Central

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  16. "Applied science": a phrase in search of a meaning.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The term "applied science," as it came to be popularly used in the 1870s, was a hybrid of three earlier concepts. The phrase "applied science" itself had been coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1817, translating the German Kantian term "angewandte Wissenschaft." It was popularized through the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, which was structured on principles inherited from Coleridge and edited by men with sympathetic views. Their concept of empirical as opposed to a priori science was hybridized with an earlier English concept of "practical science" and with "science applied to the arts," adopted from the French. Charles Dupin had favored the latter concept and promoted it in the reconstruction of the Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Métiers. The process of hybridization took place from the 1850s, in the wake of the Great Exhibition, as a new technocratic government favored scientific education. "Applied science" subsequently was used as the epistemic basis for technical education and the formation of new colleges in the 1870s.

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2015-06-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014) took place in Hunedoara, Romania from 2-4 October 2014 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara. The conference takes place alternately in Romania and in P.R. China and is organized by "Politehnica" University of Timisoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P.R. China, with the aim to serve as a platform for exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences and to promote the communication between scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: 1. Economical Sciences 2. Engineering Sciences 3. Fundamental Sciences 4. Medical Sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has the potential for application in economics, defense, medicine, etc. There were nearly 100 registered participants from six countries, and four invited and 56 oral talks were delivered during the two days of the conference. Based on the work presented at the conference, selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new research in the various fields of Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Mathematical Engineering. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering to the scientific community to promote further research in these areas. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this volume will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their respective fields.

  18. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  19. Valid and Reliable Science Content Assessments for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper…

  20. Valid and Reliable Science Content Assessments for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper…

  1. Assessment in Science Education: The Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raizen, Senta A.; And Others

    The mission of the National Center for Improving Science Education, a partnership between the NETWORK, Inc., and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), is to promote changes in science curricula, science teaching, and assessment of student learning in science. The center analyzes and makes recommendations for policy and practice at the…

  2. Applying scientific openmindedness to religion and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settle, Tom

    1996-04-01

    Mahner's and Bunge's two main theses are nearly correct as social reports but the extent to which they are wrong is philosophically very important. I draw attention to a philosophically superior way of viewing the essential relation between science and religion which can have a humane or benign influence upon how both science and religion are taught. On the one hand, science does not need to fight religion nor try to suppress it. A generous openness of mind, which distinguishes the critical rationality implicit in the advance of science, deserves to be applied without acrimony to any systems of thought that purport to explain the universe. On the other hand, religions have no need to fear the growth of scientific knowledge, provided science is not confused, as Mahner and Bunge confuse it, with its materialistic interpretation.

  3. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  4. Summaries of the FY 1981 applied mathematical sciences research program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Applied Mathematical Sciences serves as the DOE focal point for monitoring and advancing the state of the art in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Several DOE mission programs develop and refine specific techniques from the applied mathematical sciences applicable to their immediate needs. In contrast, Applied Mathematical Sciences concentrates on more broadly based, continuing needs throughout the DOE community. Emphasis is placed on research basic to the analysis, development, and use of large-scale computational models; the management and analysis of large, complex collections of information; and the effective use of DOE computing resources. The purpose of this research is not to improve existing technologies and methodologies, but rather to render them obsolete. Each part of the Applied Mathematical Sciences activity has been designed with the help and advice of leading mathematicians and computer scientists from universities, industry, and DOE laboratories to assure the broadest and greatest impact on the nation's energy R and D enterprise. Many of them are expert in industry's needs in the relevant areas. Close liaison is maintained with other federal agencies in the selection of areas of emphasis and of individual research tasks. This is high leverage research. In favorable cases, the results may be of great benefit simultaneously to a number of different energy technologies. The requested increase will be an exceptionally sound investment.

  5. Applied kinesiology unreliable for assessing nutrient status.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J J; Clemens, R; Forsythe, K D

    1988-06-01

    Applied kinesiology is a technique used to assess nutritional status on the basis of the response of muscles to mechanical stress. In this study, 11 subjects were evaluated independently by three experienced applied kinesiologists for four nutrients (thiamin, zinc, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid). The results obtained by those applied kinesiologists were compared with (a) one another, (b) standard laboratory tests for nutrient status, and (c) computerized isometric muscle testing. Statistical analysis yielded no significant interjudge reliability, no significant correlation between the testers and standard biochemical tests for nutrient status, and no significant correlation between mechanical and manual determinations of relative muscle strength. In addition, the subjects were exposed in a double-blind fashion to supplements of thiamin, zinc, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid and two placebos (pectin and sucrose) and then re-tested. According to applied kinesiology theory, "weak" (indicating deficiency) muscles are strengthened when the subject is exposed to an appropriate nutritional supplement. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the response to placebo, nutrients previously determined (by muscle testing) to be deficient, and nutrients previously determined (by muscle testing) to be adequate. Even though the number of subjects (11) and nutrients (4) tested was limited, the results of this study indicated that the use of applied kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status is no more useful than random guessing.

  6. Technology as `Applied Science': A Serious Misconception that Reinforces Distorted and Impoverished Views of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Perez, Daniel; Vilches, Amparo; Fernandez, Isabel; Cachapuz, Antonio; Praia, Joao; Valdes, Pablo; Salinas, Julia

    The current consideration of technology as "applied science", this is to say, as something that comes "after" science, justifies the lack of attention paid to technology in science education. In our paper we question this simplistic view of the science-technology relationship, historically rooted in the unequal appreciation of intellectual and manual work, and we try to show how the absence of the technological dimension in science education contributes to a naïve and distorted view of science which deeply affects the necessary scientific and technological literacy of all citizens.

  7. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  8. 78 FR 77502 - NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA..., 2014, 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: NASA Headquarters, Room 3P40, 300 E Street SW...

  9. 78 FR 57178 - NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-1557, fax (202) 358-4118, or peter.g.meister@nasa.gov... contacting Peter Meister via email at peter.g.meister@nasa.gov or by telephone at (202) 358-1557. Patricia D... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...

  10. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. An Experimenting College of Environmental and Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ted F.; Fenner, Peter

    1975-01-01

    The programs of the College of Environmental and Applied Sciences at Governors State University have competency-based curricula emphasizing individualized and self-paced learning within an interdisciplinary framework. This article describes the instructional programs, student contract procedure, cooperative education venture, intercollege…

  12. Associate of Applied Science Degree in Office Systems. Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. School of Preparatory Studies.

    This proposal culminates a 5-year study of the possibility of awarding associate degrees at Gallaudet College, a private, liberal arts college for hearing impaired adults. The proposal outlines an Associate of Applied Science degree (AAS) in Office Systems at the School of Preparatory Studies. First, introductory material provides a brief history…

  13. Virtual Welding — Applying Science to Welding Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhishang; Cao, Zhenning; Chen, X. L.; Ludewig, Howard W.

    2004-06-01

    Welding practice has traditionally been treated as an art and in most cases experience based trial-and-error experimentation has been the major approach to establish a feasible welding procedure. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding welding phenomena based on numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts include simulation of the weld pool formation, weld microstructure evolution, and welding induced residual stress and distortion. The numerical models based on interdisciplinary applied sciences (e.g. heat transfer and fluid flow, materials science, mechanical engineering, and fracture mechanics) have provided detailed insights into welding process and guidance in design of high performance welded-joints and cost effective welding process. The concept of "Virtual Welding," which is a simulation package based on interdisciplinary applied science and multi-scale numerical models, is proposed in this paper. Examples are provided to demonstrate the applications of "Virtual Welding" in industrial practices for high performance welds and reduced manufacturing cost.

  14. Assessing Teachers' Science Content Knowledge: A Strategy for Assessing Depth of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Tom J.; Parker, Joyce M.; Eberhardt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    One of the characteristics of effective science teachers is a deep understanding of science concepts. The ability to identify, explain and apply concepts is critical in designing, delivering and assessing instruction. Because some teachers have not completed extensive courses in some areas of science, especially in middle and elementary grades,…

  15. The Lived Experience of Applied Science Graduates Who Complete the Applied Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawa, Tricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The enrollment and transfer behaviors of college students are diverse. As a result college students travel various pathways to the baccalaureate degree. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the lived experience of students who entered higher education through an associate of applied science (AAS) program and then…

  16. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Richard V., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  17. Students Explaining Science--Assessment of Science Communication Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Science communication competence (SCC) is an important educational goal in the school science curricula of several countries. However, there is a lack of research about the structure and the assessment of SCC. This paper specifies the theoretical framework of SCC by a competence model. We developed a qualitative assessment method for SCC that is…

  18. Students Explaining Science--Assessment of Science Communication Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Science communication competence (SCC) is an important educational goal in the school science curricula of several countries. However, there is a lack of research about the structure and the assessment of SCC. This paper specifies the theoretical framework of SCC by a competence model. We developed a qualitative assessment method for SCC that is…

  19. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.

  20. 77 FR 70482 - Notice of Establishment of a NASA Federal Advisory Committee; Applied Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Establishment of a NASA Federal Advisory Committee; Applied Sciences... the establishment of the Applied Sciences Advisory Committee as a Federal advisory committee under... Integration and Management Division, Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street...

  1. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Edward Geaney

    2013-01-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around…

  2. PREFACE: International Conference on Applied Sciences 2015 (ICAS2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2016-02-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences ICAS2015 took place in Wuhan, China on June 3-5, 2015 at the Military Economics Academy of Wuhan. The conference is regularly organized, alternatively in Romania and in P.R. China, by Politehnica University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P.R. China, with the joint aims to serve as a platform for exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The topics of the conference cover a comprehensive spectrum of issues from: >Economical Sciences and Defense: Management Sciences, Business Management, Financial Management, Logistics, Human Resources, Crisis Management, Risk Management, Quality Control, Analysis and Prediction, Government Expenditure, Computational Methods in Economics, Military Sciences, National Security, and others... >Fundamental Sciences and Engineering: Interdisciplinary applications of physics, Numerical approximation and analysis, Computational Methods in Engineering, Metallic Materials, Composite Materials, Metal Alloys, Metallurgy, Heat Transfer, Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, Reliability, Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems, Signal Processing, Software Engineering, Data Bases, Modeling and Simulation, and others... The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in Engineering, Economics, Defense, etc. The number of participants was 120 from 11 countries (China, Romania, Taiwan, Korea, Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, USA, Jamaica, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). During the three days of the conference four invited and 67 oral talks were delivered. Based on the work presented at the conference, 38 selected papers have been included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new research

  3. Valid and Reliable Science Content Assessments for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper describes multiple sources of validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.8) evidence for physical, life, and earth/space science assessments—part of the Diagnostic Teacher Assessments of Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) project. Validity was strengthened by systematic synthesis of relevant documents, extensive use of external reviewers, and field tests with 900 teachers during assessment development process. Subsequent results from 4,400 teachers, analyzed with Rasch IRT modeling techniques, offer construct and concurrent validity evidence.

  4. Proficiency in science: assessment challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, James W

    2013-04-19

    Proficiency in science is being defined through performance expectations that intertwine science practices, cross-cutting concepts, and core content knowledge. These descriptions of what it means to know and do science pose challenges for assessment design and use, whether at the classroom instructional level or the system level for monitoring the progress of science education. There are systematic ways to approach assessment development that can address design challenges, as well as examples of the application of such principles in science assessment. This Review considers challenges and opportunities that exist for design and use of assessments that can support science teaching and learning consistent with a contemporary view of what it means to be proficient in science.

  5. Applying science and mathematics to big data for smarter buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young M; An, Lianjun; Liu, Fei; Horesh, Raya; Chae, Young Tae; Zhang, Rui

    2013-08-01

    Many buildings are now collecting a large amount of data on operations, energy consumption, and activities through systems such as a building management system (BMS), sensors, and meters (e.g., submeters and smart meters). However, the majority of data are not utilized and are thrown away. Science and mathematics can play an important role in utilizing these big data and accurately assessing how energy is consumed in buildings and what can be done to save energy, make buildings energy efficient, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discusses an analytical tool that has been developed to assist building owners, facility managers, operators, and tenants of buildings in assessing, benchmarking, diagnosing, tracking, forecasting, and simulating energy consumption in building portfolios. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Making Sense of New Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W.

    2016-01-01

    What we choose to assess in science is what will end up being the focus of instruction. US science standards once treated content and inquiry as fairly separate strands of science learning, with content standards stating what students should know and inquiry standards stating what they should be able to do. In its content coverage, these standards…

  7. Making Sense of New Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W.

    2016-01-01

    What we choose to assess in science is what will end up being the focus of instruction. US science standards once treated content and inquiry as fairly separate strands of science learning, with content standards stating what students should know and inquiry standards stating what they should be able to do. In its content coverage, these standards…

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science and, Therefore, Progressive.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-02-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful progress for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe this approach as progressive. In a progressive approach to ABA, the therapist employs a structured yet flexible process, which is contingent upon and responsive to child progress. We will describe progressive ABA, contrast it to reductionist ABA, and provide rationales for both the substance and intent of ABA as a progressive scientific method for improving conditions of social relevance for individuals with ASD.

  9. Future of Applied Watershed Science at Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Lanigan, Steve; Reeves, Gordon

    2009-05-01

    The Internet-driven evolution of communication and science technologies coincides with a parallel evolution in environmental policy and natural resource management. Resource managers must deal increasingly with land use and conservation plans applied at large spatial scales (watersheds, landscapes, states, regions) involving multiple interacting agencies and stakeholders. Many federal, state, and private organizations have similar objectives, questions, and data and analysis needs. This is motivating the development of community-supported watershed databases and analysis systems of common structure and function across large geographic areas. Numerous state and regional analysis systems are targeting natural resource issues involving management of forests, freshwater fishes, wildlife, and water quality and supply.

  10. Everyday Assessment in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron, Ed.; Coffey, Janet E., Ed.

    The assessment that occurs each day in the science classroom is often overlooked amidst calls for accountability in education and renewed debates about external testing. Research points to the positive influence that improved, ongoing classroom assessment can have on learning. Documents that offer visions for science education such as the National…

  11. Science Objectives, 1985-86 Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1985-86, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) will undertake the fifth national assessment of science knowledge, skills, and attitudes in 9-, 13-, and 17-year old Americans. The science objectives have been developed and reviewed by committees of scientists and educators. The objectives presented in this document are grouped…

  12. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document outlining the basic steps and criteria used in developing the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA). Previously included as part of the ISA, it will now be referenced by each ISA as...

  13. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document outlining the basic steps and criteria used in developing the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA). Previously included as part of the ISA, it will now be referenced by each ISA as...

  14. Everyday Assessment in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron, Ed.; Coffey, Janet E., Ed.

    The assessment that occurs each day in the science classroom is often overlooked amidst calls for accountability in education and renewed debates about external testing. Research points to the positive influence that improved, ongoing classroom assessment can have on learning. Documents that offer visions for science education such as the National…

  15. Biotech 2011 conference Zurich University of applied sciences.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    More than 160 experts from industry and academia came together this September for the Biotech 2011 at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Wädenswil. As one of the main topics, the conference addressed innovations in sensor technology, where new measurement principles and methods have helped to enhance robustness and user friendliness. Another main emphasis of Biotech 2011 was the application of sensors and related analytical techniques in bioprocesses. In this area, the sensor industry needs to meet the challenges introduced by the increasing use of single-use bioreactors. With its strong focus on sensor applications, Biotech 2011 successfully promoted interaction between professionals in academic and industrial research as well as with experts who apply sensors in biopharmaceutical production.

  16. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  17. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated <span class=Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  18. Skills for caring: valuing knowledge of applied science in nursing.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, David

    The purpose of this article is to consider the implications of over-emphasizing the role of the nurse in terms of interpersonal relationships and emotional engagement. It seeks to explain why nurses are frequently more comfortable with the relational aspects of their work and less comfortable with their many tangible contributions. It examines why nurses often undervalue their considerable knowledge of applied science. It also evaluates why a change in attitude is necessary, and why nurses should enhance and give more prominence to their technical knowledge and skills. Finally, it includes a brief examination of current trends in nurse recruitment and retention, and their implications for the future of the profession in respect of the balance between interpersonal and technical skills.

  19. Advances in Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy for Applied Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Brent; Fields, Shelby S.; Pulliam, Robin; Muckle, Matt; Neill, Justin L.

    2017-06-01

    Advances in chemical sensitivity and robust, solid-state designs for microwave/millimeter-wave instrumentation compel the expansion of molecular rotational spectroscopy as research tool into applied science. It is familiar to consider molecular rotational spectroscopy for air analysis. Those techniques for molecular rotational spectroscopy are included in our presentation of a more broad application space for materials analysis using Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Resonance (FT-MRR) spectrometers. There are potentially transformative advantages for direct gas analysis of complex mixtures, determination of unknown evolved gases with parts per trillion detection limits in solid materials, and unambiguous chiral determination. The introduction of FT-MRR as an alternative detection principle for analytical chemistry has created a ripe research space for the development of new analytical methods and sampling equipment to fully enable FT-MRR. We present the current state of purpose-built FT-MRR instrumentation and the latest application measurements that make use of new sampling methods.

  20. From applied microbiology to biotechnology: science, medicine and industrial renewal.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2010-09-20

    In the late 1970s politicians and civil servants were acutely aware of the chronic decline of the manufacturing sector as a source of employment in Britain. At a time of fear of mass unemployment, sources of new work were urgently sought. Biotechnology had been promoted by visionaries since the early twentieth century. With oil prices soaring, its potential to produce substitutes for petroleum derivatives seemed newly attractive. At the beginning of 1976, John Bu'Lock at Manchester brought the attention of the new President of the Royal Society, Lord Todd, to the developments in enzyme and fermentation technologies. Both the Society and government began to take biotechnology seriously. In 1979 the Society organized a groundbreaking meeting, 'New horizons in industrial microbiology'. In parallel, John Ashworth, the chief scientist of the government think-tank the Central Policy Review Staff, prompted by American developments in genetic engineering, its commercial exploitation and regional development, led thinking among government officials. The Spinks enquiry into biotechnology was consequently formed in 1979 as a collaborative enterprise of the Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development, the Advisory Board for the Research Councils and the Royal Society. The recommendations for far-reaching collaboration between research councils, government and industry were not fully implemented. However, even the limited implementation led to new models of science that would be significant in the emergence of a reconstruction of science.

  1. Advances in the Science of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Jang, Eunice E.; Chu, Man-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Designing, developing, and administering assessments has remained fairly unchanged across the past century. However, recent developments in instructional technology, learning science theory, and advances in the design of assessments necessitate a newfound perspective on assessment. The objective of the present article is to review the topic of…

  2. Advances in the Science of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Jang, Eunice E.; Chu, Man-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Designing, developing, and administering assessments has remained fairly unchanged across the past century. However, recent developments in instructional technology, learning science theory, and advances in the design of assessments necessitate a newfound perspective on assessment. The objective of the present article is to review the topic of…

  3. Data Science in Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second of two articles in this special issue that were developed following discussions of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2013. The article extends the analysis of assessments of collaborative problem solving (CPS) to examine the significance of the data concerning this complex assessment problem and then for…

  4. Data Science in Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second of two articles in this special issue that were developed following discussions of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2013. The article extends the analysis of assessments of collaborative problem solving (CPS) to examine the significance of the data concerning this complex assessment problem and then for…

  5. Science Education Assessment Instruments: Problems in Assessing Student Attitude in Science Education: A Partial Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynowsky, Bernie A.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies some of the problems of attitude assessment in science education. Describes the development of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale (ATSSS) and gives an overview of the Ajzen and Fishbein attitude theories. Provides five sample items. (YP)

  6. Applying Science and Technology to Combat WMD Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C R; Werne, R W; Colston, B W; Hartmann-Siantar, C L

    2006-05-04

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing and fielding advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons. The science, technology, and integrated systems we provide are informed by and developed with key partners and end users. LLNL's long-standing role as one of the two principle U.S. nuclear weapons design laboratories has led to significant resident expertise for health effects of exposure to radiation, radiation detection technologies, characterization of radioisotopes, and assessment and response capabilities for terrorist nuclear weapons use. This paper provides brief overviews of a number of technologies developed at LLNL that are being used to address national security needs to confront the growing threats of CBRNE terrorism.

  7. Applying science and technology to combat WMD terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Werne, Roger W.; Colston, Billy W.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L.

    2006-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing and fielding advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons. The science, technology, and integrated systems we provide are informed by and developed with key partners and end users. LLNL's long-standing role as one of the two principle U.S. nuclear weapons design laboratories has led to significant resident expertise for health effects of exposure to radiation, radiation detection technologies, characterization of radioisotopes, and assessment and response capabilities for terrorist nuclear weapons use. This paper provides brief overviews of a number of technologies developed at LLNL that are being used to address national security needs to confront the growing threats of CBRNE terrorism.

