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Sample records for applied tensile strain

  1. Primary cilium mechanotransduction of tensile strain in 3D culture: Finite element analyses of strain amplification caused by tensile strain applied to a primary cilium embedded in a collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Pattie S; Bodle, Josephine C; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-27

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) exhibit multilineage differentiation potential with lineage specification that is dictated by both the chemical and mechanical stimuli to which they are exposed. We have previously shown that 10% cyclic tensile strain increases hASC osteogenesis and cell-mediated calcium accretion. We have also recently shown that primary cilia are present on hASC and that chemically-induced lineage specification of hASC concurrently results in length and conformation changes of the primary cilia. Further, we have observed cilia length changes in hASC cultured within a collagen I gel in response to 10% cyclic tensile strain. We therefore hypothesize that primary cilia may play a key mechanotransduction role for hASC exposed to tensile strain. The goal of this study was to use finite element analysis (FEA) to determine strains occurring within the ciliary membrane in response to 10% tensile strain applied parallel, or perpendicular, to cilia orientation. To elucidate the mechanical environment experienced by the cilium, several lengths were modeled and evaluated based on cilia lengths measured on hASC grown under varied culture conditions. Principal tensile strains in both hASC and ciliary membranes were calculated using FEA, and the magnitude and location of maximum principal tensile strain determined. We found that maximum principal tensile strain was concentrated at the base of the cilium. In the linear elastic model, applying strain perpendicular to the cilium resulted in maximum strains within the ciliary membrane from 150% to 200%, while applying strain parallel to the cilium resulted in much higher strains, approximately 400%. In the hyperelastic model, applying strain perpendicular to the cilium resulted in maximum strains within the ciliary membrane around 30%, while applying strain parallel to the cilium resulted in much higher strains ranging from 50% to 70%. Interestingly, FEA results indicated that primary cilium length was not

  2. Primary Cilium Mechanotransduction of Tensile Strain in 3D Culture: Finite Element Analyses of Strain Amplification Caused by 10% Tensile Strain Applied to a Primary Cilium Embedded in a Collagen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Pattie S.; Bodle, Josephine C.; Loboa, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) exhibit multilineage differentiation potential with lineage specification that is dictated by both the chemical and mechanical stimuli to which they are exposed. We have previously shown that 10% cyclic tensile strain increases hASC osteogenesis and cell-mediated calcium accretion. We have also recently shown that primary cilia are present on hASC and that chemically-induced lineage specification of hASC concurrently results in length and conformation changes of the primary cilia. Further, we have observed cilia length changes on hASC cultured within a collagen I gel in response to 10% cyclic tensile strain. We therefore hypothesize that primary cilia may play a key mechanotransduction role for hASC exposed to tensile strain. The goal of this study was to use finite element analysis (FEA) to determine strains occurring within the ciliary membrane in response to 10% tensile strain applied parallel, or perpendicular, to cilia orientation. To elucidate the mechanical environment experienced by the cilium, several lengths were modeled and evaluated based on cilia lengths measured on hASC grown under varied culture conditions. Principal tensile strains in both hASC and ciliary membranes were calculated using FEA, and the magnitude and location of maximum principal tensile strain determined. We found that maximum principal tensile strain was concentrated at the base of the cilium. In the linear elastic model, applying strain perpendicular to the cilium resulted in maximum strains within the ciliary membrane from 150 to 200%, while applying strain parallel to the cilium resulted in much higher strains, approximately 400%. In the hyperelastic model, applying strain perpendicular to the cilium resulted in maximum strains within the ciliary membrane around 30%, while applying strain parallel to the cilium resulted in much higher strains ranging from 50% to 70% . Interestingly, FEA results indicated that primary cilium length was not

  3. An atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscope that applies external tensile stress and strain in an ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, D.; Kitahara, M.; Onishi, K.; Sagisaka, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with an in situ external stress application capability in order to determine the effects of stress and strain on surface atomistic structures. It is necessary to understand these effects because controlling them will be a key technology that will very likely be used in future nanometer-scale fabrication processes. We used our microscope to demonstrate atomic resolution imaging under external tensile stress and strain on the surfaces of wafers of Si(111) and Si(001). We also successfully observed domain redistribution induced by applying uniaxial stress at an elevated temperature on the surface of a wafer of vicinal Si(100). We confirmed that domains for which an applied tensile stress is directed along the dimer bond become less stable and shrink. This suggests that it may be feasible to fabricate single domain surfaces in a process that controls surface stress and strain.

  4. Cyclic tensile strain upregulates collagen synthesis in isolated tendon fascicles

    SciTech Connect

    Screen, Hazel R.C. . E-mail: H.R.C.Screen@qmul.ac.uk; Shelton, Julia C.; Bader, Dan L.; Lee, David A.

    2005-10-21

    Mechanical stimulation has been implicated as an important regulatory factor in tendon homeostasis. In this study, a custom-designed tensile loading system was used to apply controlled mechanical stimulation to isolated tendon fascicles, in order to examine the effects of 5% cyclic tensile strain at 1 Hz on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. Sample viability and gross structural composition were maintained over a 24 h loading period. Data demonstrated no statistically significant differences in cell proliferation or glycosaminoglycan production, however, collagen synthesis was upregulated with the application of cyclic tensile strain over the 24 h period. Moreover, a greater proportion of the newly synthesised matrix was retained within the sample after loading. These data provide evidence of altered anabolic activity within tendon in response to mechanical stimuli, and suggest the importance of cyclic tensile loading for the maintenance of the collagen hierarchy within tendon.

  5. Tensile and Microindentation Stress-Strain Curves of Al-6061

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jordan S; Khosravani, Ali; Castillo, Andrew; Kalidind, Surya R

    2016-07-13

    Recent spherical microindentation stress-strain protocols were developed and validated on Al-6061 (DOI: 10.1186/s40192-016-0054-3). The scaling factor between the uniaxial yield strength and the indentation yield strength was determined to be about 1.9. The microindentation stress-strain protocols were then applied to a microstructurally graded sample in an effort to extract high throughput process-property relationships. The tensile and microindentation force-displacement and stress-strain data are presented in this data set.

  6. Skeletal muscle tensile strain dependence: hyperviscoelastic nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Benjamin B; Morrow, Duane A; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Computational modeling of skeletal muscle requires characterization at the tissue level. While most skeletal muscle studies focus on hyperelasticity, the goal of this study was to examine and model the nonlinear behavior of both time-independent and time-dependent properties of skeletal muscle as a function of strain. Materials and Methods Nine tibialis anterior muscles from New Zealand White rabbits were subject to five consecutive stress relaxation cycles of roughly 3% strain. Individual relaxation steps were fit with a three-term linear Prony series. Prony series coefficients and relaxation ratio were assessed for strain dependence using a general linear statistical model. A fully nonlinear constitutive model was employed to capture the strain dependence of both the viscoelastic and instantaneous components. Results Instantaneous modulus (p<0.0005) and mid-range relaxation (p<0.0005) increased significantly with strain level, while relaxation at longer time periods decreased with strain (p<0.0005). Time constants and overall relaxation ratio did not change with strain level (p>0.1). Additionally, the fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic constitutive model provided an excellent fit to experimental data, while other models which included linear components failed to capture muscle function as accurately. Conclusions Material properties of skeletal muscle are strain-dependent at the tissue level. This strain dependence can be included in computational models of skeletal muscle performance with a fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic model. PMID:26409235

  7. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Munish; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices.

  8. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    SciTech Connect

    Jamdagni, Pooja Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil

    2015-05-15

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices.

  9. Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire.

    PubMed

    de Kersauson, M; El Kurdi, M; David, S; Checoury, X; Fishman, G; Sauvage, S; Jakomin, R; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Boucaud, P

    2011-09-12

    We have investigated the optical properties of tensile-strained germanium photonic wires. The photonic wires patterned by electron beam lithography (50 μm long, 1 μm wide and 500 nm thick) are obtained by growing a n-doped germanium film on a GaAs substrate. Tensile strain is transferred in the germanium layer using a Si₃N₄ stressor. Tensile strain around 0.4% achieved by the technique corresponds to an optical recombination of tensile-strained germanium involving light hole band around 1690 nm at room temperature. We show that the waveguided emission associated with a single tensile-strained germanium wire increases superlinearly as a function of the illuminated length. A 20% decrease of the spectral broadening is observed as the pump intensity is increased. All these features are signatures of optical gain. A 80 cm⁻¹ modal optical gain is derived from the variable strip length method. This value is accounted for by the calculated gain material value using a 30 band k · p formalism. These germanium wires represent potential building blocks for integration of nanoscale optical sources on silicon.

  10. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhead, S. D. Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  11. Three-dimensional development of tensile pre-strained annulus fibrosus cells for tissue regeneration: An in-vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Lee, Wu Chean; Wong, Hee Kit; Kang, Yuejun; Hee, Hwan Tak

    2015-02-01

    Prior research has investigated the immediate response after application of tensile strain on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells for the past decade. Although mechanical strain can produce either catabolic or anabolic consequences to the cell monolayer, little is known on how to translate these findings into further tissue engineering applications. Till to date, the application and effect of tensile pre-strained cells to construct a three-dimensional (3D) AF tissue remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of tensile pre-strained exposure of 1 to 24 h on the development of AF pellet culture for 3 weeks. Equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain was applied on AF monolayer cells over a period of 24 h, which was subsequently developed into a cell pellet. Investigation on cellular proliferation, phenotypic gene expression, and histological changes revealed that tensile pre-strain for 24 h had significant and lasting effect on the AF tissue development, with enhanced cell proliferation, and up-regulation of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan expression. Our results demonstrated the regenerative ability of AF cell pellets subjected to 24 h tensile pre-straining. Knowledge on the effects of tensile pre-strain exposure is necessary to optimize AF development for tissue reconstruction. Moreover, the tensile pre-strained cells may further be utilized in either cell therapy to treat mild disc degeneration disease, or the development of a disc construct for total disc replacement. - Highlights: • Establishment of tensile pre-strained cell line population for annulus development. • Tensile strain limits collagen gene expression declination in monolayer culture. • Tensile pre-strained cells up-regulate their matrix protein in 3D pellet culture.

  12. Tensile stress-strain behavior of boron/aluminum laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, J. A.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The tensile stress-strain behavior of five types of boron/aluminum laminates was investigated. Longitudinal and transverse stress-strain curves were obtained for monotonic loading to failure and for three cycles of loading to successively higher load levels. The laminate strengths predicted by assuming that the zero deg plies failed first correlated well with the experimental results. The stress-strain curves for all the boron/aluminum laminates were nonlinear except at very small strains. Within the small linear regions, elastic constants calculated from laminate theory corresponded to those obtained experimentally to within 10 to 20 percent. A limited amount of cyclic loading did not affect the ultimate strength and strain for the boron/aluminum laminates. The laminates, however, exhibited a permanent strain on unloading. The Ramberg-Osgood equation was fitted to the stress-strain curves to obtain average curves for the various laminates.

  13. Absence of rippling in graphene under biaxial tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Bipul; Mahadevan, Priya

    2010-10-01

    Recent experiments [C. H. Lui, L. Liu, K. F. Mak, G. W. Flynn, and T. F. Heinz, Nature (London) 462, 339 (2009)10.1038/nature08569] on graphene grown on ultraflat substrates have found no rippling in graphene when subject to temperature cycling. Unsupported/unstrained films of graphene as well as films grown on various substrates on the other hand have been found to show rippling effects. As graphene grown on a substrate is invariably strained, we examine the behavior of the out-of-plane acoustic-phonon mode with biaxial tensile strain. This mode is generally associated with the rippling of graphene. We find that it can be fit to a relation of the form w2=Ak4+Bk2 , where w and k are the frequency and wave vector, respectively. The coefficient A is found to show a weak dependence on strain while B is found to increase linearly with strain. The strain-induced hardening explains the absence of rippling in graphene subject to biaxial strain. In addition, we find that graphene when subject to a biaxial tensile strain is found to undergo a structural transition with the mode at K going soft at a strain percentage of 15%.

  14. Tensile stress-strain behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The tensile stress-strain behavior of a variety of graphite/epoxy laminates was examined. Longitudinal and transverse specimens from eleven different layups were monotonically loaded in tension to failure. Ultimate strength, ultimate strain, and strss-strain curves wee obtained from four replicate tests in each case. Polynominal equations were fitted by the method of least squares to the stress-strain data to determine average curves. Values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, derived from polynomial coefficients, were compared with laminate analysis results. While the polynomials appeared to accurately fit the stress-strain data in most cases, the use of polynomial coefficients to calculate elastic moduli appeared to be of questionable value in cases involving sharp changes in the slope of the stress-strain data or extensive scatter.

  15. Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Small IV, W; Alviso, C T; Wilson, T S; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2009-03-10

    TR-55 rubber specimens were previously subjected to an aging process consisting of the application of a tensile strain of approximately 67%, 100%, 133%, or 167% elongation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 h at either 250 C or room temperature. Control specimens at the same temperatures/durations were not subjected to tensile strain. The specimens were allowed to recover at room temperature without external stimuli for over 100 days before tensile testing. A single dog bone was cut from each specimen and a stress-strain curve was obtained. The elastic modulus of each specimen was calculated. Specimens aged under tensile strain exhibited rubber-like behavior dependent on the aging elongation and duration. This behavior was not evident in the unstrained controls. For the unstrained controls, exposure to 250 C resulted in an increase in modulus relative to the unheated material independent of the heating duration. The tensile strain applied during the aging process caused a reduction in modulus relative to the controls; lower moduli were observed for the shorter aging durations. Slippage of the specimens in the grips prevented determination of ultimate strength, as all specimens either slipped completely out of the grip before failure or failed at the original grip edge after slipping.

  16. Optical strain measuring techniques for high temperature tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hemann, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of optical techniques used for the analysis of in-plane displacements or strains are reviewed. The application would be for the high temperature, approximately 1430 C (2600 F), tensile testing of ceramic composites in an oxidizing atmosphere. General descriptions of the various techniques and specifics such as gauge lengths and sensitivities are noted. Also, possible problems with the use of each method in the given application are discussed.

  17. Highly tensile-strained Ge/InAlAs nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Daehwan; Faucher, Joseph; Mukherjee, Samik; Akey, Austin; Ironside, Daniel J.; Cabral, Matthew; Sang, Xiahan; Lebeau, James; Bank, Seth R.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2017-01-01

    Self-assembled nanocomposites have been extensively investigated due to the novel properties that can emerge when multiple material phases are combined. Growth of epitaxial nanocomposites using lattice-mismatched constituents also enables strain-engineering, which can be used to further enhance material properties. Here, we report self-assembled growth of highly tensile-strained Ge/In0.52Al0.48As (InAlAs) nanocomposites by using spontaneous phase separation. Transmission electron microscopy shows a high density of single-crystalline germanium nanostructures coherently embedded in InAlAs without extended defects, and Raman spectroscopy reveals a 3.8% biaxial tensile strain in the germanium nanostructures. We also show that the strain in the germanium nanostructures can be tuned to 5.3% by altering the lattice constant of the matrix material, illustrating the versatility of epitaxial nanocomposites for strain engineering. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence results are then discussed to illustrate the potential for realizing devices based on this nanocomposite material. PMID:28128282

  18. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert; George, Easo P

    2007-11-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

  19. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-01-01

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of  = 1043 K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below . In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500 K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300–500 K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy. PMID:26556127

  20. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-11-10

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of  TC°= 1043 K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below TC°. In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500 K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300-500 K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy.

  1. Dynamic Tensile Properties of Iron and Steels for a Wide Range of Strain Rates and Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Nobusato; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Terumi; Mimura, Koji; Tanimura, Shinji

    The tensile stress-strain curves of iron and a variety of steels, covering a wide range of strength level, over a wide strain rate range on the order of 10-3 ~ 103 s-1, were obtained systematically by using the Sensing Block Type High Speed Material Testing System (SBTS, Saginomiya). Through intensive analysis of these results, the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress for the large strain region, including the viscous term at high strain rates, the true fracture strength and the true fracture strain were cleared for the material group of the ferrous metals. These systematical data may be useful to develop a practical constitutive model for computer codes, including a fracture criterion for simulations of the dynamic behavior in crash worthiness studies and of work-pieces subjected to dynamic plastic working for a wide strain rate range.

  2. Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties of Carbon Fiber Epoxy-Impregnated Bundle Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Kimiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The tensile tests for high tensile strength polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based (T1000GB) carbon fiber epoxy-impregnated bundle composite at various strain rates ranging from 3.33 × 10-5 to 6.0 × 102 s-1 (various crosshead speeds ranging from 8.33 × 10-7 to 1.5 × 101 m/s) were investigated. The statistical distributions of the tensile strength were also evaluated. The results clearly demonstrated that the tensile strength of bundle composite slightly increased with an increase in the strain rate (crosshead speed) and the Weibull modulus of tensile strength for the bundle composite decreased with an increase in the strain rate (crosshead speed), there is a linear relation between the Weibull modulus and the average tensile strength on log-log scale.

  3. Multiscale Computer Simulation of Tensile and Compressive Strain in Polymer- Coated Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian

    2009-01-01

    While the low thermal conductivities of silica aerogels have made them of interest to the aerospace community as lightweight thermal insulation, the application of conformal polymer coatings to these gels increases their strength significantly, making them potentially useful as structural materials as well. In this work we perform multiscale computer simulations to investigate the tensile and compressive strain behavior of silica and polymer-coated silica aerogels. Aerogels are made up of clusters of interconnected particles of amorphous silica of less than bulk density. We simulate gel nanostructure using a Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation (DLCA) procedure, which produces aggregates that exhibit fractal dimensions similar to those observed in real aerogels. We have previously found that model gels obtained via DLCA exhibited stress-strain curves characteristic of the experimentally observed brittle failure. However, the strain energetics near the expected point of failure were not consistent with such failure. This shortcoming may be due to the fact that the DLCA process produces model gels that are lacking in closed-loop substructures, compared with real gels. Our model gels therefore contain an excess of dangling strands, which tend to unravel under tensile strain, producing non-brittle failure. To address this problem, we have incorporated a modification to the DLCA algorithm that specifically produces closed loops in the model gels. We obtain the strain energetics of interparticle connections via atomistic molecular statics, and abstract the collective energy of the atomic bonds into a Morse potential scaled to describe gel particle interactions. Polymer coatings are similarly described. We apply repeated small uniaxial strains to DLCA clusters, and allow relaxation of the center eighty percent of the cluster between strains. The simulations produce energetics and stress-strain curves for looped and nonlooped clusters, for a variety of densities and

  4. Tuning the caloric response of BaTiO3 by tensile epitaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünebohm, Anna; Marathe, Madhura; Ederer, Claude

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effect of epitaxial strain on the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in BaTiO3 by means of ab-initio-based molecular-dynamics simulations. We show that tensile strain can be used to optimize the operation range for ferroic cooling. Strain in the range of ≤ 1% can be used to shift the operation temperature by several hundreds of kelvin both to higher and lower temperatures, depending on the direction of the external field. In addition, the transformation between multi-domain and mono-domain states, induced by an in-plane electric field, results in an additional peak of the adiabatic temperature change at lower temperatures, and a broad temperature interval where the caloric response scales linearly with the applied field strength, even up to very high fields.

  5. Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotubes Under Realistic Temperature and Strain Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chen-Yu; Cho, Kyeong-Jae; Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Strain rate and temperature dependence of the tensile strength of single-wall carbon nanotubes has been investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. The tensile failure or yield strain is found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and strain rate. A transition state theory based predictive model is developed for the tensile failure of nanotubes. Based on the parameters fitted from high-strain rate and temperature dependent molecular dynamics simulations, the model predicts that a defect free micrometer long single-wall nanotube at 300 K, stretched with a strain rate of 1%/hour, fails at about 9 plus or minus 1% tensile strain. This is in good agreement with recent experimental findings.

  6. Experimental and numerical study on tensile strength of concrete under different strain rates.

    PubMed

    Min, Fanlu; Yao, Zhanhu; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic characterization of concrete is fundamental to understand the material behavior in case of heavy earthquakes and dynamic events. The implementation of material constitutive law is of capital importance for the numerical simulation of the dynamic processes as those caused by earthquakes. Splitting tensile concrete specimens were tested at strain rates of 10(-7) s(-1) to 10(-4) s(-1) in an MTS material test machine. Results of tensile strength versus strain rate are presented and compared with compressive strength and existing models at similar strain rates. Dynamic increase factor versus strain rate curves for tensile strength were also evaluated and discussed. The same tensile data are compared with strength data using a thermodynamic model. Results of the tests show a significant strain rate sensitive behavior, exhibiting dynamic tensile strength increasing with strain rate. In the quasistatic strain rate regime, the existing models often underestimate the experimental results. The thermodynamic theory for the splitting tensile strength of concrete satisfactorily describes the experimental findings of strength as effect of strain rates.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Study on Tensile Strength of Concrete under Different Strain Rates

    PubMed Central

    Min, Fanlu; Yao, Zhanhu; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic characterization of concrete is fundamental to understand the material behavior in case of heavy earthquakes and dynamic events. The implementation of material constitutive law is of capital importance for the numerical simulation of the dynamic processes as those caused by earthquakes. Splitting tensile concrete specimens were tested at strain rates of 10−7 s−1 to 10−4 s−1 in an MTS material test machine. Results of tensile strength versus strain rate are presented and compared with compressive strength and existing models at similar strain rates. Dynamic increase factor versus strain rate curves for tensile strength were also evaluated and discussed. The same tensile data are compared with strength data using a thermodynamic model. Results of the tests show a significant strain rate sensitive behavior, exhibiting dynamic tensile strength increasing with strain rate. In the quasistatic strain rate regime, the existing models often underestimate the experimental results. The thermodynamic theory for the splitting tensile strength of concrete satisfactorily describes the experimental findings of strength as effect of strain rates. PMID:24883355

  8. Moderate cyclic tensile strain alters the assembly of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bleuel, Judith; Zaucke, Frank; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Heilig, Juliane; Wolter, Marie-Louise; Hamann, Nina; Firner, Sara; Niehoff, Anja

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical loading influences the structural and mechanical properties of articular cartilage. The cartilage matrix protein collagen II essentially determines the tensile properties of the tissue and is adapted in response to loading. The collagen II network is stabilized by the collagen II-binding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), collagen IX, and matrilin-3. However, the effect of mechanical loading on these extracellular matrix proteins is not yet understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if and how chondrocytes assemble the extracellular matrix proteins collagen II, COMP, collagen IX, and matrilin-3 in response to mechanical loading. Primary murine chondrocytes were applied to cyclic tensile strain (6%, 0.5 Hz, 30 min per day at three consecutive days). The localization of collagen II, COMP, collagen IX, and matrilin-3 in loaded and unloaded cells was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The messenger ribo nucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels and synthesis of the proteins were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blots. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the pattern of collagen II distribution was altered by loading. In loaded chondrocytes, collagen II containing fibrils appeared thicker and strongly co-stained for COMP and collagen IX, whereas the collagen network from unloaded cells was more diffuse and showed minor costaining. Further, the applied load led to a higher amount of COMP in the matrix, determined by western blot analysis. Our results show that moderate cyclic tensile strain altered the assembly of the extracellular collagen network. However, changes in protein amount were only observed for COMP, but not for collagen II, collagen IX, or matrilin-3. The data suggest that the adaptation to mechanical loading is not always the result of changes in RNA and/or protein expression but might also be the result of changes in matrix assembly and structure.

  9. Different magnitudes of tensile strain induce human osteoblasts differentiation associated with the activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Chengtao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical factors are related to periprosthetic osseointegration following total hip arthroplasty. However, osteoblast response to strain in implanted femurs is unclear because of the absence of accurate stress-measuring methods. In our study, finite element analysis was performed to calculate strain distribution in implanted femurs. 0.8-3.2% tensile strain was then applied to human osteoblasts. Higher magnitudes of strain enhanced the expression of osteocalcin, type I collagen, and Cbfa1/Runx2. Lower magnitudes significantly increased ALP activity. Among these, type I collagen expression increased with the activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a strain-magnitude-dependent manner. Our study marks the first investigation of osteoblast response at different magnitudes of periprosthetic strain. The results indicate that the functional status of human osteoblasts is determined by strain magnitude. The strain distribution in the proximal region of implanted femur should be improved for osseointegration.

  10. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Effects in Glassy Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-08

    polymers under high strain rates has been determined in compression. Some research programs have studied the combined effects of temperature and strain rate...glassy polymers to high strain rate loading in compression. More recently, research programs that study the combined effects of temperature and strain...Force Materiel Command  United States Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2013-006 High Strain Rate

  11. Highly tunable magnetism in silicene doped with Cr and Fe atoms under isotropic and uniaxial tensile strain

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Rui; Ni, Jun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-28

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of silicene doped with Cr and Fe atoms under isotropic and uniaxial tensile strain by the first-principles calculations. We find that Cr and Fe doped silicenes show strain-tunable magnetism. (1) The magnetism of Cr and Fe doped silicenes exhibits sharp transitions from low spin states to high spin states by a small isotropic tensile strain. Specially for Fe doped silicene, a nearly nonmagnetic state changes to a high magnetic state by a small isotropic tensile strain. (2) The magnetic moments of Fe doped silicene also show a sharp jump to ∼2 μ{sub B} at a small threshold of the uniaxial strain, and the magnetic moments of Cr doped silicene increase gradually to ∼4 μ{sub B} with the increase of uniaxial strain. (3) The electronic and magnetic properties of Cr and Fe doped silicenes are sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the external strain. The highly tunable magnetism may be applied in the spintronic devices.

  12. The Effect of Applied Tensile Stress on Localized Corrosion in Sensitized AA5083

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemical polarization was performed on the tensile regions of the samples while under applied stress. Potentiodynamic scans showed that...while being exposed to a 0.6 molar saltwater solution. Electrochemical polarization was performed on the tensile regions of the samples while under...19 B. ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL SETUP AND EXPERIMENTS ..............20 1. Bend Rig

  13. Experimental Investigations on Anisotropic Evolution of 304 Stainless Sheets under Tensile Pre-Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Lai; Guo, Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The anisotropic evolution of cold rolled 304 stainless steel sheets under pre-strains is investigated experimentally. Uni-axial tensile yield stress and r-value are measured in experiments to represent the anisotropy. The tensile pre-strains under plane stress are achieved by cutting large specimens into small one at different angles to rolling direction. Then the uni-axial tensile tests are performed on the small specimens to investigate the anisotropic evolution. It is found that the yield stress increases with the increase of the pre-strains and decreases with the increase of the angles. However, the changes of r-value are hardly affected by the pre-strains, the small changes of r-value show that the material may remember the rolling direction even after the pre-strains. The sigmoidal shape can be observed in the tensile curves, and its shape depends on the pre-strains and angles. The change of hardening rate can be divided into three stages, and is the most significant at 90° to the rolling direction in the three stages, at the same time the pre-strains cause noncoincidence of the hardening rate curves at the same angle. Moreover, the hardening rate depends on the directions of tensile loading. Second derivative of the hardening rate also can be divided into three stages, and the differences of three stages may mainly be controlled by the different volume fraction of martensite.

  14. Strain rate effects on tensile strength of iron green bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Kuroyanagi, Yuki; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Gustafsson, Gustaf

    2015-09-01

    Impact tensile strength of iron green bodies with densities of 7.2 and 7.4 g/cm3 was examined by Brazilian test using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (Kolsky bar) method. The powder material used for the experiments was a press-ready premix containing Distaloy AE, graphite, and lubricant. During dynamic compression, the failure behavior of specimens was observed using a high-speed video camera. The failure stress and failure behavior of dynamic compressive tests were compared with those of static compressive tests.

  15. Tensile strain measurements of ceramic fibers using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Renee M.; Vary, Alex

    1992-08-01

    A noncontacting technique using scanning laser acoustic microscopy for making in situ tensile strain measurements of small diameter fibers was implemented for the tensile strain analysis of individual Nicalon SiC fibers (nominal diameter 15 microns). Stress vs strain curves for the fibers were plotted from the experimental data. The mean elastic modulus of the fibers was determined to be 185.3 GPa. Similar measurements were made for Carborundum SiC fibers (nominal diameter 28 microns) and Saphikon sapphire fibers (nominal diameter 140 microns).

  16. Tensile strain-induced magnetism transition in multilayer graphene with excess electrons: Stability of the edge-quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Diao, Dongfeng

    2015-12-15

    The stability of edge-quantum well-induced strong magnetism of multilayer armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) with excess electrons was investigated under applied tensile strain by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results indicated that: (1) The strain along the armchair edge direction led to a transition of the multilayer AGNRs from ferromagnetic state to nonmagnetic state when the strain increased to a critical value; (2) The strain induced bond length changes reduced the stability of the edge-quantum well in terms of the reduction of the electrons capturing capacity; and (3) The spin splitting of the energy bands near the Fermi level reduced with the increase of the strain, resulting in the decrease of the spin moment. This finding suggests that the magnetic properties of graphene have strong dependence on its strain states, which is crucial to the design of graphene-based magnetic devices.

  17. The Dynamic Tensile Behavior of Railway Wheel Steel at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lin; Han, Liangliang; Zhao, Longmao; Zhang, Ying

    2016-11-01

    The dynamic tensile tests on D1 railway wheel steel at high strain rates were conducted using a split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus, compared to quasi-static tests. Three different types of specimens, which were machined from three different positions (i.e., the rim, web and hub) of a railway wheel, were prepared and examined. The rim specimens were checked to have a higher yield stress and ultimate tensile strength than those web and hub specimens under both quasi-static and dynamic loadings, and the railway wheel steel was demonstrated to be strain rate dependent in dynamic tension. The dynamic tensile fracture surfaces of all the wheel steel specimens are cup-cone-shaped morphology on a macroscopic scale and with the quasi-ductile fracture features on the microscopic scale.

  18. Characterization and modeling of tensil-strained gallium arsenide/indium aluminum arsenic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingru

    This dissertation intended to provide a foundation for the development of electroabsorptive quantum well devices based on tensile strained GaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures which, in turn, provide polarization insensitivity in the optical response. The effects of structural parameters and electric field on eigenstates and optical properties were examined experimentally and theoretically. A self-consistent analysis program was developed for this study. Samples used in this work were grown by solid-source MBE. The in-situ calibration of alloy composition and growth rate by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was compared with ex-situ characterization techniques including double-crystal X-ray diffractometry (DCXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantum confinement effects, coupling effects, and strain effects on carrier eigenstates and interband transitions were investigated by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and theoretical analysis. Depending on the amount of tensile strain and quantum confinement, electron-light hole transitions can be brought to the absorption edge, which is desired for achieving polarization independence in quantum well structures. Compared to single quantum well structures, the uniqueness of DQWs lies in the interaction of eigenstates in different wells through a finite potential barrier. Energy band diagrams, eigenstates, and absorption coefficients were examined theoretically as a function of electric field applied perpendicularly to the quantum well layers of tensile strained GaAs/InAlAs DQWs with various doping profiles (n-i-n and p-i-n). Low temperature PL measurements were performed on these samples under various bias conditions. It was shown that as far as polarization independence is concerned, the coupled DQW may provide some advantages over the single well. A self-consistent analysis program for tensile strained GaAs/InAlAs DQWs was developed to deal with the quasi-static condition of

  19. The anisotropic mechanical behaviour of passive skeletal muscle tissue subjected to large tensile strain.

    PubMed

    Takaza, Michael; Moerman, Kevin M; Gindre, Juliette; Lyons, Garry; Simms, Ciaran K

    2013-01-01

    The passive mechanical properties of muscle tissue are important for many biomechanics applications. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the three-dimensional tensile response of passive skeletal muscle tissue to applied loading. In particular, the nature of the anisotropy remains unclear and the response to loading at intermediate fibre directions and the Poisson's ratios in tension have not been reported. Accordingly, tensile tests were performed along and perpendicular to the muscle fibre direction as well as at 30°, 45° and 60° to the muscle fibre direction in samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle taken from freshly slaughtered pigs. Strain was measured using an optical non-contact method. The results show the transverse or cross fibre (TT') direction is broadly linear and is the stiffest (77 kPa stress at a stretch of 1.1), but that failure occurs at low stretches (approximately λ=1.15). In contrast the longitudinal or fibre direction (L) is nonlinear and much less stiff (10 kPa stress at a stretch of 1.1) but failure occurs at higher stretches (approximatelyλ=1.65). An almost sinusoidal variation in stress response was observed at intermediate angles. The following Poisson's ratios were measured: VLT=VLT'=0.47, VTT'=0.28 and VTL=0.74. These observations have not been previously reported and they contribute significantly to our understanding of the three dimensional deformation response of skeletal muscle tissue.

  20. Tensile strained island growth at step-edges on GaAs(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Simmonds, P. J.; Lee, M. L.

    2010-10-11

    We report the growth of tensile strained GaP islands on a GaAs(110) surface. Three-dimensional island formation proceeds via a step-edge nucleation process. To explain the dislocation-free nature of these islands, we consider the kinetics of strain relief within the context of a model for dislocation glide as a function of surface orientation and sign of strain.

  1. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, Costantino; Asprone, Domenico; Forni, Daniele; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Bozza, Anna; Prota, Andrea; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  2. Tensile stress-strain behavior of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the stress-strain response of several hybrid laminates, and the damage was correlated with nonlinear stress-strain response and ultimate strength. The fibers used in the laminates were graphite, S-glass, and Kevlar. Some laminates with graphite fibers had perforated Mylar film between plies, which lowered the interlaminar bond strength. The laminate configurations were chosen to be like those of buffer strips in large panels and fracture coupons. Longitudinal and transverse specimens were loaded in tension to failure. Some specimens were radiographed to reveal damage due to edge effects. Stress-strain response is discussed in terms of damage shown by the radiographs. Ultimate strengths are compared with simple failure criteria, one of which account for damage.

  3. Effects of strain rate, test temperature and test environment on tensile properties of vandium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Eatherly, W.S.; Gibson, L.T.

    1996-10-01

    Tensile testing was carried out on SS-3 tensile specimens punched from 0.762-mm-thick sheets of the large heat of V-4Cr-4Ti and small heats of V-3Cr-3Ti and V-6Cr-6Ti. The tensile specimens were annealed at 1000{degrees} for 2 h to obtain a fully recrystallized, fine grain microstructure with a grain size in the range of 10-19 {mu}m. Room temperature tests at strain rates ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 5 x 10{sup {minus}1}/s were carried out in air; elevated temperature testing up to 700{degrees}C was conducted in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} torr (<10{sup {minus}3} Pa). To study the effect of atomic hydrogen on ductility, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) with a hydrogen leak system.

  4. Influence of Strain Rate on Tensile Strength of Woven Geotextile in the Selected Range of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępień, Sylwia; Szymański, Alojzy

    2015-06-01

    Investigation of geosynthetics behaviour has been carried out for many years. Before using geosynthetics in practice, the standard laboratory tests had been carried out to determine basic mechanical parameters. In order to examine the tensile strength of the sample which extends at a constant strain rate, one should measure the value of the tensile force and strain. Note that geosynthetics work under different conditions of stretching and temperatures, which significantly reduce the strength of these materials. The paper presents results of the tensile test of geotextile at different strain rates and temperatures from 20 °C to 100 °C. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and strain rate on tensile strength and strain of the woven geotextile. The article presents the method of investigation and the results. The data obtained allowed us to assess the parameters of material which should be considered in the design of the load-bearing structures that work at temperatures up to 100 °C.

  5. Direct Imaging of the Relaxation of Individual Ferroelectric Interfaces in a Tensile-Strained Film

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Linglong; Cao, Ye; Somnath, Suhas; ...

    2017-03-15

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of interfaces in ferroic materials is an important field of research with widespread practical implications, as the motion of domain walls and phase boundaries are associated with substantial increases in dielectric and piezoelectric effects. Although commonly studied in the macroscopic regime, the local dynamics of interfaces have received less attention, with most studies limited to domain growth and/or reversal by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Here, spatial mapping of local domain wall-related relaxation in a tensile-strained PbTiO3 thin film using time-resolved band-excitation PFM is demonstrated, which allows exploring of the field-induced strain (piezoresponse) as a function ofmore » applied voltage and time. Through multivariate statistical analysis on the resultant 4-dimensional dataset (x,y,V,t) with functional fitting, it is determined that the relaxation is strongly correleated with the distance to the domain walls, and varies based on the type of domain wall present in the probed volume. Phase-field modeling shows the relaxation behavior near and away from the interfaces, and confirms the modulation of the z-component of polarization by wall motion, yielding the observed piezoresponse relaxation. Lastly, these studies shed light on the local dynamics of interfaces in ferroelectric thin films, and are therefore important for the design of ferroelectric-based components in microelectromechanical systems.« less

  6. Finite-element method analysis of freestanding microrings for thin-film tensile strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutry, M.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Grandchamp, J. P.; Coffignal, G.

    1997-12-01

    Freestanding microring structures intended for the measurement of tensile stress or strain in thin films are analysed by linear buckling FEM analysis with thermal loads. It is shown that varying the tie length is helpful for increasing the strain measurement range of narrow devices while limiting the sensitivity factor variation and the wafer surface consumption. This reduces the need for large-diameter microstructures to measure low strain values and allows strain measurements in films with different thicknesses with a lower variation of the relative accuracy.

  7. Tensile Stress-Strain Curves--III, Rolled Homogeneous Armor at a Strain Rate of 0.042 per second

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    adhesive. The gage resistance is nominally 120 ohms and the nominal gage factor is 2.03. One strain gage pair measured the axial strain, the second gage...Proving Ground , MD, November 1976. AD #B0~6015L 8. G. E. Hauver, "The Alpha Phase Hugoniot of Rolled Homogeneous Armor ", BRL Memorandum Report No...1 i ’ ! .,: MEMORANDUM REPORT NO. 2760 "" ’ l TENSILE STRESS-STRAIN CURVES--Ill, ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR AT A STRAIN RATE OF 0.42 S-l Ralph

  8. Tensile strain in Ge membranes induced by SiGe nanostressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barget, Michael R.; Lodari, Mario; Borriello, Mauro; Mondiali, Valeria; Chrastina, Daniel; Bollani, Monica; Bonera, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    The monolithic integration of photonic functionality into silicon microtechnology is widely advanced. Yet, there is no final solution for the realization of a light source compatible with the prevailing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. A lot of research effort focuses on germanium (Ge) on silicon (Si) heterostructures and tensile strain application to Ge is accepted as one feasible route to make Ge an efficient light emitter. Prior work has documented the special suitability of Ge membranes to reach the high tensile strain. We present a top-down approach for the creation of SiGe stressors on Ge micro-bridges and compare the obtained strain to the case of an attached bulk-like Ge layer. We could show that the Ge influenced by a SiGe stressor is under tensile strain; absolute strain values are of the order of 0.7% for both micro-bridge and bulk. The relative strain induced by the nanostructures in the micro-bridge is 1.3% due to the high sharing of elastic energy between nanostructures and bridges.

  9. Unusual Enhancement in Intrinsic Thermal Conductivity of Multilayer Graphene by Tensile Strains

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Youdi; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Huang, Baoling

    2015-01-01

    High basal plane thermal conductivity k of multi-layer graphene makes it promising for thermal management applications. Here we examine the effects of tensile strain on thermal transport in this system. Using a first principles Boltzmann-Peierls equation for phonon transport approach, we calculate the room-temperature in-plane lattice k of multi-layer graphene (up to four layers) and graphite under different isotropic tensile strains. The calculated in-plane k of graphite, finite mono-layer graphene and 3-layer graphene agree well with previous experiments. The dimensional transitions of the intrinsic k and the extent of the diffusive transport regime from mono-layer graphene to graphite are presented. We find a peak enhancement of intrinsic k for multi-layer graphene and graphite with increasing strain and the largest enhancement amplitude is about 40%. In contrast the calculated intrinsic k with tensile strain decreases for diamond and diverges for graphene, we show that the competition between the decreased mode heat capacities and the increased lifetimes of flexural phonons with increasing strain contribute to this k behavior. Similar k behavior is observed for 2-layer hexagonal boron nitride systems, suggesting that it is an inherent thermal transport property in multi-layer systems assembled of purely two dimensional atomic layers. This study provides insights into engineering k of multi-layer graphene and boron nitride by strain and into the nature of thermal transport in quasi-two-dimensional and highly anisotropic systems.

  10. Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Klingsporn

    2011-08-01

    Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

  11. Strain Rate Sensitivity of Epoxy Resin in Tensile and Shear Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical response of E-862 and PR-520 resins is investigated in tensile and shear loadings. At both types of loading the resins are tested at strain rates of about 5x10(exp 5), 2, and 450 to 700 /s. In addition, dynamic shear modulus tests are carried out at various frequencies and temperatures, and tensile stress relaxation tests are conducted at room temperature. The results show that the toughened PR-520 resin can carry higher stresses than the untoughened E-862 resin. Strain rate has a significant effect on the response of both resins. In shear both resins show a ductile response with maximum stress that is increasing with strain rate. In tension a ductile response is observed at low strain rate (approx. 5x10(exp 5) /s), and brittle response is observed at the medium and high strain rates (2, and 700 /s). The hydrostatic component of the stress in the tensile tests causes premature failure in the E-862 resin. Localized deformation develops in the PR-520 resin when loaded in shear. An internal state variable constitutive model is proposed for modeling the response of the resins. The model includes a state variable that accounts for the effect of the hydrostatic component of the stress on the deformation.

  12. Radiative and non-radiative recombinations in tensile strained Ge microstrips: Photoluminescence experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Virgilio, M.; Schroeder, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Capellini, G.

    2015-12-21

    Tensile germanium microstrips are candidate as gain material in Si-based light emitting devices due to the beneficial effect of the strain field on the radiative recombination rate. In this work, we thoroughly investigate their radiative recombination spectra by means of micro-photoluminescence experiments at different temperatures and excitation powers carried out on samples featuring different tensile strain values. For sake of comparison, bulk Ge(001) photoluminescence is also discussed. The experimental findings are interpreted in light of a numerical modeling based on a multi-valley effective mass approach, taking in to account the depth dependence of the photo-induced carrier density and of the self-absorption effect. The theoretical modeling allowed us to quantitatively describe the observed increase of the photoluminescence intensity for increasing values of strain, excitation power, and temperature. The temperature dependence of the non-radiative recombination time in this material has been inferred thanks to the model calibration procedure.

  13. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-12-01

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 104 to 4 × 104 s-1. The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading.

  14. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haihong; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-10-01

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, Hp(y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The Hp(y), its slope coefficient KS and maximum gradient Kmax changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of Hp(y) and its slope coefficient KS increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, Hp(y) and KS reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of Hp(y) instead of changing the signal curve‧s profile; and the magnitude of Hp(y), KS, Kmax and the change rate of KS increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials.

  15. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  16. Tensile strains give rise to strong size effects for thermal conductivities of silicene, germanene and stanene.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Y D; Lindsay, L; Shi, S Q; Zheng, G P

    2016-02-14

    Based on first principles calculations and self-consistent solution of the linearized Boltzmann-Peierls equation for phonon transport approach within a three-phonon scattering framework, we characterize lattice thermal conductivities k of freestanding silicene, germanene and stanene under different isotropic tensile strains and temperatures. We find a strong size dependence of k for silicene with tensile strain, i.e., divergent k with increasing system size; however, the intrinsic room temperature k for unstrained silicene converges with system size to 19.34 W m(-1) K(-1) at 178 nm. The room temperature k of strained silicene becomes as large as that of bulk silicon at 84 μm, indicating the possibility of using strain in silicene to manipulate k for thermal management. The relative contribution to the intrinsic k from out-of-plane acoustic modes is largest for unstrained silicene, ∼39% at room temperature. The single mode relaxation time approximation, which works reasonably well for bulk silicon, fails to appropriately describe phonon thermal transport in silicene, germanene and stanene within the temperature range considered. For large samples of silicene, k increases with tensile strain, peaks at ∼7% strain and then decreases with further strain. In germanene and stanene, increasing strain hardens and stabilizes long wavelength out-of-plane acoustic phonons, and leads to similar k behaviors to those of silicene. These findings further our understanding of phonon dynamics in group-IV buckled monolayers and may guide transfer and fabrication techniques for these freestanding samples and engineering of k by size and strain for applications of thermal management and thermoelectricity.

  17. MoS2/MX2 heterobilayers: bandgap engineering via tensile strain or external electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ning; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Lei; Dai, Jun; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Wu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-02-01

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se, all heterobilayers show semiconducting characteristics with an indirect bandgap with the exception of the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer which retains the direct-bandgap character of the constituent monolayer. For M = Fe, V; X = S, Se, the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers exhibit metallic characters. Particular attention of this study has been focused on engineering the bandgap of the TMD heterobilayer materials via application of either a tensile strain or an external electric field. We find that with increasing either the biaxial or uniaxial tensile strain, the MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition. For the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer, a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition may occur beyond a critical biaxial or uniaxial strain. For M (=Fe, V) and X (=S, Se), the magnetic moments of both metal and chalcogen atoms are enhanced when the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers are under a biaxial tensile strain. Moreover, the bandgap of MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can be reduced by the vertical electric field. For two heterobilayers MSe2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr), PBE calculations suggest that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition may occur under an external electric field. The transition is attributed to the enhanced spontaneous polarization. The tunable bandgaps in general and possible indirect-direct bandgap transitions due to tensile strain or external electric field make the TMD heterobilayer materials a viable candidate for optoelectronic applications.We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For

  18. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s-1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  19. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling.

    PubMed

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-28

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 10(3) to 10(4) s(-1) using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  20. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems applied on occlusal primary enamel.

    PubMed

    Ramires-Romito, Ana Cláudia; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; de Góes, Mario Fernando; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems (OptiBond Solo, Kerr; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) on occlusal surface of primary molars. The adhesives were tested under manufacturers' specifications and after contamination of the bonding site with saliva. Hourglass cylindrical-shaped samples were obtained and subjected to a tensile force. No significant difference was observed among the groups. OptiBond Solo and Prime & Bond NT showed similar values of bond strengths when applied on occlusal enamel of primary molar under either saliva contamination or not.

  1. MoS2/MX2 heterobilayers: bandgap engineering via tensile strain or external electrical field.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Lei; Dai, Jun; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Wu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-03-07

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se, all heterobilayers show semiconducting characteristics with an indirect bandgap with the exception of the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer which retains the direct-bandgap character of the constituent monolayer. For M = Fe, V; X = S, Se, the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers exhibit metallic characters. Particular attention of this study has been focused on engineering the bandgap of the TMD heterobilayer materials via application of either a tensile strain or an external electric field. We find that with increasing either the biaxial or uniaxial tensile strain, the MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition. For the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer, a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition may occur beyond a critical biaxial or uniaxial strain. For M (=Fe, V) and X (=S, Se), the magnetic moments of both metal and chalcogen atoms are enhanced when the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers are under a biaxial tensile strain. Moreover, the bandgap of MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can be reduced by the vertical electric field. For two heterobilayers MSe2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr), PBE calculations suggest that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition may occur under an external electric field. The transition is attributed to the enhanced spontaneous polarization. The tunable bandgaps in general and possible indirect-direct bandgap transitions due to tensile strain or external electric field make the TMD heterobilayer materials a viable candidate for optoelectronic applications.

  2. Effects of tensile and compressive strains on response of a chondrocytic cell line embedded in type I collagen gel.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yuji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Takigawa, Masaharu; Naruse, Keiji

    2008-01-20

    Tensile and compressive strains are commonly used in mechanobiological models. Here we report on the development of a novel three-dimensional cell-culture method, which allows both tensile and compressive loads to be applied. Preliminary results were obtained using HCS2/8 chondrocytic cells embedded in type I collagen gel. This construct was subjected to either 16% tension or 14% compression. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that both tension and compression caused significant cell deformation. The collagen gel-embedded HCS2/8 cells were subjected to static tension, dynamic tension, static compression or dynamic compression for 24h. Dynamic compression led to significantly decreased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation compared with the control group. PCR analysis revealed upregulation of type II collagen caused by dynamic tension, upregulation of aggrecan caused by static compression, and downregulation of type II collagen and aggrecan caused by dynamic compression. Nitric oxide production was significantly increased by static tension and static compression compared with the control group. Our experimental system effectively applied several types of strain to HCS2/8 cells embedded in collagen gel. Our results suggest that the mode of mechanical strain affects the response of HCS2/8 cells.

  3. Smooth-particle applied mechanics: Conservation of angular momentum with tensile stability and velocity averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, Carol G.; Merritt, Elizabeth C.

    2004-01-01

    Smooth-particle applied mechanics (SPAM) provides several approaches to approximate solutions of the continuum equations for both fluids and solids. Though many of the usual formulations conserve mass, (linear) momentum, and energy, the angular momentum is typically not conserved by SPAM. A second difficulty with the usual formulations is that tensile stress states often exhibit an exponentially fast high-frequency short-wavelength instability, “tensile instability.” We discuss these twin defects of SPAM and illustrate them for a rotating elastic body. We formulate ways to conserve angular momentum while at the same time delaying the symptoms of tensile instability for many sound-traversal times. These ideas should prove useful in more general situations.

  4. Effects of Applied Strain on Rates of Ageing: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the stated intents of this project has been to make some assessment of effects of strain on rates of ageing of project thermoplastics exposed to project fluids. To this end, certain straining jigs which apply in various modes - tensile, four-point bending and crack growth using compact tension samples - were designed and made for holding samples during fluid exposures. During testing, features of the thermoplastics have been observed which have tended to confuse apparent strain effects on the polymers' aged performance, but recent assessments of the topic and its data have led to considerable progress being made in identifying test procedures necessary for strain and related effects on chemical deterioration to manifest themselves. It is the intent of this report to provide a summary of what has been determined on strain and related effects thus far, and provide recommendations for clarifying them in Phase 2 by means of further test procedures which will increase and focus the severity of the conditions applying. The choice of flexible pipe rather than umbilicals service for assessing service strain conditions reflects the major interest of project members. However, Tefzel data are still provided.

  5. Effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile properties of MANET II steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoneim, M.M.

    1997-08-01

    MANET II, a modified 12% Cr steel with the German designation DIN 1.4914, is a candidate structural material for the first wall and blanket in fusion reactors. In the present study, the tensile properties of this steel were investigated in the temperature range of 25 to 350 C at strain rates of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, and 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}s{sup {minus}1}. Both microstructure and fracture surfaces were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. The results showed that the steel suffers dynamic strain aging, although no serrated flow was observed. Yield strength, ultimate strength, and elongation showed negative strain rate sensitivity. Dynamic strain aging also affected the strain hardening rate. Results are discussed with regard to the chemical composition and fracture surface morphology.

  6. Computational Simulation of the High Strain Rate Tensile Response of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    A research program is underway to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Under these types of loading conditions, the material response can be highly strain rate dependent and nonlinear. State variable constitutive equations based on a viscoplasticity approach have been developed to model the deformation of the polymer matrix. The constitutive equations are then combined with a mechanics of materials based micromechanics model which utilizes fiber substructuring to predict the effective mechanical and thermal response of the composite. To verify the analytical model, tensile stress-strain curves are predicted for a representative composite over strain rates ranging from around 1 x 10(exp -5)/sec to approximately 400/sec. The analytical predictions compare favorably to experimentally obtained values both qualitatively and quantitatively. Effective elastic and thermal constants are predicted for another composite, and compared to finite element results.

  7. Critical tensile and compressive strains for cracking of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Shih-Hui; Bertrand, Jacob A.; George, Steven M.

    2011-04-01

    Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a model ALD system and Al2O3 ALD films are excellent gas diffusion barrier on polymers. However, little is known about the response of Al2O3 ALD films to strain and the potential film cracking that would restrict the utility of gas diffusion barrier films. To understand the mechanical limitations of Al2O3 ALD films, the critical strains at which the Al2O3 ALD films will crack were determined for both tensile and compressive strains. The tensile strain measurements were obtained using a fluorescent tagging technique to image the cracks. The results showed that the critical tensile strain is higher for thinner thicknesses of the Al2O3 ALD film on heat-stabilized polyethylene naphthalate (HSPEN) substrates. A low critical tensile strain of 0.52% was measured for a film thickness of 80 nm. The critical tensile strain increased to 2.4% at a film thickness of 5 nm. In accordance with fracture mechanics modeling, the critical tensile strains and the saturation crack densities scaled as (1/h)1/2 where h is the Al2O3 ALD film thickness. The fracture toughness for cracking, KIC, of the Al2O3 ALD film was also determined to be KIC = 2.30 MPa m1/2. Thinner Al2O3 ALD film thicknesses also had higher critical strains for cracking from compressive strains. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that Al2O3 ALD films with thicknesses of 30-50 nm on Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrates cracked at a critical compressive strain of ˜1.0%. The critical compressive strain increased to ˜2.0% at a film thickness of ˜20 nm. A comparison of the critical tensile strains on HSPEN substrates and critical compressive strains on Teflon FEP substrates revealed some similarities. The critical strain was ˜1.0% for film thicknesses of 30-50 nm for both tensile and compressive strains. The critical compressive strain then increased more rapidly than the critical tensile strain for thinner films with thicknesses

  8. Unusual Enhancement in Intrinsic Thermal Conductivity of Multilayer Graphene by Tensile Strains

    DOE PAGES

    Kuang, Youdi; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Huang, Baoling

    2015-01-01

    High basal plane thermal conductivity k of multi-layer graphene makes it promising for thermal management applications. Here we examine the effects of tensile strain on thermal transport in this system. Using a first principles Boltzmann-Peierls equation for phonon transport approach, we calculate the room-temperature in-plane lattice k of multi-layer graphene (up to four layers) and graphite under different isotropic tensile strains. The calculated in-plane k of graphite, finite mono-layer graphene and 3-layer graphene agree well with previous experiments. The dimensional transitions of the intrinsic k and the extent of the diffusive transport regime from mono-layer graphene to graphite are presented.more » We find a peak enhancement of intrinsic k for multi-layer graphene and graphite with increasing strain and the largest enhancement amplitude is about 40%. In contrast the calculated intrinsic k with tensile strain decreases for diamond and diverges for graphene, we show that the competition between the decreased mode heat capacities and the increased lifetimes of flexural phonons with increasing strain contribute to this k behavior. Similar k behavior is observed for 2-layer hexagonal boron nitride systems, suggesting that it is an inherent thermal transport property in multi-layer systems assembled of purely two dimensional atomic layers. This study provides insights into engineering k of multi-layer graphene and boron nitride by strain and into the nature of thermal transport in quasi-two-dimensional and highly anisotropic systems.« less

  9. Stranski-Krastanow growth of tensile strained Si islands on Ge (001)

    SciTech Connect

    Pachinger, D.; Groiss, H.; Lichtenberger, H.; Stangl, J.; Hesser, G.; Schaeffler, F.

    2007-12-03

    Stranski-Krastanow island growth is demonstrated for tensile strained silicon epilayers on Ge (001) substrates over a wide range of growth temperatures. Small, Si-rich islands show sidewall faces near {l_brace}1,1,10{r_brace}, whereas larger islands are {l_brace}113{r_brace}-terminated truncated pyramids with an aspect ratio near 0.1. In contrast to compressively strained Ge on Si, we find for Si on Ge a significantly thicker wetting layer of >8 ML and coexistence of islands and dislocations.

  10. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties of potassium-doped tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kenta; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Tensile tests were performed on pure and K-doped tungsten at temperatures from 25 to 700 °C and strain rates between 10-5 and 10-1 s-1 in vacuum. The yield strength of both materials increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. The amount of change in the yield strength decreased with increasing temperature. The determination of activation volumes for plastic deformation highlighted that the rate-controlling process of the deformation behavior at lower temperatures was the same for both materials, namely, kink-pair formation on screw dislocations, and the process was not affected by potassium addition. The fracture strain of both materials increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature, in the temperature range where the materials showed measurable ductility. K-doped W showed higher yield strength and a lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature than pure W. No negative effect of K addition on strain rate- and temperature-induced changes in tensile properties was found. The analysis also highlighted the effectiveness of K addition, and of the grain refinement induced by it, for improving the mechanical properties of tungsten.

  11. Investigation of osteogenic activity of primary rabbit periosteal cells stimulated by multi-axial tensile strain.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Lei, Kin Fong; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Periosteum-derived cells was indicated to respond to mechanical force and have stem cell potential capable of differentiating into multiple tissue. Investigation of osteogenic activity under mechanical stimulation is important to understand the therapeutic conditions of fracture healing. In this work, a cell culture platform was developed for respectively providing isotropic and anisotropic axial strain. Primary rabbit periosteal cells were isolated and cultured in the chamber. Multi-axial tensile strain was received and osteogenic activity was investigated by mRNA expressions of CBFA1 and OPN. The highest mRNA expression was found in moderate strain (5-8%) under anisotropic axial strain. These results provided important foundation for further in vivo studies and development of tailor-made stretching rehabilitation equipment.

  12. Analysis of the tensile stress-strain behavior of elastomers at constant strain rates. I - Criteria for separability of the time and strain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Fedors, R. F.; Schwarzl, F.; Moacanin, J.; Landel, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the tensile stress-strain relation of elastomers at constant strain rate is presented which shows that the time and the stress effect are separable if the experimental time scale coincides with a segment of the relaxation modulus that can be described by a single power law. It is also shown that time-strain separability is valid if the strain function is linearly proportional to the Cauchy strain, and that when time-strain separability holds, two strain-dependent quantities can be obtained experimentally. In the case where time and strain effect are not separable, superposition can be achieved only by using temperature and strain-dependent shift factors.

  13. High-temperature tensile deformation behavior of aluminum oxide with and without an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James

    1998-12-01

    Ceramics are usually considered to be brittle, but under certain conditions some ceramics exhibit a large degree of ductility. They are fine-grained and exhibit superplastic behavior when deformed at high temperatures and low stresses. Whereas superplasticity gives enhanced ductility to metals, it may be the only method for imparting large plasticity to ceramics. Electric fields have been shown to increase ductility, reduce flow stress and reduce cavitation in the superplastic forming of 7475 Al and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Thus, the concurrent application of an electric field may give improved superplastic properties and increased plasticity to a marginally ductile ceramic such as aluminum oxide (alpha-alumina). Fine-grained alumina tensile specimens, formed by dry pressing and sintering a spray-dried powder, were tested in tension at high temperature with and without an electric field of 300 V/cm. Constant strain rate, strain rate cycling and stress relaxation tests were performed. The effects of an electric field on the ductility, flow stress, cavitation and parameters of the Weertman-Dorn deformation equation were measured. Without an electric field, the following deformation parameters were found: the stress exponent n = 2.2, the grain size exponent p = 1.9, the activation energy Q = 490 kJ/mol and the threshold stress sigmao ≈ 0 MPa, indicating structural superplasticity where grain boundary sliding is the predominant deformation mode and was likely accommodated by the motion of grain boundary dislocations. An electric field of 300 V/cm gave a Joule heating temperature increase of ˜30°C and caused the alumina to swell 5--25% (increasing with time), even while under no applied stress, thereby reducing its ductility and flow stress. After correcting for Joule heating and swelling there was still a significant flow stress reduction produced by the field and the following deformation parameters were found: n = 2.2, p = 1.9, Q = 950 kJ/mol and sigmao ≈ 0

  14. Evaluation of tensile stress-strain curve of electroplated copper film by characterizing indentation size effect with a single nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-Hoon; Kim, Young-Cheon; Lee, Sukbin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2017-01-01

    Nanoindentation has been widely used to measure mechanical properties for instance elastic modulus and hardness due to relatively simple sample preparation and experimental procedure. Primary limitation of nanoindentation is that it does not measure quantitative mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and fracture strain unlike uni-axial tensile testing. We investigate the tensile stress-strain curve of electroplated copper using a single nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter. Micro-tensile testing and nanoindentation were performed for three electroplated copper samples with different microstructures by post heat treatments. We find a linear relationship between the strain-hardening exponent as measured by micro-tensile testing and the log value of the characteristic length for the indentation size effect as measured by nanoindentation. By defining a representative flow stress-strain point corresponding to the Berkovich indenter along with the elastic modulus measured by nanoindentation, we obtain complete tensile stress-strain curves for electroplated copper that are in good agreement with those measured by micro-tensile testing.

  15. Effect of strain rate on the tensile material properties of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Duma, Stefan M

    2009-09-01

    Automobile crashes are the largest cause of injury death for pregnant females and the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. Computational models, useful tools to evaluate the risk of fetal loss in motor vehicle crashes, are based on a limited number of quasistatic material tests of the placenta. This study presents a total of 64 uniaxial tensile tests on coupon specimens from six human placentas at three strain rates. Material properties of the placental tissue were evaluated at strain rates of 0.07/s, 0.70/s, and 7.00/s. The test data have average failure strains of 0.34, 0.36, and 0.37, respectively. Failure stresses of 10.8 kPa, 11.4 kPa, and 18.6 kPa correspond to an increase in strain rate from 0.07/s to 7.0/s. The results indicate rate dependence only when comparing the highest strain rate of 7.0/s to either of the lower rates. There is no significant rate dependence between 0.07/s and 0.70/s. When compared with previous testing of placental tissue, the current study addresses the material response to more strain rates as well as provides a much larger set of available data. In summary, tensile material properties for the placenta have been determined for use in computational modeling of pregnant occupant kinematics in events ranging from low impact activities to severe impacts such as in motor vehicle crashes.

  16. Heterogeneously-Grown Tunable Tensile Strained Germanium on Silicon for Photonic Devices.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Michael; Saladukha, Dzianis; Goley, Patrick S; Ochalski, Tomasz J; Murphy-Armando, Felipe; Bodnar, Robert J; Hudait, Mantu K

    2015-12-09

    The growth, structural and optical properties, and energy band alignments of tensile-strained germanium (ε-Ge) epilayers heterogeneously integrated on silicon (Si) were demonstrated for the first time. The tunable ε-Ge thin films were achieved using a composite linearly graded InxGa1-xAs/GaAs buffer architecture grown via solid source molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis confirmed a pseudomorphic ε-Ge epitaxy whereby the degree of strain varied as a function of the In(x)Ga(1-x)As buffer indium alloy composition. Sharp heterointerfaces between each ε-Ge epilayer and the respective In(x)Ga(1-x)As strain template were confirmed by detailed strain analysis using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Low-temperature microphotoluminescence measurements confirmed both direct and indirect bandgap radiative recombination between the Γ and L valleys of Ge to the light-hole valence band, with L-lh bandgaps of 0.68 and 0.65 eV demonstrated for the 0.82 ± 0.06% and 1.11 ± 0.03% strained Ge on Si, respectively. Type-I band alignments and valence band offsets of 0.27 and 0.29 eV for the ε-Ge/In(0.11)Ga(0.89)As (0.82%) and ε-Ge/In(0.17)Ga(0.83)As (1.11%) heterointerfaces, respectively, show promise for ε-Ge carrier confinement in future nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Therefore, the successful heterogeneous integration of tunable tensile-strained Ge on Si paves the way for the design and implementation of novel Ge-based photonic devices on the Si technology platform.

  17. Tensile strain effect in ferroelectric perovskite oxide thin films on spinel magnesium aluminum oxide substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaolan

    Ferroelectrics are used in FeRAM (Ferroelectric random-access memory). Currently (Pb,Zr)TiO3 is the most common ferroelectric material. To get lead-free and high performance ferroelectric material, we investigated perovskite ferroelectric oxides (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and BiFeO3 films with strain. Compressive strain has been investigated intensively, but the effects of tensile strain on the perovskite films have yet to be explored. We have deposited (Ba,Sr)TiO3, BiFeO3 and related films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and analyzed the films by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc. To obtain inherently fully strained films, the selection of the appropriate substrates is crucial. MgAl2O4 matches best with good quality and size, yet the spinel structure has an intrinsic incompatibility to that of perovskite. We introduced a rock-salt structure material (Ni 1-xAlxO1+delta) as a buffer layer to mediate the structural mismatch for (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films. With buffer layer Ni1-xAlxO1+delta, we show that the BST films have high quality crystallization and are coherently epitaxial. AFM images show that the films have smoother surfaces when including the buffer layer, indicating an inherent compatibility between BST-NAO and NAO-MAO. In-plane Ferroelectricity measurement shows double hysteresis loops, indicating an antiferroelectric-like behavior: pinned ferroelectric domains with antiparallel alignments of polarization. The Curie temperatures of the coherent fully strained BST films are also measured. It is higher than 900°C, at least 800°C higher than that of bulk. The improved Curie temperature makes the use of BST as FeRAM feasible. We found that the special behaviors of ferroelectricity including hysteresis loop and Curie temperature are due to inherent fully tensile strain. This might be a clue of physics inside ferroelectric stain engineering. An out-of-plane ferroelectricity measurement would provide a full whole story of the tensile strain. However, a

  18. Thickness Dependence of Electrical and Structural Properties of Tensile Strained Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Cacie; Warecki, Zoey; Chaudhry, Adeel; Ferrone, Natalie; Houston, David; Lawson, Bridget; Yong, Grace; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    We have investigated the properties of CaMnO3-δ thin films epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on lattice mismatched substrates, (100)LaAlO3 and (100)SrTiO3 , leading to a tensile strain of ~4 % and 1.5 % respectively. For our films these substrates, thickness dependence of the properties is characteristically different from what has been previously observed in thin films of hole-doped manganites. We observe that the resistivity decreases significantly as the film thickness decreases. The decrease in resistivity is more pronounced in the films on (100)SrTiO3 with the larger lattice mismatch, the resistivity of the thinnest films being about 3 orders of magnitude lower than the of bulk CaMnO3. Thickness dependence of the lattice constants also show deviations from the behavior expected from strain relaxation. These results suggest a coupling between tensile strain and oxygen deficiency consistent with predictions from models based on density functional theory calculations. Our results are relevant for potential catalytic applications of CaMnO3-δ thin films. NSF Grant ECCS112856 and Seed Funding from the School of Emerging Technologies.