  8. NASA Applied Sciences Program. Overview Presentation; Discovering and Demonstrating Innovative and Practical Applications of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Goal 1: Enhance Applications Research Advance the use of NASA Earth science in policy making, resource management and planning, and disaster response. Key Actions: Identify priority needs, conduct applied research to generate innovative applications, and support projects that demonstrate uses of NASA Earth science. Goal 2: Increase Collaboration Establish a flexible program structure to meet diverse partner needs and applications objectives. Key Actions: Pursue partnerships to leverage resources and risks and extend the program s reach and impact. Goal 3:Accelerate Applications Ensure that NASA s flight missions plan for and support applications goals in conjunction with their science goals, starting with mission planning and extending through the mission life cycle. Key Actions: Enable identification of applications early in satellite mission lifecycle and facilitate effective ways to integrate end-user needs into satellite mission planning

  9. Life Science Start-up Activities at the Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS).

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerda

    2014-12-01

    The universities of applied sciences (UAS) provide several values for the society and economy of a country. Besides education of high level professionals, transfer of knowledge from research to applications in industry or as new start-up companies is an important task. This is done in different ways in the various disciplines. In Life Sciences, a key industry branch in Switzerland, innovation is a competitive success factor and research findings from UAS/Life Sciences contribute to the valorization of new technologies to products, services and to business performance. In order to foster awareness for the innovation need of industry, UAS install processes and support for transfer of research and technology results to marketable applications. Furthermore they may facilitate contacts of researchers and students with entrepreneurs in order to animate start-up founding as a true alternative to being employed. Access to coaching and entrepreneurial training completes the essential basis.

  10. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April, 1986 through September 30, 1986 is summarized.

  11. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987 is summarized.

  12. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April l, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

  13. Assessment for Learning in Teaching and Assessing Graphs in Science Investigation Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioka, Olga

    2007-01-01

    The major literature review by Black and Wiliam (1998a) provided strong research evidence indicating that assessment for learning can produce significant gains in students' learning. The present study applied the main aspects of assessment for learning, as highlighted in the Black and Wiliam review, in a specific area of science education, that of…

  14. Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2014-08-05

    Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact--the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome.

  15. WADEABLE STREAMS ASSESSMENT | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provides the first statistically defensible summary of the condition of the nation’s streams and small rivers, which are so integrally tied to our history. This report brings the results of this ground-breaking study to the American public.This assessment encompasses the wadeable streams and rivers that account for a vast majority of the length of flowing waters in the United States. To perform this assessment, EPA, the states, and tribes collected chemical, physical, and biological data at more 1,392 wadeable perennial stream locations to determine the biological condition of these waters and the most important factors affecting their water quality. Teams collected samples at sites chosen using an innovative statistical design to ensure representative results. The results of this analysis provide a clear assessment of the biological quality of wadeable, perennial streams and rivers across the country, within each of three major climatic and landform regions, and nine ecological regions. Information provided in this report fills an important gap in meeting the requirements of the CWA. The purpose of this assessment is fourfold: 1. Report on the ecological condition of all wadeable, perennial streams and rivers within the conterminous United States. (Pilot projects are underway in Alaska and Hawaii.) 2. Describe the biological condition of these systems using direct measures of aquatic life. Assessments of stream

  16. Applying Scientific Openmindedness to Religion and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Challenges the claims made by Mahner and Bunge that science and religion are incompatible and that a religious education hinders the development of a scientific cast of mind. Presents a philosophically superior way of viewing the relation between science and religion which can have a humane influence upon how both science and religion are taught.…

  17. Applying Scientific Openmindedness to Religion and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Challenges the claims made by Mahner and Bunge that science and religion are incompatible and that a religious education hinders the development of a scientific cast of mind. Presents a philosophically superior way of viewing the relation between science and religion which can have a humane influence upon how both science and religion are taught.…

  18. Distance learning in the Applied Sciences of Oncology.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michael B; Thode, Richard J

    2010-04-01

    The major impediment to the expansion of oncology services is a shortage of personnel. To develop a distance learning course for radiation oncology trainees. Under the sponsorship of the Asia Pacific Regional Cooperative Agreement administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a CD ROM-based Applied Sciences of Oncology (ASOC) distance learning course of 71 modules was created. The course covers communications, critical appraisal, functional anatomy, molecular biology, pathology. The materials include interactive text and illustrations that require students to answer questions before they can progress. The course aims to supplement existing oncology curricula and does not provide a qualification. It aims to assist students in acquiring their own profession's qualification. The course was piloted in seven countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America during 2004. After feedback from the pilot course, a further nine modules were added to cover imaging physics (three modules), informed consent, burnout and coping with death and dying, Economic analysis and cancer care, Nutrition, cachexia and fatigue, radiation-induced second cancers and mathematical tools and background for radiation oncology. The course was widely distributed and can be downloaded from http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Training/Aso/register.html. ASOC has been downloaded over 1100 times in the first year after it was posted. There is a huge demand for educational materials but the interactive approach is labour-intensive and expensive to compile. The course must be maintained to remain relevant. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An applied science perspective of Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. G.

    1985-11-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films are prepared by transferring floating organic monolayers onto solid substrates. A combination of innovative chemistry and a carefully engineered instrument (a Langmuir trough) can result in high quality monomolecular assemblies displaying a high degree of structural order. The technique was first reported about fifty years ago and since then, LB films have been widely used as model systems in fundamental research. However, it is only during the past decade that the extensive applied potential has been recognised. Their precise thickness, coupled with the degree of control over the molecular architecture, has now firmly established a role for these layers in thin film technology.Following a historical introduction, this review describes the preparation and characterization of LB films and summarizes their importance in basic science. Particular emphasis is then placed on their potential applications, especially in fields related to electronics. The article concludes with a summary of the possible future role of ordered monomolecular films in the general field of molecular electronics.

  20. Manitoba Science Assessment Program 1980. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Measurement and Evaluation Branch.

    This seven-chapter report presents information on the 1980 assessment of students' science performance in the province of Manitoba. Chapter I describes the nature of and steps involved in the assessment. Chapters II, III, and IV present, analyze and discuss achievement and attitude results for grades 5, 8, and 11, respectively. Achievement results…

  1. Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs in Safety Assessment Programs.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Fiona; Edwards, Joanna; Prior, Helen; Robinson, Sally

    2016-12-01

    Before a potential new medicine can be administered to humans it is essential that its safety is adequately assessed. Safety assessment in animals forms an integral part of this process, from early drug discovery and initial candidate selection to the program of recommended regulatory tests in animals. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in research) are integrated in the current regulatory requirements and expectations and, in the EU, provide a legal and ethical framework for in vivo research to ensure the scientific objectives are met whilst minimizing animal use and maintaining high animal welfare standards. Though the regulations are designed to uncover potential risks, they are intended to be flexible, so that the most appropriate approach can be taken for an individual product. This article outlines current and future opportunities to apply the 3Rs in safety assessment programs for pharmaceuticals, and the potential (scientific, financial, and ethical) benefits to the industry, across the drug discovery and development process. For example, improvements to, or the development of, novel, early screens (e.g., in vitro, in silico, or nonmammalian screens) designed to identify compounds with undesirable characteristics earlier in development have the potential to reduce late-stage attrition by improving the selection of compounds that require regulatory testing in animals. Opportunities also exist within the current regulatory framework to simultaneously reduce and/or refine animal use and improve scientific outcomes through improvements to technical procedures and/or adjustments to study designs. It is important that approaches to safety assessment are continuously reviewed and challenged to ensure they are science-driven and predictive of relevant effects in humans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Formative Assessment in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Kilpatrick, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    This action learning study in a year three classroom explored the implementation of five formative assessment principles to assist students' understandings of the scientific topic of liquids and solids. These principles were employed to give students a greater opportunity to express their understanding of the concepts. The study found that the…

  3. Assessing "Combining Forms" in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floriani, Bernard P.; Cairns, Jack C.

    1982-01-01

    Since there appears to be a direct relationship between reading comprehension and vocabulary, an inventory is offered which assesses students' knowledge of the meaning of "combining forms" (automobile, aero-dynamics, etc.) and not words themselves. The inventory can serve as a model to develop additional inventories for Latin/Greek roots.…

  4. Assessing Pupils' Progress in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Good assessment practice is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It puts learners at the heart of the process, helping them to recognise achievement and make progress, and enables teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations. Over the past year, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) has…

  5. Assessing "Combining Forms" in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floriani, Bernard P.; Cairns, Jack C.

    1982-01-01

    Since there appears to be a direct relationship between reading comprehension and vocabulary, an inventory is offered which assesses students' knowledge of the meaning of "combining forms" (automobile, aero-dynamics, etc.) and not words themselves. The inventory can serve as a model to develop additional inventories for Latin/Greek roots.…

  6. Formative Assessment in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Kilpatrick, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    This action learning study in a year three classroom explored the implementation of five formative assessment principles to assist students' understandings of the scientific topic of liquids and solids. These principles were employed to give students a greater opportunity to express their understanding of the concepts. The study found that the…

  7. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  8. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  9. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  10. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  11. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  12. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and...

  13. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and...

  14. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  15. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  16. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  17. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  18. Transition of Solvent Interaction Research from Basic Science to Applied Science.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    As a graduate course student, I studied the aggregation behavior of the wheat protein gluten, induced by changes in pH and ionic strength, thus beginning my research career in the field of solvent effects. The following 5 years were spent as a post-doctoral reseracher in the U.S., focused on protein-solvent interactions, which, according to my advisor, Dr. Timasheff, was too basic to be supported by academic grants. This study, however, answered a number of questions about how different solvents affect behavior of proteins in solution, e.g., a solubility behavior known as Hofmeister series. This research experience landed me an R&D position at a startup biotech company, Amgen, where knowledge on solvents played a fundamental role in protein refolding, formulation and chromatography. This demonstrates the unanticipated possibility that an un-funded, basic academic science study earlier can be transitioned later into an industrially-significant applied science.

  19. The NASA Applied Sciences Program: Volcanic Ash Observations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Fairlie, Duncan; Green, David; Haynes, John; Krotkov, Nickolai; Meyer, Franz; Pavolonis, Mike; Trepte, Charles; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since 2000, the NASA Applied Sciences Program has been actively transitioning observations and research to operations. Particular success has been achieved in developing applications for NASA Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) sensors, integrated observing systems, and operational models for volcanic ash detection, characterization, and transport. These include imager applications for sensors such as the MODerate resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) on NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NASA/NOAA Suomi NPP satellite; sounder applications for sensors such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi NPP; UV applications for the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) on the NASA Aura Satellite and the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) on Suomi NPP including Direct readout capabilities from OMI and OMPS in Alaska (GINA) and Finland (FMI):; and lidar applications from the Caliop instrument coupled with the imaging IR sensor on the NASA/CNES CALIPSO satellite. Many of these applications are in the process of being transferred to the Washington and Alaska Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) where they support operational monitoring and advisory services. Some have also been accepted, transitioned and adapted for direct, onboard, automated product production in future U.S. operational satellite systems including GOES-R, and in automated volcanic cloud detection, characterization and alerting tools at the VAACs. While other observations and applications remain to be developed for the current constellation of NASA EOS sensors and integrated with observing and forecast systems, future requirements and capabilities for volcanic ash observations and applications are also being developed. Many of these are based on technologies currently being tested on NASA aircraft, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and balloons. All of these efforts and the potential advances

  20. Science Outcomes Assessment Plan (SOAP): Design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Zodiac T.; Gurkas, P.; Shaw, K.

    2009-01-01

    Columbus State University is under pressure to reduce the number of "unproductive grades” in its introductory science classes, to increase the number of STEM majors, and to assess the level of attainment of science outcomes in its general education courses for accreditation documentation. The authors designed a study to examine affective, cognitive, social, and classroom factors as predictors of success in science while also attempting to document the link between introductory "gateway to science major” course outcomes and the general education program. One of the factors probed is the match between students’ understanding of important learning outcomes of the course and the instructor's stated priorities. A very real risk in content focused courses (e.g., astronomy) is the mismatch between the university's stated outcomes for a general education science course (e.g., critical thinking) and the instructor's content related outcomes. This mismatch may become a barrier for students taking `required’ courses as they may not comprehend the rationale for the requirement, fail to engage in the course, and consequently receive a failing grade. Another possible factor affecting student success in science is the student reasoning level. Students who are concrete thinkers may not be as successful in introductory science classes that require advanced logical thinking about unfamiliar concepts. The authors hope to use the results of this study to help inform university practices such as placement into introductory science courses and for future faculty development.

  1. Ozone (O3) Standards - Integrated Science Assessments from Current Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The integrated science assessment (ISA) is a comprehensive review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, including key science judgments that are important to inform the development of the risk and exposure assessments, and more.

  2. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  3. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  4. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  5. Identification of multiple intelligences for high school students in theoretical and applied science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, D. Kim

    Historically educators in the United States have used the Stanford-Binet intelligence test to measure a students' ability in logical/mathematical and linguistic domains. This measurement is being used by a society that has evolved from agrarian and industrial-based economies to what is presently labeled a technological society. As society has changed so have the educational needs of the students who will live in this technological society. This study assessed the multiple intelligences of high school students enrolled in theoretical and applied science (physics and applied physics) courses. Studies have verified that performance and outcomes of students enrolled in these courses are similar in standardized testing but instructional methodology and processes are dissimilar. Analysis of multiple intelligence profiles collected from this study found significant differences in logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic and intrapersonal multiple intelligences of students in theoretical science courses compared to students in applied science courses. Those differences clearly illustrate why it is imperative for educators to expand the definition of intelligence for students entering the new millennium.

  6. Elementary teachers'assessment actions and elementary science education: Formative assessment enactment in elementary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, David Riley

    A comparative case study was conducted of two elementary science teachers' enactment of a formative assessment strategy, known as Reflective Assessment. Qualitative analysis of three data sources addressed the two research questions of the differences in enactment of RA and what those differences look like. This study suggests that differences do exist in how teachers implement formative assessment in the enactment of the same science curricula, though further investigation into this is needed.

  7. Need Assessment of Enhancing the Weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the Undergraduate Curriculum at MGIMS, Sevagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…

  8. Need Assessment of Enhancing the Weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the Undergraduate Curriculum at MGIMS, Sevagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This report represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standard for oxides of sulfur (SO2) sufficiently protects public health. The Integrated Plan for Review of the Primary NAAQS for SOx U.S. 2: EPA (2007) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions in completing the NAAQS review.

  10. Unpacking the Relationship Between Science Education and Applied Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Amanda; Schunn, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Scientific literacy has many meanings: it can be thought of as foundational knowledge, foundational critical thinking skills, or the application of these two foundations to everyday decision making. Here, we examine the far transfer scenario: do increases in science education lead to everyday decision-making becoming more consistent with consensus scientific knowledge? We report on a large sample of employees of a mixed urban/rural county representing a diverse range of careers, who completed an anonymous survey about their environmental conservation actions at home, as well as their general education level and their science coursework. Across broad and narrow measures of science education, we find little impact on action. Possible causes of this failure of transfer and the implications for changes in science instruction are discussed.

  11. Applying Historic Science Communication Lessons to Today's Global Change Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchio, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    As global population surges towards seven billion and anthropogenic impacts ricochet throughout Earth’s environment, effective science communication has become essential. In today’s digital world where science communication must contend with stiff competition for audience attention, it is crucial to understand the lessons gleaned from a century worth of science communication research. Starting in the early part of the twentieth century a cadre of American scientists began to advocate for better public understanding of science, arguing that better understanding of science meant a better quality of life, better public affairs deliberations, and the elevation of democracy and culture. To improve science communication, many models of the communication process have been developed since then. Starting in the 1940s, science communication researchers adopted the linear communication model of electrical engineering. Over time, the one-way scientific communication of the linear model came to be identified with the deficit model approach—which assumes little prior scientific knowledge on the part of the receiver. A major failure of the deficit model was witnessed during the Mad Cow Disease outbreak in the UK: beef safety was over-simplified in the communication process, people were given a false sense of security, many ended up sick, and public trust in government plummeted. Of the many lessons learned from failures of the deficit model, arguably, the most significant lesson is that the public’s prior knowledge and life experience is always brought to bear on the message, i.e. the message must be contextualized. Here, we examine the major science communication lessons of the past century and discuss how they can inform more effective global change communication.

  12. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the 2015 Preamble Report The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document o...

  13. Cognitive Science and Assessment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Carol

    This Digest provides educators with an overview of some important facets of cognitive science research and suggests implications for classroom assessment. Education researchers study the thinking of experts in various subject areas to understand the concepts and procedures that are the most important to teach and to help determine how to move…

  14. Applied aerodynamics experience for secondary science teachers and students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbitt, John D., III; Carroll, Bruce F.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics & Engineering Science at the University of Florida in conjunction with the Alachua County, Florida School Board has embarked on a four-year project of university-secondary school collaboration designed to enhance mathematics and science instruction in secondary school classrooms. The goals are to provide teachers with a fundamental knowledge of flight sciences, and to stimulate interest among students, particularly women and minorities, toward careers in engineering, mathematics, and science. In the first year of the project, all thirteen of the eighth grade physical science teachers and all 1200 of the eighth grade physical science students in the county participated. The activities consisted of a three-day seminar taught at the college level for the teachers, several weeks of classroom instruction for all the students, and an airport field trip for a subgroup of about 430 students that included an orientation flight in a Cessna 172 aircraft. The project brought together large numbers of middle school students, teachers, undergraduate and graduate engineering students, school board administrators, and university engineering faculty.

  15. Experiences & Tools from Modeling Instruction Applied to Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervenec, J.; Landis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Framework for K-12 Science Education calls for stronger curricular connections within the sciences, greater depth in understanding, and tasks higher on Bloom's Taxonomy. Understanding atmospheric sciences draws on core knowledge traditionally taught in physics, chemistry, and in some cases, biology. If this core knowledge is not conceptually sound, well retained, and transferable to new settings, understanding the causes and consequences of climate changes become a task in memorizing seemingly disparate facts to a student. Fortunately, experiences and conceptual tools have been developed and refined in the nationwide network of Physics Modeling and Chemistry Modeling teachers to build necessary understanding of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, particulate nature of matter, kinetic molecular theory, and particle model of light. Context-rich experiences are first introduced for students to construct an understanding of these principles and then conceptual tools are deployed for students to resolve misconceptions and deepen their understanding. Using these experiences and conceptual tools takes an investment of instructional time, teacher training, and in some cases, re-envisioning the format of a science classroom. There are few financial barriers to implementation and students gain a greater understanding of the nature of science by going through successive cycles of investigation and refinement of their thinking. This presentation shows how these experiences and tools could be used in an Earth Science course to support students developing conceptually rich understanding of the atmosphere and connections happening within.

  16. Applied aerodynamics experience for secondary science teachers and students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbitt, John D., III; Carroll, Bruce F.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics & Engineering Science at the University of Florida in conjunction with the Alachua County, Florida School Board has embarked on a four-year project of university-secondary school collaboration designed to enhance mathematics and science instruction in secondary school classrooms. The goals are to provide teachers with a fundamental knowledge of flight sciences, and to stimulate interest among students, particularly women and minorities, toward careers in engineering, mathematics, and science. In the first year of the project, all thirteen of the eighth grade physical science teachers and all 1200 of the eighth grade physical science students in the county participated. The activities consisted of a three-day seminar taught at the college level for the teachers, several weeks of classroom instruction for all the students, and an airport field trip for a subgroup of about 430 students that included an orientation flight in a Cessna 172 aircraft. The project brought together large numbers of middle school students, teachers, undergraduate and graduate engineering students, school board administrators, and university engineering faculty.

  17. What's Wrong with Talking about the Scientific Revolution? Applying Lessons from History of Science to Applied Fields of Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, the 'Scientific Revolution' has arguably occupied centre stage in most Westerners', and many non-Westerners', conceptions of science history. Yet among history of science specialists that position has been profoundly contested. Most radically, historians Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams in 1993 proposed to…

  18. What's Wrong with Talking about the Scientific Revolution? Applying Lessons from History of Science to Applied Fields of Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, the 'Scientific Revolution' has arguably occupied centre stage in most Westerners', and many non-Westerners', conceptions of science history. Yet among history of science specialists that position has been profoundly contested. Most radically, historians Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams in 1993 proposed to…

  19. Integrating Hands-On Undergraduate Research in an Applied Spatial Science Senior Level Capstone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulhavy, David L.; Unger, Daniel R.; Hung, I-Kuai; Douglass, David

    2015-01-01

    A senior within a spatial science Ecological Planning capstone course designed an undergraduate research project to increase his spatial science expertise and to assess the hands-on instruction methodology employed within the Bachelor of Science in Spatial Science program at Stephen F Austin State University. The height of 30 building features…

  20. Advances in Applying Treatment Integrity Research for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Introduction to Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; McLeod, Bryce D.

    2013-01-01

    This special series focuses upon the ways in which research on treatment integrity, a multidimensional construct including assessment of the content and quality of a psychosocial treatment delivered to a client as well as relational elements, can inform dissemination and implementation science. The five articles for this special series illustrate how treatment integrity concepts and methods can be applied across different levels of the mental health service system to advance dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of treatment integrity research and describe three broad conceptual models that are relevant to the articles in the series. We conclude with a brief description of each of the five articles in the series. PMID:23970819

  1. "Vague and artificial": the historically elusive distinction between pure and applied science.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Graeme

    2012-09-01

    This essay argues for the historicity of applied science as a contested category within laissez-faire Victorian British science. This distinctively pre-twentieth-century notion of applied science as a self-sustaining, autonomous enterprise was thrown into relief from the 1880s by a campaign on the part of T. H. Huxley and his followers to promote instead the primacy of "pure" science. Their attempt to relegate applied science to secondary status involved radically reconfiguring it as the mere application of pre-existing pure science. This new notion of extrinsically funded pure science that would produce only contingently future social benefits as a mere by-product came under pressure during World War I, when military priorities focused attention once again on science for immediate utility. This threatened the Cambridge-based promoters of self-referential pure science who collectively published Science and the Nation in 1917. Yet most contributors to this work discussed forms of "applied" science that had no prior "pure" form. Even the U.K.'s leading government scientist, Lord Moulton, dismissed the book's provocative distinction between pure and applied science as unhelpfully "vague and artificial."

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  3. Unpacking the Relationship between Science Education and Applied Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Schunn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literacy has many meanings: it can be thought of as foundational knowledge, foundational critical thinking skills, or the application of these two foundations to everyday decision making. Here, we examine the far transfer scenario: do increases in science education lead to everyday decision-making becoming more consistent with consensus…

  4. Unpacking the Relationship between Science Education and Applied Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Schunn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literacy has many meanings: it can be thought of as foundational knowledge, foundational critical thinking skills, or the application of these two foundations to everyday decision making. Here, we examine the far transfer scenario: do increases in science education lead to everyday decision-making becoming more consistent with consensus…

  5. Technology Integration Applied to Project-Based Learning in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which observed students' (aged 10-11) use of technology during project-based learning activities in science. As part of the overall process of project-based learning, students used computer technology as a tool for collecting information, organising it and presenting it to their peers. Students conducted…

  6. Geometric and Applied Optics, Science (Experimental): 5318.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Robert C.

    This unit of instruction presents a laboratory-oriented course which relates the sources and behaviors of light to man's control and uses of light. Successful completion of Algebra I and Plane Geometry is strongly recommended as indicators of success. The course is recommended if the student plans further studies in science, optical technology, or…

  7. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot; Matthew P. Thompson; Michael C. Runge; Frank R. Thompson; Steven McNulty; David Cleaves; Monica Tomosy; Larry A. Fisher; Andrew Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem...

  8. Consultants' Showcase: Applying the Assessment Center Method to Selection Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dapra, Richard A.; Byham, William C.

    1978-01-01

    Targeted selection applies the five elements of the assessment-center method to selection interviewing of job applicants. Discusses the five reasons for the validity of the assessment-center method along with a parallel list of reasons for the validity of Targeted Selection. (EM)

  9. Applying ecological risk principles to watershed assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Serveiss, Victor B

    2002-02-01

    Considerable progress in addressing point source (end of pipe) pollution problems has been made, but it is now recognized that further substantial environmental improvements depend on controlling nonpoint source pollution. A watershed approach is being used more frequently to address these problems because traditional regulatory approaches do not focus on nonpoint sources. The watershed approach is organized around the guiding principles of partnerships, geographic focus, and management based on sound science and data. This helps to focus efforts on the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. Ecological risk assessment is a process to collect, organize, analyze, and present scientific information to improve decision making. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored three watershed assessments and found that integrating the watershed approach with ecological risk assessment increases the use of environmental monitoring and assessment data in decision making. This paper describes the basics of the watershed approach, the ecological risk assessment process, and how these two frameworks can be integrated. The three major principles of watershed ecological risk assessment found to be most useful for increasing the use of science in decision making are (1) using assessment endpoints and conceptual models, (2) holding regular interactions between scientists and managers, and (3) developing a focus for multiple stressor analysis. Examples are provided illustrating how these principles were implemented in these assessments.

  10. Does Formative Assessment Improve Student Learning and Performance in Soil Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Wehr, J. Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W.

    2012-01-01

    Soil science students are required to apply knowledge from a range of disciplines to unfamiliar scenarios to solve complex problems. To encourage deep learning (with student performance an indicator of learning), a formative assessment exercise was introduced to a second-year soil science subject. For the formative assessment exercise, students…

  11. Does Formative Assessment Improve Student Learning and Performance in Soil Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Wehr, J. Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W.

    2012-01-01

    Soil science students are required to apply knowledge from a range of disciplines to unfamiliar scenarios to solve complex problems. To encourage deep learning (with student performance an indicator of learning), a formative assessment exercise was introduced to a second-year soil science subject. For the formative assessment exercise, students…

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. The Integrated Plan for Review of the NAAQS for CO {U.S. EPA, 2008 #8615} identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that it, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions during the NAAQS review:

  13. Teaching and Learning Methodologies Supported by ICT Applied in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capacho, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to show a set of new methodologies applied in the teaching of Computer Science using ICT. The methodologies are framed in the conceptual basis of the following sciences: Psychology, Education and Computer Science. The theoretical framework of the research is supported by Behavioral Theory, Gestalt Theory.…

  14. Assessing Middle and High School Mathematics & Science: Differentiating Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of mathematics and science, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  15. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document i...

  16. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  17. Nursing science: basic, applied, or practical? Implications for the art of nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Nursing has long been described as both a science and an art. If the science of nursing is to be relevant to the art of nursing, then it must be conceptualized and pursued such that these two central components of nursing remain connected. Current conceptualizations of nursing science are examined in terms of the consequences that each conceptualization might have for the art of nursing. Pursuing nursing science as a basic science or an applied science disarticulates the science of nursing and the art of nursing. The author concludes that only if nursing science is conceptualized and pursued as a practical science will the science of nursing be consistently relevant to the art of nursing.

  18. Science Advisor and Applied Physicist: Joseph Henry Serves His Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    1997-04-01

    When Joseph Henry accepted the postion of secretary of the Smithsonian in 1846, his career changed radically. Although he never ceased thinking of himself as a research scientist and educator, thereafter his chief roles were those of science administrator and advisor to both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government for both science and technology. His effectiveness as an advocate became more important than his skill as an experimental physicist. Even when he entered the laboratory, his role had changed. No longer was he concerned with basic research. As a member of various government boards and committees, Henry spent the last three decades of his life concerned with the application of fundamental knowledge for the improvement of the human condition. This paper will discuss Henry's service on behalf of his country.

  19. Concepts in critical thinking applied to caries risk assessment in dental education.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra; Warren, John J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; von Bergmann, HsingChi; Johnsen, David C

    2014-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the science of caries risk assessment and ways to analyze caries risk, yet dental education has seen little movement toward the development of frameworks to guide learning and assess critical thinking in caries risk assessment. In the absence of previous proactive implementation of a learning framework that takes the knowledge of caries risk and critically applies it to the patient with the succinctness demanded in the clinical setting, the purpose of this study was to develop a model learning framework that combines the science of caries risk assessment with principles of critical thinking from the education literature. This article also describes the implementation of that model at one dental school and presents some preliminary assessment data.

  20. Comparison of Science-Technology-Society Approach and Textbook Oriented Instruction on Students' Abilities to Apply Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapici, Hasan Ozgur; Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    It is important for students to learn concepts and using them for solving problems and further learning. Within this respect, the purpose of this study is to investigate students' abilities to apply science concepts that they have learned from Science-Technology-Society based approach or textbook oriented instruction. Current study is based on…

  1. Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document sets forth recommendations for the design of a new science assessment. The assessment resulting from this framework will start a new NAEP science trend (i.e., measure of student progress in science) beginning in 2009. This framework represents a unique opportunity to build on previous NAEP science work as well as key developments in…

  2. Applying a weed risk assessment approach to GM crops.

    PubMed

    Keese, Paul K; Robold, Andrea V; Myers, Ruth C; Weisman, Sarah; Smith, Joe

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants are modelled on chemical risk assessment methods, which have a strong focus on toxicity. There are additional types of harms posed by plants that have been extensively studied by weed scientists and incorporated into weed risk assessment methods. Weed risk assessment uses robust, validated methods that are widely applied to regulatory decision-making about potentially problematic plants. They are designed to encompass a broad variety of plant forms and traits in different environments, and can provide reliable conclusions even with limited data. The knowledge and experience that underpin weed risk assessment can be harnessed for environmental risk assessment of GM plants. A case study illustrates the application of the Australian post-border weed risk assessment approach to a representative GM plant. This approach is a valuable tool to identify potential risks from GM plants.

  3. Applied Missing Data Analysis. Methodology in the Social Sciences Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.

    2010-01-01

    Walking readers step by step through complex concepts, this book translates missing data techniques into something that applied researchers and graduate students can understand and utilize in their own research. Enders explains the rationale and procedural details for maximum likelihood estimation, Bayesian estimation, multiple imputation, and…

  4. Future of applied watershed science at regional scales

    Treesearch

    Lee Benda; Daniel Miller; Steve Lanigan; Gordon Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Resource managers must deal increasingly with land use and conservation plans applied at large spatial scales (watersheds, landscapes, states, regions) involving multiple interacting federal agencies and stakeholders. Access to a geographically focused and application-oriented database would allow users in different locations and with different concerns to quickly...

  5. Field Crop Nutrition--Applied Science Concepts. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charles R.

    This manual is designed to help agricultural education students to determine and provide the proper kinds and amounts of nutrients for the field crops they produce. The manual provides many learning situations regarding field crops--for example, determining nutrient needs, diagnosing nutrient shortages, and selecting and applying fertilizer and…

  6. Applied Missing Data Analysis. Methodology in the Social Sciences Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.

    2010-01-01

    Walking readers step by step through complex concepts, this book translates missing data techniques into something that applied researchers and graduate students can understand and utilize in their own research. Enders explains the rationale and procedural details for maximum likelihood estimation, Bayesian estimation, multiple imputation, and…

  7. Associate in Science (AS) to Bachelor of Science in Applied Science (BSAS) Transfer Students: An Analysis of Student Characteristics, Engagement, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jerry C.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine and comprehensively describe transfer students who have earned a two-year technical or occupational Associate in Science (AS) degree at the community college and entered the university to pursue the Bachelor of Science in Applied Science (BSAS). The BSAS degree is a specialized baccalaureate degree program created…

  8. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-02-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is played across a university campus where players take on the roles of doctors, medical technicians, and public health experts to contain a disease outbreak. Players can interact with virtual characters and employ virtual diagnostic tests and medicines. They are challenged to identify the source and prevent the spread of an infectious disease that can spread among real and/or virtual characters according to an underlying model. In this paper, we report on data from three high school classes who played the game. We investigate students' perception of the authenticity of the game in terms of their personal embodiment in the game, their experience playing different roles, and their understanding of the dynamic model underlying the game.

  9. The policy chicken and the science egg. Has applied ecology failed the transgenic crops debate?

    PubMed

    Gray, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ecology has a long history of research relevant to and impacting on real-world issues. Nonetheless problems of communication remain between policy-makers and scientists because they tend to work at different levels of generality (policy deals with broad issues, science prefers specific questions), and complexity (policy-makers want simple answers, ecologists tend to offer multi-factorial solutions) and to different timescales (policy-makers want answers tomorrow, ecologists always seem to want more time). These differences are not unique to the debate about the cultivation of transgenic crops. Research on gene flow is used to illustrate how science and policy are intimately bound together in a value-laden, iterative and messy process unlike that characterised by the 'encounter problem-do science-make policy' model. It also demonstrates how the gap between science and policy is often characterised by value-laden language. Scientists involved in ERA for transgenic crops may find their engagement with policy- and decision-makers clouded by misunderstanding about what one should expect from the other. Not the least of these, that science can define harm, is explored in a discussion of the U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations of herbicide-tolerant GM crops. The varied responses to these extensive trials highlight the problems of linking specific scientific experiments with broad policy objectives. The problems of applied ecology in the transgenic crops debate are not unique but may differ from other areas of environmental policy in the intense politicisation of the debate, the emphasis on assessment of risk and the particularly broad policy objectives.

  10. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1984-05-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1983, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, freshwater ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring.

  11. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1985-03-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to understand the formation, transformation, transport, and effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The effects studied include those on global, regional, and local scales and involve the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1984, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, toxicology studies of biological systems, and trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts.

  12. The DEVELOP National Program's Strategy for Communicating Applied Science Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Favors, J.; Kelley, C.; Miller, T. N.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's DEVELOP National Program conducts rapid feasibility projects that enable the future workforce and current decision makers to collaborate and build capacity to use Earth science data to enhance environmental management and policy. The program communicates its results and applications to a broad spectrum of audiences through a variety of methods: "virtual poster sessions" that engage the general public through short project videos and interactive dialogue periods, a "Campus Ambassador Corps" that communicates about the program and its projects to academia, scientific and policy conference presentations, community engagement activities and end-of-project presentations, project "hand-offs" providing results and tools to project partners, traditional publications (both gray literature and peer-reviewed), an interactive website project gallery, targeted brochures, and through multiple social media venues and campaigns. This presentation will describe the various methods employed by DEVELOP to communicate the program's scientific outputs, target audiences, general statistics, community response and best practices.

  13. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  14. 78 FR 38318 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075F). The document was prepared by the National... available on or around June 26, 2013. ADDRESSES: The ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' will be made...

  15. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.

  16. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W., Ed.; Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Koenig, Judith A., Ed.; Beatty, Alexandra S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role in the classroom. "Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" develops an approach to science assessment to meet the vision of science education for the future as it has been elaborated in "A Framework…

  17. 77 FR 5247 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., ``Second External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075B). The document... Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' will be available primarily via the Internet on...

  18. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W., Ed.; Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Koenig, Judith A., Ed.; Beatty, Alexandra S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role in the classroom. "Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" develops an approach to science assessment to meet the vision of science education for the future as it has been elaborated in "A Framework…

  19. Attitude level of prospective science teachers towards assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendi, Ridwan; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    A descriptive study about attitude level of prospective science teachers towards assessment was conducted with the involvement of 67 prospective science teachers from four state universities in western part of the Indonesian region and middle part of Indonesia region. Data collected by using the questionnaire consisted of four aspects, id est. prospective science teachers attitude towards assessment (cognitive level of assessment, type of assessment, and criterion of evaluation), prospective science teachers instructional practice, internal difficulties that prospective science teachers experienced related to their assessment skills, and the use of assessment process of prospective science teachers. Determination of attitude level detected from prospective science teachers was carried out in descriptive statistics, in the form of respondent average values. Research finding shows that attitude level of prospective science teachers towards assessment can be categorized as "close to constructivist".

  20. Piagetian Theory Applied to Assessment of the Teaching Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Madeline

    1974-01-01

    Piaget's observations of children dealing with the concept of coordinate systems are applied to the evaluation of teachers. An assessment instrument has been developed at UCLA which utilizes two sets of principles in the establishment of coordinate axes: a) incremental elements of a learning task; and b) principles of learning. (HMD)

  1. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for CO. The recently completed CO ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current CO NAAQS. The integrated Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (U.S. EPA, 2008, 193995) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this assessment of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS for CO and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes, presents, and integrates the scientific evidence which is considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address these questions during the NAAQS review.

  2. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP National Program: Training the Next Generation of Remote Sensing Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren; Brozen, Madeline; Hillyer, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception over a decade ago, the DEVELOP National Program has provided students with experience in utilizing and integrating satellite remote sensing data into real world-applications. In 1998, DEVELOP began with three students and has evolved into a nationwide internship program with over 200 students participating each year. DEVELOP is a NASA Applied Sciences training and development program extending NASA Earth science research and technology to society. Part of the NASA Science Mission Directorate s Earth Science Division, the Applied Sciences Program focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public by conducting projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to research environmental issues. Project outcomes focus on assisting communities to better understand environmental change over time. This is accomplished through research with global, national, and regional partners to identify the widest array of practical uses of NASA data. DEVELOP students conduct research in areas that examine how NASA science can better serve society. Projects focus on practical applications of NASA s Earth science research results. Each project is designed to address at least one of the Applied Sciences focus areas, use NASA s Earth observation sources and meet partners needs. DEVELOP research teams partner with end-users and organizations who use project results for policy analysis and decision support, thereby extending the benefits of NASA science and technology to the public.

  3. Compression bandaging for chronic oedema: applying science to reality.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Among other risk factors, chronic venous insufficiency predisposes an individual to chronic oedema. The use of compression bandaging in the intensive phase of treatment is indicated to reduce distortion, lymphorrhoea, and achieve wound healing. When applying a compression bandage, it is essential that the clinician considers the laws that underpin the theory of compression. Owing to the physical properties of the bandages, the use of inelastic compression is favoured for the management of chronic oedema, in view of the high static stiffness index achieved on application. It is essential that the bandaging regime is individualised to meet the specific needs of the patient. This includes the frequency of bandage change, while considering the extent of oedema reduction and holistic needs of the patient.

  4. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    PubMed

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  5. Applying Climate Science to Urban Water Infrastructure Planning in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asante, K. O.; Khimsara, P.; Brown, K.

    2013-12-01

    Operators of urban water systems in California routinely develop long-range infrastructure plans to keep the communities they serve informed and to facilitate financing of planned projects. These plans compare baseline water supplies and demands to future projections, and they assess the adequacy of existing infrastructure for delivering water from raw water sources to customer connections under a variety of scenarios. In spite of these planning efforts, urban infrastructure projects are vulnerable to extreme climate and socioeconomic events. This paper examines the challenges facing infrastructure planners seeking to adapt urban water infrastructure to climate change using the current generation of climate predictions. A case study of small urban water systems in Lompoc Valley in California highlights the gap between climate variables available from global climate model predictions and decision parameters used in water infrastructure planning. Solutions are proposed for addressing some of the challenges encountered during climate impact analysis and vulnerability assessment. The paper also highlights outstanding gaps in our understanding of climate change and societal responses which could have profound impacts on urban water use and infrastructure needs.

  6. Proving or Improving Science Learning? Understanding High School Students' Conceptions of Science Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Classroom assessment is a critical aspect of teaching and learning. In this paper, Taiwanese high school students' conceptions of science assessment and the relationship between their conceptions of science assessment and of science learning were investigated. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, 60 students were…

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  8. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  9. Drug delivery with topically applied nanoparticles: science fiction or reality.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Meinke, M C; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Antoniou, C; Mak, W C; Renneberg, R; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of topically applied drugs is determined by their action mechanism and their potential capacity of passing the skin barrier. Nanoparticles are assumed to be efficient carrier systems for drug delivery through the skin barrier. For flexible nanoparticles like liposomes, this effect has been well demonstrated. The penetration properties of solid nanoparticles are currently under intensive investigation. The crucial advantage of nanoparticles over non-particulate substances is their capability to penetrate deeply into the hair follicles where they can be stored for several days. There is no evidence, yet, that solid particles ≥40 nm are capable of passing through the healthy skin barrier. Therefore and in spite of the long-standing research efforts in this field, commercially available solid nanoparticle-based products for drug delivery through the healthy skin are still missing. Nevertheless, the prospects for the clinical use of nanoparticles in drug delivery are tremendous. They can be designed as transport systems delivering drugs efficiently into the hair follicles in the vicinity of specific target structures. Once deposited at these structures, specific signals might trigger the release of the drugs and exert their effects on the target cells. In this article, examples of such triggered drug release are presented.

  10. Assessing knowledge change in computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradwohl Nash, Jane; Bravaco, Ralph J.; Simonson, Shai

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess structural knowledge change across a two-week workshop designed to provide high-school teachers with training in Java and Object Oriented Programming. Both before and after the workshop, teachers assigned relatedness ratings to pairs of key concepts regarding Java and Object Oriented Programming. Their ratings were submitted to the Pathfinder network-scaling algorithm, which uses distance estimates to generate an individual's knowledge structure representation composed of nodes that are connected by links. Results showed that significant change in teachers' knowledge structure occurred during the workshop, both in terms of individual teacher networks and their averaged networks. Moreover, these changes were significantly related to performance in the workshop. The results of this study suggest several implications for teaching and assessment in computer science.

  11. Instrumentation for Scientific Computing in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    This was an instrumentation grant to purchase equipment of support of research in neural networks, information science , artificial intelligence, and applied mathematics. Computer lab equipment, motor control and robotics lab equipment, speech analysis equipment and computational vision equipment were purchased.

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of identifiable effects on public health which may be expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air (42 U.S.C. 7408). This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM sufficiently protects public health and the environment. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  13. Improving Science Assessments by Situating Them in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Nelson, Brian; Schifter, Catherine; Kim, Younsu

    2013-01-01

    Current science assessments typically present a series of isolated fact-based questions, poorly representing the complexity of how real-world science is constructed. The National Research Council asserts that this needs to change to reflect a more authentic model of science practice. We strongly concur and suggest that good science assessments…

  14. Science and medicine applied to soccer refereeing: an update.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Bizzini, Mario; Williams, A Mark; Gregson, Warren

    2012-07-01

    Soccer referees are required to keep up with play at all times to ensure optimal positioning in making key decisions. While the physiological aspects of soccer refereeing have been extensively reviewed, other key areas of preparation and performance have yet to be considered in detail. We present a contemporary examination of methodological considerations for the interpretation of referees' match activities, the validation of fitness testing and training protocols, match and training injury profiles, and the understanding and development of perceptual-cognitive expertise. A referee covers approximately 11 km during a match, with ∼900 m of high-speed running and, consequently, the demands of match play represent a significant physical challenge. The analyses of within-match activity profiles have attempted to assess the possible occurrence of referee fatigue, with equivocal findings. However, researchers have demonstrated that referees' physical performances are interrelated with those of the players during the same match. Therefore, the evaluation of referees' match activity profiles should be made in the context of the players' performances. High match-to-match variability in key variables, namely, high-speed running and sprinting, along with age-related reductions in match running are other factors that require due consideration when interpreting physical performances. Fitness testing is used by national and international referee governing bodies as part of their match selection criteria. Therefore, the tests need to reflect the physical task of refereeing, yet for the recent fitness tests introduced by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association--a 20 × 150 m high-intensity and 6 × 40 m repeated-sprint test - only the repeated-sprint test possesses the appropriate construct validity for assessment of match-related running capacity. Also, the performance standards of the tests have not been validated. Consequently, the scientific

  15. Applying the science of learning: evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E

    2008-11-01

    During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in ways that help people learn. The author provides an overview of how the design of multimedia instruction can be informed by the science of learning and the science of instruction, which yields 10 principles of multimedia instructional design that are grounded in theory and based on evidence. Overall, the relationship between the science of learning and the science of instruction is reciprocal.