  19. Spin texture on the Fermi surface of tensile-strained HgTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad; Young, S. M.; Cellucci, D.; Teo, J. C. Y.; Kane, C. L.; Mele, E. J.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    We present ab initio and k·p calculations of the spin texture on the Fermi surface of tensile-strained HgTe, which is obtained by stretching the zinc-blende lattice along the (111) axis. Tensile-strained HgTe is a semimetal with pointlike accidental degeneracies between a mirror symmetry protected twofold degenerate band and two nondegenerate bands near the Fermi level. The Fermi surface consists of two ellipsoids which contact at the point where the Fermi level crosses the twofold degenerate band along the (111) axis. However, the spin texture of occupied states indicates that neither ellipsoid carries a compensating Chern number. Consequently, the spin texture is locked in the plane perpendicular to the (111) axis, exhibits a nonzero winding number in that plane, and changes winding number from one end of the Fermi ellipsoids to the other. The change in the winding of the spin texture suggests the existence of singular points. An ordered alloy of HgTe with ZnTe has the same effect as stretching the zinc-blende lattice in the (111) direction. We present ab initio calculations of ordered HgxZn1-xTe that confirm the existence of a spin texture locked in a 2D plane on the Fermi surface with different winding numbers on either end.

  20. Magnetism and Raman Spectroscopy of Pristine and Hydrogenated TaSe2 Monolayer tuned by Tensile and Pure Shear Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sugata; Simpson, Jeffrey; Einstein, T. L.; Walker, Angela R. Hight

    2D-materials with controllable optical, electronic and magnetic properties are desirable for novel nanodevices. Here we studied these properties for both pristine and hydrogenated TaSe2 (TaSe2-H) monolayer (ML) in the framework of DFT using the PAW method. We considered uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, as well as shear strain along the basal planes in the range between 1% and 16%. Previous theoretical works (e.g.) considered only symmetrical biaxial tensile. Pristine ML is ferromagnetic for uniaxial tensile strain along ◯ or ŷ. For tensile strain in ŷ, the calculated magnetic moments of the Ta atoms are twice those for the same strain in ◯. Under pure shear strain (expansion along ŷ and compression along ◯), a pristine ML is ferromagnetic, but becomes non-magnetic when the strain directions are interchanged. Due to carrier-mediated double-exchange, the pristine ML is ferromagnetic when the Se-Ta-Se bond angle is < 82° and the ML thickness is < 3.25Å. We find that all Raman-active phonon modes show obvious red-shifting due to bond elongation and the E2 modes degeneracy is lifted as strain increases. For a TaSe2-H ML, the same trends were observed. Results show the ability to tune the properties of 2D-materials.

  1. Development of an elastic cell culture substrate for a novel uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Matthew D; Scotchford, Colin A; Ritchie, Alastair Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors can be used for mechanical conditioning and to investigate the mechanobiology of cells in vitro. In this study a polyurethane (PU), Chronoflex AL, was evaluated for use as a flexible cell culture substrate in a novel bioreactor capable of imparting cyclic uniaxial tensile strain to cells. PU membranes were plasma etched, across a range of operating parameters, in oxygen. Contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed increases in wettability and surface oxygen were related to both etching power and duration. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that surface roughness decreased after etching at 20 W but was increased at higher powers. The etching parameters, 20 W 40 s, produced membranes with high surface oxygen content (21%), a contact angle of 66° ± 7° and reduced topographical features. Etching and protein conditioning membranes facilitated attachment, and growth to confluence within 3 days, of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 2 days with uniaxial strain (1%, 30 cycles/min, 1500 cycles/day), cellular alignment was observed perpendicular to the principal strain axis, and found to increase after 24 h. The results indicate that the membrane supports culture and strain transmission to adhered cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2356–2364, 2014. PMID:23946144

  2. Dynamic tensile stress-strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Kenji; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    The effect of strain rate up to approximately ɛ˙ = 102/s on the tensile stress-strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress-strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB). The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress-strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  3. Effect of tensile pre-strain at different orientation on martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, F.; Zulfi, F. R.; Korda, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensite was studied in 316L stainless steel through tensile pre-strain deformation in the rolling direction (RD) and perpendicular to the rolling direction (LT) at various %pre-strain. The experiment was carried out at various given %pre-strain, which were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 17.4%, and 25.2% for the RD, whereas for LT were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 18%, and 26% for LT. Changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed using optical microscope, tensile testing, hardness testing, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The experimental results showed that the volume fraction of martensite was increased as the %pre-strain increased. In the same level of deformation by tensile pre-strain, the volume of martensite for RD was higher than that with LT direction. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and hardness of the steel were increased proportionally with the increases in %pre-strain, while the value of elongation and toughness were decreased with the increases in %pre-strain.

  4. Biaxial Tensile Test of Cold Rolled IF Steel Sheet for Large Plastic Strain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enatsu, Ryotaro; Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2011-08-01

    Deformation behavior of cold rolled IF steel sheet (SPCE) under biaxial tension has been investigated for large plastic strain range over 15%. The test material was bent and TIG welded to form a tubular specimen with an outer diameter of 46.2 mm and wall thickness of 0.8 mm. The tubular specimens have been subjected to linear stress paths in the first quadrant of stress space with the use of a servo-controlled tension-internal pressure testing machine developed by one of the authors [T. Kuwabara, K. Yoshida, K. Narihara, S. Takahashi, Anisotropic plastic deformation of extruded aluminum alloy tube under axial forces and internal pressure, Int. J. Plasticity 21, 101-117 (2005)]. Moreover, biaxial tensile tests using a cruciform specimen have also been carried out to more precisely measure the deformation behavior for a small strain range following initial yielding. True stress-true plastic strain curves, contours of plastic work in stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates have been measured and compared with those calculated using selected yield functions: the von Mises, Hill's quadratic and Yld2000-2d [Barlat, F., Brem, J.C., Yoon, J.W., Chung, K., Dick, R.E., Lege, D.J., Pourboghrat, F., Choi, S.H., Chu, E., Plane stress yield function for aluminum alloy sheets—Part 1: Theory. Int. J. Plasticity 19, 1297-1319 (2003)]. The plastic deformation behavior up to a work equivalent plastic strain of ɛ0p = 0.19 has been successfully measured. It is found that the test material exhibits differential hardening and that the Yld2000-2d yield function with an exponent of six most closely predicts the contours of plastic work and the directions of plastic strain rates.

  5. Modifications of system for elevated temperature tensile testing and stress-strain measurement of metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, J.O.

    1994-09-01

    Composites consisting of tungsten alloy wires in superalloy matrices are being studied because they offer the potential for increased strength compared to current materials used at temperatures up to a least 1093{degrees}C (2000{degrees}F). Previous research at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at other laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Japan has demonstrated laboratory feasibility for fiber reinforced superalloys (FRS). The data for the mechanical and physical properties used to evaluate candidate materials is limited and a need exists for a more detailed and complete data base. The focus of this work was to develop a test procedure to provide a more complete FRS data base to quantitatively evaluate the composite`s potential for component applications. This paper will describe and discuss the equipment and procedures under development to obtain elevated temperature tensile stress-strain, strength and modulus data for the first generation of tungsten reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) materials. Tensile stress-strain tests were conducted using a constant crosshead speed tensile testing machine and a modified load-strain measuring apparatus. Elevated temperature tensile tests were performed using a resistance wound commercial furnace capable of heating tests specimens up to 1093{degrees}C (2000{degrees}F). Tensile stress-strain data were obtained for hollow tubular stainless steel specimens serving as a prototype for future composite specimens.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of a solid platinum nanowire under uniaxial tensile strain: Temperature and strain-rate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, S. J. A.; Lee, H. P.; Lu, C.; Cheng, Q. H.

    2005-08-01

    Nanoscale research has been an area of active research over the past fifteen years. This is due to the overall enhanced properties of nanomaterials due to size effects, surface effects, and interface effects, which typically showed up in materials with characteristic size smaller than 100nm . This study focuses on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of an infinitely long, cylindrical platinum nanowire, with an approximate diameter of 1.4nm . The nanowire was subjected to uniaxial tensile strain along the [001] axis. The changes in crystal structure during deformation were analyzed and its mechanical properties were deduced from the simulation. Classical MD simulation was employed in this study, with the empirical Sutton-Chen pair functional used to describe the interatomic potential between the platinum atoms. The Berendsen loose-coupling thermostat was selected for finite-temperature control of the simulated system, with a time constant of 25% of the total relaxation time during each strain increment. The nanowire was subjected to strain rates of 0.04%, 0.4%, and 4.0%ps-1 , at simulation temperatures of 50 and 300K , in order to study the effects of different strain rates and thermal conditions on the deformation characteristics and mechanical properties of the nanowire. It was found that the stress-strain response of the nanowire showed clear periodic, stepwise dislocation-relaxation-recrystallization behavior at low temperature and strain rate, where crystal order and stability were highly preserved. The onset of amorphous crystal deformation occurred at 0.4%ps-1 , and fully amorphous deformation took place at 4.0%ps-1 , with amorphous melting detected at 300K . Due to higher entropy of the nanowire at higher temperature and strain rate, periodic stress-strain behavior became less clearly defined, and superplasticity behavior was observed. This characteristic was significantly enhanced due to the development of a single-walled helical substructure at 300K

  7. Tensile Stress-Strain Results for 304L and 316L Stainless-Steel Plate at Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl

    2007-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting moderate strain rate (10 to 200 per second) research on stainless steel materials in support of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). For this research, strain rate effects are characterized by comparison to quasi-static tensile test results. Considerable tensile testing has been conducted resulting in the generation of a large amount of basic material data expressed as engineering and true stress-strain curves. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of quasi-static tensile testing of 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steels in order to add to the existing data pool for these materials and make the data more readily available to other researchers, engineers, and interested parties. Standard tensile testing of round specimens in accordance with ASTM procedure A 370-03a were conducted on 304L and 316L stainless-steel plate materials at temperatures ranging from -20 °F to 600 °F. Two plate thicknesses, eight material heats, and both base and weld metal were tested. Material yield strength, Young’s modulus, ultimate strength, ultimate strain, failure strength and failure strain were determined, engineering and true stress-strain curves to failure were developed, and comparisons to ASME Code minimums were made. The procedures used during testing and the typical results obtained are described in this paper.

  8. Determining the directional strain shift coefficients for tensile Ge: a combined x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzelstorfer, Tanja; Wyss, Andreas; Süess, Martin J.; Schlich, Franziska F.; Geiger, Richard; Frigerio, Jacopo; Stangl, Julian

    2017-02-01

    In this work the calibration of the directional Raman strain shift coefficient for tensile strained Ge microstructures is reported. The strain shift coefficient is retrieved from micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements in combination with absolute strain measurements from x-ray diffraction using focused synchrotron radiation. The results are used to fit the phonon deformation potentials. A linear dependence of the phonon deformation potentials p and q is revealed. The method can be extended to provide strain calibration of Raman experiments also in other material system.

  9. Correlation Between Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Strain-Based API X60 Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Ro, Yunjo; Lee, Chang Sun; Hwang, Byoungchul; Shin, Sang Yong

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between the microstructures and tensile properties of strain-based American Petroleum Institute (API) X60 pipeline steels was investigated. Eight types of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying the chemical compositions, such as C, Ni, Cr, and Mo, and the finish cooling temperatures, such as single-phase and dual-phase regions. In the 4N and 5C steels, the volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) and the secondary phases increased with the increasing C and adding Cr instead of Ni. In the 5C and 6NC steels, the volume fractions of acicular ferrite (AF) and BF decreased with increasing C and adding Ni, whereas the volume fractions of polygonal ferrite (PF) and the secondary phases increased. In the 6NC and 6NM steels, the volume fraction of BF was increased by adding Mo instead of Cr, whereas the volume fractions of PF and the secondary phases decreased. In the steels rolled in the single-phase region, the volume fraction of polygonal ferrite ranged from 40 to 60 pct and the volume fraction of AF ranged from 20 to 40 pct. In the steels rolled in the dual-phase region, however, the volume fraction of PF was more than 70 pct and the volume fraction of AF was below 20 pct. The strength of the steels with a high volume fraction of AF was higher than those of the steels with a high volume fraction of PF, whereas the yield point elongation and the strain hardening exponent were opposite. The uniform elongation after the thermal aging process decreased with increasing volume fraction of PF, whereas the uniform elongation increased with increasing volume fraction of AF. The strain hardening exponent increased with increasing volume fraction of PF, but decreased with increasing volume fraction of AF and effective grain size.

  10. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    PubMed

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  11. Slow Strain Rate Tensile Testing to Assess the Ability of Superalloys to Resist Environment-Assisted Intergranular Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Banik, Anthony; McDevitt, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Intergranular fatigue crack initiation and growth due to environmental degradation, especially at notched features, can often limit the fatigue life of disk superalloys at high temperatures. For clear comparisons, the effects of alloy composition on cracking in air needs to be understood and compared separately from variables associated with notches and cracks such as effective stress concentration, plastic flow, stress relaxation, and stress redistribution. The objective of this study was to attempt using simple tensile tests of specimens with uniform gage sections to compare the effects of varied alloy composition on environment-assisted cracking of several powder metal and cast and wrought superalloys including ME3, LSHR, Udimet 720, ATI 718Plus alloy, Haynes 282, and Inconel 740. Slow and fast strain-rate tensile tests were found to be a useful tool to compare propensities for intergranular surface crack initiation and growth. The effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile fracture strain and associated failure modes were compared. Environment interactions were determined to often limit ductility, by promoting intergranular surface cracking. The response of various superalloys and heat treatments to slow strain rate tensile testing varied substantially, showing that composition and microstructure can significantly influence environmental resistance to cracking.

  12. Thickness-dependent electronic structure in ultrathin LaNiO3 films under tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyang Keun; Hyun, Seung Ill; Chang, Young Jun; Moreschini, Luca; Sohn, Chang Hee; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Shim, Ji Hoon; Noh, Tae Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated electronic-structure changes of tensile-strained ultrathin LaNi O3 (LNO) films from ten to one unit cells (UCs) using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We found that there is a critical thickness tc between four and three UCs below which Ni eg electrons are confined in two-dimensional space. Furthermore, the Fermi surfaces (FSs) of LNO films below tc consist of two orthogonal pairs of one-dimensional (1D) straight parallel lines. Such a feature is not accidental as observed in constant-energy surfaces at all binding energies, which is not explained by first-principles calculations or the dynamical mean-field theory. The ARPES spectra also show anomalous spectral behaviors, such as no quasiparticle peak at the Fermi momentum but fast band dispersion comparable to the bare-band one, which is typical in a 1D system. As its possible origin, we propose 1D FS nesting, which also accounts for FS superstructures observed in ARPES.

  13. Local protrusions formed on Si(111) surface by surface melting and solidification under applied tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Tomitori, M.

    2016-09-01

    The surface structure and composition of Si(111) was modified, by heating it to 1300 °C in ultrahigh vacuum under an external tensile stress. A stress of approximately 1 GPa was applied, by pressing on the center of the rear side of the sample. This process produced two protrusions of approximately 100 μm in height, to the left and right of the center. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy revealed Fe, Cr, Ni, and C impurities at the top of one protrusion, and C at the top of the other. These impurities likely diffused into the tops of the protrusions during heating, and segregated to the local surface during cooling when the protrusions formed. The protrusion formation mechanism is discussed. Their formation was related to non-uniform surface temperature, electromigration, piezoresistivity, freezing-point depression due to surface alloying with the impurities, and volume expansion during solidification from surface melting. These findings provide a perspective on controlling surface structures and compositions using heat and stress to induce self-assembly.

  14. Effects of temperature, strain rate, and vacancies on tensile and fatigue behaviors of silicon-based nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Tsai, Ping-Chi; Fang, Te-Hua

    2005-02-01

    This paper adopts the Tersoff-Brenner many-body potential function to perform molecular dynamics simulations of the tensile and fatigue behaviors of hypothetical silicon-based tubular nanostructures at various temperatures, strain rates, and vacancy percentages. The tensile test results indicate that with a predicted Young’s modulus of approximately 60GPa , silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) are significantly less stiff than conventional carbon nanotubes. It is observed that the presence of hydrogen has a significant influence on the tensile strength of SiNTs . Additionally, the present results indicate that the tensile strength clearly decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. Moreover, it is shown that the majority of the mechanical properties considered in the present study decrease with an increasing vacancy percentage. Regarding the fatigue tests, this study uses a standard theoretical model to derive curves of amplitude stress versus number of cycles for the current nanotubes. The results demonstrate that the fatigue limit of SiNTs increases with a decreasing vacancy percentage and with increasing temperature.

  15. Defect production in Ar irradiated graphene membranes under different initial applied strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Asencio, J.; Ruestes, C. J.; Bringa, E.; Caturla, M. J.

    2017-02-01

    Irradiation with low energy Ar ions of graphene membranes gives rise to changes in the mechanical properties of this material. These changes have been associated to the production of defects, mostly isolated vacancies. However, the initial state of the graphene membrane can also affect its mechanical response. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studied defect production in graphene membranes irradiated with 140 eV Ar ions up to a dose of 0.075 × 1014 ions/cm2 and different initial strains, from -0.25% (compressive strain) to 0.25% (tensile strain). For all strains, the number of defects increases linearly with dose with a defect production of about 80% (80 defects every 100 ions). Defects are mostly single vacancies and di-vacancies, although some higher order clusters are also observed. Two different types of di-vacancies have been identified, the most common one being two vacancies at first nearest neighbours distance. Differences in the total number of defects with the applied strain are observed which is related to the production of a higher number of di-vacancies under compressive strain compared to tensile strain. We attribute this effect to the larger out-of-plane deformations of compressed samples that could favor the production of defects in closer proximity to others.

  16. Charge transport in NdNiO3 thin films: Effects of mn-doping versus tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Mahesh; Aziz, Fozia; Rana, Rakesh; Late, Ravikiran; Rana, D. S.; Mavani, K. R.

    2014-04-01

    We have performed a comparative study of total three films, two films of NdNiO3 deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) and NdGaO3 (NGO) single-crystals and one 10% Mn-doped thin film of NdNi0.9Mn0.1O3 deposited on NGO. We find that both, the enhanced tensile strain and the Mn-doping drive the system to an insulating state from a metallic state at high temperatures. NdNiO3/NGO film shows a metal-insulator transition, which disappears in the other two films due to opening of charge-transfer gap. These results reveal that the effect of tensile strain on the resistivity of NdNiO3 is profound at low temperatures, whereas Mn-doping clearly dominates at high temperatures.

  17. On the reduced susceptibility to stress whitening behavior of melt intercalated polybutene-clay nanocomposites during tensile straining

    SciTech Connect

    Nathani, H.; Dasari, A.; Misra, R.D.K

    2004-06-21

    The paper describes the micro-scale response, mechanism, and susceptibility to stress whitening during tensile straining of polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites, and its comparison with unreinforced neat polybutene utilizing electron microscopy observations. Polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites exhibit increased tensile modulus, significantly reduced susceptibility to stress whitening, and are characterized by lower optical gray level in the plastically deformed stress whitened zone. Furthermore, crystallization studies suggest that the reinforcement mineral increases the rate of nucleation, accelerating the crystallization process. The reinforcement of polybutene with 5 wt% clay alters the primary micromechanism of stress whitening from stress relaxation of the 'fish-scale psiloma' containing tiny voids and subsequent transformation to ridge tearing at high plastic strains to nucleation and growth of large size voids in polybutene-clay nanocomposites. The final fracture in neat polybutene occurs by a mixed mode (brittle and fibrillation), while brittle deformation is the predominant fracture mode in polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites.

  18. Microscopic Strain Mapping in Nanostructured and Microstructured Alumina-Titania Coatings Under 4-point Compressive and Tensile Bending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    A & A Co. Engineering Conference International, Sub-Micron & Nanostructured Ceramics Colorado Springs, June 7-12, 2009, Colorado, USA Microscopic...Strain Mapping in Nanostructured and Microstructured Alumina-Titania Coatings Under 4-point Compressive and Tensile Bending A . Ignatov1,2, E. K. Akdogan1...provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently

  19. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile properties of Sn-3.5Ag solder

    SciTech Connect

    Lang Fengqun . E-mail: fqlang325@yahoo.co.jp; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Munegata, Osamu; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Narita, Toshio

    2005-03-15

    The tensile response of Sn-3.5% Ag solder was investigated and compared with that of a Sn-37% Pb eutectic solder at various strain rates from 2.38x10{sup -6} s{sup -1} to 2.38x10{sup -3} s{sup -1} over the temperature range from -50 deg. C to 150 deg. C. The relationship between tensile strength, {sigma} {sub UTS}, and strain rate, {epsilon}', for Sn-3.5Ag can be expressed by the equation {sigma} {sub UTS}=A{epsilon}' {sup m}. The influence of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity index m was very slight for Sn-3.5Ag, whereas the m values of Sn-37Pb increased strongly with increasing temperature. The relationship between the tensile strength of the Sn-3.5Ag alloy and temperature follows an Arrhenius law, and the activation energy for creep was found to be 78 kJ/mol, close to that for the pipe diffusion controlled creep of tin. The microstructure and fracture morphologies of both solders were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Ag{sub 3}Sn particles were observed in the primary {beta}-Sn in the Sn-3.5Ag solder by transmission electron microscope.

  20. Effects of Finish Cooling Temperature on Tensile Properties After Thermal Aging of Strain-Based API X60 Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak; Ro, Yunjo; Lee, Chang Sun; Hwang, Byoungchul

    2015-09-01

    Two types of strain-based American Petroleum Institute (API) X60 linepipe steels were fabricated at two finish cooling temperatures, 673 K and 723 K (400 °C and 450 °C), and the effects of the finish cooling temperatures on the tensile properties after thermal aging were investigated. The strain-based API X60 linepipe steels consisted mainly of polygonal ferrite (PF) or quasi-polygonal ferrite and the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased with the increasing finish cooling temperature. In contrast, the volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) and secondary phases decreased. The tensile properties before and after thermal aging at 473 K and 523 K (200 °C and 250 °C) were measured. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and yield ratio increased with the increasing thermal aging temperature. The strain hardening rate in the steel fabricated at the higher finish cooling temperature decreased rapidly after thermal aging, probably due to the Cottrell atmosphere, whereas the strain hardening rate in the steel fabricated at the lower finish cooling temperature changed slightly after thermal aging. The uniform elongation and total elongation decreased with increasing thermal aging temperature, probably due to the interactions between carbon atoms and dislocations. The uniform elongation decreased rapidly with the decreasing volume fractions of BF and martensite and secondary phases. The yield ratio increased with the increasing thermal aging temperature, whereas the strain hardening exponent decreased. The strain hardening exponent of PL steel decreased rapidly after thermal aging because of the large number of mobile dislocations between PF and BF or martensite or secondary phases.

  1. Tensile strained Ge tunnel field-effect transistors: k · p material modeling and numerical device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; De Meyer, Kristin; Verhulst, Anne S.; Van de Put, Maarten; Soree, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Vandenberghe, William G.

    2014-01-28

    Group IV based tunnel field-effect transistors generally show lower on-current than III-V based devices because of the weaker phonon-assisted tunneling transitions in the group IV indirect bandgap materials. Direct tunneling in Ge, however, can be enhanced by strain engineering. In this work, we use a 30-band k · p method to calculate the band structure of biaxial tensile strained Ge and then extract the bandgaps and effective masses at Γ and L symmetry points in k-space, from which the parameters for the direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) models are determined. While transitions from the heavy and light hole valence bands to the conduction band edge at the L point are always bridged by phonon scattering, we highlight a new finding that only the light-hole-like valence band is strongly coupling to the conduction band at the Γ point even in the presence of strain based on the 30-band k · p analysis. By utilizing a Technology Computer Aided Design simulator equipped with the calculated band-to-band tunneling BTBT models, the electrical characteristics of tensile strained Ge point and line tunneling devices are self-consistently computed considering multiple dynamic nonlocal tunnel paths. The influence of field-induced quantum confinement on the tunneling onset is included. Our simulation predicts that an on-current up to 160 (260) μA/μm can be achieved along with on/off ratio > 10{sup 6} for V{sub DD} = 0.5 V by the n-type (p-type) line tunneling device made of 2.5% biaxial tensile strained Ge.

  2. Cyclic Tensile Strain Suppresses Catabolic Effects of Interleukin-1β in Fibrochondrocytes From the Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sudha; Long, Ping; Gassner, Robert; Piesco, Nicholas P.; Buckley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discern the effects of continuous passive motion on inflamed temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Methods The effects of continuous passive motion on TMJ were simulated by exposing primary cultures of rabbit TMJ fibrochondrocyte monolayers to cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in the presence of recombinant human interleukin-1β (rHuIL-1β) in vitro. The messenger RNA (mRNA) induction of rHuIL-1β response elements was examined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The synthesis of nitric oxide was examined by Griess reaction, and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was examined by radioimmunoassay. The synthesis of proteins was examined by Western blot analysis of the cell extracts, and synthesis of proteoglycans via incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate in the culture medium. Results Exposure of TMJ fibrochondrocytes to rHuIL-1β resulted in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which were paralleled by NO and PGE2 production. Additionally, IL-1β induced significant levels of collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1 [MMP-1]) within 4 hours, and this was sustained over a period of 48 hours. Concomitant application of CTS abrogated the catabolic effects of IL-1β on TMJ chondrocytes by inhibiting iNOS, COX-2, and MMP-1 mRNA production and NO, PGE2, and MMP-1 synthesis. CTS also counteracted cartilage degradation by augmenting expression of mRNA for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 that is inhibited by rHuIL-1β. In parallel, CTS also counteracted rHuIL-1β–induced suppression of proteoglycan synthesis. Nevertheless, the presence of an inflammatory signal was a prerequisite for the observed CTS actions, because fibrochondrocytes, when exposed to CTS alone, did not exhibit any of the effects described above. Conclusion CTS acts as an effective antagonist of rHuIL-1β by potentially diminishing its catabolic actions on TMJ fibrochondrocytes. Furthermore, CTS actions appear

  3. Tensile strain-rate sensitivity of tungsten/niobium composites at 1300 to 1600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The tensile behavior of continuous tungsten fiber reinforced niobium composites (W/Nb), fabricated by an arc-spray process, was studied in the 1300 to 1600 K temperature range. The tensile properties of the fiber and matrix components as well as of the composites were measured and were compared to rule of mixtures (ROM) predictions. The deviation from the ROM was found to depend upon the chemistry of the tungsten alloy fibers, with positive deviations for ST300/Nb (i.e., stronger composite strength than the ROM) and negative or zero deviations for 218/Nb.

  4. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Raphael; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gerard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-04

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  5. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Raphaël; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gérard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  6. Effects of strain-rate and pre-fatigue on tensile properties of laser welded joint of high strength steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Daimaruya, M.; Tsuda, H.; Horikawa, K.

    2006-08-01

    The impact tensile properties of laser welded butt joints of two kinds of high strength steel plates with the tensile strength level of 590 MPa and 780 MPa (denoted by HR590 and HR780, respectively), were investigated using split Hopkinson bar tensile testing apparatus. Impact tension tests for the joint specimens pre-fatigued were also carried out to examine the effect of pre-fatigue. There were no significant effects of strain-rate and pre-fatigue on the dynamic and quasi-static tensile strength of laser welded butt joints. However, the decrease in the elongation of HR780 welded joints subjected high cycle pre-fatigue was observed only at a high strain-rate. From the observation of fracture surface, it was found that the decrease in the elongation may be caused by a number of damages due to the combination of high cycle pre-fatigue and high strain-rate.

  7. Inherently-Forced Tensile Strain in Nanodiamond-Derived Onion-like Carbon: Consequences in Defect-Induced Electrochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young-Jin; Cho, Jung-Min; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon; Choi, Heon-Jin; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the nanodiamond-derived onion-like carbon (OLC) as function of synthesis temperature (1000~1400 °C), by high-resolution electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, visible-Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The temperature dependences of the obtained properties (averaged particle size, tensile strain, defect density, density of states, electron transfer kinetics, and electrochemical oxidation current) unanimously coincided: they initially increased and saturated at 1200 °C. It was attributed to the inherent tensile strains arising from (1) the volume expansion associated with the layer-wise diamond-to-graphite transformation of the core, which caused forced dilation of the outer shells during their thermal synthesis; (2) the extreme curvature of the shells. The former origin was dominant over the latter at the outermost shell, of which the relevant evolution in defect density, DOS and electron transfer kinetics determined the electrochemical performances. In detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) using the OLC as electrode, their oxidation peak currents were enhanced by factors of 15~60 with annealing temperature. Their limit of detection and the linear range of detection, in the post-treatment-free condition, were as excellent as those of the nano-carbon electrodes post-treated by Pt-decoration, N-doping, plasma, or polymer. PMID:27032957

  8. Inherently-Forced Tensile Strain in Nanodiamond-Derived Onion-like Carbon: Consequences in Defect-Induced Electrochemical Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Young-Jin; Cho, Jung-Min; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon; Choi, Heon-Jin; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the nanodiamond-derived onion-like carbon (OLC) as function of synthesis temperature (1000~1400 °C), by high-resolution electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, visible-Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The temperature dependences of the obtained properties (averaged particle size, tensile strain, defect density, density of states, electron transfer kinetics, and electrochemical oxidation current) unanimously coincided: they initially increased and saturated at 1200 °C. It was attributed to the inherent tensile strains arising from (1) the volume expansion associated with the layer-wise diamond-to-graphite transformation of the core, which caused forced dilation of the outer shells during their thermal synthesis; (2) the extreme curvature of the shells. The former origin was dominant over the latter at the outermost shell, of which the relevant evolution in defect density, DOS and electron transfer kinetics determined the electrochemical performances. In detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) using the OLC as electrode, their oxidation peak currents were enhanced by factors of 15~60 with annealing temperature. Their limit of detection and the linear range of detection, in the post-treatment-free condition, were as excellent as those of the nano-carbon electrodes post-treated by Pt-decoration, N-doping, plasma, or polymer.

  9. Semiconductor-topological insulator transition of two-dimensional SbAs induced by biaxial tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengli; Xie, Meiqiu; Cai, Bo; Zhang, Haijun; Ma, Yandong; Chen, Zhongfang; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Ziyu; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    A stibarsen [derived from Latin stibium (antimony) and arsenic] or allemontite, is a natural form of arsenic antimonide (SbAs) with the same layered structure as arsenic and antimony. Thus, exploring the two-dimensional SbAs nanosheets is of great importance to gain insights into the properties of group V-V compounds at the atomic scale. Here, we propose a class of two-dimensional V-V honeycomb binary compounds, SbAs monolayers, which can be tuned from semiconductor to topological insulator. By ab initio density functional theory, both α-SbAs and γ-SbAs display a significant direct band gap, while others are indirect semiconductors. Interestingly, in an atomically thin β-SbAs polymorph, spin-orbital coupling is significant, which reduces its band gap by 200 meV. Especially under biaxial tensile strain, the gap of β-SbAs can be closed and reopened with concomitant change of band shapes, which is reminiscent of band inversion known in many topological insulators. In addition, we find that the Z2 topological invariant is 1 for β-SbAs under the tensile strain of 12%, and the nontrivial topological feature of β-SbAs is also confirmed by the gapless edge states which cross linearly at the Γ point. These ultrathin group-V-V semiconductors with outstanding properties are highly favorable for applications in alternative optoelectronic and quantum spin Hall devices.

  10. Dynamic-tensile-extrusion response of fluoropolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric N; Trujillo, Carl P; Gray, George T

    2009-01-01

    The current work applies the recently developed Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) technique to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE). Similar to the Taylor Impact Rod, Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion is a strongly integrated test, probing a wide range of strain rates and stress states. However, the stress state is primarily tensile enabling investigation of dynamic tensile failure modes. Here we investigate the influence of this propensity to neck or not between PCTFE and PTFE on their response under dynamic tensile extrusion loading. The results of the Dyn-Ten-Ext technique are compared with two classic techniques. Both polymers have been investigated using Tensile Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The quasistatic and dynamic responses of both fluoro-polymers have been extensively characterized. The two polymers exhibit significantly different failure behavior under tensile loading at moderate strain rates. Polytetrafluoroethylene resists formation of a neck and exhibits significant strain hardening. Independent of temperature or strain rate, PTFE sustains true strains to failure of approximately 1.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, on the other hand, consistently necks at true strains of approximately 0.05.

  11. Resistance fail strain gage technology as applied to composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Existing strain gage technologies as applied to orthotropic composite materials are reviewed. The bonding procedures, transverse sensitivity effects, errors due to gage misalignment, and temperature compensation methods are addressed. Numerical examples are included where appropriate. It is shown that the orthotropic behavior of composites can result in experimental error which would not be expected based on practical experience with isotropic materials. In certain cases, the transverse sensitivity of strain gages and/or slight gage misalignment can result in strain measurement errors.

  12. Tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Takeshi Furukawa, Takuro; Toma, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Susumu

    2015-09-14

    By means of a hybrid density-functional method, we investigate the tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge. We consider [001], [111], and [110] uniaxial tensility and (001), (111), and (110) biaxial tensility. Under the condition of no normal stress, we determine both normal compression and internal strain, namely, relative displacement of two atoms in the primitive unit cell, by minimizing the total energy. We identify those strain types which can induce the band-gap transition, and evaluate the critical strain coefficient where the gap transition occurs. Either normal compression or internal strain operates unfavorably to induce the gap transition, which raises the critical strain coefficient or even blocks the transition. We also examine how each type of tensile strain decreases the band-gap energy, depending on its orientation. Our analysis clearly shows that synergistic operation of strain orientation and band anisotropy has a great influence on the gap transition and the gap energy.