  16. How to Systematically Assess Serious Games Applied to Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Graafland, Maurits; Dankbaar, Mary; Mert, Agali; Lagro, Joep; De Wit-Zuurendonk, Laura; Schuit, Stephanie; Schaafstal, Alma

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness and effectiveness of specific serious games in the medical domain is often unclear. This is caused by a lack of supporting evidence on validity of individual games, as well as a lack of publicly available information. Moreover, insufficient understanding of design principles among the individuals and institutions that develop or apply a medical serious game compromises their use. This article provides the first consensus-based framework for the assessment of specific medical serious games. The framework provides 62 items in 5 main themes, aimed at assessing a serious game’s rationale, functionality, validity, and data safety. This will allow caregivers and educators to make balanced choices when applying a serious game for healthcare purposes. Furthermore, the framework provides game manufacturers with standards for the development of new, valid serious games. PMID:25654163

  17. The Stewardship Science Academic Alliance: A Model of Education for Fundamental and Applied Low-energy Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.

    2014-06-15

    The Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) were inaugurated in 2002 by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The purpose is to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper highlights some of the ways that the SSAA fosters education and training of graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in low-energy nuclear science, preparing them for careers in fundamental and applied research and development.

  18. Assessing General Education Science Courses: A Portfolio Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika; Impey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of portfolios to assess student performance in K-12 science classrooms and to monitor the training of preservice science teachers is increasingly common, their implementation in undergraduate science courses is still limited. The work presented here represents one in-depth example of the integration of portfolio assessment into…

  19. Student Achievement in Science: A Comparison of National Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students' understanding of basic science concepts (with particular emphasis on the interaction of science and society) was measured during a 1981-82 national assessment. These results are compared to those obtained from the Third Science Assessment (1977) to determine how students' knowledge has changed during the past five years. (JN)

  20. Everyday Classroom Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…

  1. Quality Assessment by Science Teachers: Five Focus Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Frances

    2013-01-01

    In order to teach science well, science teachers need to know what to focus on in order to ensure their assessment of student learning is meaningful and useful for the students' on going learning and development. The diversity and range of content and skills within the subject of science mean that the assessment capabilities required by…

  2. Everyday Classroom Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…

  3. Breadth-Oriented Outcomes Assessment in Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, David; And Others

    Little work has been done regarding the overall assessment of quality of computer science graduates at the undergraduate level. This paper reports on a pilot study at the University of Alabama of a prototype computer science outcomes assessment designed to evaluate the breadth of knowledge of computer science seniors. The instrument evaluated two…

  4. Assessing clinical competency in the health sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarella, Karen Joanne

    To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p < .05 and for the HD case r = .700, p < .01. The SPs scored students higher than the other raters. Students' self-assessments were most closely aligned with the investigator. Effects were apparent due to case. Content validity was gathered in the process of developing cases and patient scenarios that were used in this study. Construct validity was obtained from the survey results analyzed from the experts and students. Future studies should examine the effect of rater training upon the reliability. Criterion or predictive validity could be further studied by comparing students' performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates

  5. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  6. Science Teacher Performance Assessment or Who Will Be Teaching Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Hans O.

    2000-01-01

    Presents advice for preparing a portfolio to document science teaching performance. Includes lesson plans for a teacher education portfolio assignment and a description of useful portfolio components. (WRM)

  7. Inservice Science Supervisors' Assessments of a Novice Science Teacher's Videotaped Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    The purpose of this paper is to inform novice science teachers and science teacher educators of the pedagogy that science teacher supervisors value. As expert practitioners, supervisors have a perspective quite different from that of both novice teachers and teacher educators. Nine inservice science teacher supervisors assessed a novice teacher's…

  8. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. The recently completed PM ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current PM NAAQS. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  9. Teaching and Assessing the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS)--what science is and how it works, the assumptions that underlie scientific knowledge, how scientists function as a social group, and how society impacts and reacts to science--is prominent in science education reform documents (Rutherford and Ahlgren 1990; AAAS 1993; McComas and Olson 1998; NRC 1996; AAAS…

  10. Teaching and Assessing the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS)--what science is and how it works, the assumptions that underlie scientific knowledge, how scientists function as a social group, and how society impacts and reacts to science--is prominent in science education reform documents (Rutherford and Ahlgren 1990; AAAS 1993; McComas and Olson 1998; NRC 1996; AAAS…

  11. Applied mathematical sciences research at Argonne, April 1, 1981-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the research activities in Applied Mathematical Sciences at Argonne National Laboratory for the period April 1, 1981, through March 31, 1982. The body of the report discusses various projects carried out in three major areas of research: applied analysis, computational mathematics, and software engineering. Information on section staff, visitors, workshops, and seminars is found in the appendices.

  12. Integrating Science in Applied Psychology Programs: A Student-Operated Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonius, Daniel; Brown, Adam D.; Todman, McWelling; Safran, Jeremy D.

    2007-01-01

    As a requirement of APA accreditation, many PhD programs in applied psychology subscribe to some variant of the scientist-practitioner model. However, critics have argued that integrating science into an applied psychology curriculum may be too challenging a task. This article describes the development of The New School Psychology Bulletin, a…

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  15. Applying the Think-Aloud Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension of Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effectiveness of using the think-aloud strategy to improve the reading comprehension in the content area of science. Based on state standards assessments, many early elementary grade students who were considered fluent readers struggled with evaluative science comprehension. In this quasi-experimental…

  16. Science Teachers' Professional Development and Changes in Science Practical Assessment Practices: What Are the Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Tan, Aik-Ling; Yung, Benny H. W.; Cohen, Libby

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the circumstances under which science teachers can respond positively and productively to educational policy reforms in the area of science practical assessment. To understand what might be involved in linking science teachers' assessment capacities and their professional development, we present illustrative data from recent…

  17. Students Explaining Science—Assessment of Science Communication Competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2013-12-01

    Science communication competence (SCC) is an important educational goal in the school science curricula of several countries. However, there is a lack of research about the structure and the assessment of SCC. This paper specifies the theoretical framework of SCC by a competence model. We developed a qualitative assessment method for SCC that is based on an expert-novice dialog: an older student (explainer, expert) explains a physics phenomenon to a younger peer (addressee, novice) in a controlled test setting. The explanations are video-recorded and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The method was applied in a study with 46 secondary school students as explainers. Our aims were (a) to evaluate whether our model covers the relevant features of SCC, (b) to validate the assessment method and (c) to find characteristics of addressee-adequate explanations. A performance index was calculated to quantify the explainers' levels of competence on an ordinal scale. We present qualitative and quantitative evidence that the index is adequate for assessment purposes. It correlates with results from a written SCC test and a perspective taking test (convergent validity). Addressee-adequate explanations can be characterized by use of graphical representations and deliberate switches between scientific and everyday language.

  18. A Series of MATLAB Learning Modules to Enhance Numerical Competency in Applied Marine Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. M.; Lucieer, V.; Burke, C.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced numerical competency to navigate the massive data landscapes are critical skills students need to effectively explore, analyse and visualize complex patterns in high-dimensional data for addressing the complexity of many of the world's problems. This is especially the case for interdisciplinary, undergraduate applied marine science programs, where students are required to demonstrate competency in methods and ideas across multiple disciplines. In response to this challenge, we have developed a series of repository-based data exploration, analysis and visualization modules in MATLAB for integration across various attending and online classes within the University of Tasmania. The primary focus of these modules is to teach students to collect, aggregate and interpret data from large on-line marine scientific data repositories to, 1) gain technical skills in discovering, accessing, managing and visualising large, numerous data sources, 2) interpret, analyse and design approaches to visualise these data, and 3) to address, through numerical approaches, complex, real-world problems, that the traditional scientific methods cannot address. All modules, implemented through a MATLAB live script, include a short recorded lecture to introduce the topic, a handout that gives an overview of the activities, an instructor's manual with a detailed methodology and discussion points, a student assessment (quiz and level-specific challenge task), and a survey. The marine science themes addressed through these modules include biodiversity, habitat mapping, algal blooms and sea surface temperature change and utilize a series of marine science and oceanographic data portals. Through these modules students, with minimal experience in MATLAB or numerical methods are introduced to array indexing, concatenation, sorting, and reshaping, principal component analysis, spectral analysis and unsupervised classification within the context of oceanographic processes, marine geology and

  19. Alternative Methods for Assessing Science: Report to the States. Science & Mathematics Indicators Project. Conference Report of State Assessment Directors and State Science Supervisors (Tampa, Florida, January 13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf; Selden, Ramsay

    State assessment directors and State science supervisors discussed alternative methods for assessing student learning in science at a conference. The conference had two objectives: (1) to increase the knowledge of state science supervisors and assessment directors of recent experience at international, national, and state levels with alternative…

  20. Science Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and its reports are a key measure in informing the nation on how well the goal of scientific literacy for all students is being met. The "Science Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress" sets forth the design of the NAEP Science Assessment. The 2011 NAEP…

  1. Developing and Evaluating Instructionally Sensitive Assessments in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Li, Min; Wills, Kellie; Giamellaro, Michael; Lan, Ming-Chih; Mason, Hillary; Sands, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address a major gap in the instructional sensitivity literature on how to develop instructionally sensitive assessments. We propose an approach to developing and evaluating instructionally sensitive assessments in science and test this approach with one elementary life-science module. The assessment we developed…

  2. The Assessment of Hands-On Elementary Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, George, Ed.

    This document contains 15 chapters on various topics related to elementary science assessment. A comprehensive description of efforts to introduce alternatives to multiple-choice, paper and pencil tests to assess science learning is provided. The monograph includes an analysis of assessment issues, descriptions of current practice, and suggestions…

  3. The Assessment of Hands-On Elementary Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, George, Ed.

    This document contains 15 chapters on various topics related to elementary science assessment. A comprehensive description of efforts to introduce alternatives to multiple-choice, paper and pencil tests to assess science learning is provided. The monograph includes an analysis of assessment issues, descriptions of current practice, and suggestions…

  4. Advanced Science for Kids: Multicultural Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettac, Teresa; Huckabee, Colleen; Musser, Louise; Patton, Paulette; Yates, Joyce

    1997-01-01

    Describes Advanced Science for Kids (ASK), a multicultural approach to assessment and programming for a middle school advanced science program. ASK is designed to provide alternative approaches to identification and assessment, facilitate authentic instruction and assessment, and provide minority students with academic and social support as they…

  5. Word Associations as a Tool for Assessing Conceptual Change in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovardas, Tasos; Korfiatis, Konstantinos J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we have applied a word association procedure for assessing conceptual change in science education, leaning on the presuppositions of the theory of social representations. The proposed method was applied both before and after a university population ecology course. Our results have shown that the teaching procedure can change…

  6. Liberal Arts Engineers: Applied Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Laurie

    1997-03-01

    As a university without an engineering school, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has sought ways to enhance its appeal to students interested in the sciences. Building on strong undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical and biomedical sciences, we have developed a program for students who are interested in the practical applications of the sciences, but desire more of a basic science focus than a typical engineering program would provide. We think of these students as "liberal arts engineers." The program leads to a B.S. degree in Applied Sciences, and is administered through the Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences. This interdisciplinary unit is composed of faculty with primary appointments in the departments of Physics and Astronomy, Chemistry, Computer Science, Biomedical Engineering, Dental Research, and Orthopaedics, among others. Students in the program pursue tracks in digital systems, electronic materials, biomaterials, and polymers. I will describe the program as it has evolved, and the outcome of our dozen years of experience with it. I will also touch on our graduate program in Materials Science, which we began in fall 1996.

  7. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences.

  8. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Methods Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. Results There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Conclusions Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences. PMID:27233041

  9. The origins of pure and applied science in Gilded Age America.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Paul

    2012-09-01

    "Pure science" and "applied science" have peculiar histories in the United States. Both terms were in use in the early part of the nineteenth century, but it was only in the last decades that they took on new meanings and became commonplace in the discourse of American scientists. The rise in their currency reflected an acute concern about the corruption of character and the real possibilities of commercializing scientific knowledge. "Pure" was the preference of scientists who wanted to emphasize their nonpecuniary motives and their distance from the marketplace. "Applied" was the choice of scientists who accepted patents and profits as other possible returns on their research. In general, the frequent conjoining of "pure" and "applied" bespoke the inseparable relations of science and capitalism in the Gilded Age.

  10. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP Program Fosters the Next Generation of Earth Remote Sensing Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Brozen, Madeline W.; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Silcox, Tracey L.; Rea, Mimi; Holley, Sharon D.; Renneboog, Nathan; Underwood, Lauren W.; Ross, Kenton W.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with the evaluation of the resulting data are constantly evolving. To meet the growing needs related to this industry, a team of personnel that understands the fundamental science as well as the scientific applications related to remote sensing is essential. Therefore, the workforce that will excel in this field requires individuals who not only have a strong academic background, but who also have practical hands-on experience with remotely sensed data, and have developed knowledge of its real-world applications. NASA's DEVELOP Program has played an integral role in fulfilling this need. DEVELOP is a NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Sciences training and development program that extends the benefits of NASA Earth science research and technology to society.

  11. Formative Assessment Probes: Uncovering Students' Ideas in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page; Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Seventh-grade science teacher Sonia Mangano stared at the results of her district's mid-year science assessment and asked herself, "Why is it my students seem to have trouble with matter-related ideas? Our district's spiral science curriculum builds on previous concepts from year to year. Yet these results show my students have difficulty with…

  12. Using Technology in Assessing Integrated Science and Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. A list of characteristics is derived, and two integrated school science and mathematics activities are…

  13. Effective Science Instruction: Impact on High-Stakes Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Zhang, Danhui; Kahle, Jane Butler

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the impact of effective science instruction on performance on high-stakes high school graduation assessments in science. This study provides powerful findings to support authentic science teaching to enhance long-term retention of learning and performance on state-mandated…

  14. Illinois Science Assessment Framework: Grades 4 and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Illinois Science Assessment Framework is designed to assist educators, test developers, policy makers and the public by clearly defining those elements of the Illinois Learning Standards that are suitable for state testing. It is not designed to replace a local science curriculum and should not be considered a state science curriculum. The…

  15. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  16. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  17. Using technology in assessing integrated science and mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1995-03-01

    Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. Based upon this three-tiered discussion, a list of characteristics is then distilled to guide in the development of assessment for integrated school science and mathematics using technology. Two integrated school science and mathematics activities are provided to illustrate the alignment of instruction and assessment and the systematic integration of technology into both.

  18. Engaging youth of color in applied science education and public health promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Bowers, Edmond; Reich, Amanda J.; Ndulue, Uchenna J.; Le, Albert An; Peréa, Flavia C.

    2016-03-01

    Participation in inquiry-based science education, which focuses on student-constructed learning, has been linked to academic success. Whereas the benefits of this type of science education are evident, access to such high-quality science curriculum and programming is not equitable. Black and Latino students in particular have less access to supplementary science programming, and fewer opportunities to engage in inquiry-based education. This paper describes outcomes associated with an inquiry-based out-of-school time science education program, Nuestro Futuro: Applied Science Education to Engage Black and Latino Youth (NFASE), which sought to build the capacity of middle school students of color to 'think' like health scientists from diverse disciplinary perspectives. The program was designed with the intent of (1) improving student attitudes toward and motivation for science and (2) increasing active and engaged citizenship (AEC). NFASE students explored health inequity and the social determinants of health locally and engaged in developing health promotion, outreach and education efforts targeted to their peers, parents/families, and community. Interest in the program was high overall, but implementation was not without challenges. Although evaluation outcomes indicate that there were no statistically significant changes in science-related attitudes or motivation, students reported significant increases in neighborhood social connection, as well as overall AEC.

  19. Engineering success: Persistence factors of African American doctoral recipients in engineering and applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors that influence African Americans to pursue and complete doctoral degrees in engineering and applied science disciplines. Critical race theory (CRT), two models of doctoral student persistence, and graduate student persistence literature guided the conceptual framework of this study. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted to learn the key factors that positively impacted the persistence of 19 African Americans who earned doctoral degrees in engineering and applied science. The following two factors were found to significantly contribute to the decision to pursue the doctorate: encouragement from others and participation in a research or internship program. Key factors impacting doctoral degree completion included: peer support, faculty adviser support, support from university administrators, and family support. In addition to identifying factors that influenced 19 African Americans to pursue and complete doctoral degrees in engineering and applied science, this study was about the importance of diversity and inclusion of multiple perspectives in education research and scholarship. To this end, the study served to promote and include the expert knowledge of African American doctoral degree recipients in engineering and applied science in the scholarly discourse on the issue of low participation rates of African Americans in engineering and applied science disciplines. Such knowledge will challenge traditional views on this issue and hopefully inspire new ways of addressing and remedying this issue. With African Americans and other minority populations growing at an exponential rate, people of color are quickly becoming the majority in key states across the nation. Therefore, it is imperative that all Americans have an opportunity to develop skills necessary to compete for professional positions in the science and engineering workforce. This mandate is required for the United States to maintain

  20. Applied Mathematical Sciences research at Argonne, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the research activities of the Applied Mathematical Sciences Section for the period October 1, 1978, through March 31, 1980. The body of the report discusses various projects carried out in four major areas of research: applied analysis, computational mathematics, software engineering, and software clinics. Information on section staff, visitors, workshops, and seminars is found in the appendices. Descriptions of individual research topics are very brief.

  1. Assessing Knowledge Integration in Science: Construct, Measures, and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Hofstetter, Carolyn; Linn, Marcia C.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the demand for sound science assessments, this article presents the development of a latent construct called knowledge integration as an effective measure of science inquiry. Knowledge integration assessments ask students to link, distinguish, evaluate, and organize their ideas about complex scientific topics. The article focuses on…

  2. 77 FR 70776 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., ``Third External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075C). The document... lead (Pb). EPA is releasing this draft document to seek review by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  3. 76 FR 38650 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075A). The original Federal Register notice... Development as part of the review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead. DATES: The...

  4. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  5. The Assessment of Practical Work in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Ian; Reiss, Michael J.; Sharpe, Rachael M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews how practical work, including practical skills, is currently summatively assessed in school science in a number of countries and makes comparisons with how other subjects, such as music and modern foreign languages, summatively assess skills. Whilst practical skills in school science are clearly valued as being of importance,…

  6. 75 FR 4815 - Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of a final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide'' (EPA/600/R-09... standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide. DATES: The document will be available on January 29, 2010....

  7. The Assessment of Practical Work in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Ian; Reiss, Michael J.; Sharpe, Rachael M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews how practical work, including practical skills, is currently summatively assessed in school science in a number of countries and makes comparisons with how other subjects, such as music and modern foreign languages, summatively assess skills. Whilst practical skills in school science are clearly valued as being of importance,…

  8. Assessing Knowledge Integration in Science: Construct, Measures, and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Hofstetter, Carolyn; Linn, Marcia C.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the demand for sound science assessments, this article presents the development of a latent construct called knowledge integration as an effective measure of science inquiry. Knowledge integration assessments ask students to link, distinguish, evaluate, and organize their ideas about complex scientific topics. The article focuses on…

  9. National Assessment Program--Science Literacy Year 6 Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Lennon, Melissa; O'Connor, Gayl; Morrissey, Noni

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the first nationally-comparable science assessment was designed, developed and carried out under the auspices of the national council of education ministers, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). In 2006 a second science assessment was conducted and, for the first time nationally, the…

  10. Children's Perceptions of Primary Science Assessment in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Colette; Lundy, Laura; Emerson, Lesley; Kerr, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on and contributes to work on assessment of children in primary school, particularly in science. Previous research has examined primary science assessment from different standpoints, but no studies have specifically addressed children's perspectives. This article provides additional insight into issues surrounding children's…

  11. Designing and Validating Assessments of Complex Thinking in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Typical assessment systems often measure isolated ideas rather than the coherent understanding valued in current science classrooms. Such assessments may motivate students to memorize, rather than to use new ideas to solve complex problems. To meet the requirements of the Next Generation Science Standards, instruction needs to emphasize sustained…

  12. Designing and Validating Assessments of Complex Thinking in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Typical assessment systems often measure isolated ideas rather than the coherent understanding valued in current science classrooms. Such assessments may motivate students to memorize, rather than to use new ideas to solve complex problems. To meet the requirements of the Next Generation Science Standards, instruction needs to emphasize sustained…

  13. 75 FR 8934 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Pb)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Pb) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) as part of the review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Project Section 108 (a) of the Clean Air Act directs the Administrator to identify pollutants that...

  14. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated <span class=Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (...

  15. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated <span class=Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  16. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  17. Simulation Assisted Risk Assessment Applied to Launch Vehicle Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Go, Susie; Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2008-01-01

    A simulation-based risk assessment approach is presented and is applied to the analysis of abort during the ascent phase of a space exploration mission. The approach utilizes groupings of launch vehicle failures, referred to as failure bins, which are mapped to corresponding failure environments. Physical models are used to characterize the failure environments in terms of the risk due to blast overpressure, resulting debris field, and the thermal radiation due to a fireball. The resulting risk to the crew is dynamically modeled by combining the likelihood of each failure, the severity of the failure environments as a function of initiator and time of the failure, the robustness of the crew module, and the warning time available due to early detection. The approach is shown to support the launch vehicle design process by characterizing the risk drivers and identifying regions where failure detection would significantly reduce the risk to the crew.

  18. Summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989 is summarized.

  19. Summary of research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science during the period October 1, 1983 through March 31, 1984 is summarized.

  20. Applying evolutionary genetics to developmental toxicology and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Procter, Andrew C; Goldstone, Jared V; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Siddall, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R

    2017-03-04

    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease.

  1. Evaluating science outside the trial box: applying Daubert to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines' criminal history score.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Daniel A

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research exists examining the ability of the Criminal History Score of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (Guidelines) to achieve one of its most essential objectives: prediction of recidivism. Building on the work of Schopp [Schopp, R. (2001). Competency, condemnation, and commitment: An integrated theory of mental health law. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association], it is suggested that the scientific admissibility framework and the underlying principles announced by the United States Supreme Court in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical [Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 507 U.S. 579, 113 S.Ct. 2786 (1993)] should be expanded beyond the constraints of the evidentiary admissibility phase of trial and should apply to legislative and administrative rules that have: a) an empirically testable purpose and b) a substantial impact on the rights of individuals. Such an analysis offers a useful mechanism for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of social science being used by legal institutions. Based upon a hypothetical Daubert analysis, the scientific validity of the Guidelines' Criminal History Score is assessed and demonstrated to be insufficient. The law and policy implications of this finding are discussed.

  2. Physical Science Day: Design, Implementation, and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Liang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Tidrow, Steven C.; Smith, K. Christopher; Contreras, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Physical Science Day at The University of Texas--Pan American (UTPA), in collaboration with the Edinburg Consolidated Independent School District, has been designed, developed and implemented to address an identified fundamental shortcoming in our educational process within this primarily (90+%) Hispanic serving border region. Physical Science Day…

  3. Physical Science Day: Design, Implementation, and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Liang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Tidrow, Steven C.; Smith, K. Christopher; Contreras, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Physical Science Day at The University of Texas--Pan American (UTPA), in collaboration with the Edinburg Consolidated Independent School District, has been designed, developed and implemented to address an identified fundamental shortcoming in our educational process within this primarily (90+%) Hispanic serving border region. Physical Science Day…

  4. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  5. Dye Degradation by Fungi: An Exercise in Applied Science for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Daniel D.; Chenaux, Peter; Edwards, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    An easily implemented practical exercise in applied science for biology students is presented that uses fungi to degrade an azo-dye. This is an example of bioremediation, the employment of living organisms to detoxify or contain pollutants. Its interdisciplinary nature widens students' perspectives of biology by exposing them to a chemical…

  6. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  7. Handbook for Program Developers of Associate of Applied Science and Business Degrees at Lima Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, Robert A.

    Intended as a resource for program developers, this handbook illustrates the process of developing program proposals for the associate of applied science and business (AASB) degrees at Lima Technical College (LTC), in Ohio. Following an introduction, section 1 discusses the potential reasons for the addition of a program to the LTC curriculum.…

  8. Program Proposal: Certificates of Competence, Certificate of Achievement, Associate in Applied Science Degree in Sustainable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don

    This document proposes a program in sustainable technology at Maui Community College (Hawaii). This new career program would be designed to provide four Certificates of Competence, a Certificate of Achievement, and an Associate in Applied Science degree. The primary objectives of the program are to meet student, county, and state needs for…

  9. Court Reporting Curriculum for an Associate in Applied Science Degree at Alvin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, John; Knapp, Mary

    The court reporting curriculum at Alvin Community College, which leads to an associate of applied science degree, has been praised by the National Shorthand Reporters Association, which sets the standards for court reporting schools. The court reporter uses a method of taking notes called stenotypy which entails taking down verbatim everything…

  10. Values and limitations of applied science in the real world [book review

    Treesearch

    Christel C. Kern

    2012-01-01

    How can the applied scientist provide timely, useful results to the land manager whose job is to save and sustain our complex ecosystems under the scrutiny of the profession, public, and policymakers? Author Robert J. Cabin tells his story in Intelligent Tinkering: Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice.

  11. Applied Developmental Science, Social Justice, and Socio-Political Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…

  12. Towards Strategic Actorhood? The Execution of Institutional Positioning Strategies at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging interest in institutional positioning and to augment the small number of empirical studies in this field, this paper presents discussion about how Finnish universities of applied sciences implement their profiling strategies. The analysis is based on an examination of documents recently submitted by these institutions when…

  13. Towards Strategic Actorhood? The Execution of Institutional Positioning Strategies at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging interest in institutional positioning and to augment the small number of empirical studies in this field, this paper presents discussion about how Finnish universities of applied sciences implement their profiling strategies. The analysis is based on an examination of documents recently submitted by these institutions when…

  14. The Influence of Applied STEM Coursetaking on Advanced Mathematics and Science Coursetaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced mathematics and science course taking is critical in building the foundation for students to advance through the STEM pathway-from high school to college to career. To invigorate students' persistence in STEM fields, high schools have been introducing applied STEM courses into the curriculum as a way to reinforce concepts learned in…

  15. Court Reporting Curriculum for an Associate in Applied Science Degree at Alvin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, John; Knapp, Mary

    The court reporting curriculum at Alvin Community College, which leads to an associate of applied science degree, has been praised by the National Shorthand Reporters Association, which sets the standards for court reporting schools. The court reporter uses a method of taking notes called stenotypy which entails taking down verbatim everything…

  16. Geographic Distribution of Applicants to the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGartland, Gertrude; Stallard, Claire

    The Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) Planning, Research and Development Division conducted three studies of the geographic origins of applicants to the Institute. The analyses of the places of origin provided SIAST with solid information to assist in planning program delivery in the province. The studies used the…

  17. Applied Developmental Science, Social Justice, and Socio-Political Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…

  18. A Delphi Study on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Applied on Computer Science (CS) Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porta, Marcela; Mas-Machuca, Marta; Martinez-Costa, Carme; Maillet, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is a new pedagogical domain aiming to study the usage of information and communication technologies to support teaching and learning. The following study investigated how this domain is used to increase technical skills in Computer Science (CS). A Delphi method was applied, using three-rounds of online survey…

  19. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  20. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  1. Taking Stock: Implications of a New Vision of Science Learning for State Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the article "Taking Stock: Existing Resources for Assessing a New Vision of Science Learning" by Alonzo and Ke (this issue), which identifies numerous challenges that the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) pose for large-scale assessment. Jill Werthem comments that among those…

  2. The Development and Validation of the Science Learning Assessment (SLA): A Measure of Kindergarten Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samarapungavan, Ala; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Science Learning Assessment (SLA) is an individually administered, instructionally sensitive science assessment for kindergarten students. The SLA is a 24-item objective test, broken down into two subtests. The Scientific Inquiry Processes subtest consists of 9 items designed to measure young children's functional understanding of the nature…

  3. Taking Stock: Implications of a New Vision of Science Learning for State Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the article "Taking Stock: Existing Resources for Assessing a New Vision of Science Learning" by Alonzo and Ke (this issue), which identifies numerous challenges that the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) pose for large-scale assessment. Jill Werthem comments that among those…

  4. Current research activities: Applied and numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, experiments in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.

  5. The Workshop Program on Authentic Assessment for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustaman, N. Y.; Rusdiana, D.; Efendi, R.; Liliawati, W.

    2017-02-01

    A study on implementing authentic assessment program through workshop was conducted to investigate the improvement of the competence of science teachers in designing performance assessment in real life situation at school level context. A number of junior high school science teachers and students as participants were involved in this study. Data was collected through questionnaire, observation sheets, and pre-and post-test during 4 day workshop. This workshop had facilitated them direct experience with seventh grade junior high school students during try out. Science teachers worked in group of four and communicated each other by think-pair share in cooperative learning approach. Research findings show that generally the science teachers’ involvement and their competence in authentic assessment improved. Their knowledge about the nature of assessment in relation to the nature of science and its instruction was improved, but still have problem in integrating their design performance assessment to be implemented in their lesson plan. The 7th grade students enjoyed participating in the science activities, and performed well the scientific processes planned by group of science teachers. The response of science teachers towards the workshop was positive. They could design the task and rubrics for science activities, and revised them after the implementation towards the students. By participating in this workshop they have direct experience in designing and trying out their ability within their professional community in real situation towards their real students in junior high school.

  6. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  7. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  8. Using Performance-Based Assessments to Prepare Safe Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Elizabeth; Shane, Joseph; Brownstein, Erica M.; Ezrailson, Cathy; Hagevik, Rita; Veal, William

    2009-12-01

    Standard 9 of the National Science Teachers Association Standards for Science Teacher Preparation is designed to ensure that science teacher preparation programs provide preservice science teachers with the knowledge and skills to understand and successfully engage students in a safe and ethical manner. This standard contains four components describing science teachers’ legal and ethical responsibilities, appropriate use of instructional materials (chemicals in particular), emergency procedures and safety equipment, and guidelines for proper use of living organisms in the classroom. In this article, we describe the requirements of Standard 9 and provide guidance on assessments that can be used to present evidence for preservice teachers’ competence in each of the four components.

  9. Multi-hazard risk assessment applied to hydraulic fracturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Gasparini, Paolo; Russo, Raffaella; Capuano, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Without exception, the exploitation of any energy resource produces impacts and intrinsically bears risks. Therefore, to make sound decisions about future energy resource exploitation, it is important to clearly understand the potential environmental impacts in the full life-cycle of an energy development project, distinguishing between the specific impacts intrinsically related to exploiting a given energy resource and those shared with the exploitation of other energy resources. Technological advances as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have led to a rapid expansion of unconventional resources (UR) exploration and exploitation; as a consequence, both public health and environmental concerns have risen. The main objective of a multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR is to assess the rate (or the likelihood) of occurrence of incidents and the relative potential impacts on surrounding environment, considering different hazards and their interactions. Such analyses have to be performed considering the different stages of development of a project; however, the discussion in this paper is mainly focused on the analysis applied to the hydraulic fracturing stage of a UR development project. The multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR poses a number of challenges, making of this one a particularly complex problem. First, a number of external hazards might be considered as potential triggering mechanisms. Such hazards can be either of natural origin or anthropogenic events caused by the same industrial activities. Second, failures might propagate through the industrial elements, leading to complex scenarios according to the layout of the industrial site. Third, there is a number of potential risk receptors, ranging from environmental elements (as the air, soil, surface water, or groundwater) to local communities and ecosystems. The multi-hazard risk approach for this problem is set by considering multiple hazards

  10. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium

    PubMed Central

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts. PMID:26770074

  11. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium.

    PubMed

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts.

  12. Health Technology Assessment - science or art?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    The founding disciplines of HTA are clearly scientific, and have been firmly based among the natural sciences. However, common definitions of HTA indicate that HTA is something more than the "pure application of science". This article investigates whether this "something" also makes HTA an art. The question of whether HTA is a science or an art is pursued in two specific and historically rich directions. The first is whether HTA is an art in the same way that medicine is described as an art. It has been argued extensively that medicine is based on two different and partly incompatible cultures, i.e., the natural sciences and humanities. Medicine is based on disciplines within the natural sciences, while its value judgments have been placed in the humanities camp. This dichotomy is present in HTA as well, and the first part of the investigation illustrates how HTA is an art in terms of its inherent and constitutive value-judgments. The second part of the science/art-scrutiny leads us to the ancient (Hippocratic) concept of art, téchne, where we find an etymological and a conceptual link between HTA and art. It demonstrates HTA is not an arbitrary process, even though it involves value judgments and relates complex decision making processes. As an art (téchne) HTA has a specific subject matter, requires inquiry and mastery of general rational principles, and is oriented to a specific end. In conclusion, the science-or-art-question makes sense in two specific perspectives, illustrating that HTA is a science based art. This has implications for the practice of HTA, for its education, and for the status of its results.

  13. Towson University's Professional Science Master's Program in Applied Physics: The first 5 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolagani, Rajeswari

    It is a well-established fact that the scientific knowledge and skills acquired in the process of obtaining a degree in physics meet the needs of a variety of positions in multiple science and technology sectors. However, in addition to scientific competence, challenging careers often call for skills in advanced communication, leadership and team functions. The professional science master's degree, which has been nick-named as the `Science MBA', aims at providing science graduates an edge both in terms of employability and earning levels by imparting such skills. Our Professional Science Master's Program in Applied Physics is designed to develop these `plus' skills through multiple avenues. In addition to advanced courses in Applied Physics, the curriculum includes graduate courses in project management, business and technical writing, together with research and internship components. I will discuss our experience and lessons learned over the 5 years since the inception of the program in 2010. The author acknowledges support from the Elkins Professorship of the University System of Maryland.

  14. Health Technology Assessmentscience or art?

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    The founding disciplines of HTA are clearly scientific, and have been firmly based among the natural sciences. However, common definitions of HTA indicate that HTA is something more than the “pure application of science”. This article investigates whether this “something” also makes HTA an art. The question of whether HTA is a science or an art is pursued in two specific and historically rich directions. The first is whether HTA is an art in the same way that medicine is described as an art. It has been argued extensively that medicine is based on two different and partly incompatible cultures, i.e., the natural sciences and humanities. Medicine is based on disciplines within the natural sciences, while its value judgments have been placed in the humanities camp. This dichotomy is present in HTA as well, and the first part of the investigation illustrates how HTA is an art in terms of its inherent and constitutive value-judgments. The second part of the science/art-scrutiny leads us to the ancient (Hippocratic) concept of art, téchne, where we find an etymological and a conceptual link between HTA and art. It demonstrates HTA is not an arbitrary process, even though it involves value judgments and relates complex decision making processes. As an art (téchne) HTA has a specific subject matter, requires inquiry and mastery of general rational principles, and is oriented to a specific end. In conclusion, the science-or-art-question makes sense in two specific perspectives, illustrating that HTA is a science based art. This has implications for the practice of HTA, for its education, and for the status of its results. PMID:23935761

  15. Middle school assessment and the nature of science as related to the National Science Education Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskridge, Rosemary Horn

    1998-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this descriptive study was to provide information by identifying many of the good science teaching behaviors and assessment practices of middle school teachers in Oklahoma City as related to assessment behaviors expressed in the National Science Education Standard B, Part 1. Participants were thirty Oklahoma City middle school teachers who responded to a two-part interview. The demographic survey and research questionnaire responses were classified into fifty-four basic themes from which a data base was compiled to demonstrate science teaching behaviors that could be identified as the nature of science and as assessment practices for evaluating the nature of science in the National Science Education Standards. Findings and conclusions. Teachers have continued to teach science in the way that they experienced science or were trained. Few of these teachers have used the true concept of portfolios, rubric assessment, and performance assessment much less lab activities. Yet, through participation in a traditional competition such as science fair, the majority of teachers provided students (usually at their own expense) with some laboratory experiences and techniques. The research also indicated that teachers who had science endorsement reported using fewer of those process skills associated with teaching the nature of science (also called the process skills). It also indicated that teachers who have entered the field of teaching from private industry demonstrated great background in knowledge yet demonstrated little participation in inquiry oriented activities. The research also indicated that those teachers who had been exposed to the National Science Education Standards did describe assessment practices from the standards.

  16. Science Rocks! A Performance Assessment for Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Melia; Straits, William

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity in which students pool their knowledge and creativity to make a song presenting what they have learned in a unit on the rock cycle. This highly motivating, integrated performance assessment incorporates multiple intelligences, reinforces learning, and is a student favorite in the elementary and middle grades.

  17. Science Rocks! A Performance Assessment for Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Melia; Straits, William

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity in which students pool their knowledge and creativity to make a song presenting what they have learned in a unit on the rock cycle. This highly motivating, integrated performance assessment incorporates multiple intelligences, reinforces learning, and is a student favorite in the elementary and middle grades.

  18. Assessment of Communicating Science 2013: A Workshop for Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Morey, S.; Sanders, N.; ComSciCon 2013 Organizing Committee

    2014-07-01

    Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To provide such training, we created Communicating Science 2013, a professional development workshop for STEM graduate students. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and to the public. To learn about graduate students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants hoped to gain from the workshop. We describe the workshop and report a few of the assessment results here.

  19. In Brief: High-school-age science assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Students in Finland had the highest science scores in a 57-country survey of 15-year-olds. According to a 4 December report issued by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), other high-scoring countries included Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Hong Kong-China, Chinese Taipei, and Estonia. More than 400,000 students from 57 countries participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a triennial survey of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds. The study found that on average across OECD countries, 1.3% of 15-year-olds reached level 6, the highest proficiency level on the science scale. These students could consistently identify, explain, and apply scientific knowledge in many situations. The number of students at that level could not be reliably predicted from a country's overall performance. For instance, while Korea had an overall high score of 522 points (above the average 500) and the United States had a score of 489, both countries had similar percentages of students at level 6. For more information, visit the Web site: http://www.oecd.org

  20. Bootstrapping in Applied Linguistics: Assessing Its Potential Using Shared Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Egbert, Jesse; Laflair, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric analyses such as t tests and ANOVAs are the norm--if not the default--statistical tests found in quantitative applied linguistics research (Gass 2009). Applied statisticians and one applied linguist (Larson-Hall 2010, 2012; Larson-Hall and Herrington 2010), however, have argued that this approach may not be appropriate for small samples…

  1. Bootstrapping in Applied Linguistics: Assessing Its Potential Using Shared Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Egbert, Jesse; Laflair, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric analyses such as t tests and ANOVAs are the norm--if not the default--statistical tests found in quantitative applied linguistics research (Gass 2009). Applied statisticians and one applied linguist (Larson-Hall 2010, 2012; Larson-Hall and Herrington 2010), however, have argued that this approach may not be appropriate for small samples…

  2. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  3. Nonlinear analysis, scientific computation, and continuum mechanics applied to the science of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtin, Morton E.; Williams, William O.

    1993-03-01

    This grant enabled the department to form the Research Group in Mathematical Materials Science in 1990, a group that formed the nucleus of the Center for Nonlinear Analysis, established in 1991, by the ARO. The Center has created a vigorous environment for collaboration among mathematicians and allied scientists. Within the international mathematics community the Center has assumed a leadership role, especially for questions related to materials science. The major research effort has focused toward developing, analyzing, and unifying mathematical models that characterize material behavior at a phenomenological level. The main thrust is applied nonlinear analysis, nonlinear continuum physics, and scientific computation. The educational goals have been to train young scientists and to train and involve female and minority students in the sciences.

  4. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  5. Experiences of Using Automated Assessment in Computer Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, John; English, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of automated assessment in a variety of computer science courses that have been taught at Israel Academic College by the authors. The course assignments were assessed entirely automatically using Checkpoint, a web-based automated assessment framework. The assignments all used free-text questions (where the students…

  6. Experiences of Using Automated Assessment in Computer Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, John; English, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of automated assessment in a variety of computer science courses that have been taught at Israel Academic College by the authors. The course assignments were assessed entirely automatically using Checkpoint, a web-based automated assessment framework. The assignments all used free-text questions (where the students…

  7. Assessment for Learning in Science--What Works Well?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Assessment for Learning (AfL)--assessment that focuses on the gap between present performance and the desired goal--is integral to teaching and learning, and its importance has been recognised over a number of years. With the new status of science assessment in England, following the changes to key stage testing, a research team at the National…

  8. 76 FR 62419 - Science of Abuse Liability Assessment; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science of Abuse Liability Assessment; Public Workshop... liability assessment. The Controlled Substance Staff (CSS) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research... assessment. The workshop will center on status, needs, new approaches, and paradigms regarding preclinical...

  9. Development of Integrated Natural Science Teaching Materials Webbed Type with Applying Discourse Analysis on Students Grade VIII in Physics Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukariasih, Luh

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to produce teaching materials integrated natural science (IPA) webbed type of handout types are eligible for use in integrated science teaching. This type of research IS a kind of research and development / Research and Development (R & D) with reference to the 4D development model that is (define, design, develop, and disseminate). Data analysis techniques used to process data from the results of the assessment by the validator expert, and the results of the assessment by teachers and learners while testing is limited (12 students of class VIII SMPN 10 Kendari) using quantitative descriptive data analysis techniques disclosed in the distribution of scores on the scale of five categories grading scale that has been determined. The results of due diligence material gain votes validator material in the category of “very good” and “good”, of the data generated in the feasibility test presentation obtained the category of “good” and “excellent”, from the data generated in the feasibility of graphic test obtained the category of “very good “and” good “, as well as of the data generated in the test the feasibility of using words and language obtained the category of“very good “and” good “, so with qualifications gained the teaching materials IPA integrated type webbed by applying discourse analysis on the theme of energy and food for Junior High School (SMP) grade VIII suitable as teaching materials. In limited testing, data generated in response to a science teacher at SMPN 10 Kendari to product instructional materials as “excellent”, and from the data generated while testing is limited by the 12 students of class VIII SMPN 10 Kendari are more students who score indicates category “very good”, so that the qualification obtained by the natural science (IPA) teaching material integrated type webbed by applying discourse analysis on the theme of energy and food for SMP / class VIII fit for use as teaching material.