  13. Tensile stress-strain and work hardening behaviour of P9 steel for wrapper application in sodium cooled fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, J.; Choudhary, B. K.; Isaac Samuel, E.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile flow behaviour of P9 steel with different silicon content has been examined in the framework of Hollomon, Ludwik, Swift, Ludwigson and Voce relationships for a wide temperature range (300-873 K) at a strain rate of 1.3 × 10 -3 s -1. Ludwigson equation described true stress ( σ)-true plastic strain ( ɛ) data most accurately in the range 300-723 K. At high temperatures (773-873 K), Ludwigson equation reduces to Hollomon equation. The variations of instantaneous work hardening rate ( θ = dσ/ dɛ) and θσ with stress indicated two-stage work hardening behaviour. True stress-true plastic strain, flow parameters, θ vs. σ and θσ vs. σ with respect to temperature exhibited three distinct temperature regimes and displayed anomalous behaviour due to dynamic strain ageing at intermediate temperatures. Rapid decrease in flow stress and flow parameters, and rapid shift in θ- σ and θσ- σ towards lower stresses with increase in temperature indicated dominance of dynamic recovery at high temperatures.

  14. Effect of test temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1997-04-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of wrought GlidCop AL25 (ITER grade zero, IGO) solutionized and aged CuCrZr, and cold-worked and aged and solutionized and aged Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C at strain rates between 4 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} and 0.06 s{sup {minus}1}. The measured room temperature electrical conductivity ranged from 64 to 90% IACS for the different alloys. All of the alloys were relatively insensitive to strain rate at room temperature, but the strain rate sensitivity of GlidCop Al25 increased significantly with increasing temperature. The CuNiBe alloys exhibited the best combination of high strength and high conductivity at room temperature. The strength of CuNiBe decreased slowly with increasing temperature. However, the ductility of CuNiBe decreased rapidly with increasing temperature due to localized deformation near grain boundaries, making these alloy heats unsuitable for typical structural applications above 300{degrees}C. The strength and uniform elongation of GlidCop Al25 decreased significantly with increasing temperature at a strain rate of 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}, whereas the total elongation was independent of test temperature. The strength and ductility of CuCrZr decreased slowly with increasing temperature.

  15. Tensile strain / transverse compressive stress effects in Nb{sub 3}Sn multifilamentary wires with CuNb reinforcing stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, K.; Shoji, Y.; Noto, K.

    1997-06-01

    In order to improve the strain/stress characteristics of the critical current I{sub c}, the use of external CuNb reinforcing stabilizer, instead of the conventional Cu stabilizer, with bronze processed Nb{sub 3}Sn multifilamentary superconducting wires was examined up to the magnetic field of 14T and at a temperature of 4.2K. Although the axial tensile strain sensitivity of I{sub c} was not changed, the strain for peak I{sub c} as well as the reversible strain limit increased by 0.14% when the Cu stabilizer was replaced by the CuNb reinforcing stabilizer. On the other hand, the transverse compressive stress sensitivity of I{sub c} decreased and the reversible stress limit increased. An increase in both a bronze to Nb ratio and Sn content in bronze matrix resulted in a higher stress tolerance and, as a consequence, the contribution of the CuNb reinforcement became relatively small.

  16. The molecular kink paradigm for rubber elasticity: numerical simulations of explicit polyisoprene networks at low to moderate tensile strains.

    PubMed

    Hanson, David E

    2011-08-07

    Based on recent molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations of small isoprene molecules, we propose a new ansatz for rubber elasticity. We envision a network chain as a series of independent molecular kinks, each comprised of a small number of backbone units, and the strain as being imposed along the contour of the chain. We treat chain extension in three distinct force regimes: (Ia) near zero strain, where we assume that the chain is extended within a well defined tube, with all of the kinks participating simultaneously as entropic elastic springs, (II) when the chain becomes sensibly straight, giving rise to a purely enthalpic stretching force (until bond rupture occurs) and, (Ib) a linear entropic regime, between regimes Ia and II, in which a force limit is imposed by tube deformation. In this intermediate regime, the molecular kinks are assumed to be gradually straightened until the chain becomes a series of straight segments between entanglements. We assume that there exists a tube deformation tension limit that is inversely proportional to the chain path tortuosity. Here we report the results of numerical simulations of explicit three-dimensional, periodic, polyisoprene networks, using these extension-only force models. At low strain, crosslink nodes are moved affinely, up to an arbitrary node force limit. Above this limit, non-affine motion of the nodes is allowed to relax unbalanced chain forces. Our simulation results are in good agreement with tensile stress vs. strain experiments.

  17. Numerical simulations of rubber networks at moderate to high tensile strains using a purely enthalpic force extension curve for individual chains

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Edward

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of numerical simulations of random, three-dimensional, periodic, tetrafunctional networks in response to a volume-preserving tensile strain. For the intranode force, we use a polynomial fit to a purely enthalpic ab initio force extension curve for extended polyisoprene. The simulation includes a relaxation procedure to minimize the node forces and enforces chain rupture when the extension of a network chain reaches the ab initio rupture strain. For the reasonable assumption that the distribution of network chain lengths is Gaussian, we find that the calculated snap-back velocity, temperature increase due to chain ruptures and predicted tensile stress versus strain curve are consistent with experimental data in the moderate to high extension regime. Our results show that a perfect tetrafunctional polyisoprene network is extremely robust, capable of supporting tensile stresses at least a factor of 10 greater than what is observed experimentally.

  18. Type-II recombination dynamics of tensile-strained GaP quantum dots in GaAs grown by droplet epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prongjit, Patchareewan; Ratanathammaphan, Somchai; Ha, Neul; Mano, Takaaki; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Kuroda, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We use droplet epitaxy to create tensile-strained GaP quantum dots in a GaAs matrix. A strong biaxial tensile strain leads to the formation of a type-II band lineup with a transition energy lower than the bulk GaAs band gap. The luminescence transients exhibit highly non-exponential decay behavior with an average time constant of 11 ± 2 μs, which is more than three orders of magnitude longer than the lifetime of standard type-I quantum dots. The prolonged luminescence decay time for the GaP/GaAs dots confirms the formation of the type-II band alignment associated with the tensile strain.

  19. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent mechanism of defect formation and fracture in carbon nanotubes under tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Raha, S.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical forces play a major role in nanotube-based materials and devices. Under high-energy electron transport or high current densities, carbon nanotubes fail via sequential fracture. The failure sequence is governed by certain length scale and flow of current. We report a unified phenomenological model derived from molecular dynamic simulation data, which successfully captures the important physics of the complex failure process. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent defect nucleation, growth, and fracture in single-walled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range of 0.47 to 2.03 nm and length which is about 6.17 to 26.45 nm are simulated. Nanotubes with long length and small diameter show brittle fracture, while those with short length and large diameter show transition from ductile to brittle fracture. In short nanotubes with small diameters, we observe several structural transitions like Stone-Wales defect initiation, its propagation to larger void nucleation, formation of multiple chains of atoms, conversion to monatomic chain of atoms, and finally complete fracture of the carbon nanotube. Hybridization state of carbon-carbon bonds near the end cap evolves, leading to the formation of monatomic chain in short nanotubes with small diameter. Transition from ductile to brittle fracture is also observed when strain rate exceeds a critical value. A generalized analytical model of failure is established, which correlates the defect energy during the formation of atomic chain with aspect ratio of the nanotube and strain rate. Variation in the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain with the size and strain rate shows important implications in mitigating force fields and ways to enhance the life of electronic devices and nanomaterial conversion via fracture in manufacturing.

  20. Cardiomyogenesis of periodontal ligament-derived stem cells by dynamic tensile strain.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Daniel; Acosta Torres, Zenith; Ng, Tsz Kin; Choy, Kwong Wai; Pang, Chi Pui; Cheung, Herman S

    2017-02-01

    Cellular therapies for the treatment of myocardial infarction have proven to be an invaluable tool in recent years and provide encouraging evidence for the possibility to restore normal heart function. However, questions still remain as to the optimal cell source, pre-conditioning methods and delivery techniques for such an application. This study explores the use of a population of stem cells arising from the neural crest and isolated from adult human periodontal ligament along with short-term mechanical strain as an inducer of cardiomyogenesis and possibly pre-conditioning stimulus for cellular cardiomyoplasty. Cells were subjected to a short-term dynamic mechanical tension in our custom-built bioreactor and analyzed for cardiomyogenic commitment. Mechanical strain elicited a cardiomyogenic response from the cells following just 2 h of stimulation. Mechanical strain activated and translocated cardiac-specific transcription factors GATA4, MEF2C and Nkx2.5, and induced expression of the sarcomeric actin and cardiac troponin T proteins. Mechanical strain induced production of significantly higher levels of nitric oxide when compared to static controls. Elimination of elevated ROS levels by free radical scavengers completely abolished the cardiomyogenic response of the cells. MicroRNA profile changes in stretched cells were detected for 39 miRNAs with 16 of the differentially expressed miRNAs related to heart development. The use of stem cells in combination with mechanical strain prior to their delivery in vivo may pose a valuable alternative for the treatment of myocardial infarction and merits further exploration for its capacity to augment the already observed beneficial effects of cellular therapies.

  1. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  2. Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  3. Use of Slow Strain Rate Tensile Testing to Assess the Ability of Several Superalloys to Resist Environmentally-Assisted Intergranular Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Banik, Anthony; McDevitt, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Intergranular fatigue crack initiation and growth due to environmental degradation, especially at notched features, can often limit the fatigue life of disk superalloys at high temperatures. For clear comparisons, the effects of alloy composition on cracking in air needs to be understood and compared separately from variables associated with notches and cracks such as effective stress concentration, plastic flow, stress relaxation, and stress redistribution. The objective of this study was to attempt using simple tensile tests of specimens with uniform gage sections to compare the effects of varied alloy composition on environment-assisted cracking of several powder metal and cast and wrought superalloys including ME3, LSHR, Udimet 720(TradeMark) ATI 718Plus(Registered TradeMark) alloy, Haynes 282(Trademark), and Inconel 740(TradeMark) Slow and fast strain-rate tensile tests were found to be a useful tool to compare propensities for intergranular surface crack initiation and growth. The effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile fracture strain and associated failure modes were compared. Environment interactions were determined to often limit ductility, by promoting intergranular surface cracking. The response of various superalloys and heat treatments to slow strain rate tensile testing varied substantially, showing that composition and microstructure can significantly influence environmental resistance to cracking.

  4. Effect of in-plane tensile strain in (100)/(001)-oriented epitaxial PbTiO3 films on their phase transition temperature and tetragonal distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Takaaki; Ichinose, Daichi; Ehara, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Takao; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Tomoaki; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    (100)/(001)-oriented epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3) films with various thicknesses were grown on (100) KTaO3 substrates by pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The change of crystal structure with film thickness and deposition temperature was investigated. The paraelectric phase of 50 and 1000 nm-thick films had a tensile strain of 0.5% and almost 0% at 700 °C, respectively. The phase change temperature from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase, the Curie temperature (Tc), increased with the in-plane strain of the paraelectric phase; that is, Tc increased with decreasing film thickness. In contrast, room-temperature tetragonal distortion decreased as the film became thinner. This study reveals the effect of in-plane tensile strain in (100)/(001)-oriented epitaxial PbTiO3 films with higher Tc and smaller tetragonal distortion at room temperature.

  5. The relationship between the n-value and applied strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolaio, Ciro; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Roth, Felix

    2013-07-01

    The most popular fit for describing the volt-ampere characteristic of a superconducting material is a power law with exponent n. Usually for a Nb3Sn wire the n-index is parametrized as a function of the sole critical current (Ic). An experiment to determine whether the n-index also shows an explicit dependence on the strain (ɛ) has been performed for an ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) wire. From the same wire, three pairs of samples were prepared. The three pairs were mounted on two Ti-ITER barrels, on two 316L stainless steel barrels and on two INCONEL™ alloy C-276 barrels, and heat treated. The critical current was then measured in the field range of 9-15 T. From the Ic measurements it was possible to derive three n versus Ic curves. Each curve corresponds to a different applied strain, as the three barrel materials have different thermal contraction coefficients. By analysing the three curves, the explicit dependence of the n-index on the strain is evaluated. In the strain range covered by the measurements (up to ≈-0.65% intrinsic strain), the n-value scales with the sole critical current Ic.

  6. Temperature increase of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes due to plastic heat dissipation during tensile tests at 0.1-10 s-1 strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellouin de Menibus, Arthur; Auzoux, Quentin; Besson, Jacques; Crépin, Jérôme

    2014-11-01

    This study is focused on the impact of rapid Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) representative strain rates (about 1 s-1 NEA, 2010) on the behavior and fracture of unirradiated cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes. Uniaxial ring tests (HT) and plane strain ring tensile tests (PST) were performed in the 0.1-10 s-1 strain rate range, at 25 °C. The local temperature increase due to plastic dissipation was measured with a high-speed infrared camera. Limited temperature increases were measured at 0.1 s-1 strain rate. Limited but not strongly localized temperature increases were measured at 1 s-1. Large temperature increase were measured at 5 and 10 s-1 (142 °C at 5 s-1 strain rate in HT tests). The local temperature increase induced heterogeneous temperature fields, which enhanced strain localization and resulted in a reduction of the plastic elongation at fracture.

  7. The effect of strain rate on the tensile properties of an Al[sub 2]O[sub 3p]/6061-T6 aluminum metal-matrix composite at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chia Chaw Perng; Jiun Ren Hwang; Ji Liang Doong )

    1993-08-01

    Alumina (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites have recently become candidates for structural materials because of their good specific modulus and strength, and are considered to be valuable materials for aerospace and automobile industry applications. In view of such application, they might be processed or applied in high strain rate loading conditions, such as explosive forming, blast loading and metalworking, etc. Knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the metal matrix composites under high strain rate loading is a prerequisite. However, not much work related to this topic has been done. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the strain rate on the tensile properties of the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3p]/6061-T6 composite at low temperatures.

  8. Strain and load thresholds for cervical muscle recruitment in response to quasi-static tensile stretch of the caprine C5-C6 facet joint capsule.

    PubMed

    Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Lu, Ying; Cavanaugh, John M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cervical muscles to physiologic tensile stretch of cervical facet joint capsule (FJC) at a quasi-static displacement rate of 0.5mm/s. In vivo caprine left C5-C6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile displacement paradigm. EMG activity was recorded during FJC stretch from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels and bilaterally from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups at the C5-C6 level. Onset of muscular activity was later analyzed using visual and computer-based methods. Capsule load and strain at the time of onset were recorded and compared between the muscle groups. Results indicated capsule load was a better indicator of the tensile stretch thresholds for muscular recruitment than capsule strain. MF responded at significantly smaller capsule loads than TR and LC, while TR and LC activation loads were not significantly different. SM did not respond to physiologic FJC stretch. Muscle group recruitment order reflected the muscles' fiber type compositions and functional roles in the spine. This study provides the first evidence that the cervical ligamento-muscular reflex pathways are activated via tensile FJC stretch and extend to superficial and deep musculature on the anterior and posterior aspects of the neck, ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of FJC stretch.

  9. A novel culture morphology resulting from applied mechanical strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grymes, R. A.; Sawyer, C.

    1997-01-01

    To demonstrate that cells both perceive and respond to external force, a strain/relaxation regimen was applied to normal human fetal and aged dermal fibroblasts cultured as monolayers on flexible membranes. The precisely controlled protocol of stretch (20% elongation of the culture membrane) at 6.67 cycles/min caused a progressive change in the monolayers, such that the original randomly distributed pattern of cells became a symmetric, radial distribution as the cell bodies aligned parallel to the applied force. High cell density interfered with the success of re-alignment in the fetal cell cultures observed, which may reflect a preference in this cell strain for cell-cell over cell-matrix contacts. The chronologically aged cells observed did not demonstrate this feature, aligning efficiently at all seeding densities examined. The role of microfilaments in force perception and transmission was investigated through the addition of cytochalasin D in graded doses. Both intercellular interactions and cytoskeletal integrity mediate the morphological response to mechanical strain.

  10. Fabrication of tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn on transparent substrate by nucleation-controlled liquid-phase crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hiroshi; Amamoto, Takashi; Koyama, Masahiro; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    We developed a method of forming single-crystalline germanium-tin (GeSn) alloy on transparent substrates that is based on liquid-phase crystallization. By controlling and designing nucleation during the melting growth process, a highly tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn layer was grown on a quartz substrate without using any crystal-seeds or catalysts. The peak field-effect hole mobility of 423 cm2/V s was obtained for a top-gate single-crystalline GeSn MOSFET on a quartz substrate with a Sn content of 2.6%, indicating excellent crystal quality and mobility enhancement due to Sn incorporation and tensile strain.

  11. Tensile Strain Effects on the Magneto-transport in Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films: Comparison with its Hole-doped Counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Bridget; Neubauer, Samuel; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Ferrone, Natalie; Houston, David; Yong, Grace; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    Magnetoresistance properties of the epitaxial thin films of doped rare earth manganites are known to be influenced by the effect of bi-axial strain induced by lattice mismatch with the substrate. In hole-doped manganites, the effect of both compressive and tensile strain is qualitatively consistent with the expected changes in unit cell symmetry from cubic to tetragonal, leading to Jahn-Teller strain fields that affect the energy levels of Mn3 + energy levels. Recent work in our laboratory on CaMnO3 thin films has pointed out that tetragonal distortions introduced by tensile lattice mismatch strain may also have the effect of modulating the oxygen content of the films in agreement with theoretical models that propose such coupling between strain and oxygen content. Our research focuses on comparing the magneto-transport properties of hole-doped manganite LaCaMnO3 thin films with that of its electron doped counter parts, in an effort to delineate the effects of oxygen stoichiometry changes on magneto-transport from the effects of Jahn-Teller type strain. Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant and Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science and Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies and the NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  12. Wurtzite silicon as a potential absorber in photovoltaics: Tailoring the optical absorption by applying strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödl, C.; Sander, T.; Bechstedt, F.; Vidal, J.; Olsson, P.; Laribi, S.; Guillemoles, J.-F.

    2015-07-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and the optical properties of wurtzite Si (Si-IV). We find an indirect band gap of 0.95 eV (Γ5→M1 ) and an optically forbidden direct gap of 1.63 eV (Γ5→Γ10 ), which is due to a backfolding of the L1 state of Si in the diamond structure (Si-I). Optical absorption spectra including excitonic and local-field effects are calculated. Further, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial strain, and biaxial strain on the absorption properties are investigated. Biaxial tensile strains enhance the optical absorption of Si-IV in the spectral range which is relevant for photovoltaic applications. High biaxial tensile strains (>4 % ) even transform Si-IV into a direct semiconductor.

  13. Characterization of Damage in Triaxial Braid Composites Under Tensile Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fiber composites utilizing flattened, large tow yarns in woven or braided forms are being used in many aerospace applications. Their complex fiber architecture and large unit cell size present challenges in both understanding deformation processes and measuring reliable material properties. This report examines composites made using flattened 12k and 24k standard modulus carbon fiber yarns in a 0 /+60 /-60 triaxial braid architecture. Standard straight-sided tensile coupons are tested with the 0 axial braid fibers either parallel with or perpendicular to the applied tensile load (axial or transverse tensile test, respectively). Nonuniform surface strain resulting from the triaxial braid architecture is examined using photogrammetry. Local regions of high strain concentration are examined to identify where failure initiates and to determine the local strain at the time of initiation. Splitting within fiber bundles is the first failure mode observed at low to intermediate strains. For axial tensile tests splitting is primarily in the 60 bias fibers, which were oriented 60 to the applied load. At higher strains, out-of-plane deformation associated with localized delamination between fiber bundles or damage within fiber bundles is observed. For transverse tensile tests, the splitting is primarily in the 0 axial fibers, which were oriented transverse to the applied load. The initiation and accumulation of local damage causes the global transverse stress-strain curves to become nonlinear and causes failure to occur at a reduced ultimate strain. Extensive delamination at the specimen edges is also observed.

  14. Influence of the applied elastic tensile and compressive stress on the hysteresis curves of Fe-3%Si non-oriented steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertov, O.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of applied elastic tensile stress up to 120 MPa and compressive stress up to 35 MPa on the magnetic hysteresis curves of non-oriented Fe-3%Si steel is studied. In two tensile stress ranges the hysteresis loop changed monotonously - low stress below 10 MPa facilitated the magnetization process, while above 15 MPa tension deteriorated magnetic properties. This difference in behavior corresponds to two different mechanisms - 1) favoring by tensile stress magnetic easy axes closest to the filed direction and 2) appearance of large demagnetizing fields at grain boundaries and the sample surface. Compression continuously deteriorated magnetic properties and made the hysteresis loop constricted above a few MPa. The effective field as a product of two functions - of the magnetization and of the stress gave excellent agreement with experimental curves for both tensile stress ranges and for compression. The sensitivity of magnetization to compression was approximately five times larger than to tension. The complex hysteresis loop behavior under tension and compression was explained on the basis of our previous results on stressed grain-oriented steel of the same composition, in which the magnetic domains were also studied.

  15. Increased molecular mobility in humid silk fibers under tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Knoll, Wiebke; Greving, Imke; Dicko, Cedric; Koza, Michael M.; Krasnov, Igor; Müller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibers are semicrystalline nanocomposite protein fibers with an extraordinary mechanical toughness that changes with humidity. Diffusive or overdamped motion on a molecular level is absent in dry silkworm silk, but present in humid silk at ambient temperature. This microscopic diffusion distinctly depends on the externally applied macroscopic tensile force. Quasielastic and inelastic neutron-scattering data as a function of humidity and of tensile strain on humid silk fibers support the model that both the adsorbed water and parts of the amorphous polymers participate in diffusive motion and are affected by the tensile force. It is notable that the quasielastic linewidth of humid silk at 100% relative humidity increases significantly with the applied force. The effect of the tensile force is discussed in terms of an increasing alignment of the polymer chains in the amorphous fraction with increasing tensile stress which changes the geometrical restrictions of the diffusive motions.

  16. Controlling magnetism of MoS2 sheets by embedding transition-metal atoms and applying strain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yungang; Su, Qiulei; Wang, Zhiguo; Deng, Huiqiu; Zu, Xiaotao

    2013-11-14

    Prompted by recent experimental achievement of transition metal (TM) atoms substituted in MoS2 nanostructures during growth or saturating existing vacancies (Sun et al., ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 3506; Deepak et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 12549), we explored, via density functional theory, the magnetic properties of a series of 3d TM atoms substituted in a MoS2 sheet, and found that Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn substitutions can induce magnetism in the MoS2 sheet. The localizing unpaired 3d electrons of TM atoms respond to the introduction of a magnetic moment. Depending on the species of TM atoms, the substituted MoS2 sheet can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Remarkably, the applied elastic strain can be used to control the strength of the spin-splitting of TM-3d orbitals, leading to an effective manipulation of the magnetism of the TM-substituted MoS2 sheet. We found that the magnetic moment of the Mn- and Fe-substituted MoS2 sheets can monotonously increase with the increase of tensile strain, while the magnetic moment of Co-, Ni-, Cu- and Zn-substituted MoS2 sheets initially increases and then decreases with the increase of tensile strain. An instructive mechanism was proposed to qualitatively explain the variation of magnetism with elastic strain. The finding of the magnetoelastic effect here is technologically important for the fabrication of strain-driven spin devices on MoS2 nanostructures, which allows us to go beyond the current scope limited to the spin devices within graphene and BN-based nanostructures.

  17. Microcracking damage and the fracture process in relation to strain rate in human cortical bone tensile failure.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, Peter; Hansen, Ulrich; Currey, John D

    2008-10-20

    It is difficult to define the 'physiological' mechanical properties of bone. Traumatic failures in-vivo are more likely to be orders of magnitude faster than the quasistatic tests usually employed in-vitro. We have reported recently [Hansen, U., Zioupos, P., Simpson, R., Currey, J.D., Hynd, D., 2008. The effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering/Transactions of the ASME 130, 011011-1-8] results from tests on specimens of human femoral cortical bone loaded in tension at strain rates (epsilon ) ranging from low (0.08s(-1)) to high (18s(-1)). Across this strain rate range the modulus of elasticity generally increased, stress at yield and failure and strain at failure decreased for rates higher than 1s(-1), while strain at yield was invariant for most strain rates and only decreased at rates higher than 10s(-1). The results showed that strain rate has a stronger effect on post-yield deformation than on initiation of macroscopic yielding. In general, specimens loaded at high strain rates were brittle, while those loaded at low strain rates were much tougher. Here, a post-test examination of the microcracking damage reveals that microcracking was inversely related to the strain rate. Specimens loaded at low strain rates showed considerable post-yield strain and also much more microcracking. Partial correlation and regression analysis suggested that the development of post-yield strain was a function of the amount of microcracking incurred (the cause), rather than being a direct result of the strain rate (the excitation). Presumably low strain rates allow time for microcracking to develop, which increases the compliance of the specimen, making them tougher. This behaviour confirms a more general rule that the degree to which bone is brittle or tough depends on the amount of microcracking damage it is able to sustain. More importantly, the key to bone toughness is its ability to avoid a ductile

  18. Photoluminescence of dome and hut shaped Ge(Si) self-assembled islands embedded in a tensile-strained Si layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaleev, M. V.; Novikov, A. V.; Yablonskiy, A. N.; Drozdov, Y. N.; Lobanov, D. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

    2007-07-09

    The effect of the growth temperature (T{sub g}) on photoluminescence of Ge(Si) self-assembled islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers was studied. The observed redshift of the photoluminescence peak of the dome islands with a decrease of T{sub g} from 700 to 630 deg. C is associated with an increase of Ge content in the islands and with the suppression of smearing of the strained Si layers. The blueshift of the photoluminescence peak with a decrease of T{sub g} from 630 to 600 deg. C is associated with a change of the type of islands on surface, which is accompanied by a decrease in islands' height.

  19. Texture gradient evolution in Al-5%Ca-5%Zn sheet alloy after tensile deformation at high superplastic strain rate

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Prado, M.T.; Cristina, M.C.; Torralba, M.; Ruano, O.A.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.

    1996-12-15

    Texture inhomogeneities have been found in many materials. Given the significant influence of texture in industrial processes like superplastic forming of complex-shaped components, it is important to study the evolution of texture gradients under different testing conditions, particularly at high strain rates. Strong through-thickness texture-gradients have been observed in hot rolled Al alloys. As a consequence of the severe deformation during the hot rolling process, a well defined Brass texture-component (B-orientation) {l_brace}011{r_brace}<211> develops in the mid layer. The Al-5%Ca-5%Zn sheet alloy deforms superplastically when tested uniaxially at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C and at strain rates between 10{sup {minus}5}s{sup {minus}1} and 10{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The B-orientation, however, is not present in the texture of the as-rolled material, but it appears after straining in tension along the transverse direction under certain conditions of temperature and moderately high superplastic strain rates. In this work the evolution of the through-thickness texture-gradient in the Al-5%Ca-5% Zn sheet alloy when tested uniaxially in the transverse direction is investigated. Due to the importance of high strain rates in superplastic forming processes, tests at higher strain rates than those usually reported in the literature have been conducted. Current models which predict the appearance of the B-component are criticized on the light of these new findings.

  20. Tensile properties and strain rate sensitivity of Ti-47Al-2Cr-0.2Si sheet material with different microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, H.; Glatz, W.; Appel, F.

    1996-08-01

    New materials based on gamma titanium aluminides (gamma alloys) have emerged as potential candidates for high temperature applications such as aerospace structural components (e.g., airframes, turbine components, thermal protection systems) and automotive parts (e.g., exhaust valves, turbocharger rotors). Because of their low density, high Young`s modulus, high-temperature strength retention, good oxidation and burn resistance, the so-called second generation gamma alloys are able to exceed the application temperature of advanced titanium alloys and also to replace nickel- and iron-based superalloys up to 800C. However, poor formability and low room temperature (RT) ductility resulting in low fracture toughness have limited possible applications. The present paper deals with the dependence of tensile properties of Ti-47Al-2Cr-0.2Si (composition in atomic-%) sheet material on microstructure and test conditions. Four different microstructures, i.e., fine-grained primary annealed (PA), near gamma (NG), duplex (DU) as well as coarse-grained fully lamellar (FL) have been investigated with emphasis on the influence of grain size, phase distribution, and strain rate on tensile properties at 700 C. Fractography was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the influence of temperature on the fracture behavior and to determine the onset of dynamic recrystallization effects.

  1. Space-resolved diffusing wave spectroscopy measurements of the macroscopic deformation and the microscopic dynamics in tensile strain tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagazi, Med-Yassine; Brambilla, Giovanni; Meunier, Gérard; Marguerès, Philippe; Périé, Jean-Noël; Cipelletti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We couple a laser-based, space-resolved dynamic light scattering apparatus to a universal traction machine for mechanical extensional tests. We perform simultaneous optical and mechanical measurements on polyether ether ketone, a semi-crystalline polymer widely used in the industry. Due to the high turbidity of the sample, light is multiply scattered by the sample and the diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) formalism is used to interpret the data. Space-resolved DWS yields spatial maps of the sample strain and of the microscopic dynamics. An excellent agreement is found between the strain maps thus obtained and those measured by a conventional stereo-digital image correlation technique. The microscopic dynamics reveals both affine motion and plastic rearrangements. Thanks to the extreme sensitivity of DWS to displacements as small as 1 nm, plastic activity and its spatial localization can be detected at an early stage of the sample strain, making the technique presented here a valuable complement to existing material characterization methods.

  2. Effect of Zn addition, strain rate and deformation temperature on the tensile properties of Sn-3.3 wt.% Ag solder alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Fawzy, A. . E-mail: afawzy1955@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    Stress-strain characteristics of the binary Sn-3.3 wt.% Ag and the tertiary Sn-3.3 wt.% Ag-1 wt.% Zn solder alloys were investigated at various strain rates (SR, {epsilon} {sup .}) from 2.6 x 10{sup -4} to 1.0 x 10{sup -2} s{sup -1} and deformation temperatures from 300 to 373 K. Addition of 1 wt.% Zn to the binary alloy increased the yield stress {sigma} {sub y} and the ultimate tensile stress {sigma} {sub UTS} while a decrease of ductility (total elongation {epsilon} {sub T}) was observed. Increasing the strain rate ({epsilon} {sup .}) increased both {sigma} {sub y} and {sigma} {sub UTS} according to the power law {sigma} = C {epsilon} {sup .m}. A normal decrease of {epsilon} {sub T} with strain rate was observed according to an empirical equation of the form {epsilon} {sub T} = A exp (- {lambda}{epsilon} {sup .}); A and {lambda} are constants. Increasing the deformation temperature decreased both {sigma} {sub y} and {sigma} {sub UTS} in both alloys, and decreased the total elongation {epsilon} {sub T} in the Zn-free binary alloy, whereas {epsilon} {sub T} was increased in the Zn-containing alloy. The activation energy was determined as 41 and 20 kJ mol{sup -1} for these alloys, respectively. The results obtained were interpreted in terms of the variation of the internal microstructure in both alloys. The internal microstructural variations in the present study were evaluated by optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show the importance of Zn addition in enhancing the mechanical strength of the Sn-3.3 wt.% Ag base alloy.

  3. The tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite posterior to hydrostatic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, S.; Eto, M.

    1983-10-01

    The effects of prehydrostatic loading on microstructural changes and tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite have been examined. Scanning electron micrographs show that formation of microcracks associated with delamination between basal planes occurs under hydrostatic loading. Hydrostatic loading on specimens results in the decrease in tensile strength and increase in residual strain generated by the applied tensile stress at various levels, indicating that the graphite material is weakened by hydrostatic loading. A relationship between residual strain and applied tensile stress for graphite hydrostatically-loaded at several pressure levels can be approximately expressed as ɛ = ( AP + B) σn over a wide range hydrostatic pressure, where ɛ, P and σ denote residual strain, hydrostatic pressure and applied tensile stress, respectively; A, B and n are constants. The effects of prehydrostatic loading on the tensile stress-strain behavior of the graphite were examined in more detail. The ratio of stress after hydrostatic loading to that before hydrostatic loading on the stress-strain relationship remains almost unchanged irrespective of strain.

  4. The entropy of the rotational conformations of (poly)isoprene molecules and its relationship to rubber elasticity and temperature increase for moderate tensile or compressive strains.