  10. Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science ...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Third External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Third External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science ...

  12. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb), as announced in the Federal Register July 26, 2013. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific ...

  13. Need Assessment of Computer Science and Engineering Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surakka, Sami; Malmi, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    This case study considered the syllabus of the first and second year studies in computer science. The aim of the study was to reveal which topics covered in the syllabi were really needed during the following years of study or in working life. The program that was assessed in the study was a Masters program in computer science and engineering at a…

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report, Jul 2013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regard...

  15. Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  16. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report, Jul 2013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regard...

  17. Assessment in Special Education: An Applied Approach. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Terry

    This text on the assessment of students with disabilities focuses on accuracy in assessment and testing and the need for functional and meaningful assessment practices. The 14 chapters are grouped into 4 major parts. The first part, "An Introduction to Assessment," describes a comprehensive evaluation and discusses the mandatory…

  18. Assessment in Special Education: An Applied Approach. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Terry

    This text on the assessment of students with disabilities focuses on accuracy in assessment and testing and the need for functional and meaningful assessment practices. The 14 chapters are grouped into 4 major parts. The first part, "An Introduction to Assessment," describes a comprehensive evaluation and discusses the mandatory…

  19. Evaluation and Assessment in Early Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vlasta; Matjašic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    Authenticity is an important element in the newer models of teaching, evaluation and assessment. Due to the fact that it is quite unclear how authentic evaluation and assessment should be implemented into practice, teachers still cling too much to traditional forms of knowledge evaluation and assessment. First, some basic theoretical facts on…

  20. Assessing Students' Proficiency in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Thomas P.; Keith, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Military Academy (USMA) at West Point is responsible for developing in its graduates literacy in the sciences that renders them capable of solving complex real-world problems. Throughout their careers as officers in the military, graduates will be called upon to view the physical world in a disciplined and objective manner, with an…

  1. Assessing Students' Proficiency in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Thomas P.; Keith, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Military Academy (USMA) at West Point is responsible for developing in its graduates literacy in the sciences that renders them capable of solving complex real-world problems. Throughout their careers as officers in the military, graduates will be called upon to view the physical world in a disciplined and objective manner, with an…

  2. Artificial Neural Networks applied to landslide susceptibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermini, Leonardo; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2005-03-01

    Landslide hazard mapping is often performed through the identification and analysis of hillslope instability factors, usually managed as thematic data within geographic information systems (GIS). In heuristic approaches, these factors are rated by the attribution of scores based on the assumed role played by each of them in controlling the development of a sliding process. Other more refined methods, based on the principle that the present and the past are keys to the future, have also been developed, thus allowing less subjective analyses in which landslide susceptibility is assessed by statistical relationships between past landslide events and hillslope instability factors. The objective of this research is to define a method with the ability to forecast landslide susceptibility through the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The Riomaggiore catchment, a subwatershed of the Reno River basin located in the Northern Apennines (Italy), was chosen as an ideal test site, as it is representative of many of the geomorphological settings within this region. In the present application, two different ANNs, used in classification problems, were set up and applied: one belonging to the category of Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) and the other to the Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) family. The hillslope factors that have been taken into account in the analysis were the following: (a) lithology, (b) slope angle, (c), profile curvature, (d) land cover and (e) upslope contributing area. These factors have been classified on nominal scales, and their intersection allowed 3342 homogeneous domains (Unique Condition Unit, UCU) to be singled out, which correspond to the terrain units utilized in this analysis. The model vector used to train the ANNs is a subset of that derived from the production of Unique Condition Units and consists of 3342 records organized in input and output variable vectors. In particular, the hillslope factors, once classified on nominal

  3. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, Steven D; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, Aderemi S; Allen, J.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Becker, J.; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Jandel, M.; Johnson, Micah; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Matthews, C.; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, David C; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  4. Assessing Teachers' Beliefs about Their Science Teaching Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpe, Andrew T.; Haney, Jodi J.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a method for assessing teachers' context beliefs about their science teaching environment. Finds that teachers possess fairly positive context beliefs and should be capable of functioning effectively in the classroom. (Author/CCM)

  5. Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by…

  6. Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by…

  7. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

  8. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed as significant sources of information about the effectiveness of science education. However, these assessments do not provide information about the reasons for particular effectiveness-or more importantly a lack thereof-as these assessments are based on one-time measurements of student achievement. In order to identify reasons for the effectiveness of science education, it is necessary to investigate students' learning as a result of science instruction. In this manuscript we report about the development of an instrument to assess students' learning in the field of electricity and the use of this instrument to collect data from N = 2,193 middle school students in Finland, Germany and Switzerland prior to and after instruction on the topic of electricity. Our findings indicate that the differences in students' science achievement as observed in large-scale assessments are a result of differences in students' science learning. And our findings suggest that these differences are more likely to stem from differences in science instruction than from systemic differences: a result that needs to be further explored by analyzing instruction in the three countries and its effect on students' learning.

  9. Applying physical science principles to mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy and the relationship to eccentric lengthening exercises.

    PubMed

    Verrall, G M; Dolman, B K; Best, T M

    2017-09-26

    Mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy is common in the active population. Eccentric (lengthening) exercises are known to be effective in alleviating the clinical condition. To better understand mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy and the response to lengthening exercises physical science principles of elasticity are applied. We apply elastic motion laws to the spring-like tendon as well as the normal and pathological adaptation seen with this common injury. We will validate important assumptions of the spring-like behavior of the tendon and then apply these findings to the injured and rehabilitating states. Our analysis considers that the tendon can be viewed as being spring-like with elasticity principles being applicable and the force exerted on the tendon during lengthening is primarily in a uniaxial direction. This applied lengthening force results in tendon mechanical and structural adaptation. Injury, and ultimately the clinical condition, occurs when the applied force exceeds the ability of the tendon to normally adapt. Morphological changes of the injured tendon are an attempt by the body to make the tendon more compliant. Lengthening exercises can be assessed as achieving this task with an improvement of tendon compliance. Physical science analysis proposes that the preferred rehabilitation tendon pathway is to try and decrease tendon stiffness to allow for more tendon lengthening. The body's morphological alterations of the pathological tendon are also consistent with this approach. For mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy, this adaptation of decreased stiffness ultimately increases the tendons ability to withstand applied force during lengthening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 78 FR 11172 - Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY: Environmental... final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants... ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants'' will be made available...

  11. Global Emerging Sciences and Technology Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    coverage area for the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The study will take three different cuts into the Region: a broad...will take three different “cuts” into the Region: a broad look at what academic research institutions have grown to international prominence...discipline (like chemistry, computer science, or nanotechnology). Many different ranking mechanisms are employed. This section will describe the results

  12. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  13. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  14. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-06-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the Next Generation Science Standards, prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning environments grounded in students' thinking. To do so, teachers must learn to use high-leverage instructional practices, such as formative assessment, to engage students in scientific practices and connect instruction to students' ideas. However, teachers may not understand formative assessment or possess sufficient science content knowledge to effectively engage in related instructional practices. To address these needs, we developed and conducted research within an innovative course for preservice elementary teachers built upon two pillars—life science concepts and formative assessment. An embedded mixed methods study was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on preservice teachers' (n = 49) content knowledge and ability to engage in formative assessment practices for science. Findings showed that increased life content knowledge over the semester helped preservice teachers engage more productively in anticipating and evaluating students' ideas, but not in identifying effective instructional strategies to respond to those ideas.

  15. Risk Assessment-- A Science in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravetz, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses principle themes/issues of risk assessment, using examples from the "nuclear debate." Indicates that while an objective scientific core to decisions on risks exists, this is conditioned in its interpretation by inexactness, uncertainty, and value-commitments. Considers risk assessment elements, risk quantification in real…

  16. Risk Assessment-- A Science in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravetz, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses principle themes/issues of risk assessment, using examples from the "nuclear debate." Indicates that while an objective scientific core to decisions on risks exists, this is conditioned in its interpretation by inexactness, uncertainty, and value-commitments. Considers risk assessment elements, risk quantification in real…

  17. Assessing the Best: NAEP's 1996 Assessment of Twelfth-Graders Taking Advanced Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Grigg, Wendy S.

    2001-01-01

    Provides results from a National Assessment of Educational Progress special study of the science achievement of 12th graders taking advanced science courses in biology, chemistry, or physics. An estimated 23% of all 12th graders were taking advanced science courses in the 1995-1996 school year. Describes the course-taking patterns of these…

  18. Bioaccumulation tests applied in whole effluent assessment: A review

    SciTech Connect

    De Maagd, P.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the emphasis within whole effluent assessment has been on the application of bioassays for acute and chronic toxicity. Although the need for additional parameters to assess the ecotoxicological hazard and risk of effluents for receiving water systems has been repeatedly advocated, other parameters such as bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, sediment toxicity, and nutrient impacts are seldom addressed. This paper discusses the potential additional value of including bioaccumulation parameters in whole effluent assessment and methods that can be used for routine assessment. It is concluded that screening on the presence of potentially bioaccumulating compounds leads to a more comprehensive hazard assessment and should therefore be included in whole effluent assessment. A chemical method to assess potentially bioaccumulating substances (PBSs) is preferred above methods using organisms or classical group parameters such as extractable organic halogens (EOX). In situ studies with organisms are not feasible for routine assessment for a number of reasons, including cost efficiency and matrix problems. Classical group parameters such as EOX do not relate to bioaccumulation or toxicity. Chemical methods for assessing bioaccumulation are usually presented as integrated methods composed of different procedure steps such as pretreatment, extraction, separation, and detection. However, an optimal method may be constructed by combining procedure steps from different reported methods. Solid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry is regarded as the preferable method for the assessment of PBSs. Before implementation in whole effluent assessment, however, the method must be carefully validated. Hazard assessment based on bioaccumulation seems feasible. For risk assessment, however, additional information is a prerequisite. Quantitative causal relationships between test assay results

  19. Intentional research design in implementation science: implications for the use of nomothetic and idiographic assessment.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R; Connors, Elizabeth; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Landes, Sara J; Lewis, Cara C; McLeod, Bryce D; Rutt, Christopher; Stanick, Cameo; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-02-02

    The advancement of implementation science is dependent on identifying assessment strategies that can address implementation and clinical outcome variables in ways that are valid, relevant to stakeholders, and scalable. This paper presents a measurement agenda for implementation science that integrates the previously disparate assessment traditions of idiographic and nomothetic approaches. Although idiographic and nomothetic approaches are both used in implementation science, a review of the literature on this topic suggests that their selection can be indiscriminate, driven by convenience, and not explicitly tied to research study design. As a result, they are not typically combined deliberately or effectively. Thoughtful integration may simultaneously enhance both the rigor and relevance of assessments across multiple levels within health service systems. Background on nomothetic and idiographic assessment is provided as well as their potential to support research in implementation science. Drawing from an existing framework, seven structures (of various sequencing and weighting options) and five functions (Convergence, Complementarity, Expansion, Development, Sampling) for integrating conceptually distinct research methods are articulated as they apply to the deliberate, design-driven integration of nomothetic and idiographic assessment approaches. Specific examples and practical guidance are provided to inform research consistent with this framework. Selection and integration of idiographic and nomothetic assessments for implementation science research designs can be improved. The current paper argues for the deliberate application of a clear framework to improve the rigor and relevance of contemporary assessment strategies.

  20. The Contribution of Applied Social Sciences to Obesity Stigma-Related Public Health Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is viewed as a major public health concern, and obesity stigma is pervasive. Such marginalization renders obese persons a “special population.” Weight bias arises in part due to popular sources' attribution of obesity causation to individual lifestyle factors. This may not accurately reflect the experiences of obese individuals or their perspectives on health and quality of life. A powerful role may exist for applied social scientists, such as anthropologists or sociologists, in exploring the lived and embodied experiences of this largely discredited population. This novel research may aid in public health intervention planning. Through these studies, applied social scientists could help develop a nonstigmatizing, salutogenic approach to public health that accurately reflects the health priorities of all individuals. Such an approach would call upon applied social science's strengths in investigating the mundane, problematizing the “taken for granted” and developing emic (insiders') understandings of marginalized populations. PMID:24782921

  1. Readability as Applied to an ABE Assessment Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. C.; Wahlstrom, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the procedure for applying the Fog, Flesch, and Fry readability formulas to the Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales and for modifying the instrument for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. (Author/CH)

  2. Radiation Assessment Detector for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-09

    The Radiation Assessment Detector, shown prior to its September 2010 installation onto NASA Mars rover Curiosity, will aid future human missions to Mars by providing information about the radiation environment on Mars and on the way to Mars.

  3. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  4. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  5. Professionalism Values in Health Science Education: Self- and Peer-Assessment of Faculty, Staff, and Students.

    PubMed

    Becker, Marcie; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism values are critical to developing health science students. Although many educational programs strive to develop professionalism values within students, few include faculty and staff. We evaluated the professional values of our faculty, staff, and students and evaluated the acceptance of this professionalism program. Faculty members adopted a 5-item professionalism assessment survey (honesty, teamwork, responsibility, respect, and communication) and performed a 360° peer assessment among our basic/applied science faculty, clinical faculty, and administrative staff. Data were collected for 3 consecutive years (2013-2015). The 37 students were also assessed as part of their inter-professional education (IPE) program. Peer rankings were stable across years from 2013-2015 for faculty and staff. Faculty with expertise in teaching clinical skills rated "teamwork" (higher) and "respect" (lower), differently from our basic/applied science faculty (p<0.001 and p=0.023, respectively). Faculty and staff supported that the 360° assessments were of value for their own professional development. Student assessments revealed improved "verbal communication" and "teamwork" (p=0.003 and 0.02, respectively) after working in IPE groups during the semester. An annual professionalism assessment program appears to be one important component to developing professional values among faculty, staff, and students in the health sciences.

  6. New Approaches to Assessment in Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus serves as a guide to 29 instructional materials that utilize some form of alternative assessment. These materials focus on mathematics, science, and integrated topics. The products included utilize one or more of the following means of student assessment: (1) portfolios; (2) journals; (3) interviews; (4) surveys; (5)…

  7. Outcomes Assessment Planning: An Overview with Applications in Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Ava M.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the process of outcomes assessment and examples of its application in professional health science education. Provides a background for other articles in this issue describing ongoing activities in outcomes assessment in veterinary education and for programs considering developing a plan. Focuses on health professions…

  8. The science achievement of various subgroups on alternative assessment formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Welch, Wayne

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the science achievement outcomes for different subgroups of students using different assessment formats. A nationally representative sample of approximately 3,500 ninth grade science students from 13 high schools throughout the United States completed a series of science assessments designed to measure their level of achievement on the national science education standards. All of the schools were using a curriculum designed to meet the standards. The assessments included a multiple-choice test, a written open-ended test, a hands-on lab skills test, and a hands-on full investigation. The results show that the student outcomes on the different assessment formats are more highly correlated for higher achieving students than for lower achieving students. Patterns for different cultural groups also vary by assessment format. There were no differences found for sex. The results support the notion that different assessment formats assess different competencies and that the achievement of students from different subgroups varies by assessment format.

  9. Outcomes Assessment Planning: An Overview with Applications in Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Ava M.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the process of outcomes assessment and examples of its application in professional health science education. Provides a background for other articles in this issue describing ongoing activities in outcomes assessment in veterinary education and for programs considering developing a plan. Focuses on health professions…

  10. Assessment of Science Learning: Living in Interesting Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with a reference to living in a time of both uncertainty and opportunity, this article presents a discussion of key areas where shared understanding is needed if we are to successfully realize the design and use of high quality, valid assessments of science. The key areas discussed are: (1) assessment purpose and use, (2) the nature of…

  11. Assessment at the Intersection of Science and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David; Knight, Amanda M.; Cannady, Matthew A.; Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article, all of whom have been a part of this effort to assess argumentation in literacy-rich science curriculum, have struggled with our attempts to build 3 argument-related assessments--understanding, critiquing, and constructing arguments about scientific phenomena in both oral and written modes. Loosely affiliated with the…

  12. Use of Audio Modification in Science Vocabulary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the utilization of audio modification in vocabulary assessment in school subject areas, specifically in elementary science, and to present a web-based key vocabulary assessment tool for the elementary school level. Audio-recorded readings were used to replace independent student readings as the task…

  13. Multifaceted Assessment of Inquiry-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2010-01-01

    To improve student science achievement in the United States we need inquiry-based instruction that promotes coherent understanding and assessments that are aligned with the instruction. Instead, current textbooks often offer fragmented ideas and most assessments only tap recall of details. In this study we implemented 10 inquiry-based science…

  14. Assessment of Science Learning: Living in Interesting Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with a reference to living in a time of both uncertainty and opportunity, this article presents a discussion of key areas where shared understanding is needed if we are to successfully realize the design and use of high quality, valid assessments of science. The key areas discussed are: (1) assessment purpose and use, (2) the nature of…

  15. Assessment at the Intersection of Science and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David; Knight, Amanda M.; Cannady, Matthew A.; Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article, all of whom have been a part of this effort to assess argumentation in literacy-rich science curriculum, have struggled with our attempts to build 3 argument-related assessments--understanding, critiquing, and constructing arguments about scientific phenomena in both oral and written modes. Loosely affiliated with the…

  16. Criticism and Assessment Applied to New Media Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This text examines educational criticism and assessment with an emphasis on the new media arts. The article shares with readers the versatile, abridged to four points criteria, based on a research on assessment made by students, faculty, and non-art-related professionals, thus providing a preliminary tool for the use in the classroom environment.…

  17. Applying Tacit Knowledge Management Techniques for Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Performance assessment is an important task in all levels of education, both as input for identifying remedial needs of individual students and for improving general quality of education. Although explicit assessment measures can be obtained through objective standardized testing, it is much more difficult to capture fuzzier, or tacit, performance…

  18. Applying Tacit Knowledge Management Techniques for Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Performance assessment is an important task in all levels of education, both as input for identifying remedial needs of individual students and for improving general quality of education. Although explicit assessment measures can be obtained through objective standardized testing, it is much more difficult to capture fuzzier, or tacit, performance…

  19. Criticism and Assessment Applied to New Media Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This text examines educational criticism and assessment with an emphasis on the new media arts. The article shares with readers the versatile, abridged to four points criteria, based on a research on assessment made by students, faculty, and non-art-related professionals, thus providing a preliminary tool for the use in the classroom environment.…

  20. Share your expertise with Congress: Apply for an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Scientists interested in using their skills to work on problems of public importance should consider applying for an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship. The fellowship is an opportunity to directly influence high-priority public policy issues such as natural hazards mitigation, mineral and energy resources, air and water quality, and federal support for basic research. Following an intensive 2-week course on politics and the legislative process run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, congressional fellows work for a year as staff members in the offices of a senator, representative, or congressional committee. Their duties as staff members may include writing legislation, advising on votes, organizing congressional hearings, meeting with lobbyists and constituents, and conducting legislative research, among other tasks.

  1. Dimensions of Capacity Building: Lessons Learned from the NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searby, N. D.; Irwin, D.; Ruiz, M.; Prados, A. I.; Armstrong, D.

    2012-12-01

    Extending the use of NASA's Earth science data to end-users and stakeholders globally has yielded many insights. This overview highlights the opportunities, challenges, success stories, and lessons learned in NASA's SERVIR, DEVELOP, Applied Remote Sensing Training, and Gulf of Mexico Initiative capacity building programs. In order to build the capacity to use Earth science data and observations in daily decision and policy-making, multiple dimensions of capacity need to be strengthened. End-users need to expand scientific and technological capacity. Human, institutional, organizational, and improved data-driven decision-making capacity is required to enable sustainable results. Metrics need to be established and clearly defined during the entire process. To ensure desired outcomes are achieved, impacts must be evaluated and measured against desired results. Recent successes in building capacity across several societal benefit areas are described.

  2. Twelve tips for applying the science of learning to health professions education.

    PubMed

    Gooding, H C; Mann, K; Armstrong, E

    2017-01-01

    Findings from the science of learning have clear implications for those responsible for teaching and curricular design. However, this data has been historically siloed from educators in practice, including those in health professions education. In this article, we aim to bring practical tips from the science of learning to health professions educators. We have chosen to organize the tips into six themes, highlighting strategies for 1) improving the processing of information, 2) promoting effortful learning for greater retention of knowledge over time, 3) applying learned information to new and varied contexts, 4) promoting the development of expertise, 5) harnessing the power of emotion for learning, and 6) teaching and learning in social contexts. We conclude with the importance of attending to metacognition in our learners and ourselves. Health professions education can be strengthened by incorporating these evidence-based techniques.