    PubMed

    Hanson, David E; Barber, John L; Subramanian, Gopinath

    2013-12-14

    Molecular networks comprised of crosslinked cis-1,4 polyisoprene, often referred to as "natural rubber," are one of the most common systems for the study of rubber elasticity. Under moderate tensile or compressive strain, network chains begin to assume straighter paths, as local molecular kinks are removed. Isoprene units along the chain backbone are mechanically forced from their equilibrium distributions of 18 possible rotational states into a smaller subset of states, restricted to more linear conformations with the greatest end-to-end distances. There are two consequences to this change: both the configurational entropy and average internal energy decrease. We find that the change in entropy, and resulting change in free energy, gives rise to an elastic force. We derive an expression for a chain extension force constant that we have incorporated in an explicit, three-dimensional meso-scale network simulation code. Using this force model, our simulations predict a macroscopic stress-strain relationship that closely matches published experimental values. We also predict a slight increase in temperature resulting from the change in average internal energy in the affected isoprene units that is consistent with experiments.

  5. The entropy of the rotational conformations of (poly)isoprene molecules and its relationship to rubber elasticity and temperature increase for moderate tensile or compressive strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.; Subramanian, Gopinath

    2013-12-01

    Molecular networks comprised of crosslinked cis-1,4 polyisoprene, often referred to as "natural rubber," are one of the most common systems for the study of rubber elasticity. Under moderate tensile or compressive strain, network chains begin to assume straighter paths, as local molecular kinks are removed. Isoprene units along the chain backbone are mechanically forced from their equilibrium distributions of 18 possible rotational states into a smaller subset of states, restricted to more linear conformations with the greatest end-to-end distances. There are two consequences to this change: both the configurational entropy and average internal energy decrease. We find that the change in entropy, and resulting change in free energy, gives rise to an elastic force. We derive an expression for a chain extension force constant that we have incorporated in an explicit, three-dimensional meso-scale network simulation code. Using this force model, our simulations predict a macroscopic stress-strain relationship that closely matches published experimental values. We also predict a slight increase in temperature resulting from the change in average internal energy in the affected isoprene units that is consistent with experiments.

  6. Effect of Biaxial Stretching at Temperatures and Strain Histories Comparable to Injection Stretch Blow Moulding on Tensile Modulus for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. W.; Menary, G. H.; Harkin-Jones, E. M. A.; Armstrong, C. G.; Martin, P. J.

    2007-04-01

    This study is particularly relevant to the injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process where PET material is typically biaxially stretched to form bottles for the water and carbonated soft drinks industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a custom built biaxial testing machine. An initially amorphous PET sample was prepared via injection moulding to form a square sample (76mm × 76mm) suitable for stretching on the machine. This sample was then subjected to a series of biaxial tests (simultaneous and sequential) within a temperature range between 85°C and 110 °C, strain rates in the range of 1s-1 to 32s-1 and stretch ratios in the range of 1.5 to 3. Specimens were subsequently cut from the biaxial stretched sheets and used to measure the tensile modulus. Results showed that there is almost no effect found for strain rate and temperature on modulus development whilst stretch ratio and mode of deformation played the most important role on modulus development on PET under biaxial deformation.

  7. Tensile Properties and Viscoelastic Model of a Polyimide Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengde; Mori, Syuhei; Sakane, Masao; Nagasawa, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    This paper presents tensile properties of a polyimide thin film used in electronic devices. Tensile tests were performed to determine Young's modulus, proportional limit, yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the polyimide film. Effects of strain rate and temperature on the tensile properties were discussed. There was a little effect of strain rate on Young's modulus but proportional limit, yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased with increasing strain rate. Only elongation decreased with strain rate. Young's modulus, proportional limit, yield stress and ultimate tensile strength decreased with increasing temperature, but elongation increased. Applicability of a viscoelastic model for describing the stress-strain curves of the polyimide film was discussed.

  8. Tensile Fracture of Ductile Materials. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    For brittle materials, circular voids play an important role relative to fracture, intensifing both tensile and compressive stresses. A maximum intensified tensile stress failure criterion applies quite well to brittle materials. An attempt was made to explore the possibility of extending the approach to the tensile fracture of ductile materials. The three dimensional voids that exist in reality are modelled by circular holes in sheet metal. Mathematical relationships are sought between the shape and size of the hole, after the material is plastically deformed, and the amount of deformation induced. Then, the effect of hole shape, size and orientation on the mechanical properties is considered experimentally. The presence of the voids does not affect the ultimate tensile strength of the ductile materials because plastic flow wipes out the stress intensification caused by them. However, the shape and orientation of the defect is found to play an important role in affecting the strain at fracture.

  9. Unified tensile fracture criterion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Eckert, J

    2005-03-11

    We find that the classical failure criteria, i.e., maximum normal stress criterion, Tresca criterion, Mohr-Coulomb criterion, and von Mises criterion, cannot satisfactorily explain the tensile fracture behavior of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials. For a better description, we propose an ellipse criterion as a new failure criterion to unify the four classical criteria above and apply it to exemplarily describe the tensile fracture behavior of BMGs as well as a variety of other materials. It is suggested that each of the classical failure criteria can be unified by the present ellipse criterion depending on the difference of the ratio alpha=tau(0)/sigma(0).

  10. Effect of applied tensile stress on the hysteresis curve and magnetic domain structure of grain-oriented transverse Fe-3%Si steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertov, O.; Thielsch, J.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of an elastic applied tensile stress on the quasistatic hysteresis curve and domain structure in conventional (110) [001] Fe-3%Si steel, cut transversely to the rolling direction, is studied. The magnetic domains and magnetization processes were observed by longitudinal Kerr microscopy at different levels of stress. It is shown that above 8 MPa the bulk hysteresis loop can be described with a good accuracy by the action of an effective field, which is the product of the stress and a function of magnetization. Domain observation reveals that the reasons for the effective field are demagnetizing fields due to the disappearance of supplementary domains at low applied field and the formation of different domain systems in different grains at low and moderate fields. The latter are caused by differences in grain sensitivity to stress depending on the degree of misorientation and grain boundary orientation. A decrease of the effective field above 1 T is connected with a transformation of all grains into the same domain system - the column pattern. The hysteresis loop behavior is qualitatively the same as for strips cut in rolling direction and for non-oriented strips.

  11. Tuning magnetism of monolayer MoS{sub 2} by doping vacancy and applying strain

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Huiling; Yang, Baishun; Han, Ruilin; Du, Xiaobo; Yan, Yu; Wang, Dingdi

    2014-03-31

    In view of important role of inducing and manipulating the magnetism in two-dimensional materials for the development of low-dimensional spintronic devices, the influences of strain on electronic structure and magnetic properties of commonly observed vacancies doped monolayer MoS{sub 2} are investigated using first-principles calculations. It is shown that unstrained V{sub S}, V{sub S2}, and V{sub MoS3} doped monolayer MoS{sub 2} systems are nonmagnetic, while the ground state of unstrained V{sub MoS6} doped system is magnetic and the magnetic moment is contributed mainly by six Mo atoms around V{sub MoS6}. In particular, tensile strain can induce magnetic moments in V{sub S}, V{sub S2}, and V{sub MoS3} doped monolayer MoS{sub 2} due to the breaking of Mo–Mo metallic bonds around the vacancies, while the magnetization induced by V{sub MoS6} can be effectively manipulated by equibiaxial strain due to the change of Mo–Mo metallic bonds around V{sub MoS6} under strains.

  12. Mini-tensile specimen application for sheets characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Džugan, J.; Rund, M.; Prantl, A.; Konopík, P.

    2017-02-01

    There are many cases when there is a shortage of the experimental material for detailed analysis and then small size specimens techniques becomes essential. The current paper deals with investigations of mini-tensile tests (MTT) application to metal sheets characterization. In the case of metal sheets assessment the most common are tensile tests for Lankford parameters and strain hardening determination. As most of the processes are not quasi-static and constant strain rate processes, thus assessment of strain rate hardening is also crucial part of the characterization. Previously developed and verified testing procedure of M-TTs for bulk materials is applied here for steel sheet made of DC01 characterization. Tests under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions are carried out in order to describe above mentioned properties at room temperature. Accurate strain measurement is carried out with digital image correlation systems and results obtained with M-TTs are going to be confronted with standard size specimens’ results.

  13. Effect of Prior Exposure at Elevated Temperatures on Tensile Properties and Stress-Strain Behavior of Three Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Dr. Richard Hall Member iv AFIT-ENY-MS-15-M-228 Abstract Thermal stability of three oxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites was...degradation of the aluminosilicate matrix. The N720/A composite exhibited excellent thermal stability, retaining about 90% of its tensile strength...Testware SEM Scanning Electron Microscope TEM Transmission Electron Microscope TPS Thermal Protection Systems UTS Ultimate Tensile Strength

  14. PBX 9502 TENSILE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, D.J.; Larson, S.A.

    2000-10-01

    With the recent creation of the PX HE Core Surveillance Database, individual specimen surveillance values can be easily compared to the corresponding individual qualification values to evaluate for trends. A review of the data shows a broad scatter in measured stress-strain values. Using the available HE surveillance database, it is clear that the surveillance measurements from the two Cycle 15 charges fall within the range of qualification stress and strain values recorded previously for PBX 9502 lots and that no apparent stockpile-age related trends are evident in the tensile stress-strain data. As a result of this investigation, some changes are being made to the core surveillance specifications to minimize the effects on tensile data scatter due to temperature and humidity differences and method to method changes. These data analyses do point out the need for a comprehensive understanding of the effect of a number of variables, i.e. formulation and pressing method, density, stockpile age, lot-to-lot variations, temperature, and humidity on the mechanical property behavior of HE composite materials. Too often data have been compared without the relevant details made available to determine if the test conditions were nominally the same or different. These results also point out the critical need to establish useful stress-strain limits for qualification and surveillance testing of HEs.

  15. Origins of Ripples in CVD-Grown Few-layered MoS2 Structures under Applied Strain at Atomic Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Namburu, Raju R.; Dubey, Madan; Dongare, Avinash M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of the applicability of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) structures, in various electronics, optoelectronics, and flexible devices requires a fundamental understanding of the effects of strain on the electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Particularly important is the recent capability to grow large flakes of few-layered structures using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) wherein the top layers are relatively smaller in size than the bottom layers, resulting in the presence of edges/steps across adjacent layers. This paper investigates the strain response of such suspended few-layered structures at the atomic scales using classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations suggest that the suspended CVD-grown structures are able to relax the applied in-plane strain through the nucleation of ripples under both tensile and compressive loading conditions. The presence of terraced edges in these structures is the cause for the nucleation of ripples at the edges that grow towards the center of the structure under applied in-plane strains. The peak amplitudes of ripples observed are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The study provides critical insights into the mechanisms of strain relaxation of suspended few-layered MoS2 structures that determine the interplay between the mechanical response and the electronic properties of CVD-grown structures. PMID:28102351

  16. Origins of Ripples in CVD-Grown Few-layered MoS2 Structures under Applied Strain at Atomic Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Namburu, Raju R.; Dubey, Madan; Dongare, Avinash M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of the applicability of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) structures, in various electronics, optoelectronics, and flexible devices requires a fundamental understanding of the effects of strain on the electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Particularly important is the recent capability to grow large flakes of few-layered structures using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) wherein the top layers are relatively smaller in size than the bottom layers, resulting in the presence of edges/steps across adjacent layers. This paper investigates the strain response of such suspended few-layered structures at the atomic scales using classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations suggest that the suspended CVD-grown structures are able to relax the applied in-plane strain through the nucleation of ripples under both tensile and compressive loading conditions. The presence of terraced edges in these structures is the cause for the nucleation of ripples at the edges that grow towards the center of the structure under applied in-plane strains. The peak amplitudes of ripples observed are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The study provides critical insights into the mechanisms of strain relaxation of suspended few-layered MoS2 structures that determine the interplay between the mechanical response and the electronic properties of CVD-grown structures.

  17. Modelling of the effect of dislocation channel on intergranular microcrack nucleation in pre-irradiated austenitic stainless steels during low strain rate tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Pierre; Sauzay, Maxime

    2010-10-01

    In the present article, the effect of dislocation channel on intergranular microcrack nucleation during the tensile deformation of pre-irradiated austenitic stainless steels is studied. Because several slip planes are activated within the dislocation channel, the simple dislocation pile-up model seems not well suited to predict grain boundary stress field. Finite element computations, using crystal plasticity laws and meshes including a channel of finite thickness, are also performed in order to study the effect of some microstructural characteristics on grain boundary stress field. Numerical results show that: the thickness and the length of the dislocation channel influence strongly the grain boundary normal stress field. The grain boundary orientation with respect the stress axis does not affect so much the grain boundary normal stresses close to the dislocation channel. On the contrary far away the dislocation channel, the grain boundary stress field depends on the grain boundary orientation. Based on these numerical results, an analytical model is proposed to predict grain boundary stress fields. It is valuable for large ranges of dislocation channel thickness, length as well as applied stress. Then, a macroscopic microcrack nucleation criterion is deduced based on the elastic-brittle Griffith model. The proposed criterion predicts correctly the influence of grain boundary characteristics (low-angle boundaries (LABs), non-coincident site lattice (non-CSL) high-angle boundaries (HABs), special grain boundaries (GBs)) on intergranular microcrack nucleation and the macroscopic tensile stress required for grain boundary microcrack nucleation for pre-irradiated austenitic stainless steels deformed in argon environment. The criterion based on a dislocation pile-up model (Smith and Barnby) underestimates strongly the nucleation stress. These results confirm that pile-up models are not well suited to predict microcrack nucleation stress in the case of dislocation

  18. Dynamic High-Temperature Tensile Characterization of an Iridium Alloy with Kolsky Tension Bar Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Lipinski, Ronald; Bignell, John; Ulrich, G. B.; George, Easo P.

    2015-05-29

    In this study, conventional Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified to characterize an iridium alloy in tension at elevated strain rates and temperatures. The specimen was heated to elevated temperatures with an induction coil heater before dynamic loading; whereas, a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was applied to directly measure the displacements at both ends of the tensile specimen in order to calculate the strain in the specimen. A pair of high-sensitivity semiconductor strain gages was used to measure the weak transmitted force due to the low flow stress in the thin specimen at elevated temperatures. The dynamic high-temperature tensile stress–strain curves of a DOP-26 iridium alloy were experimentally obtained at two different strain rates (~1000 and 3000 s-1) and temperatures (~750 and 1030°C). The effects of strain rate and temperature on the tensile stress–strain response of the iridium alloy were determined. Finally, the iridium alloy exhibited high ductility in stress–strain response that strongly depended on strain-rate and temperature.

  19. Dynamic High-Temperature Tensile Characterization of an Iridium Alloy with Kolsky Tension Bar Techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Lipinski, Ronald; ...

    2015-05-29

    In this study, conventional Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified to characterize an iridium alloy in tension at elevated strain rates and temperatures. The specimen was heated to elevated temperatures with an induction coil heater before dynamic loading; whereas, a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was applied to directly measure the displacements at both ends ofmore » the tensile specimen in order to calculate the strain in the specimen. A pair of high-sensitivity semiconductor strain gages was used to measure the weak transmitted force due to the low flow stress in the thin specimen at elevated temperatures. The dynamic high-temperature tensile stress–strain curves of a DOP-26 iridium alloy were experimentally obtained at two different strain rates (~1000 and 3000 s-1) and temperatures (~750 and 1030°C). The effects of strain rate and temperature on the tensile stress–strain response of the iridium alloy were determined. Finally, the iridium alloy exhibited high ductility in stress–strain response that strongly depended on strain-rate and temperature.« less

  20. Controlling Polarization of 1.55-μm Columnar InAs Quantum Dots with Highly Tensile-Strained InGaAsP Barriers on InP(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Yasuoka, Nami; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Ebe, Hiroji; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2006-12-01

    The optical polarization properties of columnar InAs quantum dots (QDs) on InP substrate grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy were investigated. The polarization of photoluminescence was found to strongly depend on the strain in QDs as well as the shape of QDs. We successfully changed the polarization properties from a transverse-electric-dominant to a transverse-magnetic-dominant regime by controlling the height of coupled QDs based on the stacking number and by controlling strain within QDs based on the thickness of 3.7%-tensile-strained barriers. Highly strained side barriers were required to change the polarization of QDs, which is considered to be due to wetting layers acting in maintaining biaxial-compressive strain in QDs. Polarization-insensitive QDs with the 1.55-μm telecom region were obtained, which promises to provide polarization-insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers.

  1. Direct observation of crack opening as a function of applied load in the interior of a notched tensile sample of Al-Li 2090

    SciTech Connect

    Guvenilir, A.; Breunig, T.M.; Stock, S.R.; Kinney, J.H.

    1997-05-01

    Results of in situ high resolution X-ray computed tomography are reported for a notched tensile sample of Al-Li 2090 T841. The fatigue crack within the interior of the sample is imaged with 6 {micro}m voxels as a function of applied load, and the crack face morphology is found to be similar to that observed in compact tension samples of this alloy. The loads and approximate stress intensities at which the tomography data were obtained were 82, 50, 25 and 5 kg and 7.1, 4.3, 2.2 and 0.4 MPa{radical}m, respectively. Crack openings measured during unloading as a function of position show that physical closure at portions of the crack tip and at positions behind the crack tip precedes (during unloading) the bend in the sample`s load-displacement curve. The three-dimensional pattern of crack opening shows substantial mixed mode I-III contact on the faces of asperities behind the crack tip, even at the maximum load of the fatigue cycle. Mixed mode I-II contact is also observed at loads above the bend in the load-displacement curve. The fraction of voxels open remains nearly constant for the loads immediately above and below the nominal closure load, as determined from the load-displacement curve, of 41 kg; and this suggests that these mixed mode I-III surfaces begin to carry significant load at the point where the load-displacement curve starts to deflect, and is the source of the apparent stiffening of the sample at loads below the nominal closure load.

  2. Stress reduction in an isotropic plate with a hole by applied induced strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sensharma, Pradeep K.; Palantera, Markku J.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1992-01-01

    Recently there has been much interest in adaptive structures that can respond to a varying environment by changing their properties. Shape memory alloys and piezoelectric materials can be used as induced strain actuators to reduce stresses in the regions of stress concentration. The objective of the work was to find the maximum possible reduction in the stress concentration factor in an isotropic plate with a hole by applying induced strains in a small area near the hole. Induced strains were simulated by thermal expansion.

  3. Elastic-Plastic Strain Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading

    SciTech Connect

    W.R. Solonick

    2003-04-01

    Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

  4. Elastic-plastic strain acceptance criterion for structures subject to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Solonick, W.

    1996-11-01

    Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local, or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

  5. Tensile properties of epoxy encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Wischmann, K.B.; Stavig, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile properties were measured for nineteen different formulations of epoxy encapsulating materials. Formulations were of different combinations of two neat resins (Epon 828 and Epon 826, with and without CTBN modification), three fillers (ALOX, GNM and mica) and four hardeners (Z, DEA, DETDA-SA and ANH-2). Five of the formulations were tested at -55, -20, 20 and 60C, one formulation at -55, 20 and 71C; and the remaining formulations at 20C. Complete stress-strain curves are presented along with tables of tensile strength, initial modulus and Poisson's ratio. The stress-strain responses are nonlinear and are temperature dependent. The reported data provide information for comparing the mechanical properties of encapsulants containing the suspected carcinogen Shell Z with the properties of encapsulants containing noncarcinogenic hardeners. Also, calculated shear moduli, based on measured tensile moduli and Poisson's ratio, are in very good agreement with reported shear moduli from experimental torsional pendulum tests.

  6. Tensile properties of epoxy encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Wischmann, K.B.; Stavig, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile properties were measured for nineteen different formulations of epoxy encapsulating materials. Formulations were of different combinations of two neat resins (Epon 828 and Epon 826, with and without CTBN modification), three fillers (ALOX, GNM and mica) and four hardeners (Z, DEA, DETDA-SA and ANH-2). Five of the formulations were tested at -55, -20, 20 and 60C, one formulation at -55, 20 and 71C; and the remaining formulations at 20C. Complete stress-strain curves are presented along with tables of tensile strength, initial modulus and Poisson`s ratio. The stress-strain responses are nonlinear and are temperature dependent. The reported data provide information for comparing the mechanical properties of encapsulants containing the suspected carcinogen Shell Z with the properties of encapsulants containing noncarcinogenic hardeners. Also, calculated shear moduli, based on measured tensile moduli and Poisson`s ratio, are in very good agreement with reported shear moduli from experimental torsional pendulum tests.

  7. Approaches for Tensile Testing of Braided Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Bail, Justin L.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Martin, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    For angleply composites, lamina tension and compression strengths are commonly determined by applying classical lamination theory to test data obtained from testing of angleply composite specimens. For textile composites such as 2D triaxial braids, analysis is more complex and standard test methods do not always yield reliable strength measurements. This paper describes recent research focused on development of more reliable tensile test methods for braided composites and presents preliminary data for various approaches. The materials investigated in this work have 0deg+/-60 2D triaxial braid architecture with nearly equal fiber volume fraction in each of the three fiber directions. Flat composite panels are fabricated by resin transfer molding (RTM) using six layers of the braided preform aligned along the 0deg fiber direction. Various epoxy resins are used as matrix materials. Single layer panels are also fabricated in order to examine local variations in deformation related to the braid architecture. Specimens are cut from these panels in the shape of standard straight-sided coupons, an alternative bowtie geometry, and an alternative notched geometry. Axial tensile properties are measured using specimens loaded along the 0deg fiber direction. Transverse tensile properties are measured using specimens loaded perpendicular to the 0deg fibers. Composite tubes are also fabricated by RTM. These tubes are tested by internal pressurization using a soft rubbery material sealed between the inside diameter of the tube and the load fixtures. The ends of the tube are unconstrained, so the primary load is in the hoop direction. Tubes are fabricated with the 0deg fibers aligned along the tube axis by overbraiding the preform on a mandrel. Since the loading is in the hoop direction, testing of the overbraided tube provides a measure of transverse tensile strength. Previous work has indicated that straight-sided coupons yield a transverse tensile strength that is much lower

  8. Externally applied cyclic strain regulates localization of focal contact components in cultured smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James J; Linderman, Jennifer J; Mooney, David J

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical regulators of cellular gene expression, yet little is understood of the mechanism whereby cells sense mechanical forces. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that mechanical strain applied to populations of cells via their adhesion substrate rapidly alters the cellular distribution of focal contact proteins. Focal contact-associated components (vinculin, a-actinin, paxillin) were assayed by immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative western blotting. Application of a single step increase in strain in multiple experiments caused overall a small change in focal contact-associated vinculin. In contrast, cyclic strain induced a large and very reproducible increase in detergent-insoluble vinculin (52% relative to static) after just 1 min of strain. Insoluble paxillin was transiently enriched with a similar time course, whereas insoluble a-actinin did not change significantly in response to cyclic strain. Rhodamine-labeled chicken vinculin added to permeabilized cells preferentially localized to focal contacts in response to cyclic strain, but not a single step increase in strain. These findings establish that insoluble levels of focal contact components are altered rapidly following application of an appropriate number of mechanical perturbations, and suggest that at least one component of the mechanism does not involve soluble intermediates.

  9. Necking of Q&P steel during uniaxial tensile test with the aid of DIC technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Pang, Zheng; Ye, You

    2013-05-01

    A lot of research has been focused on the necking process during the plastic deformation of sheet metals, but the localized necking is rarely distinguished form diffused necking by experiments, due to the limit of measurement equipment and method. Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steel is a 3rd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS). Its good combination of high strength and ductility ensures potential application in automobile industry. Uniaxial tensile tests of QP980 steel sheet at five strain rates are performed to investigate the necking process and the effect of strain rate on necking behavior of Q&P steel. Digital image correlation (DIC) method is applied during tensile tests, and evolutions of major strain, minor strain and normal strain distributions along gauge section of the tensile specimens are obtained. The diffused and localized necking strains are determined according to SWIFT necking theory and HILL necking theory respectively. The test results indicate that with the increasing of strain rate in the investigated range, the diffused necking strain decreases from 0.152 to 0.120 and localized necking strain decreases from 0.245 to 0.137. Meanwhile, the difference of the two strains decreases form 0.096 to 0.017. Thus it can be concluded that strain rate has an influence on both necking strains during the deformation of QP980 steel sheet. Diffused and localized necking strains are determined by uniaxial tensile tests with the aid of DIC technique and the effect of strain rate on necking strains is evaluated.

  10. Strain distribution in Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass investigated by in situ tensile tests under synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, M.; Das, J.; Bednarcik, J.; Franz, H.; Mattern, N.; Wang, W. H.; Eckert, J.

    2008-07-01

    We report on the evolution of the atomic-scale strain tensor of ductile Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass under tensile loading by using x-ray synchrotron radiation. The same kind of samples was previously investigated under compressive loading and revealed yielding at 1690 MPa together with large deformability of up to 160% strain. In tension the samples fracture at a lower stress, 1500 MPa, with no sign of yielding or plastic deformation. With no macroplasticity observed under tension, large differences in the elastic constants obtained from the strain tensor and from ultrasonic sound velocity measurements are revealed. This paper presents in detail the measuring procedure as well as the calculation of the tensile tensor and pair distribution functions of Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 at different stages of deformation. The results are discussed in comparison with other reported data obtained from x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation.

  11. A new approach for structural health monitoring by applying anomaly detection on strain sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichias, Konstantinos; Pijpers, Richard; Meeuwissen, Erik

    2014-03-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems help to monitor critical infrastructures (bridges, tunnels, etc.) remotely and provide up-to-date information about their physical condition. In addition, it helps to predict the structure's life and required maintenance in a cost-efficient way. Typically, inspection data gives insight in the structural health. The global structural behavior, and predominantly the structural loading, is generally measured with vibration and strain sensors. Acoustic emission sensors are more and more used for measuring global crack activity near critical locations. In this paper, we present a procedure for local structural health monitoring by applying Anomaly Detection (AD) on strain sensor data for sensors that are applied in expected crack path. Sensor data is analyzed by automatic anomaly detection in order to find crack activity at an early stage. This approach targets the monitoring of critical structural locations, such as welds, near which strain sensors can be applied during construction and/or locations with limited inspection possibilities during structural operation. We investigate several anomaly detection techniques to detect changes in statistical properties, indicating structural degradation. The most effective one is a novel polynomial fitting technique, which tracks slow changes in sensor data. Our approach has been tested on a representative test structure (bridge deck) in a lab environment, under constant and variable amplitude fatigue loading. In both cases, the evolving cracks at the monitored locations were successfully detected, autonomously, by our AD monitoring tool.

  12. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Michael R; Cao, Thanh V; Campbell, David H; Standley, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected to ALDS following CSDS induce myoblast differentiation through IL-6. Fibroblast conditioned media and fibroblast-myoblast cocultures were used to test fibroblasts' ability to induce myoblast differentiation. The coculture system applies strain to fibroblasts only but still allows for diffusion of potential differentiation mediators to unstrained myoblasts on coverslips. To determine the role of IL-6, we utilized myoblast unicultures ± IL-6 (0-100 ng/ml) and cocultures ± α-IL-6 (0-200 μg/ml). Untreated uniculture myoblasts served as a negative control. After 96 h, coverslips (n = 6-21) were microscopically analyzed and quantified by blinded observer for differentiation endpoints: myotubes per square millimeter (>3 nuclei/cell), nuclei/myotube, and fusion efficiency (%nuclei within myotubes). The presence of fibroblasts and fibroblast conditioned media significantly enhanced myotube number (P < 0.05). However, in coculture, CSDS applied to fibroblasts did not reproduce this effect. ALDS following CSDS increased myotube number by 78% and fusion efficiency by 96% vs. CSDS alone (P < 0.05). Fibroblasts in coculture increase IL-6 secretion; however, IL-6 secretion did not correlate with enhanced differentiation among strain groups. Exogenous IL-6 in myoblast uniculture failed to induce differentiation. However, α-IL-6 attenuated differentiation in all coculture groups (P < 0.05). Fibroblasts secrete soluble mediators that have profound effects on several measures of myoblast

  13. Buckling of vertical rod loaded by dead weight and tensile force subjected to its top end (applied to marine vertical oil pipelines—Risers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyle, A. I.

    1997-07-01

    The problem of buckling of a vertical rod loaded by dead weight and tensile force to its top end was examined. Four variants for attachment of the top end of the rod upon clamping the bottom end were analyzed. The problem was solved by individual consideration of the stretched and compressed zones of the rod and their sewing together. Critical values of the axial force were obtained, which permit prevention of buckling of a long rod by the action of dead weight. Analysis permits selection of the required tension of vertical pipelines for deep-water oil drilling and demonstration of the advantages of using composites (especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) as materials for manufacture of the elements of such structures.

  14. Validation and qualification of surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors using application-independent optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukar, Vivien G.; Kadoke, Daniel; Kusche, Nadine; Münzenberger, Sven; Gründer, Klaus-Peter; Habel, Wolfgang R.

    2012-08-01

    Surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors were investigated using a unique validation facility equipped with application-independent optical reference systems. First, different adhesives for the sensor's application were analysed regarding their material properties. Measurements resulting from conventional measurement techniques, such as thermo-mechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis, were compared with measurements resulting from digital image correlation, which has the advantage of being a non-contact technique. Second, fibre optic strain sensors were applied to test specimens with the selected adhesives. Their strain-transfer mechanism was analysed in comparison with conventional strain gauges. Relative movements between the applied sensor and the test specimen were visualized easily using optical reference methods, digital image correlation and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Conventional strain gauges showed limited opportunities for an objective strain-transfer analysis because they are also affected by application conditions.

  15. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  16. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  17. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, X H; Qiao, J W; Jiao, Z M; Wang, Z H; Yang, H J; Xu, B S

    2015-09-10

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  18. High temperature tensile testing of ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hemann, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The various components of a high temperature tensile testing system are evaluated. The objective is the high temperature tensile testing of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 specimens at test temperatures up to 1650 C (3000 F). Testing is to be conducted in inert gases and air. Gripping fixtures, specimen configurations, furnaces, optical strain measuring systems, and temperature measurement techniques are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques are also noted.

  19. Finite strain response of crimped fibers under uniaxial traction: An analytical approach applied to collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Michele; Wriggers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials reinforced by crimped fibers intervene in a number of advanced structural applications. Accordingly, constitutive equations describing their anisotropic behavior and explicitly accounting for fiber properties are needed for modeling and design purposes. To this aim, the finite strain response of crimped beams under uniaxial traction is herein addressed by obtaining analytical relationships based on the Principle of Virtual Works. The model is applied to collagen fibers in soft biological tissues, coupling geometric nonlinearities related to fiber crimp with material nonlinearities due to nanoscale mechanisms. Several numerical applications are presented, addressing the influence of geometric and material features. Available experimental data for tendons are reproduced, integrating the proposed approach within an optimization procedure for data fitting. The obtained results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed approach in correlating fibers structure with composite material mechanics.

  20. Impact Tensile Testing of Stainless Steels at Various Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton

    2008-03-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern (1 to 300 per second) are not well documented. However, research is being performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to quantify these characteristics. The work presented herein discusses tensile impact testing of dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens. Both base material and welded material specimens were tested at -20 oF, room temperature, 300 oF, and 600 oF conditions. Utilizing a drop weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch and 1/2-inch thick dog bone-shaped test specimens, a strain rate range of approximately 4 to 40 per second (depending on initial temperature conditions) was achieved. Factors were determined that reflect the amount of increased strain energy the material can absorb due to strain rate effects. Using the factors, elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials at various strain rates and temperatures were generated. By incorporating the strain rate elevated true stress-strain material curves into an inelastic finite element computer program as the defined material input, significant improvement in the accuracy of the computer analyses was attained. However, additional impact testing is necessary to achieve higher strain rates (up to 300 per second) before complete definition of strain rate effects can be made for accidental drop events and other similar energy-limited impulsive loads. This research approach, using impact testing and a total energy analysis methodology to quantify strain rate effects, can be applied to many other materials used in government and industry.

  1. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Stachiv, Ivo; Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Tao-Hsing

    2015-11-15

    Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.

  2. On loading velocity oscillations during dynamic tensile testing with flying wheel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erice, Borja; Roth, Christian; Gary, Gerard; Mohr, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Flying Wheels (FW) provide a space-saving alternative to Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) systems for generating the loading pulse for intermediate and high strain rate material testing. This is particularly attractive in view of performing ductile fracture experiments at intermediate strain rates that require a several milliseconds long loading pulse. More than 50 m long Hopkinson bars are required in that case, whereas the same kinetic energy (for a given loading velocity) can be stored in rather compact flying wheels (e.g. diameter of less than 1.5 m). To gain more insight into the loading capabilities of FW tensile testing systems, a simple analytical model is presented to analyze the loading history applied by a FW system. It is found that due to the presence of a puller bar that transmits the tensile load from the rotating wheel to the specimen, the loading velocity applied onto the specimen oscillates between about zero and twice the tangential loading speed applied by the FW. The theoretical and numerical evaluation for a specific 1.1 m diameter FW system revealed that these oscillations occur at a frequency in the kHz range, thereby questioning the approximate engineering assumption of a constant strain rate in FW tensile experiments at strain rates of the order of 100/s.

  3. Semicircular bend testing with split Hopkinson pressure bar for measuring dynamic tensile strength of brittle solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, F.; Xia, K.; Luo, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    We propose and validate an indirect tensile testing method to measure the dynamic tensile strength of rocks and other brittle solids: semicircular bend (SCB) testing with a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. A strain gauge is mounted near the failure spot on the specimen to determine the rupture time. The momentum trap technique is utilized to ensure single pulse loading for postmortem examination. Tests without and with pulse shaping are conducted on rock specimens. The evolution of tensile stress at the failure spot is determined via dynamic and quasistatic finite element analyses with the dynamic loads measured from SHPB as inputs. Given properly shaped incident pulse, far-field dynamic force balance is achieved and the peak of the loading matches in time with the rupture onset of the specimen. In addition, the dynamic tensile stress history at the failure spot obtained from the full dynamic finite element analysis agrees with the quasistatic analysis. The opposite occurs for the test without pulse shaping. These results demonstrate that when the far-field dynamic force balance is satisfied, the inertial effects associated with stress wave loading are minimized and thus one can apply the simple quasistatic analysis to obtain the tensile strength in the SCB-SHPB testing. This method provides a useful and cost effective way to measure indirectly the dynamic tensile strength of rocks and other brittle materials.

  4. Electronic and optical properties of silicene under uni-axial and bi-axial mechanical strains: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Brij; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2014-07-01

    The uni-axial and bi-axial mechanical strain mediated electronic band structures and dielectric properties of silicene have been investigated. It is found that on applying uni- and bi-axial strains, the band gap opens for smaller strain in silicene. However, on further increase of strain beyond 8% silicene changed into metal. The ultimate tensile strength estimated is 3.4 GPa. Imaginary part of dielectric function shows that the inter-band transitions are red-shifted for uni- and bi-axial tensile strains and are blue shifted for uni- and bi-axial compressive strains. Electron energy loss (EEL) function shows that the π+σ plasmon energies are red-shifted for uni- and bi-axial strains and blue-shifted for compressive strains. The π plasmons disappears for tensile and asymmetric strains. Bi-axial asymmetric strain is found to have no influence on inter-band transitions and π+σ plasmon energies.

  5. Combined spectrophotometry and tensile measurements of human connective tissues: potentials and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ernstberger, Markus; Sichting, Freddy; Baselt, Tobias; Hartmann, Peter; Aust, Gabriela; Hammer, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Strain-dependent transmission data of nine iliotibial tract specimens are determined using a custom-built optical setup with a halogen light source and an industrial norm material testing machine. Polarized light microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining indicated that lateral contraction of collagen structures is responsible for total intensity variations during a 20-cycle preconditioning and a 5-cycle tensile test. Tensile force progress is opposite to total transmission progress. Due to dehydration, wavelength-specific radiation intensity shifting is determined during the test, primarily noticeable in a water absorption band between 1400 and 1500 nm. The results show the capability of integrating spectrophotometry technology into biomechanics for determining structural alterations of human collagen due to applied strain. Being more sensitive to drying, spectrophotometry may likely serve as a quality control in stress-strain testing of biological structures.

  6. Effects on diversity of soil fungal community and fate of an artificially applied Beauveria bassiana strain assessed through 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jacqueline; Galidevara, Sandhya; Strohmeier, Stephan; Devi, K Uma; Reineke, Annette

    2013-10-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is widely used as a biological control agent (BCA) for insect pest control, with fungal propagules being either incorporated into the potting media or soil or sprayed directly onto the foliage or soil. To gain a better understanding of entomopathogenic fungal ecology when applied as a BCA to the soil environment, a case study using tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of fungal ITS sequences was performed to assess the fate and potential effect of an artificially applied B. bassiana strain on the diversity of soil fungal communities in an agricultural field in India. Results show that the overall fungal diversity was not influenced by application of B. bassiana during the 7 weeks of investigation. Strain-specific microsatellite markers indicated both an establishment of the applied B. bassiana strain in the treated plot and its spread to the neighboring nontreated control plot. These results might be important for proper risk assessment of entomopathogenic fungi-based BCAs.

  7. Effect of pre-strain on mechanical properties and deformation induced transformation of 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfi, Fahri R.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2016-08-01

    Effect of pre-strain on mechanical properties and deformation induced phase transformation of 304 stainless steel under tensile deformation has been studied. Pre-strain with the variation percentage of deformation was applied to the tensile test specimens. Tensile and hardness testing were carried out after pre-strain to study the mechanical properties change. Deformation induced phase transformation was investigated by using X-ray diffraction and optical microscope. XRD study indicates that metastable austenite transforms to martensite due to deformation. The martensite volume fraction increases with the increase in percentage of deformation. The increase in strength and hardness were associated with an increase in the volume fraction of martensite.

  8. Identification of a keratinase-producing bacterial strain and enzymatic study for its improvement on shrink resistance and tensile strength of wool- and polyester-blended fabric.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shao-Bo; Huang, Zheng-Hua; Zhang, Xing-Qun; Cao, Zhang-Jun; Zhou, Mei-Hua; Hong, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A wool-degrading bacterium was isolated from decomposition wool fabrics in China. The strain, named 3096-4, showed excellent capability of removing cuticle layer of wool fibers, as demonstrated by removing cuticle layer completely within 48 h. According to the phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA profile, the isolate was classified as Pseudomonas. Bacteria growth and keratinase activity of the isolate were determined during cultivation on raw wool at different temperatures, initial pH, and rotation speed using orthogonal matrix method. Maximum growth and keratinase activity of the bacterium were observed under the condition including 30 °C, initial pH 7.6, and rotational speeds 160 rpm. The keratinase-containing crude enzyme prepared from 3096-4 was evaluated in the treatment of wool fabrics. The optimal condition of our enzymatic improvement of shrink resistance was the combination of 30 °C, initial pH 7.6, and rotation speeds 160 rpm. After the optimized treatment, the wool fabrics felting shrink was 4.1% at 6 h, and textile strength was not lost.

  9. Image Correlation Applied to Single Crystal Plasticity Experiments and Comparison to Strain Gage Data

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, M M; Florando, J N; Lassila, D H; Schmidt, T; Tyson II, J

    2005-06-29

    Full-field optical techniques are becoming increasingly popular for measuring the deformation of materials, especially in materials that exhibit non-uniform behavior. While there are many full-field techniques available (e.g. moire interferometry, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), holography, and image correlation [1]), for our study of the deformation of single crystals, the image correlation technique was chosen for its insensitivity to vibrations and ability to measure large strains. While the theory and development of the algorithms for image correlation have been presented elsewhere [2,3] a comparative study to a conventional strain measurement device, such as a strain gage rosette, is desired to test the robustness and accuracy of the technique. The 6 Degrees of Freedom (6DOF) experiment, which was specifically designed to validate dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations [4], is ideally suited to compare the two methods. This experiment is different from previous experiments on single crystals in that it allows the crystal to deform essentially unconstrained, in both the elastic and plastic regimes, by allowing the bottom of the sample to move as the sample is being compressed. This unconstrained motion prevents the internal crystal planes from rotating during the deformation as typically seen in the pioneering work of Schmid [5] and Taylor [6]. In the early development of the 6DOF apparatus, stacked strain gage rosettes were used to provide the strain data [7]. While very accurate at small strains, strain gages provide an averaged measurement over a small area and cannot be used to measure the inhomogeneous plastic strains that typically occur during the 6DOF experiment. An image correlation technique can measure the full-field in-plane and out-of-plane deformation that occurs in single crystals, and a comparison to the strain gage data at small strains can test the accuracy of the method.

  10. Effect of the strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process on the tensile properties of a new developed super high strength aluminum alloy modified by Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Haghparast, Amin; Nourimotlagh, Masoud; Alipour, Mohammad

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the effect of Al-5Ti-1B grain refiners and modified strain-induced melt activation process on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The optimum level of Ti was found to be 0.1 wt.%. The specimens subjected to deformation ratio of 40% (at 300 Degree-Sign C) and various heat treatment times (10-40 min) and temperature (550-600 Degree-Sign C) regimes were characterized in this study. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Microstructural examinations were conducted by optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry. The optimum temperature and time in strain-induced melt activation process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min, respectively. T6 heat treatment including quenching to room temperature and aging at 120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h was employed to reach to the maximum strength. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 283 MPa to 587 and 332 MPa to 617 for samples refined with 2 wt.% Al-5Ti-1B before and after strain-induced melt activation process and extrusion process, respectively. Ultimate strength of Ti-refined specimens without SIMA process has a lower value than globular microstructure specimens after SIMA and extrusion process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Al-5Ti-1B on the aluminum alloy produced by SIMA process was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-5Ti-1B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum temperature and time in SIMA process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UTS of globular structure specimens have a more value than Ti-refined specimens.

  11. Magnetic characterization of Nb3Sn strands under applied strain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMarzi, G.; Muzzi, L.; Rufoloni, A.; Besi Vetrella, U.; della Corte, A.

    2009-02-01

    We performed magnetic characterizations, using a vibrating sample magnetometer, of an internal tin-type Nb3Sn technological strand. In order to compare the properties of this sample under different strain conditions, the same strand was tested under compression, obtained by swaging and compacting into thin stainless steel tubes before the heat treatment, as well as after a complete relaxation of the filament strain components, by chemical etching of the Cu and bronze matrix components. In particular, we analysed the Kramer extrapolated upper critical field Bc2K, and the zero-field critical temperature Tc(0) and its distribution, for all the samples. In order to clarify the effect of the strain due to both the stainless steel reinforcement and the copper matrix thermal pre-compression, we compared our experimental results with the predictions from well established scaling laws based on uniaxial models. Good agreement has been found with measured critical temperature Tc and extrapolated upper critical field Bc2K values, with proper choice of fit parameters. On the other hand, we observed a broadening of the superconducting Tc transition with increasing strain. This has to be ascribed to the effect of radial strain components, which cannot be neglected in the present work.

  12. Comparative Study of Various E. coli Strains for Biohydrogen Production Applying Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Bakonyi, Péter; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin

    2012-01-01

    The proper strategy to establish efficient hydrogen-producing biosystems is the biochemical, physiological characterization of hydrogen-producing microbes followed by metabolic engineering in order to give extraordinary properties to the strains and, finally, bioprocess optimization to realize enhanced hydrogen fermentation capability. In present paper, it was aimed to show the utility both of strain engineering and process optimization through a comparative study of wild-type and genetically modified E. coli strains, where the effect of two major operational factors (substrate concentration and pH) on bioH2 production was investigated by experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the suitable conditions in order to obtain maximum yields. The results revealed that by employing the genetically engineered E. coli (DJT 135) strain under optimized conditions (pH: 6.5; Formate conc.: 1.25 g/L), 0.63 mol H2/mol formate could be attained, which was 1.5 times higher compared to the wild-type E. coli (XL1-BLUE) that produced 0.42 mol H2/mol formate (pH: 6.4; Formate conc.: 1.3 g/L). PMID:22666156

  13. Incipient and Progressive Damage in Polyethylene Under Extreme Tensile Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, Jevan; Brown, Eric; Trujillo, Carl P.; Martinez, Daniel Tito; Gray, George T. III

    2012-06-07

    The Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) test was developed at LANL by Gray and coworkers to probe the tensile response of materials at large strains (>1) and high strain-rates (>1000/s) by firing projectiles through a conical die at 300-700 m/s. This technique has recently been applied to various polymers, such as the fluoropolymers PTFE (Teflon) and the chemically similar PCTFE, which respectively exhibited catastrophic fragmentation and distributed dynamic necking. This work details investigations of the Dyn-Ten-Ext response of high density polyethylene, both to failure and sub-critical conditions. At large extrusion ratios ({approx}7.4) and high velocities, such as those previously employed, HDPE catastrophically fragmented in a craze-like manner in the extruded jet. At more modest extrusion ratios and high velocities the specimen extruded a stable jet that ruptured cleanly, and at lower velocities was recovered intact after sustaining substantial internal damage. Thermomechanical finite element simulations showed that the damage corresponded to a locus of shear stress in the presence of hydrostatic tension. X-ray computed tomography corroborated the prediction of a shear damage mechanism by finding the region of partially damaged material to consist of macroscopic shear-mode cracks nearly aligned with the extrusion axis, originating from the location of damage inception.

  14. A strain energy-based vibrational NDE method applied to an aerospace structure

    SciTech Connect

    Osegueda, R. A.; Andre, G.; Ferregut, C. M.; Carrasco, C.; Pereyra, L.; James, G. III; Grygier, M.; Rocha, R.

    1999-12-02

    An early prototype of the Vertical Stabilizer Assembly (VSA) of the Shuttle Orbiter was modal tested at healthy and damaged states to study vibrational nondestructive damage evaluation in aerospace structures. Frequency Response and Coherence functions were collected with a Laser Vibrometer at 84 points when the healthy and damaged VSA was shaken with a continuous random force from 0 to 300 Hz. The measurements were used to extract the resonant frequencies and modal shapes for the healthy and damaged states. After pairing of the mode shapes between the healthy and damaged states through the Modal Assurance Criterion, the strain energy of the modes were determined through a finite element model of the VSA and normalized. The localization of the damage is achieved through an analysis of the differences between the modal strain energy in the healthy and damaged states and a fusion on the information obtained from several modes. This paper evaluates the detectability and performance of four different methods.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Precisely Applying Large Planar Equi-Biaxial Strains to a Circular Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    discussions, and for his attention to detail and quality in the manufacture of components using a laser cutter, Objet 3-D printer , lathe, and Haas CNC...package, VIC- 3D (from CorrelatedSolutions), was used to process the images and measure the resulting strain field. A representative sample of the...Love, A. E. H. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity ; Cambridge University Press: New York, 1927. Rivlin, R. S.; Saunders, D. W. Large

  16. Characterization of the synergistic interaction between Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Bacillus thuringiensis morrisoni strain tenebrionis applied against Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    PubMed

    Wraight, S P; Ramos, M E

    2017-01-17

    Studies were undertaken to further characterize the previously identified synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis- and Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticides against Colorado potato beetle (CPB). A flowable concentrate of B. thuringiensis morrisoni strain tenebrionis (Bt) (Novodor® FC) and a wettable powder of B. bassiana strain GHA (Bb) (Mycotrol® 22WP) were applied against CPB larval populations infesting potato in field plots. Novodor FC and an oil-dispersion formulation of Bb (Mycotrol ES) were applied against second-instar CPB larvae on potted potato plants in greenhouse tests under low relative humidity (RH), variable-temperature conditions. Each pathogen was applied alone and in combination (tank-mixed) with the other pathogen. In the field tests, each biopesticide was also combined with the spray-carrier (formulation without active ingredient) of the other pathogen. Results from the greenhouse tests showed that under warm, dry conditions, low activity of Mycotrol was counterbalanced by high activity of the Novodor, and under cool, somewhat more humid conditions, low Novodor activity was balanced by high activity of Mycotrol, with the result being a constant level of synergism (CPB mortality ca. 20 percentage points higher than predicted by independent action). Similar levels of synergism were observed under the markedly different conditions of the field and greenhouse environments, and the synergism was confirmed as arising from interaction of the two micobes, as the Bt spray carrier had no significant effect on efficacy of the Mycotrol product and the Bb spray carrier had no effect on the efficacy of Novodor. The great capacity of these two control agents to act in concert to control CPB is well documented (the fast-acting, toxic Bt acting to protect potato crops from defoliation and the slow-acting Bb reducing survival to the adult stage). These finding further underscore the strong complementary action of these agents applied jointly against CPB.

  17. Newly Designed Tensile Test System for in vitro Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cytoskeletal Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Shinji; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki

    A tensile test system for isolated cytoskeletal filaments, which enables to control strain rate, was newly designed. A pair of piezo-driven cantilevers were used to manipulate the specimen and to measure tensile load from the deflection of one of the cantilevers. The displacements of the cantilevers were optically and electrically detected. The specimen strain, determined from the cantilever displacements, was used as a feedback signal. We proposed a servo-system for strain rate control in which a desired path for the strain transition was designated. The path was chosen as a triangular-shape waveform against time, along which the strain rate is kept constant. We measured tensile properties of a single stress fiber isolated from a smooth muscle cell with this system to obtain a stretching stiffness of 45nN per strain. Performance evaluation and the tensile test demonstrated that the system enabled to carry out strain rate-controlled tensile test.

  18. Grips for Lightweight Tensile Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Gibson, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    Set of grips developed for tensile testing of lightweight composite materials. Double-wedge design substantially increases gripping force and reduces slippage. Specimen held by grips made of hardened wedges. Assembly screwed into load cell in tensile-testing machine.

  19. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Köster, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record stress-strain curves of individual vimentin IFs using optical traps and atomic force microscopy. We find a strong loading rate dependence of the mechanical response, supporting the hypothesis that IFs could serve to protect eukaryotic cells from fast, large deformations. Our experimental results show different unfolding regimes, which we can quantitatively reproduce by an elastically coupled system of multiple two-state elements.

  20. Tensile creep and creep-recovery behavior of a SiC-fiber-Si3N4-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, John W.; Park, Yong H.; Jones, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile creep and creep-recovery behavior of a hot-pressed unidirectional SiC-fiber/Si3N4-matrix composite was investigated at 1200 C in air, in order to determine how various sustained and cyclic creep loading histories would influence the creep rate, accumulated creep strain, and the amount of strain recovered upon specimen unloading. The data accumulated indicate that the fundamental damage mode for sustained tensile creep at stresses of 200 and 250 MPa was periodic fiber fracture and that the creep life and the failure mode at 250 MPa were strongly influenced by the rate at which the initial creep stress was applied. Cyclic loading significantly lowered the duration of primary creep and the overall creep-strain accumulation. The implications of the results for microstructural and component design are discussed.

  1. Manipulation of electronic and magnetic properties of M2C (M = Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr) monolayer by applying mechanical strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Xue, Jianming

    2014-03-01

    Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of a material through strain engineering is an effective strategy to enhance the performance of electronic and spintronic devices. In this paper, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are carried out to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of M2C(M = Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr, known as MXenes) subjected to biaxial symmetric mechanical strains. At the strain-free state, all these MXenes exhibit no spontaneous magnetism except for Ti2C and Zr2C which show a magnetic moment of 1.92 and 1.25 μB/unit, respectively. As the tensile strain increases, the magnetic moments of MXenes are greatly enhanced and a transition from nonmagnetism to ferromagnetism is observed for those nonmagnetic MXenes at zero strains. The most distinct transition is found in Hf2C, in which the magnetic moment is elevated to 1.5 μB/unit at a strain of 1.80%. We further show that the magnetic properties of Hf2C are attributed to the band shift mainly composed of Hf(5d) states.

  2. Manipulation of electronic and magnetic properties of M{sub 2}C (M = Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr) monolayer by applying mechanical strains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Xue, Jianming

    2014-03-31

    Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of a material through strain engineering is an effective strategy to enhance the performance of electronic and spintronic devices. In this paper, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are carried out to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of M{sub 2}C(M = Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr, known as MXenes) subjected to biaxial symmetric mechanical strains. At the strain-free state, all these MXenes exhibit no spontaneous magnetism except for Ti{sub 2}C and Zr{sub 2}C which show a magnetic moment of 1.92 and 1.25 μ{sub B}/unit, respectively. As the tensile strain increases, the magnetic moments of MXenes are greatly enhanced and a transition from nonmagnetism to ferromagnetism is observed for those nonmagnetic MXenes at zero strains. The most distinct transition is found in Hf{sub 2}C, in which the magnetic moment is elevated to 1.5 μ{sub B}/unit at a strain of 1.80%. We further show that the magnetic properties of Hf{sub 2}C are attributed to the band shift mainly composed of Hf(5d) states.

  3. Mechanical and electronic properties of monolayer and bilayer phosphorene under uniaxial and isotropic strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ting; Han, Yang; Dong, Jinming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical and electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes under either isotropic or uniaxial strain have been systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. It is interesting to find that: 1) Under a large enough isotropic tensile strain, the monolayer phosphorene would lose its pucker structure and transform into a flat hexagonal plane, while two inner sublayers of the bilayer phosphorene could be bonded due to its interlayer distance contraction. 2) Under the uniaxial tensile strain along a zigzag direction, the pucker distance of each layer in the bilayer phosphorene can exhibit a specific negative Poisson’s ratio. 3) The electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes are sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the applied strains. Their band gaps decrease more rapidly under isotropic compressive strain than under uniaxial strain. Also, their direct-indirect band gap transitions happen at the larger isotropic tensile strains compared with that under uniaxial strain. 4) Under the isotropic compressive strain, the bilayer phosphorene exhibits a transition from a direct-gap semiconductor to a metal. In contrast, the monolayer phosphorene initially has the direct-indirect transition and then transitions to a metal. However, under isotropic tensile strain, both the bilayer and monolayer phosphorene show the direct-indirect transition and, finally, the transition to a metal. Our numerical results may open new potential applications of phosphorene in nanoelectronics and nanomechanical devices by external isotropic strain or uniaxial strain along different directions.

  4. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  5. A novel evolutionary algorithm applied to algebraic modifications of the RANS stress-strain relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatheritt, Jack; Sandberg, Richard

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel and promising approach to turbulence model formulation, rather than putting forward a particular new model. Evolutionary computation has brought symbolic regression of scalar fields into the domain of algorithms and this paper describes a novel expansion of Gene Expression Programming for the purpose of tensor modeling. By utilizing high-fidelity data and uncertainty measures, mathematical models for tensors are created. The philosophy behind the framework is to give freedom to the algorithm to produce a constraint-free model; its own functional form that was not previously imposed. Turbulence modeling is the target application, specifically the improvement of separated flow prediction. Models are created by considering the anisotropy of the turbulent stress tensor and formulating non-linear constitutive stress-strain relationships. A previously unseen flow field is computed and compared to the baseline linear model and an established non-linear model of comparable complexity. The results are highly encouraging.

  6. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A; Breneman, Curt M

    2016-08-17

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  7. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Tensile Strength of Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Masayuki; Shimbo, Minoru; Miyano, Yasushi

    In this paper, the effects of the intensity of electron beam and the variation with time after irradiation of electron beam on the tensile strength of the polypropylene (PP), which is widely used as medicine containers, were investigated. PP with and without colorants were used first and samples irradiated under various intensity of EB. A tensile test on the irradiated samples with elapsed time after the irradiation of the electron beam was carried out. The effects of those factors on the tensile strength were discussed. The following results were obtained (1) The tensile strength of PP decreased due to the influence of the electron beam irradiation, however the rate of the decrease in strength was small compared with the original one. Furthermore, the rate of the decrease in strength was very small owing to the variation with time after the EB irradiation. (2) The tensile rupture strength of PP increased and the rupture strain owing to the influence of the electron beam irradiation compared with the original one. In addition, these rupture strength increased and the rupture strain decreased along with time after the irradiation of the electron beam. (3) The tensile rupture strain energy of PP decreased owing to the influence of the electron beam irradiation compared with the original one. In addition, the strain energy decreases with time after the irradiation of the electron beam. Moreover, the strength characteristics of PP with colorants received greater influence of electron beam compared with the one without colorants.

  8. Role of mechanical loads in inducing in-cycle tensile stress in thermally grown oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Jansz, M.; Mossaddad, M.; Raghavan, S.; Okasinski, J.S.; Almer, J.D.; Perez, H.P.; Imbrie, P.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction results tracking the strain behavior of the various layers during a cycle, under thermo-mechanical conditions are presented in this work. The quantitative strain measurements here show that the thermally grown oxide briefly experiences in-plane tensile stress ({sigma}{sub 22} = +36.4 MPa) with increased mechanical loading during ramp-up in the thermal cycle. These findings are the first in situ experimental observations of these strains under thermo-mechanical conditions, envisaged to serve as a catalyst for crack initiation. The depth resolved measurements of strain taken during applied thermal and mechanical load in this work are a significant step towards achieving realistic testing conditions.

  9. Dynamic behavior of nano-voids in magnesium under hydrostatic tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponga, Mauricio; Ramabathiran, Amuthan A.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the mechanisms responsible for nano-void growth in single crystal magnesium under dynamic hydrostatic tensile stress. A key conclusion derived from our study is that there is no secondary strain hardening near the nano-void. This behavior, which is in remarkable contrast to face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic materials, greatly limits the peak stress and explains the relatively lower spall strength of magnesium. The lack of secondary strain hardening is due to the fact that pyramidal dislocations do not interact with basal or prismatic dislocations. Our analysis also shows that for loads applied at moderate strain rates (\\overset{\\centerdot}{ɛ} ≤slant {{10}6} s-1) the peak stress, dislocation velocity and temperature distribution converge asymptotically. However at very high strain rates (\\overset{\\centerdot}{ɛ} ≥slant {{10}8} s-1), there is a sharp transition in these quantities.

  10. Development of a synchrotron biaxial tensile device for in situ characterization of thin films mechanical response

    SciTech Connect

    Geandier, G.; Thiaudiere, D.; Bouaffad, A.; Randriamazaoro, R. N.; Chiron, R.; Castelnau, O.; Faurie, D.; Djaziri, S.; Lamongie, B.; Diot, Y.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P. O.; Goudeau, P.; Hild, F.

    2010-10-15

    We have developed on the DIFFABS-SOLEIL beamline a biaxial tensile machine working in the synchrotron environment for in situ diffraction characterization of thin polycrystalline films mechanical response. The machine has been designed to test compliant substrates coated by the studied films under controlled, applied strain field. Technological challenges comprise the sample design including fixation of the substrate ends, the related generation of a uniform strain field in the studied (central) volume, and the operations from the beamline pilot. Preliminary tests on 150 nm thick W films deposited onto polyimide cruciform substrates are presented. The obtained results for applied strains using x-ray diffraction and digital image correlation methods clearly show the full potentialities of this new setup.

  11. Tensile testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Ellingsworth, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved mechanical extensometer is described for use with a constant load creep test machine. The dead weight of the extensometer is counterbalanced by two pairs of weights connected through a pulley system and to rod extension and leading into the furnace where the test sample is undergoing elevated temperature (above 500 F.) tensile testing. Novel gripper surfaces, conical tip and flat surface are provided in each sampling engaging platens to reduce the grip pressure normally required for attachment of the extensometer to the specimen and reduce initial specimen bending normally associated with foil-gage metal testing.

  12. Relationship between Fracture Toughness and Tensile Properties of A357 Cast Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, N. D.; Tiryakioğlu, M.

    2009-03-01

    The fracture-related mechanical properties of the A357 cast aluminum alloy, namely, elongation to fracture, tensile strain energy density (tensile toughness), strain-hardening exponent, and plane strain fracture toughness were investigated. Correlations between these properties have been established for 25 different artificial aging heat-treatment conditions and for five minor variations in chemical composition. Empirical relationships between the strain energy density and both the tensile elongation to fracture and the strain-hardening exponent have been developed. Analysis of the fracture surfaces indicated that the fracture mechanism of the investigated specimens varies according to the artificial aging conditions. Moreover, empirical relationships between the fracture toughness and strain energy density and between fracture toughness and strain-hardening exponent have been developed; these can be used to estimate the plane strain fracture toughness of A357 as a function of yield strength and tensile toughness.

  13. Electronic and optical properties of α-InX (X = S, Se and Te) monolayer: Under strain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilian, Jaafar; Safari, Mandana

    2017-04-01

    Using ab initio study, the structural, electronic and optical properties of α-InX (X = S, Se and Te) are investigated under tensile and compressive strain conditions. The results illustrate that exerting biaxial tensile and compressive strain conditions can lead to a tunable energy gap with a linear trend. The shape of valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) is so sensitive to applying tensile and compressive strain. Besides, a shift in optical spectra toward shorter wavelength (blue shift) occurs under compression. The exerting tensile strain, on the other hand, gives rise to a red shift in optical spectra correspondingly. The results have been presented that InX monolayers can be good candidates for optoelectronic applications as well.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Deformation Mechanism in AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets Under Pulsed Electric-Assisted Tensile and Compressive Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Se-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Song, Jung Han; Choi, Seogou; Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Daeyong

    2016-06-01

    The uniaxial tensile and compressive stress-strain responses of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet under pulsed electric current are reported. Tension and compression tests with pulsed electric current showed that flow stresses dropped instantaneously when the electric pulses were applied. Thermo-mechanical-electrical finite element analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of Joule heating and electro-plasticity on the flow responses of AZ31B sheets under electric-pulsed tension and compression tests. The proposed finite element simulations could reproduce the measured uniaxial tensile and compressive stress-strain curves under pulsed electric currents, when the temperature-dependent flow stress hardening model and thermal properties of AZ31B sheet were properly described in the simulations. In particular, the simulation results that fit best with experimental results showed that almost 100 pct of the electric current was subject to transform into Joule heating during electrically assisted tensile and compressive tests.

  15. Multi-scale investigation of tensile creep of ultra-high performance concrete for bridge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas Yanni, Victor Youssef

    achieving satisfactory microstructural refinement at the same temperature input despite the maximum temperature applied. For the first time, the presence of a 10 microm (394 micro inch) wide porous fiber-cementitious matrix interface was demonstrated by nanoindentation and SEM for non-thermally treated UHPC only. Tensile creep at 90 days increased by 64% and 46% upon eliminating fibers for thermally and non-thermally treated UHPC, respectively. Increases in creep upon reducing the fiber content suggested that fibers carry part of the sustained load and thus reduce creep. Tensile creep strain was proportional to the stress applied up to 60% of the ultimate strength. No tensile creep failure occurred for a period of 1 year for pre-cracked UHPC under stress level of 40%. Also, no tensile creep failure occurred for a period of 90 days under stress level of 60%. Tensile creep failure occurred at stress levels of 70% and 80%. This study showed that fibers cannot be accounted for as shear reinforcement in lieu of stirrups unless micro-defect-free fiber-matrix interface is achieved.

  16. The relation between the tensile strength and the hardness of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, O

    1930-01-01

    This report presents methods determining the hardness and tensile strength of metals by showing the effect and dependence of the hardness numbers on the strain-hardening. Relations between the hardness numbers and the ordinary stress-strain diagrams and tensile strength are given. Procedures for finding the Brinell strength are also presented.

  17. High temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Stevens, C.O.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on V-4Cr-4Ti at 750 and 800 C in order to extend the data base beyond the current limit of 700 C. From comparison with previous measurements, the yield strength is nearly constant and tensile elongations decrease slightly with increasing temperature between 300 and 800 C. The ultimate strength exhibits an apparent maximum near 600 C (attributable to dynamic strain aging) but adequate strength is maintained up to 800 C. The reduction in area measured on tensile specimens remained high ({approximately}80%) for test temperatures up to 800 C, in contrast to previous reported results.

  18. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  19. Effect of microporosity on tensile properties of as-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choong Do

    2002-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of microporosity on the tensile properties of as-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated through experimental observation and numerical prediction. The test specimens were fabricated by die-casting and gravity-casting. For gravity-casting, the inoculation and use of various metallic moulds were applied to obtain a wide range of microporosity. The deficiency of the interdendritic feeding of the liquid phase acted as a dominant mechanism on the formation of the micropores in the Mg-Al-alloys, rather than the evolution of hydrogen gas. Although tensile strength and elongation has a nonlinear and very intensive dependence upon microporosity, the yield strength appeared to have a linear relationship with microporosity. However, it was possible to quantitatively estimate the linear contribution of microporosity on the individual tensile property for a range of microporosity, which was below about 1%. The numerical prediction suggests that the effect of microporosity on fractured strength and elongation decreased as the strain hardening exponent increased. Furthermore, the shape and distribution of micropores may play a more dominant role than local plastic deformation on the tensile behavior of AZ91D alloy.

  20. Demonstration of concurrent tensile testing and magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Spencer; Klatt, Dieter

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a technique used to measure the mechanical properties of soft tissues and has already shown its diagnostic potential for pathologies involving fibrogenesis and neurodegeneration. Experimental investigation of loading during MRE is fairly unexplored and may help to better understand changing mechanical properties in relation to organ function. Tensile testing is a common technique for examining mechanical properties of materials and is used as the simultaneous comparison method with MRE in this study. 3D MRE data was acquired during quasistatic uniaxial tensile loading of an Ecoflex 0010 cylindrical specimen. Individual MRE scans at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5kHz where performed on engineering strain increments of 20% from 0% to 140% while tensile reaction force was recorded using a load cell attached to an adjustable elongation slide. Tensile stress-strain relation resembled the Fung hyperelastic strain energy model. We observe that the MRE shear storage modulus is related to the state of tensile deformation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous tensile testing during MRE and the new design can potentially be used for MRE calibration using pre-tension.

  1. Tensile and compressive mechanical behavior of twinned silicon carbide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2010-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with the Tersoff potential were used to study the response of twinned SiC nanowires under tensile and compressive strains. The critical strain of the twinned nanowires can be enhanced by twin-stacking faults, and their critical strains are larger than those of perfect nanowires with the same diameters. Under axial tensile strain, the bonds of the nanowires are just stretched before failure. The failure behavior is found to depend on the twin segment thickness and the diameter of the nanowires. An atomic chain is observed for the thin nanowires with small twin segment thickness under tension strain. Under axial compressive strain, the collapse of the twinned SiC nanowires exhibits two differently failure modes, depending on the length and diameter of the nanowires, i.e. shell buckling for short length nanowires and columnar buckling for longer length nanowires.

  2. Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

  3. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals.

  4. Change in dynamic young's modulus of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite during tensile and compressive stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, S.; Eto, M.; Oku, T.