  3. Ecological Forecasting in the Applied Sciences Program and Input to the Decadal Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Ecological forecasting uses knowledge of physics, ecology and physiology to predict how ecosystems will change in the future in response to environmental factors. Further, Ecological Forecasting employs observations and models to predict the effects of environmental change on ecosystems. In doing so, it applies information from the physical, biological, and social sciences and promotes a scientific synthesis across the domains of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and psychology. The goal is reliable forecasts that allow decision makers access to science-based tools in order to project changes in living systems. The next decadal survey will direct the development Earth Observation sensors and satellites for the next ten years. It is important that these new sensors and satellites address the requirements for ecosystem models, imagery, and other data for resource management. This presentation will give examples of these model inputs and some resources needed for NASA to continue effective Ecological Forecasting.

  4. Enabling Collaboration and Video Assessment: Exposing Trends in Science Preservice Teachers' Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borowczak, Mike; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a new, free resource for continuous video assessment named YouDemo. The tool enables real time rating of uploaded YouTube videos for use in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and beyond. The authors discuss trends of preservice science teachers' assessments of self- and peer-created videos using…

  5. Enabling Collaboration and Video Assessment: Exposing Trends in Science Preservice Teachers' Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borowczak, Mike; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a new, free resource for continuous video assessment named YouDemo. The tool enables real time rating of uploaded YouTube videos for use in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and beyond. The authors discuss trends of preservice science teachers' assessments of self- and peer-created videos using…

  6. Meta-assessment of bias in science

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large random sample of meta-analyses taken from all disciplines. The magnitude of these biases varied widely across fields and was overall relatively small. However, we consistently observed a significant risk of small, early, and highly cited studies to overestimate effects and of studies not published in peer-reviewed journals to underestimate them. We also found at least partial confirmation of previous evidence suggesting that US studies and early studies might report more extreme effects, although these effects were smaller and more heterogeneously distributed across meta-analyses and disciplines. Authors publishing at high rates and receiving many citations were, overall, not at greater risk of bias. However, effect sizes were likely to be overestimated by early-career researchers, those working in small or long-distance collaborations, and those responsible for scientific misconduct, supporting hypotheses that connect bias to situational factors, lack of mutual control, and individual integrity. Some of these patterns and risk factors might have modestly increased in intensity over time, particularly in the social sciences. Our findings suggest that, besides one being routinely cautious that published small, highly-cited, and earlier studies may yield inflated results, the feasibility and costs of interventions to attenuate biases in the literature might need to be discussed on a discipline-specific and topic-specific basis. PMID:28320937

  7. Meta-assessment of bias in science.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-04-04

    Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large random sample of meta-analyses taken from all disciplines. The magnitude of these biases varied widely across fields and was overall relatively small. However, we consistently observed a significant risk of small, early, and highly cited studies to overestimate effects and of studies not published in peer-reviewed journals to underestimate them. We also found at least partial confirmation of previous evidence suggesting that US studies and early studies might report more extreme effects, although these effects were smaller and more heterogeneously distributed across meta-analyses and disciplines. Authors publishing at high rates and receiving many citations were, overall, not at greater risk of bias. However, effect sizes were likely to be overestimated by early-career researchers, those working in small or long-distance collaborations, and those responsible for scientific misconduct, supporting hypotheses that connect bias to situational factors, lack of mutual control, and individual integrity. Some of these patterns and risk factors might have modestly increased in intensity over time, particularly in the social sciences. Our findings suggest that, besides one being routinely cautious that published small, highly-cited, and earlier studies may yield inflated results, the feasibility and costs of interventions to attenuate biases in the literature might need to be discussed on a discipline-specific and topic-specific basis.

  8. Student explanations of their science teachers' assessments, grading practices and how they learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carmen Gomez, María

    2016-08-01

    The current paper draws on data generated through group interviews with students who were involved in a larger ethnographic research project performed in three science classrooms. The purpose of the study from which this data was generated, was to understand science teachers' assessment practices in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. During group interviews students were asked about their conceptions of what were the assessment priority of teachers, why the students were silent during lecturing and their experiences regarding peer- and self-assessments. The research design and analysis of the findings derives from what students told us about their assessments and learning sciences experiences. Students related that besides the results of the written test, they do not know what else teachers assessed and used to determine their grades. It was also found that students did not participate in the discussion on science because of peer-pressure and a fear of disappointing their peers. Student silence is also linked with student conceptions of science learning and student experiences with methodologies of teaching and learning sciences.

  9. Beginning science teachers' performances: Assessment in times of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzinsky, Fie K.

    2000-10-01

    The current reform in science education and the research on effective teaching and student learning have reinforced the importance of teacher competency. To better measure performances in the teaching of science, performance assessment has been added to Connecticut's licensure process for beginning science teachers. Teaching portfolios are used to document teaching and learning over time. Portfolios, however, are not without problems. One of the major concerns with the portfolio assessment process is its subjectivity. Assessors may not have opportunities to ask clarifying or follow-up questions to enhance the interpretation of a teacher's performance. In addition, portfolios often contain components based on self-documentation, which are subjective. Furthermore, the use of portfolios raises test equity issues. These concerns present challenges for persons in charge of establishing the validity of a portfolio-based licensure process. In high-stakes decision processes, such as teaching licensure, the validity of the assessment instruments must be studied. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related validity of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio by comparing the interpretations of performances from science teaching portfolios to those derived from another assessment method, the Expert Science Teaching Educational and Evaluation Model, (ESTEEM). The analysis of correlations between the Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM instrument scores was the primary method for establishing support for validity. The results indicated moderate correlations between all Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM category and total variables. Multiple regression was used to examine whether differences existed in beginning science teachers' performances based on gender, poverty group, school level, and science discipline taught. None of these variables significantly contributed to the

  10. Assessing the Climate of Science Laboratory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; And Others

    Recently, some researchers are considering the effects of classroom environment on student achievement and attitudes. Due to the concerted effort of a number of educators, remarkable progress has been made over the last quarter of a century in conceptualizing, assessing and researching this area of concern. However, today there is growing concern…

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known components of the mixture are limited. However, a potential human health hazard may exist and the U.S.EPA, state and local governments need to be able to assess the total hazard in order to make decisions on appropriate action. This report describes a procedure for assessing the risks from chemical mixtures that includes options when different kinds of data are available. Good-quality information on the mixture of concern or a similar mixture should always be used. Less desirable, but still useful approach, is to utilize data on components and their interactions. The quality of exposure and toxicity data must be determined and the uncertainties involved in each risk assessment must be thoroughly discussed. ater contamination is briefly discussed since it is of vital concern as the primary exposure medium for chemical mixtures. The methodology for estimating the human health risk from single chemicals, both carcinogens and systemic toxicants, is reviewed as it forms the basis for the assessment of mixtures. The Implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mix

  12. Assessing Knowledge Change in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Jane Gradwohl; Bravaco, Ralph J.; Simonson, Shai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess structural knowledge change across a two-week workshop designed to provide high-school teachers with training in Java and Object Oriented Programming. Both before and after the workshop, teachers assigned relatedness ratings to pairs of key concepts regarding Java and Object Oriented Programming. Their…

  13. Assessing Knowledge Change in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Jane Gradwohl; Bravaco, Ralph J.; Simonson, Shai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess structural knowledge change across a two-week workshop designed to provide high-school teachers with training in Java and Object Oriented Programming. Both before and after the workshop, teachers assigned relatedness ratings to pairs of key concepts regarding Java and Object Oriented Programming. Their…

  14. Standing at the crossroads: Identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, Thomas

    Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis

  15. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchak, MaryAnn

    1993-01-01

    This article offers a framework for assessing problem behaviors in classroom settings. It explains three prerequisite steps (identification, prioritization, and delineation of operational definitions) and three methods for formulating hypotheses (structured interviews, systematic observations, and experimental functional analyses). (DB)

  16. Assessment Strategies for Implementing Ngss in K12 Earth System Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.

    2016-12-01

    Several science education researchers have led assessment efforts that provide strategies particularly useful for evaluating the threedimensional learning that is central to NGSS (DeBarger, A. H., Penuel, W. R., Harris, C. J., Kennedy, C. K., 2016; Knight, A. M. & McNeill, K. L., 2015; McNeill, K. L., KatshSinger, R. & Pelletier, P., 2015; McNeill K.L., et.al., 2015; McNeill, K.L., & Krajcik, J.S., 2011; Penuel, W., 2016). One of the basic premises of these researchers is that, "Assessment is a practice of argument from evidence based on what students say, do, and write" and that "the classroom is the richest place to gather evidence of what students know (Penuel, W., 2016). The implementation of the NGSS in Earth System Science provides a unique opportunity for geoscience education researchers to study student learning and contribute to the development of this research as well as for geoscience educators to apply these approaches and strategies in their own work with K12 inservice and preservice educators. DeBarger, A. H., Penuel, W. R., Harris, C. J., Kennedy, C. K. (2016). Building an Assessment Argument to Design and Use Next Generation Science Assessments in Efficacy Studies of Curriculum Interventions. American†Journal†of†Evaluation†37(2) 174192Æ Knight, A. M. & McNeill, K. L. (2015). Comparing students' individual written and collaborative oral socioscientific arguments. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education.10(5), 23647. McNeill, K. L., KatshSinger, R. & Pelletier, P. (2015). Assessing science practices-Moving your class along a continuum. Science Scope. McNeill, K.L., & Krajcik, J.S. (2011). Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science: The Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Framework for Talk and Writing. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. Penuel, W. (2016). Classroom Assessment Strategies for NGSS Earth and Space Sciences. Implementing†the†NGSS†Webinar†Series, February 11, 2016.

  17. Medication administration process assessment: applying lessons learned from commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Moreen; Brown, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2009-02-01

    Medication administration is a major safety issue for patients and providers. The authors describe a commercial aviation-based system safety assessment conducted on the medication administration process for a community teaching hospital in the northeast United States. Processes on 2 medical units and 1 surgical unit were assessed. A sampling of qualitative outcomes is presented in a risk prioritization framework, along with practical recommendations predicated on the valuable lessons learned in commercial aviation.

  18. PREFACE: 1st International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    We are delighted to come up with thirty two (32) contributed research papers in these proceedings, focusing on Materials Science and Applied Physics as an output of the 2013 International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science (ICAMS2013) held on October 22-24, 2013 at the Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines. The conference was set to provide a high level of international forum and had brought together leading academic scientists, industry professionals, researchers and scholars from universities, industries and government agencies who have shared their experiences, research results and discussed the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted as well as the advances in the fields of Applied Physics and Materials Science. This conference has provided a wide opportunity to establish multidisciplinary collaborations with local and foreign experts. ICAMS2013, held concurrently with 15th Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (SPVM) National Physics Conference and 2013 International Meeting for Complex Systems, was organized by the Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (Physics Society of Visayas and Mindanao) based in MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines. The international flavor of converging budding researchers and experts on Materials Science and Applied Physics was the first to be organized in the 19 years of SPVM operation in the Philippines. We highlighted ICAMS2013 gathering by the motivating presence of Dr. Stuart Parkin, a British Physicist, as one of our conference's plenary speakers. Equal measures of gratitude were also due to all other plenary speakers, Dr. Elizabeth Taylor of Institute of Physics (IOP) in London, Dr. Surya Raghu of Advanced Fluidics in Maryland, USA and Prof. Hitoshi Miyata of Niigata University, Japan, Prof. Djulia Onggo of Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, and Dr. Hironori Katagiri of Nagaoka National College of Technology, Japan. The warm hospitality of the host

  19. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  20. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by sources of air toxics emissions, on a source category basis, to determine if control technology standards previously established for that source category are adequately protecting public health.

  2. Innovations in science and scenarios for assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Moss, Richard; Parris, Adam

    2015-08-29

    Scenarios for the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) were produced for physical climate and sea level rise with substantial input from disciplinary and regional experts. These scenarios underwent extensive review and were published as NOAA Technical Reports. For land use/cover and socioeconomic conditions, scenarios already developed by other agencies were specified for use in the NCA3. Efforts to enhance participatory scenario planning as an assessment activity were pursued, but with limited success. Issues and challenges included the timing of availability of scenarios, the need for guidance in use of scenarios, the need for approaches to nest information within multiple scalesmore » and sectors, engagement and collaboration of end users in scenario development, and development of integrated scenarios. Future assessments would benefit from an earlier start to scenarios development, the provision of training in addition to guidance documents, new and flexible approaches for nesting information, ongoing engagement and advice from both scientific and end user communities, and the development of consistent and integrated scenarios.« less

  3. Innovations in science and scenarios for assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Moss, Richard; Parris, Adam

    2015-08-29

    Scenarios for the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) were produced for physical climate and sea level rise with substantial input from disciplinary and regional experts. These scenarios underwent extensive review and were published as NOAA Technical Reports. For land use/cover and socioeconomic conditions, scenarios already developed by other agencies were specified for use in the NCA3. Efforts to enhance participatory scenario planning as an assessment activity were pursued, but with limited success. Issues and challenges included the timing of availability of scenarios, the need for guidance in use of scenarios, the need for approaches to nest information within multiple scales and sectors, engagement and collaboration of end users in scenario development, and development of integrated scenarios. Future assessments would benefit from an earlier start to scenarios development, the provision of training in addition to guidance documents, new and flexible approaches for nesting information, ongoing engagement and advice from both scientific and end user communities, and the development of consistent and integrated scenarios.

  4. Innovations in science and scenarios for assessment.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Kenneth E; Moss, Richard; Parris, Adam

    Scenarios for the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) were produced for physical climate and sea level rise with substantial input from disciplinary and regional experts. These scenarios underwent extensive review and were published as NOAA Technical Reports. For land use/cover and socioeconomic conditions, scenarios already developed by other agencies were specified for use in the NCA3. Efforts to enhance participatory scenario planning as an assessment activity were pursued, but with limited success. Issues and challenges included the timing of availability of scenarios, the need for guidance in use of scenarios, the need for approaches to nest information within multiple scales and sectors, engagement and collaboration of end users in scenario development, and development of integrated scenarios. Future assessments would benefit from an earlier start to scenarios development, the provision of training in addition to guidance documents, new and flexible approaches for nesting information, ongoing engagement and advice from both scientific and end user communities, and the development of consistent and integrated scenarios.

  5. Innovations in science and scenarios for assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Moss, Richard; Parris, Adam

    2015-08-29

    Scenarios for the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) were produced for physical climate and sea level rise with substantial input from disciplinary and regional experts. These scenarios underwent extensive review and were published as NOAA Technical Reports. For land use/cover and socioeconomic conditions, scenarios already developed by other agencies were specified for use in the NCA3. Efforts to enhance participatory scenario planning as an assessment activity were pursued, but with limited success. Issues and challenges included the timing of availability of scenarios, the need for guidance in use of scenarios, the need for approaches to nest information within multiple scales and sectors, engagement and collaboration of end users in scenario development, and development of integrated scenarios. Future assessments would benefit from an earlier start to scenarios development, the provision of training in addition to guidance documents, new and flexible approaches for nesting information, ongoing engagement and advice from both scientific and end user communities, and the development of consistent and integrated scenarios.

  6. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed…

  7. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed…

  8. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  9. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  10. Assessment of examinations in computer science doctoral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This article surveys the examination requirements for attaining degree candidate (candidacy) status in computer science doctoral programs at all of the computer science doctoral granting institutions in the United States. It presents a framework for program examination requirement categorization, and categorizes these programs by the type or types of candidacy examinations that are required. The performance of computer science departments, estimated via two common surrogate metrics, in these different categories of candidacy requirements are compared and contrasted and the correlation between candidacy requirements and program/department performance is assessed.

  11. Washback Effect of University Entrance exams in Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñiz, Luis J; Díaz, Patricia; Mier, Verónica; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Curricular issues of subject Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences are studied in relation to university entrance exams performed in several Spanish regions between 2009-2014. By using quantitative and qualitative analyses, it has been studied how these exams align with curriculum and how they produce a washback on curriculum and teachers' work. Additionally, one questionnaire about teachers' practices has been performed, in order to find out how the exams are influencing teaching methodology development. Main results obtained show that evaluation is producing a bias on the official curriculum, substantially simplifying the specific orientation that should guide applied mathematics. Furthermore, teachers' practices are influenced by the exams, and they usually approach their teaching methodology to the frequent types of exams. Also, slight differences among the teachers lead to distinguish two behavioral subgroups. Results can also be useful in an international context, because of the importance of standardized exit exams in OECD countries.

  12. Washback Effect of University Entrance exams in Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Patricia; Mier, Verónica; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Curricular issues of subject Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences are studied in relation to university entrance exams performed in several Spanish regions between 2009–2014. By using quantitative and qualitative analyses, it has been studied how these exams align with curriculum and how they produce a washback on curriculum and teachers’ work. Additionally, one questionnaire about teachers’ practices has been performed, in order to find out how the exams are influencing teaching methodology development. Main results obtained show that evaluation is producing a bias on the official curriculum, substantially simplifying the specific orientation that should guide applied mathematics. Furthermore, teachers’ practices are influenced by the exams, and they usually approach their teaching methodology to the frequent types of exams. Also, slight differences among the teachers lead to distinguish two behavioral subgroups. Results can also be useful in an international context, because of the importance of standardized exit exams in OECD countries. PMID:27936103

  13. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-10-20

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition.

  14. Methods of Assessing and Achieving Normality Applied to Environmental Data

    PubMed

    Mateu

    1997-09-01

    / It has been recognized for a long time that data transformation methods capable of achieving normality of distributions could have a crucial role in statistical analysis, especially towards an efficient application of techniques such as analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Normality is a basic assumption in many of the statistical methods used in the environmental sciences and is very often neglected. In this paper several techniques to test normality of distributions are proposed and analyzed. Confidence intervals and nonparametric tests are used and discussed. Basic and Box-Cox transformations are the suggested methods to achieve normal variables. Finally, we develop an application related to environmental data with atmospheric parameters and SO2 and particle concentrations. Results show that the analyzed transformations work well and are very useful to achieve normal distributions.KEY WORDS: Normal distribution; Kurtosis; Skewness; Confidence intervals; Box-Cox transformations; Nonparametric tests

  15. Heavy metals in natural waters: applied monitoring and impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.; Ramamoorthy, S.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt has been made to review a large amount of environmental data on eight common heavy metals. The chemistry, uptake and toxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc are presented. With this information, it is possible to assess their impact in aquatic systems. A review is also provided on the status and likely value of current methods used in monitoring and impact assessment. Information is included on environmental chemistry, the pollution-ecology of algae, invertebrates and fish, and on aquatic toxicology, genetic toxicology, and the pathology of fishes and invertebrates in relation to heavy metals.

  16. The Commonalities and Dissonances between High-School Students' and Their Science Teachers' Conceptions of Science Learning and Conceptions of Science Assessment: A Taiwanese Sample Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to concurrently investigate Taiwanese high-school students' and their science teachers' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and conceptions of science assessment (COSA). A total of 1,048 Taiwanese high-school students and their 59 science teachers were invited to fill out two questionnaires assessing their…

  17. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  18. Assessment of Physical Activity by Applying IPAQ Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta; Stupnicki, Romuald; Lebiedzinski, Bartlomiej; Janczewska, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the suitability of the short 7-day IPAQ (self-completed) adapted to Polish population. Material and methods: Two surveys were conducted in 2005 on 296 random subjects (aged 20-60 years) from Warsaw and the Mazowiecki region. From these, 54 men and 79 women were requested to fill questionnaires, and 70 men and 93 women, were…

  19. Harmonized Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment in Europe: Earthquake Geology Applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Danciu, L.; Giardini, D.; Share Consortium

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) aims to characterize the best available knowledge on seismic hazard of a study area, ideally taking into account all sources of uncertainty. Results from PSHAs form the baseline for informed decision-making and provide essential input to each risk assessment application. SHARE is an EC-FP7 funded project to create a testable time-independent community-based hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. SHARE scientists are creating a model framework and infrastructure for a harmonized PSHA. The results will serve as reference for the Eurocode 8 application and are envisioned to provide homogeneous input for state-of-the art seismic safety assessment for critical industry. Harmonizing hazard is pursued on the input data level and the model building procedure across borders and tectonic features of the European-Mediterranean region. An updated earthquake catalog, a harmonized database of seismogenic sources together with adjusted ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) form the bases for a borderless assessment. We require transparent and reproducible strategies to estimate parameter values and their uncertainties within the source model assessment and the contributions of the GMPEs. The SHARE model accounts for uncertainties via a logic tree. Epistemic uncertainties within the seismic source-model are represented by four source model options including area sources, fault sources and kernel-smoothing approaches, aleatory uncertainties for activity rates and maximum magnitudes. Epistemic uncertainties for predicted ground motions are considered by multiple GMPEs as a function of tectonic settings and treated as being correlated. For practical implementation, epistemic uncertainties in the source model (i.e. dip and strike angles) are treated as aleatory, and a mean seismicity model is considered. The final results contain the full distribution of ground motion variability. This contribution will feature preliminary

  20. The National Wetland Condition Assessment | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was assessed in relation to a disturbance gradient anchored by least (reference) and most disturbed sites identified using chemical, physical, and biological disturbance indices. A vegetation multimetric index (VMMI) indicated condition. Potential stressors to condition were incorporated into indices of hydrologic alteration, physical alteration and soil heavy metals, and a nonnative plant indicator. All 1138 sites sampled were placed along a quantitatively defined disturbance gradient customized by ecoregions used in reporting. The characteristics of the 277 sites identified as least disturbed were considered reference. Least disturbed sites are those with the best available condition given the current status of the landscape in which the site is located. Approximately 48±6% of the national wetland area was in good condition; 32±6% in poor condition as measured by the VMMI. Fair condition is the smallest by percent and total area nationally, in two of four regions, and by wetland type. A possible explanation of this pattern is that, we are doing a good job of protecting the best wetlands, while it’s harder to do the same for wetlands that are degraded to some degree. This results in those

  1. Fried frailty phenotype assessment components as applied to geriatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Joanna; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Management of geriatric patients would be simplified if a universally accepted definition of frailty for clinical use was defined. Among definitions of frailty, Fried frailty phenotype criteria constitute a common reference frame for many geriatric studies. However, this reference frame has been tested primarily in elderly patients presenting with relatively good health status. The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness and limitations of Fried frailty phenotype criteria in geriatric inpatients, characterized by comorbidity and functional impairments, and to estimate the frailty phenotype prevalence in this group. Five hundred consecutive patients of the university hospital subacute geriatric ward, aged 79.0±8.4 years (67% women and 33% men), participated in this cross-sectional study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and Fried frailty phenotype component evaluation were performed in all patients. Multimorbidity (6.0±2.8 diseases) characterized our study group, with a wide range of clinical conditions and functional states (Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living 72.2±28.2 and Mini-Mental State Examination 23.6±7.1 scores). All five Fried frailty components were assessed in 65% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] =60.8-69.2) (diagnostic group). One or more components were not feasible to be assessed in 35% of the remaining patients (nondiagnostic group) because of lack of past patient's body mass control and/or cognitive or physical impairment. Patients from the nondiagnostic group, as compared to patients from the diagnostic group, presented with more advanced age, higher prevalence of dementia, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living. Despite diagnostic limitations, we found ≥3 positive criteria (thus, frailty diagnosis) in 54.2% of the study group (95% CI =49.8-58.6), with prevalence from 31.7% in

  2. Applying RESRAD-CHEM for chemical risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.

    1995-07-01

    RESRAD-CHEM is a multiple pathway analysis computer code to evaluate chemically contaminated sites; it was developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The code is designed to predict human health risks from exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. It consists of environmental fate and transport models and is capable of predicting chemical concentrations over time in different environmental media. The methodology used in RESRAD-CHEM for exposure assessment and risk characterization follows the US Environmental Protection Agency`s guidance on Human Health Evaluation for Superfund. A user-friendly interface is incorporated for entering data, operating the code, and displaying results. RESRAD-CHEM is easy to use and is a powerful tool to assess chemical risk from environmental exposure.