    1983-12-01

    The effect of mechanical stresses on the dynamic Young's modulus measured by the ultrasonic wave method was examined for an isotropic graphite. Young's modulus of the graphite decreased with increasing applied stress, though the amount of its decrease was different between tensile and compressive stresses. The change in Young's modulus under mechanical stresses clearly corresponded to the stress-strain behavior of the graphite. Change in pore volume caused by mechanical stressing plays an important role in the decrease in Young's modulus under tension and compression. The change in Young's modulus was well represented by the formula E/E 0 = exp(- Aɛ + B) within a limited strain. A and B in the equation appeared to differ between tension and compression. The strain above which the formula showed deviation would be associated with the formation of cracks as observed in previous work.

  5. Ab initio study of the strain dependence of thermopower in electron-doped SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Fumega, Adolfo O; Pardo, Victor

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we explore the different mechanisms that affect the thermopower of a band insulating perovskite (in this case, SrTiO3) when subject to strain (both compressive or tensile). We analyze the high temperature, entropy-dominated limit and the lower temperature, energy-transport regime. We observe that the effect of strain in the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient is small at the concentration levels of interest for thermoelectric applications. However, the effective mass changes substantially with strain, which produces an opposite effect to that of the degeneracy breakups brought about by strain. In particular, we find that the thermopower can be enhanced by applying tensile strain in the adequate regime. We conclude that the detrimental effect of strain in thermopower due to band splitting is a minor effect that will not hamper the optimization of the thermoelectric properties of oxides with t 2g -active bands by applying strain.

  6. Ab initio study of the strain dependence of thermopower in electron-doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumega, Adolfo O.; Pardo, Victor

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we explore the different mechanisms that affect the thermopower of a band insulating perovskite (in this case, SrTiO3) when subject to strain (both compressive or tensile). We analyze the high temperature, entropy-dominated limit and the lower temperature, energy-transport regime. We observe that the effect of strain in the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient is small at the concentration levels of interest for thermoelectric applications. However, the effective mass changes substantially with strain, which produces an opposite effect to that of the degeneracy breakups brought about by strain. In particular, we find that the thermopower can be enhanced by applying tensile strain in the adequate regime. We conclude that the detrimental effect of strain in thermopower due to band splitting is a minor effect that will not hamper the optimization of the thermoelectric properties of oxides with t 2g -active bands by applying strain.

  7. Anisotropic strain enhanced hydrogen solubility in bcc metals: the independence on the sign of strain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Bo; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong; Liu, Feng

    2012-09-28

    When an impurity is doped in a solid, it inevitably induces a local stress, tending to expand or contract the lattice. Consequently, strain can be applied to change the solubility of impurity in a solid. Generally, the solubility responds to strain "monotonically," increasing (decreasing) with the tensile (compressive) strain if the impurity induces a compressive stress or vice versa. Using first-principles calculations, however, we discovered that the H solubility can be enhanced by anisotropic strain in some bcc metals, almost independent of the sign of strain. This anomalous behavior is found to be caused by a continuous change of H location induced by anisotropic strain. Our finding suggests a cascading effect of H bubble formation in bcc metals: the H solution leads to H bubble formation that induces anisotropic strain that in turn enhances H solubility to further facilitate bubble growth.

  8. Tunable electronic properties of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias

    SciTech Connect

    Nduwimana, Alexis; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2014-07-15

    The electronic structure characteristics of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias are studied using first-principles density functional theory. The unique wire-like structure leads to distinct spatial distribution of carriers, which can be tailored by applying tensile and compressive strains, as well as by an electric bias. Our results indicate that the combined effect of strain and electric bias leads to tunable electronic structures that can be used for piezo-electric devices.

  9. HVOF sprayed WC-CoCr coatings on aluminum: tensile and tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsomichalis, A.; Vardavoulias, M.; Vaxevanidis, N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the tensile and sliding wear behaviour of WC-10Co4Cr agglomerated and sintered powder deposited on aluminum by Hyper Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) process. Microstructural analysis (SEM) identified grains of tungsten carbide (WC) in the metal matrix of the cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr). A transformation of the WC in the W2C phase was observed and decomposition of WC in the metal matrix. The HVOF WC-Co-Cr coating was found to decrease tensile strength of the aluminum substrate. Transverse cracks were observed to initiate on the coating surface, increasing rapidly with the increase in tensile strain and stopped on the coating-substrate interface causing decohesion. Tribological properties were examined using the pin-on-disk method under various loads. The friction coefficient rose abruptly at the start-up phase and stabilized at almost the same sliding distance independently of the applied load. Both the friction coefficient and the wear volume were found to increase with increasing applied load. Study of the wear mechanisms revealed surface micro-cracking and fragmentation of flattened coating layers with subsequent gradual pull out of the carbide particles.

  10. Capturing tensile size-dependency in polymer nanofiber elasticity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Jun; Han, Ray P S

    2015-02-01

    As the name implies, tensile size-dependency refers to the size-dependent response under uniaxial tension. It defers markedly from bending size-dependency in terms of onset and magnitude of the size-dependent response; the former begins earlier but rises to a smaller value than the latter. Experimentally, tensile size-dependent behavior is much harder to capture than its bending counterpart. This is also true in the computational effort; bending size-dependency models are more prevalent and well-developed. Indeed, many have questioned the existence of tensile size-dependency. However, recent experiments seem to support the existence of this phenomenon. Current strain gradient elasticity theories can accurately predict bending size-dependency but are unable to track tensile size-dependency. To rectify this deficiency a higher-order strain gradient elasticity model is constructed by including the second gradient of the strain into the deformation energy. Tensile experiments involving 10 wt% polycaprolactone nanofibers are performed to calibrate and verify our model. The results reveal that for the selected nanofibers, their size-dependency begins when their diameters reduce to 600 nm and below. Further, their characteristic length-scale parameter is found to be 1095.8 nm.

  11. Tensile stress-dependent fracture behavior and its influences on photovoltaic characteristics in flexible PbS/CdS thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Min; Yeon, Deuk Ho; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-03-04

    Tensile stress-dependent fracture behavior of flexible PbS/CdS heterojunction thin-film solar cells on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates is investigated in terms of the variations of fracture parameters with applied strains and their influences on photovoltaic properties. The PbS absorber layer that exhibits only mechanical cracks within the applied strain range from ∼0.67 to 1.33% is prepared by chemical bath deposition at different temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 °C. The PbS thin films prepared at 50 °C demonstrate better mechanical resistance against the applied bending strain with the highest crack initiating bending strain of ∼1.14% and the lowest saturated crack density of 0.036 μm(-1). Photovoltaic properties of the cells depend on the deposition temperature and the level of applied tensile stress. The values of short-circuit current density and fill factor are dramatically reduced above a certain level of applied strain, while open-circuit voltage is nearly maintained. The dependency of photovoltaic properties on the progress of fractures is understood as related to the reduced fracture energy and toughness, which is limitedly controllable by microstructural features of the absorber layer.

  12. Tensile-stressed microelectromechanical apparatus and tiltable micromirrors formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    2007-01-09

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which includes a pair of tensile-stressed actuators suspending a platform above a substrate to tilt the platform relative to the substrate. A tensile stress built into the actuators initially tilts the platform when a sacrificial material used in fabrication of the MEM apparatus is removed. Further tilting of the platform can occur with a change in the ambient temperature about the MEM apparatus, or by applying a voltage to one or both of the tensile-stressed actuators. The MEM apparatus can be used to form a tiltable micromirror or an array of such devices, and also has applications for thermal management within satellites.

  13. Tensile Testing: A Simple Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Tensile testing may be used to decide, say, which steel to use in various constructions. Analogous testing can be done simply in the classroom using plasticine and helps to introduce pupils to the various properties studied in materials science.

  14. Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Resistance Spot Welding and Hot Tensile Tests of Surface-refined TWIP Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmie, J.; Schram, A.; Wesling, V.

    2016-03-01

    Automotive industry strives to reduce vehicle weight and therefore fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Especially in the auto body, material light weight construction is practiced, but the occupant safety must be ensured. These requirements demand high-strength steels with good forming and crash characteristics. Such an approach is the use of high- manganese-content TWIP steels, which achieve strengths of around 1,000 MPa and fracture strains of more than 60%. Welding surface-refined TWIP steels reduces their elongation at break and produces cracks due to the contact with liquid metal and the subsequent liquid metal embrittlement (LME). The results of resistance spot welds of mixed joints of high-manganese- content steel in combination with micro-alloyed ferritic steel and hot tensile tests are presented. The influence of different welding parameters on the sensitivity to liquid metal embrittlement is investigated by means of spot welding. In a high temperature tensile testing machine, the influence of different parameters is determined regardless of the welding process. Defined strains just below or above the yield point, and at 25% of elongation at break, show the correlation between the applied strain and liquid metal crack initiation. Due to the possibility to carry out tensile tests on a wide range of temperatures, dependencies of different temperatures of the zinc coating to the steel can be identified. Furthermore, the attack time of the zinc on the base material is investigated by defined heating periods.

  15. An integrated instrument for rapidly deforming living cells using rapid pressure pulses and simultaneously monitoring applied strain in near real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. E.; Goforth, P. B.; Satin, L. S.; Love, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Because many types of living cells are sensitive to applied strain, different in vitro models have been designed to elucidate the cellular and subcellular processes that respond to mechanical deformation at both the cell and tissue level. Our focus was to improve upon an already established strain system to make it capable of independently monitoring the deflection and applied pressure delivered to specific wells of a commercially available, deformable multiwell culture plate. To accomplish this, we devised a custom frame that was capable of mounting deformable 6 or 24 well plates, a pressurization system that could load wells within the plates, and a camera-based imaging system which was capable of capturing strain responses at a sufficiently high frame rate. The system used a user defined program constructed in Labview® to trigger plate pressurization while simultaneously allowing the deflection of the silicone elastomeric plate bottoms to be imaged in near real time. With this system, up to six wells could be pulsed simultaneously using compressed air or nitrogen. Digital image capture allowed near-real time monitoring of applied strain, strain rate, and the cell loading profiles. Although our ultimate goal is to determine how different strain rates applied to neurons modulates their intrinsic biochemical cascades, the same platform technology could be readily applied to other systems. Combining commercially available, deformable multiwell plates with a simple instrument having the monitoring capabilities described here should permit near real time calculations of stretch-induced membrane strain in multiple wells in real time for a wide variety of applications, including high throughput drug screening.

  16. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  17. Modeling the Tensile Behavior of Cross-Ply C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. B.; Song, Y. D.; Sun, Y. C.

    2015-07-01

    The tensile behavior of cross-ply C/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) at room temperature has been investigated. Under tensile loading, the damage evolution process was observed with an optical microscope. A micromechanical approach was developed to predict the tensile stress-strain curve, which considers the damage mechanisms of transverse multicracking, matrix multicracking, fiber/matrix interface debonding, and fiber fracture. The shear-lag model was used to describe the microstress field of the damaged composite. By combining the shear-lag model with different damage models, the tensile stress-strain curve of cross-ply CMCs corresponding to each damage stage was modeled. The predicted tensile stress-strain curves of cross-ply C/SiC composites agreed with experimental data.

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped WSe2 monolayer under strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qianqian; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing

    2017-04-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped WSe2 monolyer subject to isotropic strain are investigated using the first-principles methods based on the density functional theory. Our results indicate that Mn-doped WSe2 monolayer is a magnetic semiconductor nanomaterial with strong spontaneous magnetism without strain and the total magnetic moment of Mn-doped system is 1.038μB. We applied strain to Mn-doped WSe2 monolayer from -10% to 10%. The doped system transforms from magnetic semiconductor to half-metallic material from -10% to -2% compressive strain and from 2% to 6% tensile strain. The largest half-metallic gap is 0.450 eV at -2% compressive strain. The doped system shows metal property from 7% to 10%. Its maximum magnetic moment comes to 1.181μB at 6% tensile strain. However, the magnetic moment of system decreases to zero sharply when tensile strain arrived at 7%. Strain changes the redistribution of charges and arises to the magnetic effect. The coupling between the 3d orbital of Mn atom, 5d orbital of W atom and 4p orbital of Se atom is analyzed to explain the strong strain effect on the magnetic properties. Our studies predict Mn-doped WSe2 monolayers under strain to be candidates for thin dilute magnetic semiconductors, which is important for application in semiconductor spintronics.

  19. Progressive failure of large deformation composites under dynamic tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liqun

    The applications of polymer based composite materials in structural components under dynamic loading have increased dramatically. The accurate understanding and modeling of the material mechanical behavior is the basis for the composite structure design and analysis. This research was designed to investigate the progressive failure nature of woven polymer-based composites under dynamic tensile loading conditions. A plain-woven E-glass/vinyl ester composite was selected and a generalized anisotropic material characterization procedure was developed. Off-axial tensile dynamic loading experiments with different strain rates and temperature was conducted. A nonlinear and rate dependent constitutive model used for the polymer-based composites under tensile dynamic tensile loading was constructed. The comparison shows a good match with testing data and a good prediction of stress to failure values. A hybrid method that combined the classical laminate theory with material microstructure analysis was presented to model the large strain to failure phenomenon. A single material parameter failure criteria based on Monkman-Grant concept was built to represent the materials anisotropic and rate dependency natural for tensile loading. And the strength concept based on the material constitution relationship and failure criteria was established to for structure analyses.

  20. Can a strain yield a qubit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Colin

    2015-03-01

    A Josepshon qubit is designed via the application of a tensile strain to a topological insulator surface, sandwiched between two s-wave superconductors. The strain applied leads to a shift in Dirac point without changing the conducting states existing on the surface of a topological insulator. This strain applied can be tuned to form a π-junction in such a structure. Combining two such junctions in a ring architecture leads to the ground state of the ring being in a doubly degenerate state- ``0'' and ``1'' states of the qubit. A qubit designed this way is easily controlled via the tunable strain. We report on the conditions necessary to design such a qubit. Finally the operating time of a single qubit phase gate is derived. This work was supported by funds from Dept. of Science and Technology (Nanomission), Govt. of India, Grant No. SR/NM/NS-1101/2011.

  1. A Comparative Study Between Strain And Stress Based Forming Limit Analysis By Applying Several Phenomenological Yield Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Butuc, Marilena C.; Vincze, Gabriela T.; Gracio, Jose J.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2005-08-05

    The present work aims at analyzing a comparative study between the strain-based forming limit criterion (FLD) and the stress-based forming limit criterion (FLSD), under linear and complex strain paths. The selected material is an AA5182-0 aluminium alloy. Some relevant remarks about stress-based forming limit criterion concept are presented.

  2. Strain-Magnetization Properties and Domain Structures of Silicon Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notoji, Atsushi; Saito, Akihiko; Hayakawa, Motozo

    The effects of tensile stress and strain on magnetization and magnetic domains in silicon steel sheets were investigated. The magnetization of elastic deformation regions decreased with increase of strain and the strain-magnetization properties of plastic deformation regions under stress showed peculiar characteristics. The magnetization increased with decreasing strain. We observed Lancet and other domains in a sample, especially around the boundary of crystal, after removing stress applied to a plastic deformation region. This phenomenon can be explained by changes in the domain structures, which were partly observed. This results obtained in this investigation can be applied to the nondestructive detection of fatigue in metallic magnetic materials.

  3. Mechanical strain effects on black phosphorus nanoresonators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui-Xia; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-01-14

    We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of mechanical strain on single-layer black phosphorus nanoresonators at different temperatures. We find that the resonant frequency is highly anisotropic in black phosphorus due to its intrinsic puckered configuration, and that the quality factor in the armchair direction is higher than in the zigzag direction at room temperature. The quality factors are also found to be intrinsically larger than those in graphene and MoS2 nanoresonators. The quality factors can be increased by more than a factor of two by applying tensile strain, with uniaxial strain in the armchair direction being the most effective. However, there is an upper bound for the quality factor increase due to nonlinear effects at large strains, after which the quality factor decreases. The tension induced nonlinear effect is stronger along the zigzag direction, resulting in a smaller maximum strain for quality factor enhancement.

  4. Effect of strain on electronic and magnetic properties of n-type Cr-doped WSe2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Xu; Ma, Xu; Wu, Ninghua; Xin, Qianqian; Wang, Tianxing

    2017-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory, we study the effect of strain on the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped WSe2 monolayer. The results show that no magnetic moment is induced in the Cr-doped WSe2 monolayer without strain. For the Cr substitutions, the impurity states are close to the conduction bands, which indicate n-type doping occurs in this case. Then we applied strain (from -10% to 10%) to the doped system, and find that a little magnetic moment is induced with tensile strain from 6% to 9% and negligible. We find that the influence of strain on the magnetic properties is inappreciable in Cr-doped WSe2. Moreover, the tensile strain appears to be more effective in reducing the band gap of Cr-doped WSe2 monolayer than the compressive strain.

  5. Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors Using an Electrospun Polyurethane Nanofiber/Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Daqing; Wang, Qinghe; Yu, Jixian; Hao, Wentao; Lu, Hongbo; Zhang, Guobing; Wang, Xianghua; Qiu, Longzhen

    2016-06-01

    A highly flexible and stretchable strain sensor has been prepared by coating chemical reduction of graphene oxide on electrospun polyurethane nanofiber mats. The sensor exhibits an ohmic behavior regardless of applied strains and the current monotonically increases with the increase of the tensile strain. The morphology and stability of electrospun polyurethane nanocomposite mats were also studied. The flexible and stretchable strain sensor has great potential for practical application such as efficient human-motion detection. This cheap and simple process of graphene layer provides an effective fabrication for graphene stretchable electronic devices and strain sensors due to excellent stability and electrical proper.

  6. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  7. First in-situ lattice strains measurements under load at VULCAN

    SciTech Connect

    An, Ke; Skorpenske, Harley David; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Wang, Xun-Li; Cakmak, Ercan

    2011-01-01

    The engineering materials diffractometer, VULCAN, at the Spallation Neutron Source began commissioning on June 26, 2009. This instrument is designed for materials science and engineering studies. In situ lattice strain measurements of a model metallic material under monotonic tensile load have been performed on VULCAN. The tensile load was applied under two different strain rates, and neutron diffraction measurements were carried out in both high-intensity and high-resolution modes. These experiments demonstrated VULCAN's in situ study capability of deformation behaviors even during the early phases of commissioning.

  8. Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Awang, Muhd. Khairudin; Sa'at, Mohd Hisham

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, increasing awareness of replacing synthetic fiber such as glass fiber has emerged due to environmental problems and pollutions. Automotive manufacturers also seek new material especially biodegradable material to be non-load bearing application parts. This present work discussed on the effect of silane treatment on coir fiber reinforced composites. From the results of tensile tests, fibers treated with silane have attained maximum material stiffness. However, to achieve maximum ultimate tensile strength and strain at failure performances, untreated fibers work very well through fiber bridging and internal friction between fiber and polymeric matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations have coincided with these results.

  9. Tensile and compressive behavior of a swirl mat composite

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.B.

    1998-07-01

    The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the US Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on one representative reference material--an isocyanurate (polyurethane) reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass. The present report describes tensile and compressive testing and results for the reference composite. Behavior trends and proportional limit are established for both tension and compression. Damage development due to tensile loading and strain rate effects are discussed.

  10. Tensile Test For Arboform Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavanescu (Mazurchevici), Simona; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2015-07-01

    Petroleum-based plastic materials constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is received particular attention. Our studied material, "Liquid wood" produced from lignin, natural fibres and natural additives, is completely biodegradable in natural environment, in normal conditions. This paper presents the behaviour of Arboform and Arboform reinforced with Aramidic Fibers tensile test analysis. Experimental data show that the tensile strength reached an average value of 15.8 MPa, the modulus of elasticity after tests is 3513.3MPA for Arboform and for the reinforcement the tensile strength is 23.625MPa, the modulus of elasticity after tests is 3411.5MPA, the materials present a brittle behaviour. The high mechanical properties of newly developed material, better than of other ordinary plastics, recommend it as a potential environment-friendly substituent for synthetic plastics, which are present in all fields of activity.

  11. The Uniaxial Tensile Response of Porous and Microcracked Ceramic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit; Shyam, Amit; Watkins, Thomas R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Stafford, Randall; Hemker, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The uniaxial tensile stress-strain behavior of three porous ceramic materials was determined at ambient conditions. Test specimens in the form of thin beams were obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter honeycombs and tested using a microtesting system. A digital image correlation technique was used to obtain full-field 2D in-plane surface displacement maps during tensile loading, and in turn, the 2D strains obtained from displacement fields were used to determine the Secant modulus, Young s modulus and initial Poisson s ratio of the three porous ceramic materials. Successive unloading-reloading experiments were performed at different levels of stress to decouple the linear elastic, anelastic and inelastic response in these materials. It was found that the stress-strain response of these materials was non-linear and that the degree of nonlinearity is related to the initial microcrack density and evolution of damage in the material.

  12. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  13. Tunnel Magnetoresistance Sensors with Magnetostrictive Electrodes: Strain Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Rott, Karsten; Meier, Tobias; Quandt, Eckhard; Hölscher, Hendrik; Reiss, Günter; Meyners, Dirk

    2016-11-11

    Magnetostrictive tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors pose a bright perspective in micro- and nano-scale strain sensing technology. The behavior of TMR sensors under mechanical stress as well as their sensitivity to the applied stress depends on the magnetization configuration of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ)s with respect to the stress axis. Here, we propose a configuration resulting in an inverse effect on the tunnel resistance by tensile and compressive stresses. Numerical simulations, based on a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) model, are performed in order to understand the magnetization reversal of the sense layer and to find out the optimum bias magnetic field required for high strain sensitivity. At a bias field of -3.2 kA/m under a 0.2 × 10 - 3 strain, gauge factors of 2294 and -311 are calculated under tensile and compressive stresses, respectively. Modeling results are investigated experimentally on a round junction with a diameter of 30 ± 0.2 μ m using a four-point bending apparatus. The measured field and strain loops exhibit nearly the same trends as the calculated ones. Also, the gauge factors are in the same range. The junction exhibits gauge factors of 2150 ± 30 and -260 for tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, under a -3.2 kA/m bias magnetic field. The agreement of the experimental and modeling results approves the proposed configuration for high sensitivity and ability to detect both tensile and compressive stresses by a single TMR sensor.

  14. Physical characteristics affecting the tensile failure properties of compact bone.

    PubMed

    Currey, J D

    1990-01-01

    Compact bone specimens from a wide variety of reptiles, birds, and mammals were tested in tension, and their failure properties related to mineral volume fraction, porosity and histological orientation. The principal findings were that the ultimate strain and the work under the stress-strain curve declined sharply with mineralisation, as did the stress and strain appearing after the specimen had yielded. Ultimate tensile strength was not simply related to any combination of the possible explanatory variables, but some relatively poorly mineralised bones, notably antlers, had high stresses at failure. These high strengths were allowed by a great increase in stress after the bones had yielded at quite low stresses.

  15. Strain engineering of Kapitza resistance in few-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2014-02-12

    We demonstrate through molecular dynamics simulations that the Kapitza resistance in few-layer graphene (FLG) can be controlled by applying mechanical strain. For unstrained FLG, the Kapitza resistance decreases with the increase of thickness and reaches an asymptotic value of 6 × 10(-10) m(2)K/W at a thickness about 16 nm. Uniaxial cross-plane strain is found to increase the Kapitza resistance in FLG monotonically, when the applied strain varies from compressive to tensile. Moreover, uniaxial strain couples the in-plane and out-of-plane strain/stress when the surface of FLG is buckled. We find that with a compressive cross-plane stress of 2 GPa, the Kapitza resistance is reduced by about 50%. On the other hand it is almost tripled with a tensile cross-plane stress of 1 GPa. Remarkably, compressive in-plane strain can either increase or reduce the Kapitza resistance, depending on the specific way it is applied. Our study suggests that graphene can be exploited for both heat dissipation and insulation through strain engineering.

  16. Uniaxial Tensile Test for Soil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    by radiographs to be uniform. 8. Direct tensile triaxial tests performed by Conlon (1966), Bishop and Garga (1969), and Parry and Nadarajah (1974...Parry, R. H. G., and Nadarajah , V. 1974. "Anisotrophy in a Natural Soft Clayey Silt," Engineering Geology, Vol 8, No. 3, pp 287-309. 47 .• ’°"I Peters

  17. Tensile properties of ceramic matrix fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, D.W.; Auh, K.H.; Tanaka, Hidehiko

    1995-11-01

    The mechanical properties of various 2D ceramic matrix fiber composites were characterized by tension testing, using the gripping and alignment techniques developed in this work. The woven fabric composites used for the test had the basic combinations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fabric/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiC fabric/SiC, and SiC monofilament uniweave fabric/SiC. Tension testing was performed with strain gauge and acoustic emission instrumentation to identify the first-matrix cracking stress and assure a valid alignment. The peak tensile stresses of these laminate composites were about one-third of the flexural strengths. The SiC monofilament uniweave fabric (14 vol%)/SiC composites showed a relatively high peak stress of 370 MPa in tension testing.

  18. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawedzki, Waclaw; Tarnowski, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  19. Investigation of the dynamic mechanical behavior of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in the high stress tensile regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berer, M.; Major, Z.; Pinter, G.; Constantinescu, D. M.; Marsavina, L.

    2014-11-01

    Due to its outstanding mechanical performance both in static and dynamic loading and its resistance up to very high temperatures, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted many practical applications. The loaded contact state for the application of PEEK rolls as bearing elements was recently analyzed by the corresponding author. High irreversible deformations on the mantle side were caused by the rolling contact and thus the rolling performance is supposed to be strongly affected by the dynamic mechanical properties of this irreversibly deformed material. Tensile fatigue tests at various stress levels up to the thermally dominated fatigue regime were conducted in order to get information regarding the dynamic mechanical material behavior at high stress regimes. Two types of PEEK (annealed and untreated) were investigated and two load ratios, R, were used (0.1 and 0.5). During the fatigue tests extensometer strain, load and surface temperature were recorded and a quantitative hysteresis loop analysis with calculated secant modulus and dynamic modulus was performed. Furthermore, the concept of isocyclic stress-strain diagrams was applied to enlarge and confirm the results obtained from the hysteresis loop analysis. A sharp transition between thermally dominated and mechanically dominated fatigue regimes was found for both PEEK types (annealed and untreated) and for both load ratios. Moreover, the annealed PEEK was stiffer in the tensile fatigue tests than the untreated material. Both examined PEEK types showed distinct hardening throughout the fatigue tests which made them "more elastic" (higher stiffness and less damping).

  20. Lamb wave ultrasonic evaluation of welded AA2024 specimens at tensile static and fatigue testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, M. V.; Byakov, A. V.; Shah, R. T.; Lyubutin, P. S.; Panin, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of Lamb waves ultrasonic testing technique applied for evaluation of different stress-strain and damaged state of aluminum specimens at static and fatigue loading in order to develop a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) approach. The experimental results of tensile testing of AA2024T3 specimens with welded joints are presented. Piezoelectric transducers used as actuators and sensors were adhesively bonded to the specimen's surface using two component epoxy. The set of static and cyclic tensile tests with two frequencies of acoustic testing (50 kHz and 335 kHz) were performed. The recorded signals were processed to calculate the maximum envelope in order to evaluate the changes of the stress-strain state of the specimen and its microstructure during static tension. The registered data are analyzed and discussed in terms of signal attenuation due to the formation of fatigue defects during cyclic loading. Understanding the relations between acoustic signal features and fatigue damages will provide us the ability to determine the damage state of the structure and its residual lifetime in order to design a robust SHM system.

  1. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ∼ nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  2. In-situ single-grain peak profile measurements on Ti-7Al during tensile deformation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienert, U.; Brandes, M. C.; Bernier, J. V.; Weiss, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Mills, M. J.; Miller, M. P.; US Naval Research Lab.; LLNL; Mechanical Solutions, Inc.; Ohio State Univ.; Cornell Univ.

    2009-10-25

    High-energy three-dimensional X-ray diffraction with medium and high reciprocal space resolution was applied to study in situ tensile deformation of Ti-7Al specimens. Samples with planar and random dislocation microstructures were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Stress tensors of individual grains were obtained at several loads up to 2% deformation. The stress tensors were found to rotate, and resolved shear stresses were calculated. High-resolution reciprocal space maps of selected grains were recorded. Azimuthal and radial distributions were visualized and discussed in terms of idealized dislocation structures. Heterogeneous grain rotations were observed for the planar microstructure and found to be consistent with activation of the highest stressed basal slip system. Intra-granular strain gradients were detected in excess of the intrinsic radial dislocation peak broadening. The potential of combining the applied techniques with modeling to obtain multiple length-scale information during deformation of bulk specimens is discussed.

  3. Mechanochromism of a luminescent natural rubber under tensile deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jimin; Park, Minwook; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Nah, Changwoon

    2016-09-01

    Various examples are reported of chromogenic materials composed of a functional dye covalently linked to the polymer chains or physically dispersed in the continuous macromolecular matrix, the latter appears to be a more sustainable route for the industrial scale-up of these materials. In this study, a mechanochromic elastomer was prepared by physically dispersing dye materials into a rubber matrix by solution mixing technique. The employed rubber is natural rubber (NR). The NR was chosen because of its ability of strain-induced crystallization. Perylene diimide I is selected after considering its aggregachromic nature and affinity with rubber matrix. The optimum composition of dye in rubber composites was determined based on the mechanochromic performance characterized with ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrofluorometer (FL). The UV/Vis spectrometer and FL monitor the optical responses, such as absorbance and emission property, under tensile deformation due to the breakage of dye aggregates. Spectroscopic analysis with polarization monitors the breakage of dye aggregates and anisotropic property of the sample. The XRD monitors the change in size of dye aggregates. With polarization filtering, the breakage of dye aggregates are clearly observed and anisotropic property of the sample is also confirmed. The XRD results indicate that dye aggregates were broken during stretching because the shear force is applied to dye aggregates.

  4. Tensile Properties of Under-Matched Weld Joints for 950 MPa Steel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kouji; Arakawa, Toshiaki; Akazawa, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Kousei; Matsuo, Hiroki; Nakagara, Kiyoyuki; Suita, Yoshikazu

    In welding of 950 MPa-class high tensile strength steel, preheating is crucial in order to avoid cold cracks, which, however, eventually increases welding deformations. One way to decrease welding deformations is lowering preheating temperature by using under-matched weld metal. Toyota and others clarify that although breaking elongation can decrease due to plastic constraint effect under certain conditions, static tensile of under-matched weld joints is comparable to that of base metal. However, there has still been no report about joint static tensile of under-matched weld joints applied to 950 MPa-class high tensile strength steel. In this study, we aim to research tensile strength and fatigue strength of under-matched weld joints applied to 950 MPa-class high tensile steel.

  5. Cavitation contributes substantially to tensile creep in silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Luecke, W.E.; Wiederhorn, S.M.; Hockey, B.J.; Krause, R.F. Jr.; Long, G.G.

    1995-08-01

    During tensile creep of a hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitride, the volume fraction of cavities increases linearly with strain; these cavities produce nearly all of the measured strain. In contrast, compressive creep in the same stress and temperature range produces very little cavitation. A stress exponent that increases with stress ({dot {var_epsilon}} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup n}, 2 < n < 7) characterizes the tensile creep response, while the compressive creep response exhibits a stress dependence of unity. Furthermore, under the same stress and temperature, the material creeps nearly 100 times faster in tension than in compression. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the cavities formed during tensile creep occur in pockets of residual crystalline silicate phase located at silicon nitride multigrain junctions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from crept material quantifies the size distribution of cavities observed in TEM and demonstrates that cavity addition, rather than cavity growth, dominates the cavitation process. These observations are in accord with a model for creep based on the deformation of granular materials in which the microstructure must dilate for individual grains t slide past one another. During tensile creep the silicon nitride grains remain rigid; cavitation in the multigrain junctions allows the silicate to flow from cavities to surrounding silicate pockets, allowing the dilation of the microstructure and deformation of the material. Silicon nitride grain boundary sliding accommodates this expansion and leads to extension of the specimen. In compression, where cavitation is suppressed, deformation occurs by solution-reprecipitation of silicon nitride.

  6. How does a Mycobacterium change its spots? Applying molecular tools to track diverse strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining genetic diversity in the wake of the release of several Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) genome sequences has become a major emphasis in the molecular biology and epidemiology of Johne’s disease research. These data can now be used to define the extent of strain diversity ...

  7. Tensile Properties, Ferrite Contents, and Specimen Heating of Stainless Steels in Cryogenic Gas Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, T.; Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.

    2006-03-31

    We performed tensile tests at cryogenic temperatures below 77 K and in helium gas environment for SUS 304L and SUS 316L in order to obtain basic data of mechanical properties of the materials for liquid hydrogen tank service. We evaluate tensile curves, tensile properties, ferrite contents, mode of deformation and/or fracture, and specimen heating during the testing at 4 to 77 K. For both SUS 304L and 316L, tensile strength shows a small peak around 10 K, and specimen heating decreases above 30 K. The volume fraction of {alpha}-phase increases continuously up to 70 % with plastic strain, at approximately 15 % plastic strain for 304L and up to 35 % for 316L. There was almost no clear influence of testing temperature on strain-induced martensitic transformation at the cryogenic temperatures.