  3. Content-based image retrieval applied to bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Brosig, André; Welter, Petra; Grouls, Christoph; Günther, Rolf W.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-03-01

    Radiological bone age assessment is based on local image regions of interest (ROI), such as the epiphysis or the area of carpal bones. These are compared to a standardized reference and scores determining the skeletal maturity are calculated. For computer-aided diagnosis, automatic ROI extraction and analysis is done so far mainly by heuristic approaches. Due to high variations in the imaged biological material and differences in age, gender and ethnic origin, automatic analysis is difficult and frequently requires manual interactions. On the contrary, epiphyseal regions (eROIs) can be compared to previous cases with known age by content-based image retrieval (CBIR). This requires a sufficient number of cases with reliable positioning of the eROI centers. In this first approach to bone age assessment by CBIR, we conduct leaving-oneout experiments on 1,102 left hand radiographs and 15,428 metacarpal and phalangeal eROIs from the USC hand atlas. The similarity of the eROIs is assessed by cross-correlation of 16x16 scaled eROIs. The effects of the number of eROIs, two age computation methods as well as the number of considered CBIR references are analyzed. The best results yield an error rate of 1.16 years and a standard deviation of 0.85 years. As the appearance of the hand varies naturally by up to two years, these results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the CBIR approach for bone age estimation.

  4. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  5. Security risk assessment: applying the concepts of fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Shailendra; Sachdeva, Anish; Gupta, J P

    2010-01-15

    Chemical process industries (CPI) handling hazardous chemicals in bulk can be attractive targets for deliberate adversarial actions by terrorists, criminals and disgruntled employees. It is therefore imperative to have comprehensive security risk management programme including effective security risk assessment techniques. In an earlier work, it has been shown that security risk assessment can be done by conducting threat and vulnerability analysis or by developing Security Risk Factor Table (SRFT). HAZOP type vulnerability assessment sheets can be developed that are scenario based. In SRFT model, important security risk bearing factors such as location, ownership, visibility, inventory, etc., have been used. In this paper, the earlier developed SRFT model has been modified using the concepts of fuzzy logic. In the modified SRFT model, two linguistic fuzzy scales (three-point and four-point) are devised based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Human subjectivity of different experts associated with previous SRFT model is tackled by mapping their scores to the newly devised fuzzy scale. Finally, the fuzzy score thus obtained is defuzzyfied to get the results. A test case of a refinery is used to explain the method and compared with the earlier work.

  6. Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

    How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external

  7. Assessing the Potential of Stratospheric Balloons for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot; Landis, Robert; Noll, Keith; Baines, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in high altitude balloon platform capabilities, specifically long duration flights in excess of 50 days at over 100,000 ft and precision pointing with performance at the arc sec level or better have raised the question whether this platform can be utilized for high-value planetary science observations. In January of 2012 a workshop was held at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio to explore what planetary science can be achieved utilizing such a platform. Over 40 science concepts were identified by the scientists and engineers attending the workshop. Those ideas were captured and then posted to a public website for all interested planetary scientists to review and give their comments. The results of the workshop, and subsequent community review, have demonstrated that this platform appears to have potential for high-value science at very competitive costs. Given these positive results, the assessment process was extended to include 1) examining, in more detail, the requirements for the gondola platform and the mission scenarios 2) identifying technical challenges and 3) developing one or more platform concepts in enough fidelity to enable accurate estimating of development and mission costs. This paper provides a review of the assessment, a summary of the achievable science and the challenges to make that science a reality with this platform.

  8. Micro-satellites (~ 50 kg) for the fundamental and applied science. Capacity building for Russian Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Rodin, V.; Gurevich, A.; Alferov, A.; Getsov, P.

    Design and manufacturing of micro-satellite ( 50 kg) platforms for the fundamental and applied research of the Earth and near-earth outer space is a problem which is complex both scientifically and technically. Main point is to define the scientific task which could be effectively solved by micro-satellite instrumentation. It is necessary also to carry out an integral approach in the course of the spacecraft development: find methods to introduce the contemporary technological-design, use the achievements of advanced physical instrument manufacturing , microelectronics and micromechanics. Technical solutions should provide the required accuracy of spacecraft orientation and stabilization. Space Research and Physical Institutes RAS with participation of Moscow University developed the model composition and technical design of micro satellite "CHIBIS" (small bird LAPWING in Russian) with two options for scientific payload: A. The complex of scientific instruments N1 for the monitoring of Global warming and the electromagnetic environment of the Earth: spectrometer for measurements of the total content of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4); optical camera (spatial resolution 300 m); lowfrequency flux-gate magnetometer (DC - 64 Hz); high-frequency search-coil magnetometer (0.1 - 40 kHz); analyzer of the electromagnetic emissions (0.1 - 40 kHz); detector of ionospheric plasma. B. The complex of scientific instruments N2 for investigation of fine scale physics of lightning discharges: X-ray - gamma detector (range of X-ray and gamma emission - 50-500 keV); UV detector (range UV - emission - 300-450 nm); radiofrequency analyzer (20 - 50 MHz); optical camera. Spacecraft manufacturing and scientific experiments are prepared mostly by the institutes of Russian academy of sciences without traditional involvement of large scale space industry. So this activity serves as a substantial driver of Academic capacity building for the independent research of space science problems

  9. An Assessment of a Science Discipline Archive Against ISO 16363

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; Downs, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is a federation of science discipline nodes formed in response to the findings of the Committee on Data Management and Computing (CODMAC 1986) that a "wealth of science data would ultimately cease to be useful and probably lost if a process was not developed to ensure that the science data were properly archived." Starting operations in 1990 the stated mission of the PDS is to "facilitate achievement of NASA's planetary science goals by efficiently collecting, archiving, and making accessible digital data and documentation produced by or relevant to NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs."In 2008 the PDS initiated a transition to a more modern system based on key principles found in the Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model (ISO 14721), a set of functional requirements provided by the designated community, and about twenty years of lessons-learned. With science digital data now being archived under the new PDS4, the PDS is a good use case to be assessed as a trusted repository against ISO 16363, a recommended practice for assessing the trustworthiness of digital repositories.This presentation will summarize the OAIS principles adopted for PDS4 and the findings of a desk assessment of the PDS against ISO 16363. Also presented will be specific items of evidence, for example the PDS mission statement above, and how they impact the level of certainty that the ISO 16363 metrics are being met.

  10. Virtual University of Applied Sciences--German Flagship Project in the Field of E-Learning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granow, Rolf; Bischoff, Michael

    In 1997, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research started an initiative to promote e-learning in Germany by installing an extensive research program. The Virtual University of Applied Sciences in Engineering, Computer Science and Economic Engineering is the most prominent and best-funded of the more than 100 projects in the field…

  11. Assessing Teacher Performance in the Classroom: Pattern Analysis Applied to Interaction Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Selected data from a junior high school science assessment study are presented to demonstrate the potential of pattern analysis for teacher evaluation, and to illustrate its superiority over other classroom observation techniques. (CP)

  12. Need assessment of enhancing the weightage of applied biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at MGIMS, sevagram.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-05-06

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A web-based data collection and analysis tool was designed for online questionnaire distribution, data collection, and analysis. Response rate was 100%. Most of the respondents agreed that the subject Biochemistry has relevance in clinical practice (81.24%) and applied based learning of Biochemistry by medical undergraduates would help in overall improvement in the health standards/patients care (83.44%). According to 65.12% respondents, most of the medical undergraduates read Biochemistry just for examination purpose only. Nearly half of the respondents agreed that minute details of biochemical reactions were not much useful in clinical practice (53.86%) and the vast majority of diagrammatic cycles memorized by the medical undergraduates had no relevance in clinical practice (51.21%), the decreased interest in learning the Applied Biochemistry was due to more amount of clinically irrelevant information taught to medical undergraduates (73.51%), there was a need to rethink for removing the diagrammatic biochemical cycles from curriculum for medical undergraduates (48.12%), the less learning of Applied Biochemistry or competencies would affect the clinical skills and knowledge of medical undergraduates (70.42%). The result of this study suggests that there is need for restructuring the Biochemistry curriculum with more clinical relevance. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:230-240, 2016.

  13. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

  14. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-07-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4-16 min and 160-200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400-700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center.

  15. Beliefs, Practices, and Reflection: Exploring a Science Teacher's Classroom Assessment Through the Assessment Triangle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the Assessment Practices Framework and how I used it to study a high school Chemistry teacher as she designed, implemented, and learned from a chemistry lab report. The framework consists of exploring three teacher-centered components of classroom assessment (assessment beliefs, practices, and reflection) and analyzing components with the assessment triangle model (Pellegrino et al. in, Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2001). Employing the framework, I report the teacher's assessment practices, report the alignment in her assessment practices through the three vertices of the assessment triangle (cognition, observation, and interpretation), and suggest relations between her beliefs and practices. I conclude by discussing the contribution and limitations of the Assessment Practices Framework while conducting future research and supporting science teachers in assessing student learning.

  16. Life cycle assessment applied to the sector of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matarazzo, Agata; Ingrao, Carlo; Clasadonte, Maria Teresa

    2016-07-01

    This work is about the application of LCA to the ends of the environmental assessment of pure-silicon wafers production. The input-data quantification is realized studying two microelectronic devices and presenting schematically tables and graphs, to be easily interpreted. This will allow help the reader to individuate, clearly and immediately, the materials flows and the relationships among the different steps of the production process. The material flows, in terms of raw materials use and energy consumption, were studied using the data provided by a firm involved in the microelectronic device production field. The two devices environmental analysis was developed considering potential effects such as Acidification, Eutrophication, Ozone reduction, Global warming, Ozone photochemical formation, Human Toxicity.

  17. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  18. NASA Applied Science Program Applications for the Volcanic Ash Threat to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Haynes, J. A.; Lindsay, F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, the public interest has been increasingly focused on the significant safety and economic impacts of the volcanic ash threat to aviation. During this period, the NASA Applied Science Program has developed a significant number of critical volcanic ash applications for a wide range of cutting-edge NASA satellite observations. This has entailed the development of many new and innovative technical advances and these advances have enabled and are increasingly improving the accuracy and the utility of volcanic ash advisories worldwide. The development of these applications is examined with respect to the specific sensor technologies, their pedigree and legacy, their unique and critical data for volcanic ash detection or characterization, volcanic ash algorithm development and validation and, finally, the use and impact of these applications. This substantial legacy rests on NASA Earth Observing Satellites and their advanced data. Imager applications for the The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard NASA Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard Suomi NPP allow better discrimination of ash from water vapor and ice clouds than traditional split-window imager techniques, as well as improved height assignment. Chemistry and aerosol applications for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the NASA Aura spacecraft and the Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard Suomi NPP produce improved horizontal dispersion maps, and indices for volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol concentrations. Applications for the Caliop lidar onboard the NASA Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provide very accurate estimates of volcanic ash altitude, layering and concentration. These are critical assimilation elements for volcanic ash dispersion models and forecasts. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument

  19. Medical multiparametric time course prognoses applied to kidney function assessments.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R; Pollwein, B; Gierl, L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach to utilize case-based reasoning methods for trend prognoses for the monitoring of the kidney function in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting. Since using conventional methods for reasoning over time does not fit for course predictions with poor medical knowledge of typical course patterns, we have developed abstraction methods suitable for integration into our case-based reasoning system ICONS. These methods combine medical experience with prognoses of multiparametric courses. On the ICU, the monitoring system NIMON provides a daily report based on current measured and calculated kidney function parameters. Subsequently, we generate course-characteristic trend descriptions of the renal function over the course of time. Using case-based reasoning retrieval methods, we search in the case base for courses similar to the current trend descriptions. Finally, we present the current course together with similar courses as comparisons and as probable prognoses to the user. We applied case-based reasoning methods in a domain which seemed reserved for statistical methods and conventional temporal reasoning.

  20. Assessment of Performance in Practical Science and Pupil Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ros; Gott, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Performance assessment in the UK science General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) currently relies on pupil reports of their investigations. These are widely criticized. Written tests of procedural understanding could be used as an alternative, but what exactly do they measure? This paper describes small-scale research in which there was…

  1. 76 FR 26284 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Pb)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Pb) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075A). This draft document was prepared by the National Center for... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb). EPA is releasing this draft document to seek...

  2. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalu...

  3. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  4. Who Assesses the Risks in School Science Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunyan, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Although the law requires the employer to assess the risks, the person who knows the circumstances of the lesson well enough to do this is the science teacher. Only the teacher knows what s/he plans to do and can make a judgement about her/his own skills and the experiences, skills and potential behaviour of the classes taught. Although the…

  5. Performance Assessment in the Service of Evaluating Science Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Wiley, Edward; Rosenquist, Anders; Schultz, Susan; Shavelson, Richard J.; Hamilton, Laura; Klein, Steve

    This study explored the sensitivity of a multilevel approach in detecting outcomes of a hands-on science program, exploring whether the instruction of a hands-on unit had any impact on students' performance and whether the estimated magnitude of the impact was different according to the proximity of the assessments to the unit taught. Also studied…

  6. Who Assesses the Risks in School Science Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunyan, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Although the law requires the employer to assess the risks, the person who knows the circumstances of the lesson well enough to do this is the science teacher. Only the teacher knows what s/he plans to do and can make a judgement about her/his own skills and the experiences, skills and potential behaviour of the classes taught. Although the…

  7. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  8. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalua...

  9. Using Computer Simulations to Assess Hands-On Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Gail P.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods of assessing student learning of a hands-on instructional unit are compared. One method involves manipulation of concrete materials, and the other method involves manipulation of icons on a computer to solve an electric circuits problem. Sixth-grade students in an inquiry-based science program completed both assignments. (LZ)

  10. Assessing Precollege Science Education Outreach Initiatives: A Funder's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Debra A.; Hertle, Mark D.; Conley, Jill G.; Washington, Lori B.; Bruns, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the…

  11. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The develop...

  12. Massachusetts Educational Assessment Program. Science and Ecology 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, Physics, and Ecology assessment instruments were administered to approximately 1,800 nine year old and 1,800 seventeen year old Massachusetts students. The 9 year old students exceeded the performance of a national and international sampling of students. They equaled the performance of a sampling of students from…

  13. Curriculum Assessment in Social Sciences at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Hanifah Mahat Yazid; Hashim, Mohmadisa; Yaacob, Norazlan Hadi; Kasim, Adnan Jusoh Ahmad Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of the curriculum implementation for undergraduate programme in the Faculty of Human Sciences, UPSI producing quality and competitive educators. Curriculum implementation has to go through an assessment process that aims to determine the problem, select relevant information and collect and…

  14. Saltcedar and Russian olive control demonstration act science assessment

    Treesearch

    Patrick B. Shafroth; Curtis A. Brown; David M. Merritt

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This...

  15. Independent Technology Assessment within the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, A. B.; Robinson, E.; Graybeal, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) is a community of science, data and information technology practitioners. ESIP's mission is to support the networking and data dissemination needs of our members and the global community. We do this by linking the functional sectors of education, observation, research and application with the ultimate use of Earth science. Amongst the services provided to ESIP members is the Testbed; a collaborative forum for the development of technology standards, services, protocols and best practices. ESIP has partnered with the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program to integrate independent assessment of Testing Readiness Level (TRL) into the ESIP Testbed. In this presentation we will 1) demonstrate TRL assessment in the ESIP Testbed using three AIST projects, 2) discuss challenges and insights into creating an independent validation/verification framework and 3) outline the versatility of the ESIP Testbed as applied to other technology projects.

  16. Assessing New Zealand High School Science: Considerations for Teachers' Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Frances

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the standards-based assessment system used for high school science in New Zealand and explores the required assessment literacy of teachers working within this system, using a simple focus-area model. In New Zealand, school qualifications are achieved through the assessment of student work against a set of achievement…

  17. Assessing New Zealand High School Science: Considerations for Teachers' Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Frances

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the standards-based assessment system used for high school science in New Zealand and explores the required assessment literacy of teachers working within this system, using a simple focus-area model. In New Zealand, school qualifications are achieved through the assessment of student work against a set of achievement…

  18. Science Teachers' Professional Development and Changes in Science Practical Assessment Practices: What are the Issues?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Tan, Aik-Ling; Yung, Benny H. W.; Cohen, Libby

    2010-03-01

    This paper considers the circumstances under which science teachers can respond positively and productively to educational policy reforms in the area of science practical assessment. To understand what might be involved in linking science teachers’ assessment capacities and their professional development, we present illustrative data from recent research studies conducted in Singapore and Hong Kong showing contrasting approaches taken in the implementation of reforms in science practical assessment. In Singapore, teachers worked together to select, discuss, clarify and refine their practices as they made decisions about what to teach and assess. In Hong Kong, teachers took a critical stance towards the new policy and learnt from their own experiences in order to build their confidence. With the same policy initiative, one group of teachers focused more on the technicalities of complying with requirements imposed on them while in the other group had their professional consciousness of what they thought was best for their students provoked so that their practices would be transformed. In an attempt to draw lessons for other contexts in supporting the implementation of assessment policy reforms through professional development work, we identify and discuss a range of factors in science teachers’ professional development that arise once in situ professional development work has started. Overall, our intent in this article is to recast assessment reform as a driver or pivot in teachers’ professional development and learning. To do this it is necessary, we argue, to afford teachers’ experiences and the processes involved in learning from them greater emphasis in order to ensure the continuance of innovation in the assessment of laboratory-based work.

  19. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Selected Results from the National Assessments of Science: Attitude Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This document presents many of the items used by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to measure the attitudes toward science of young Americans in four age levels: 9-year-olds, 13-year-olds, 17-year-olds, and adults ages 26-35. The appendix presents national percentages and group differences for each of the science attitude…

  20. Remote sensing techniques applied to seismic vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Arranz, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Hahgi, Azade; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Advances in remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques have increased the degree of accuracy and resolution in the record of the earth's surface. This has expanded the range of possible applications of these data. In this research, we have used these data to document the construction characteristics of the urban environment of Lorca, Spain. An exposure database has been created with the gathered information to be used in seismic vulnerability assessment. To this end, we have used data from photogrammetric flights at different periods, using both orthorectified images in the visible and infrared spectrum. Furthermore, the analysis is completed using LiDAR data. From the combination of these data, it has been possible to delineate the building footprints and characterize the constructions with attributes such as the approximate date of construction, area, type of roof and even building materials. To carry out the calculation, we have developed different algorithms to compare images from different times, segment images, classify LiDAR data, and use the infrared data in order to remove vegetation or to compute roof surfaces with height value, tilt and spectral fingerprint. In addition, the accuracy of our results has been validated with ground truth data. Keywords: LiDAR, remote sensing, seismic vulnerability, Lorca