  8. Manual for LDEF tensile tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    One of the experiments aboard the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) consists of a tray of approximately one hundred tensile specimens of several candidate space structure composite materials. During the LDEF flight the materials will be subjected to the space environment and to possible contamination during launch and recovery. Tensile tests of representative samples were made before the LDEF flight to obtain baseline data. Similar tests will be made on control specimens stored on earth for the length of the LDEF flight and on recovered flight specimens. This manual codifies the details of testing, data acquisition, and handling used in obtaining the baseline data so that the same procedures and equipment will be used on the subsequent tests.

  9. Variation in susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of three stored-grain insect species to beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...

  10. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  11. Are tensile and compressive Young's moduli of compact bone different?

    PubMed

    Barak, Meir M; Currey, John D; Weiner, Steve; Shahar, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the question of whether the stiffness (Young's modulus) of secondary osteonal cortical bone is different in compression and tension. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is used to measure concurrently the compressive and tensile strains in cortical bone beams tested in bending. ESPI is a non-contact method of measuring surface deformations over the entire region of interest of a specimen, tested wet. The measured strain distributions across the beam, and the determination of the location of the neutral axis, demonstrate in a statistically-robust way that the tensile Young's modulus is slightly (6%), but significantly greater than that of the compressive Young's modulus. It is also shown that within a relatively small bone specimen there are considerable variations in the modulus, presumably caused by structural inhomogeneities.

  12. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  13. 7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29.3061... Type 93) § 29.3061 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. Tensile strength is not an important element of quality in Burley tobacco....

  14. Achieving large uniform tensile ductility in nanocrystalline metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y M; Ott, R T; Hamza, A V; Besser, M F; Almer, J; Kramer, M J

    2010-11-19

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy revealed the origin of different strain hardening behaviors (and dissimilar tensile ductility) in nanocrystalline Ni and nanocrystalline Co. Planar defect accumulations and texture evolution were observed in Co but not in Ni, suggesting that interfacial defects are an effective passage to promote strain hardening in truly nanograins. Twinning becomes less significant in Co when grain sizes reduce to below ~15 nm. This study offers insights into achieving excellent mechanical properties in nanocrystalline materials.

  15. Microstructure Evolution in Alpha Iron during High Temperature Tensile Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Phi Hung Xuan

    The microstructural evolution of alpha iron under tensile deformation at high temperature (TH 0.5) and slow strain-rate (10-5 s-1 to 10-5 s-1) was investigated. The impetus for this study was the recent observation of Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth (DAGG) in pure molybdenum under the same testing conditions. A high temperature tensile testing system was refurbished and assembled for this study. The testing system consists of an Centorr 2229 furnace system mounted on an Instron 1331 load frame. I designed the tensile grip and programmed the testing program to obtain data in the stress and strain regime of interest. Testing were done at both UC Davis and Los Alamos National Labs (LANL). Metallography techniques and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) technique in a scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the samples after testing. In addition to normal tensile tests at constant strain-rates where DAGG is proposed to occur, a series of strain-rate change tests were designed and performed. Strain-rate change tests were employed to extract activation area information that provided insight into the active mechanism of deformation of the material in addition to the information obtained from analysis of the stress-strain curve and the microstructure via optical microscopy and EBSD. The obtained stress-train curve data were compared with the stress-strain curves data in the literature for alpha iron in similar regime of deformation indicating that the dominant mechanism of deformation is dynamic recovery. The comparison includes past stress-strain curves and the data recorded in the Ashby Map. Optical and EBSD analysis showed that normal grain growth occurred in alpha iron during this testing regime. This lack of grain boundary pinning by impurity differs from that observed in Mo that exhibited DAGG. Activation area analysis showed that the activation area values of Fe are consistent with friction drag from the lattice being the active deformation

  16. Refined Estimation Of Thermal Tensile Stresses In Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, Larry C.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal changes in tensile stresses and strains in bolt and in corresponding compressive stresses and strains in bolted material estimated more accurately by use of equations incorporating two refinements over previous equations. Elasticity of bolted material and radial thermal expansion also taken into account. Refined equations improve design and analysis of bolted joints assembled at one temperature (e.g., room temperature) and in which specified minimum tension must be maintained (and/or specified maximum tension not exceeded) at higher or lower operational temperature.

  17. Most effective way to improve the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated BN sheets: applying external biaxial strain and an electric field.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-15

    Density functional calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-atoms-decorated BN sheets under both external biaxial strain and a vertical electric field. The Na atom generally has the weakest binding strength to a given substrate compared with the other elements in the periodic table [PANS, 2016, 113, 3735]. Consequently, it is understudied in comparison to other elements and there are few reports about the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated nanomaterials. We calculated that the average binding energy (Eb) of Na atoms to the pure BN sheet is 1.08 eV, which is smaller than the cohesive energy of bulk Na (1.11 eV). However, the Eb can be increased to 1.15 eV under 15% biaxial strain, and further up to 1.53 eV with the control of both 15% biaxial strain and a 5.14 V nm(-1) electric field (E-field). Therefore, the application of biaxial strain and an external upward E-field can prevent clustering of the Na atoms on the surface of a BN sheet, which is crucial for the hydrogen storage. Each Na atom on the surface of a BN sheet can adsorb only one H2 molecule when no strain or E-field is applied; however, the absorption increases to five H2 molecules under 15% biaxial strain and six H2 molecules under both 15% biaxial strain combined with a 5.14 V nm(-1)E-field. The average adsorption energies for H2 of BN-(Na-mH2) (m = 1-6) are within the range of practical applications (0.2-0.6 eV). The hydrogen gravimetric density of the periodic BN-(Na-6H2)4 structure is 9 wt%, which exceeds the 5.5 wt% value that should be met by 2017 as specified by the US Department of Energy. On the other side, removal of the biaxial strain and E-field can help to desorb the H2 molecule. These findings suggest a new route to design hydrogen storage materials under near-ambient conditions.

  18. Emergence of Hyper-Resistant Escherichia coli MG1655 Derivative Strains after Applying Sub-Inhibitory Doses of Individual Constituents of Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Chueca, Beatriz; Berdejo, Daniel; Gomes-Neto, Nelson J.; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of food preservation by using essential oils (EOs) and their individual constituents (ICs) is attracting enormous interest worldwide. Until now, researchers considered that treatments with such antimicrobial compounds did not induce bacterial resistance via a phenotypic (i.e., transient) response. Nevertheless, the emergence of genotypic (i.e., stable) resistance after treatment with these compounds had not been previously tested. Our results confirm that growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ICs carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene oxide do not increase resistance to further treatments with either the same IC (direct resistance) or with other preservation treatments (cross-resistance) such as heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF). Bacterial mutation frequency was likewise lower when those IC's were applied; however, after 10 days of re-culturing cells in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ICs, we were able to isolate several derivative strains (i.e., mutants) displaying an increased minimum inhibitory concentration to those ICs. Furthermore, when compared to the wild type (WT) strain, they also displayed direct resistance and cross-resistance. Derivative strains selected with carvacrol and citral also displayed morphological changes involving filamentation along with cell counts at late-stationary growth phase that were lower than the WT strain. In addition, co-cultures of each derivative strain with the WT strain resulted in a predominance of the original strain in absence of ICs, indicating that mutants would not out-compete WT cells under optimal growth conditions. Nevertheless, growth in the presence of ICs facilitated the selection of these resistant mutants. Thus, as a result, subsequent food preservation treatments of these bacterial cultures might be less effective than expected for WT cultures. In conclusion, this study recommends that treatment with ICs at sub

  19. Tensile stress and creep in thermally grown oxide.

    PubMed

    Veal, Boyd W; Paulikas, Arvydas P; Hou, Peggy Y

    2006-05-01

    Structural components that operate at high temperatures (for example, turbine blades) rely on thermally grown oxide (TGO), commonly alumina, for corrosion protection. Strains that develop in TGOs during operation can reduce the protectiveness of the TGO. However, the occurrence of growth strains in TGOs, and mechanisms that cause them, are poorly understood. It is accepted that compressive strains can develop as oxygen and metal atoms meet to form new growth within constrained oxide. More controversial is the experimental finding that large tensile stresses, close to 1 GPa, develop during isothermal growth conditions in alumina TGO formed on a FeCrAlY alloy. Using a novel technique based on synchrotron radiation, we have confirmed these previous results, and show that the tensile strain develops as the early oxide, (Fe,Cr,Al)(2)O(3), converts to alpha-Al2O3 during the growth process. This allows us to model the strain behaviour by including creep and this diffusion-controlled phase change.

  20. On the tensile strength of insect swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2016-08-01

    Collective animal groups are often described by the macroscopic patterns they form. Such global patterns, however, convey limited information about the nature of the aggregation as a whole. Here, we take a different approach, drawing on ideas from materials testing to probe the macroscopic mechanical properties of mating swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. By manipulating ground-based visual features that tend to position the swarms in space, we apply an effective tensile load to the swarms, and show that we can quasi-statically pull single swarms apart into multiple daughter swarms. Our results suggest that swarms surprisingly have macroscopic mechanical properties similar to solids, including a finite Young’s modulus and yield strength, and that they do not flow like viscous fluids.

  1. High temperature tensile creep of CMSX-2 nickel base superalloy single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rouault-Rogez, H.; Dupeux, M.; Ignat, M. . Lab. de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgiques)

    1994-09-01

    CMSX-2 single crystal specimens were submitted to tensile creep tests along <001> between 923 K (650 C) and 1,223 K (950 C). The secondary creep rate values are analyzed in terms of a Dorn creep law. Three temperature domains have to be considered for the values of the apparent parameters in the creep law. Between 973 K (700 C) and 1,073 K (800 C), the Dorn formalism is no longer valid, since it leads to negative apparent values of the thermal activation energy. From the apparent parameters, a model of the evolution of friction stress with temperature and applied stress is established and effective parameters are determined. The effective parameters are then discussed in terms of deformation mechanisms, taking into account TEM observations of deformed specimens: the anomalous behavior was thus attributed to the effect of the reinforcing [gamma][prime] phase. Maps of active deformation mechanisms are sketched for small strains with reduced coarsening of precipitates.

  2. In situ stress observation in oxide films and how tensile stress influences oxygen ion conduction

    PubMed Central

    Fluri, Aline; Pergolesi, Daniele; Roddatis, Vladimir; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Many properties of materials can be changed by varying the interatomic distances in the crystal lattice by applying stress. Ideal model systems for investigations are heteroepitaxial thin films where lattice distortions can be induced by the crystallographic mismatch with the substrate. Here we describe an in situ simultaneous diagnostic of growth mode and stress during pulsed laser deposition of oxide thin films. The stress state and evolution up to the relaxation onset are monitored during the growth of oxygen ion conducting Ce0.85Sm0.15O2-δ thin films via optical wafer curvature measurements. Increasing tensile stress lowers the activation energy for charge transport and a thorough characterization of stress and morphology allows quantifying this effect using samples with the conductive properties of single crystals. The combined in situ application of optical deflectometry and electron diffraction provides an invaluable tool for strain engineering in Materials Science to fabricate novel devices with intriguing functionalities. PMID:26912416

  3. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  4. Revealing extraordinary intrinsic tensile plasticity in gradient nano-grained copper.

    PubMed

    Fang, T H; Li, W L; Tao, N R; Lu, K

    2011-03-25

    Nano-grained (NG) metals are believed to be strong but intrinsically brittle: Free-standing NG metals usually exhibit a tensile uniform elongation of a few percent. When a NG copper film is confined by a coarse-grained (CG) copper substrate with a gradient grain-size transition, tensile plasticity can be achieved in the NG film where strain localization is suppressed. The gradient NG film exhibits a 10 times higher yield strength and a tensile plasticity comparable to that of the CG substrate and can sustain a tensile true strain exceeding 100% without cracking. A mechanically driven grain boundary migration process with a substantial concomitant grain growth dominates plastic deformation of the gradient NG structure. The extraordinary intrinsic plasticity of gradient NG structures offers their potential for use as advanced coatings of bulk materials.

  5. Tensile Properties of GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.; Yun, Hee-Man

    2012-01-01

    This is a chapter in the final report on GRCop-84 for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Second Generation/Project Constellation Program. It contains information on the tensile properties of GRCop-84. GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) was produced by extrusion and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing). Some of the extrusions were rolled to plate and sheet while other extrusions were drawn into tubing. The material was further subjected to various heat treatments corresponding to annealing, anticipated typical brazing conditions, an end-of-life condition and various elevated temperature exposures to attempt to improve creep resistance. As anticipated, cold work increased strength while decreasing ductility. Annealing at 600 C (1112 F) and higher temperatures was effective. An exposure for 100 h at 500 C (932 F) resulted in an increase in strength rather than the anticipated decrease. High temperature simulated-braze cycles and thermal exposures lowered the strength of GRCop-84, but the deceases were small compared to precipitation strengthened copper alloys. It was observed that the excess Cr could form large precipitates that lower the reduction in area though it appears a minimum amount is required. Overall, GRCop-84 exhibits good stability of its tensile properties, which makes it an excellent candidate for rocket engine liners and many other high temperature applications.

  6. Modified Law of Mixture to Describe the Tensile Deformation Behavior of Thermomechanically Processed Dual-Phase Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, E.

    2013-08-01

    Low alloy steel containing 0.09 wt.% C was thermomechanically processed with various rolling reductions at intercritical temperature of 790 °C, followed by quenching in the iced brine solution. The flow of the material due to this plastic deformation increased the aspect ratio of the microstructure (α + γ) in the rolling than in the transverse directions. The strengths, both in the longitudinal and transverse directions of rolling were increased because of the development of substructure in ferrite, observed previously. The fibrous microstructure formed after rolling increased the surface area of contact of ferrite and martensite. During tensile deformation the fibrous dual-phase composite had positioned itself for better stress transfer from soft ferrite to hard martensite particles. These microstructural changes associated with hot deformation of the material were accommodated in current modifications in the law of mixture applied to dual-phase steel. A computer simulation was developed to present the deformation behavior of ferrite, martensite, and composite from the experimental tensile data (loads and strain). Different variables were introduced in the simulation for allowing the composite curves to pass through the experimental data points to demonstrate the tensile deformation behavior of ferrite and martensite. The systematic changes in these variables with degree of hot rolling in the intercritical region clearly described the deformation behaviour of ferrite and martensite individually.

  7. A Study of Influencing Factors on the Tensile Response of a Titanium Matrix Composite With Weak Interfacial Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    The generalized method of cells micromechanics model is utilized to analyze the tensile stress-strain response of a representative titanium matrix composite with weak interfacial bonding. The fiber/matrix interface is modeled through application of a displacement discontinuity between the fiber and matrix once a critical debonding stress has been exceeded. Unidirectional composites with loading parallel and perpendicular to the fibers are examined, as well as a cross-ply laminate. For each of the laminates studied, analytically obtained results are compared to experimental data. The application of residual stresses through a cool-down process was found to have a significant effect on the tensile response. For the unidirectional laminate with loading applied perpendicular to the fibers, fiber packing and fiber shape were shown to have a significant effect on the predicted tensile response. Furthermore, the interface was characterized through the use of semi-emperical parameters including an interfacial compliance and a "debond stress;" defined as the stress level across the interface which activates fiber/matrix debonding. The results in this paper demonstrate that if architectural factors are correctly accounted for and the interface is appropriately characterized, the macro-level composite behavior can be correctly predicted without modifying any of the fiber or matrix constituent properties.

  8. Strain-Controlled Transport Mechanism in Strongly Correlated LaNiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, D.; Kundu, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    A density functional theory + Hubbard U (DFT + U) method is employed to investigate the effect of strain on the electronic and transport properties of the correlated metal LaNiO3. LaNiO3 without strain is characterized by a low temperature Fermi liquid behaviour of resistivity, a negative Seebeck coefficient and a positive Hall coefficient. Density of states, resistivity, thermopower and Hall coefficient obtained within the DFT + U approach reveal that LaNiO3 under both compressive and tensile strain is more metallic compared to the unstrained system. However, LaNiO3 under tensile strain is found to be more strongly correlated than that under compressive strain. Electron localization function calculation shows that there is a substantial increase in the covalent part of the chemical bonding, which corroborates an increase in the resistivity for LaNiO3 under tensile strain. Our first-principle-based calculation clearly demonstrates that the transport properties of LaNiO3 can be tuned by applying suitable strain.

  9. Effects of Strain Rates on Mechanical Properties and Fracture Mechanism of DP780 Dual Phase Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengci; Kang, Yonglin; Zhu, Guoming; Kuang, Shuang

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical properties of DP780 dual phase steel were measured by quasi-static and high-speed tensile tests at strain rates between 0.001 and 1000 s-1 at room temperature. The deformation and fracture mechanisms were analyzed by observation of the tensile fracture and microstructure near the fracture. Dynamic factor and feret ratio quantitative methods were applied to study the effect of strain rate on the microstructure and properties of DP780 steel. The constitutive relation was described by a modified Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong model. The results showed that the strain rate sensitivity of yield strength is bigger than that of ultimate tensile strength; as strain rate increased, the formation of microcracks and voids at the ferrite/martensite interface can be alleviated; the strain rate effect is unevenly distributed in the plastic deformation region. Moreover, both models can effectively describe the experimental results, while the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model is more accurate because the strain-hardening rate of this model is independent of strain rate.

  10. A silicon microwire under a three-dimensional anisotropic tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Poilvert, Nicolas; Liu, Wenjun; Xiong, Yihuang; Cheng, Hiu Yan; Badding, John V.; Dabo, Ismaila; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional tensile stress, or triaxial tensile stress, is difficult to achieve in a material. We present the investigation of an unusual three-dimensional anisotropic tensile stress field and its influence on the electronic properties of a single crystal silicon microwire. The microwire was created by laser heating an amorphous silicon wire deposited in a 1.7 μm silica glass capillary by high pressure chemical vapor deposition. Tensile strain arises due to the thermal expansion mismatch between silicon and silica. Synchrotron X-ray micro-beam Laue diffraction (μ-Laue) microscopy reveals that the three principal strain components are +0.47% (corresponding to a tensile stress of +0.7 GPa) along the fiber axis and nearly isotropic +0.02% (corresponding to a tensile stress of +0.3 GPa) in the cross-sectional plane. This effect was accompanied with a reduction of 30 meV in the band gap energy of silicon, as predicted by the density-functional theory calculations and in close agreement with energy-dependent photoconductivity measurements. While silicon has been explored under many stress states, this study explores a stress state where all three principal stress components are tensile. Given the technological importance of silicon, the influence of such an unusual stress state on its electronic properties is of fundamental interest.

  11. Interface stress development in the Cu/Ag nanostructured multilayered film during the tensile deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, R.; Nie, Z. H.; Zhang, Q. H.; Li, X. J.; Li, L. E-mail: ydwang@mail.neu.edu.cn; Zhou, X. T.; Wang, Y. D. E-mail: ydwang@mail.neu.edu.cn; Wu, Y. D.; Hui, X. D.; Wang, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Cu/Ag nanostructured multilayered films (NMFs) with different stacking sequences were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during the tensile deformations for interface stress study. The lattice strains were carefully traced and the stress partition, which usually occurs in the multiphase bulk metallic materials during plastic deformations, was first quantitatively analyzed in the NMFs here. The interface stress of the Cu/Ag NMFs was carefully analyzed during the tensile deformation and the results revealed that the interface stress was along the loading direction and exhibited three-stage evolution. This tensile interface stress has a detrimental effect on the deformation, leading to the early fracture of the NMFs.

  12. MoS2-WSe2 Hetero Bilayer: Possibility of Mechanical Strain Induced Band Gap Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2014-03-01

    The tunability of band gap in two-dimensional (2D) hetero-bilayers of MoS2-WSe2 with applied mechanical strains (in-plane and out-of-plane) in two different types of stackings (AA and AB) have been investigated in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The in-plane biaxial tensile strain is found to reduce electronic band gap monotonically and rendered considered bilayer into metal at 6% of applied strain. The transition pressure required for complete semiconductor-to-metal transition is found to be of 7.89 GPa while tensile strength of the reported hetero-bilayer has been calculated 10 GPa at 25% strain. In case of vertical compression strain, 16 GPa pressure has been calculated for complete semiconductor-to-metal transition. The band-gap deformation potentials and effective masses (electron and hole) have been found to posses strong dependence on the type of applied strain. Such band gap engineering in controlled manner (internal control by composition and external control by applied strain) makes the considered hetero-bilayer as a strong candidate for the application in variety of nano scale devices.

  13. Tensile deformation and failure of amyloid and amyloid-like protein fibrils.

    PubMed

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-03-14

    Here we report a series of full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of six amyloid or amyloid-like protein fibrils in order to systematically understand the effect of different secondary structure motifs on the mechanical tensile and failure response of cross-β protein fibrils. We find a similar failure behavior across the six structures; an initial failure event occurs at small strains involving cooperative rupture of a group of hydrogen bonds, followed by a slow one-by-one hydrogen bond rupture process as the remaining β-sheets peel off with very low applied stress. We also find that the ultimate tensile strength of the protein fibrils investigated scales directly with the number of hydrogen bonds per unit area which break in the initial rupture event. Our results provide insights into structure-property relationships in protein fibrils important for disease and engineering applications and lay the groundwork for the development of materials selection criteria for the design of de novo amyloid-based functional biomaterials.

  14. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. At room temperature these superalloys have lower ductilities and higher strengths than most polycrystalline engineering alloys. The cycle stress-strain response was thus nominally elastic in most of the fatigue tests. Therefore, a stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. However, the applicability of these methods to single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys has not been established. In this study, these methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  15. The Tensile Behavior of High-Strength Carbon Fibers.

    PubMed

    Langston, Tye

    2016-08-01

    Carbon fibers exhibit exceptional properties such as high stiffness and specific strength, making them excellent reinforcements for composite materials. However, it is difficult to directly measure their tensile properties and estimates are often obtained by tensioning fiber bundles or composites. While these macro scale tests are informative for composite design, their results differ from that of direct testing of individual fibers. Furthermore, carbon filament strength also depends on other variables, including the test length, actual fiber diameter, and material flaw distribution. Single fiber tensile testing was performed on high-strength carbon fibers to determine the load and strain at failure. Scanning electron microscopy was also conducted to evaluate the fiber surface morphology and precisely measure each fiber's diameter. Fiber strength was found to depend on the test gage length and in an effort to better understand the overall expected performance of these fibers at various lengths, statistical weak link scaling was performed. In addition, the true Young's modulus was also determined by taking the system compliance into account. It was found that all properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, and Young's modulus) matched very well with the manufacturers' reported values at 20 mm gage lengths, but deviated significantly at other lengths.

  16. Tensile Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Luri Robert; Szewczyk, Steve; Schwartz, Eric; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Wagener, Kenneth; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide tunable mechanical properties. We report tensile testing and in situ x-ray scattering measurements of a homologous series of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers (pxAA). Upon variation of the number of backbone carbons (x = 9, 15, 21) between pendant acrylic acid groups along the linear polyethylene chain, these materials exhibit pronounced changes in both their tensile properties as well as their morphological evolution during deformation. The hierarchical layered acid aggregate structure coincides with the onset of a strain hardening mechanism and was observed in both a semi-crystalline sample (p21AA) as well as an amorphous sample (p15AA). The polymer with the shortest spacing between acid groups (p9AA) maintains a liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates during deformation, exhibiting low tensile strength which we attribute to facile acid exchange between acid aggregates during deformation. Our results indicate that the formation of the hierarchical layered structure, which coincides with polymer strain-hardening regime, originates from the associating acid groups cooperatively preventing disentanglement. NSF-DMR-1103858.

  17. Strain analysis of a chiral smectic-A elastomer.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Christopher M; Konnert, John H; Adams, James M; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Naciri, Jawad; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2010-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the molecular packing of a strained liquid crystal elastomer composed of chiral mesogens in the smectic-A phase. X-ray diffraction patterns of the elastomer collected over a range of orientations with respect to the x-ray beam were used to reconstruct the three-dimensional scattering intensity as a function of tensile strain. We show that the smectic domain order is preserved in these strained elastomers. Changes in the intensity within a given scattering plane are due to reorientation, and not loss, of the molecular order in directions orthogonal to the applied strain. Incorporating the physical parameters of the elastomer, a nonlinear elastic model is presented to describe the rotation of the smectic-layered domains under strain, thus providing a fundamental analysis to the mechanical response of these unique materials.

  18. Tuning surface Dirac valleys by strain in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Jianfeng; Gu, Bing-Lin; Duan, Wenhui

    2015-05-01

    A topological crystalline insulator has an even number of Dirac cones (i.e., multiple valleys) in its surface band structure, thus potentially leading to valleytronic applications such as graphene. Using the density-functional-theory method, we systematically investigate the strain-induced evolution of topological surface states on the SnTe(111) surface. Our results show that compressive strain can shift the Dirac cones at the Γ ¯ and M ¯ valleys to different extents (even oppositely) in energy, while the tensile strain can induce different band gaps at the valleys due to the enhanced penetration depths of surface states. Exploiting a strain-induced nanostructure with well-defined edges on the (111) surface, we demonstrate strong valley-selective filtering for massless Dirac fermions by dynamically applying local external pressure. Our findings may pave the way for strain-engineered valley-resolved manipulation of Dirac fermions with high tunability and scalability.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  20. Medial cortex strain distribution during noncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elias, J J; Nagao, M; Chu, Y H; Carbone, J J; Lennox, D W; Chao, E Y

    2000-01-01

    Intraoperative proximal femur fractures are a significant concern during noncemented total hip arthroplasty. The current study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that broaching the femur and inserting the stem without using mallet applied impact loads will reduce the risk of intraoperative fracture. Rosette strain gauges were applied to the medial and anteromedial cortex of six human anatomic specimen femurs to compare the strain distribution for broaching and stem insertion. Eight additional femurs were used to compare the strain distribution for stem insertion using impact loading and constant rate stem insertion. For the impact loading stem insertions, the soft tissues surrounding the femur were modeled. Constant rate stem insertions were performed using a mechanical testing machine. The largest strains measured at the medial and anteromedial sites primarily were aligned with the femur hoop axis. The largest strain magnitude, orientation, and sign (tensile or compressive) varied widely among femurs. The stem insertion strains were significantly larger than the broaching strains (two-way analysis of variance with replication). The impact stem insertion strains were not significantly different from the constant rate stem insertion strains. The results indicate that the femur geometry and material properties have a greater influence on the strain distribution than does the implantation technique.

  1. Nanocrystalline Domain Formation as a Strain Relaxation Mechanism in Ultra-Thin Metallic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, M. Rauf; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2006-03-01

    In this presentation, we report results for the atomistic mechanisms of strain relaxation over a wide range of applied biaxial tensile strain (up to 17%) in free standing Cu thin films based on isothermal-isostrain molecular-dynamics simulations. After an elastic response at low strain (< 2%), plastic deformation occurs through ductile void growth accompanied by emission of screw dislocations from the void surface, as well as emission of threading dislocation loops from the film's surface. At strain levels below 8%, expansion of the plastic zone around the void during void growth is the major strain relaxation mechanism. At higher levels of applied strain (> 8%), a practically uniform distribution of dislocations is generated in the metallic thin film, which mediates the transformation of the initially single-crystalline film structure to a nanocrystalline one. Furthermore, void growth is inhibited as the dislocations emitted from the void surface are pinned by the simultaneously generated network of defects in the nanocrystalline material.

  2. Tensile properties of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avva, V. Sarma; Sadler, Robert L.; Lyon, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    The importance of textile composite materials in aerospace structural applications has been gaining momentum in recent years. With a view to better understand the suitability of these materials in aerospace applications, an experimental program was undertaken to assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Specifically, the braided textile preforms were infiltrated with suitable polymeric matrices leading to the fabrication of composite test coupons. Evaluation of the tensile properties and the analyses of the results in the form of strength moduli, Poisson's ratio, etc., for the braided composites are presented. Based on our past experience with the textile coupons, the fabrication techniques have been modified (by incorporating glass microballoons in the matrix and/or by stabilizing the braid angle along the length of the specimen with axial fibers) to achieve enhanced mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper outlines the preliminary experimental results obtained from testing these composites.

  3. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOEpatents

    Wenski, Edward G.

    2006-01-10

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  4. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOEpatents

    Wenski, Edward G.

    2007-08-21

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  5. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOEpatents

    Wenski, Edward G.

    2007-07-17

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  6. Effect of storage on tensile material properties of bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2014-01-01

    Cadaveric tissue models play an important role in the assessment and optimization of novel restraint systems for reducing abdominal injuries. However, the effect of tissue preservation by means of freezing on the material properties of abdominal tissues remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of frozen storage time on the material responses of the liver parenchyma in tensile loading. Specimens from ten bovine livers were equally divided into three groups: fresh, 30-day frozen storage, and 60-day frozen storage. All preserved specimens were stored at -12°C. Dog-bone specimens from each preservation group were randomly assigned to one of three strain rates (0.01s(-1), 0.1s(-1), and 1.0s(-1)) and tested to failure in tensile loading. The local material response recorded at the tear location and the global material response of the whole specimen of the liver parenchyma specimens were investigated based on the experimental data and optimized analytical material models. The local and global failure strains decreased significantly between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 30 days (p<0.05), and between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 60 days (p<0.05) for all three loading rates. Changes on the material model parameters were also observed between fresh and preserved specimens. Preservation by means of frozen storage was found to affect both the material and failure response of bovine liver parenchyma in tensile loading. The stiffness of the tissue increased with increased preservation time and increased strain rate. In summary, significant changes (p<0.05) between the failure strain of previously frozen liver parenchyma samples and fresh samples were demonstrated at both global and local levels in this study. In addition, nonlinear and viscoelastic characteristics of the liver parenchyma were observed in tension for both fresh and preserved samples.

  7. Theory of Strain-Controlled Magnetotransport and Stabilization of the Ferromagnetic Insulating Phase in Manganite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Anamitra; Cole, William S.; Woodward, Patrick; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2013-04-01

    We show that applying strain on half-doped manganites makes it possible to tune the system to the proximity of a metal-insulator transition and thereby generate a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) response. This phase competition not only allows control of CMR in ferromagnetic metallic manganites but can be used to generate CMR response in otherwise robust insulators at half-doping. Further, from our realistic microscopic model of strain and magnetotransport calculations within the Kubo formalism, we demonstrate a striking result of strain engineering that, under tensile strain, a ferromagnetic charge-ordered insulator, previously inaccessible to experiments, becomes stable.

  8. Inverse characterization method for mechanical properties of strain/strain-rate/temperature/temperature-history dependent steel sheets and its application for hot press forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Dongun; Ahn, Kanghwan; Yoo, Donghoon; Son, Hyun-Sung; Kim, Gyo-Sung; Chung, Kwansoo

    2015-09-01

    In order to measure the flow curves of steel sheets at high temperatures, which are dependent on strain and strain rate as well as temperature and temperature history, a tensile test machine and specimens were newly developed in this work. Besides, an indirect method to characterize mechanical properties at high temperatures was developed by combining experiments and its numerical analysis, in which temperature history were also accounted for. Ultimately, a modified Johnson-Cook type hardening law, accounting for the dependence of hardening behavior with deterioration on strain rate as well as temperature, was successfully developed covering both pre- and post-ultimate tensile strength ranges for a hot press forming steel sheet. The calibrated hardening law obtained based on the inverse characterization method was then applied and validated for hot press forming of a 2-D mini-bumper as for distributions of temperature history, thickness and hardness considering the continuous cooling transformation diagram. The results showed reasonably good agreement with experiments

  9. Tensile Properties of Hydrogels and of Snake Skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Savitzky, Alan H.; Rivera, Gabriel; Gehrke, Stevin H.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulus-responsive or 'smart' gels are of potential interest as sensors and actuators, in industrial separations, and as permeable delivery systems. In most applications, a certain degree of mechanical strength and toughness will be required, yet the large-strain behavior of gels has not been widely reported. Some exceptions include work on gelatin and other food gels, some characterization of soft gels applicable for in-vitro cell growth studies, and toughness determinations on commercial contact lens materials. In general, it can be anticipated that the gel stiffness will increase with increasing degree of crosslinking, but the tensile strength may go through a maximum. Gel properties can be tailored by varying not only the degree of crosslinking, but also the polymer concentration and the nature of the polymer backbone (e.g. its stiffness or solubility). Polypeptides provide an especially interesting case, where secondary structure affects trends in moduli and conformational transitions may accompany phase changes. A few papers on the tensile properties of responsive gels have begun to appear. The responsive hydrogel chosen for the present study, crosslinked hydroxypropylcellulose, shrinks over a rather narrow temperature range near 44 C. Some vertebrate skin is also subject to substantial strain. Among reptiles, the morphologies of the skin and scales show wide variations. Bauer et al. described the mechanical properties and histology of gecko skin; longitudinal tensile properties of snake skin were examined by Jayne with reference to locomotion. The present measurements focus on adaptations related to feeding, including the response of the skin to circumferential tension. Tensile properties will be related to interspecific and regional variation in skin structure and folding.

  10. In situ neutron diffraction of heavily drawn steel wires with ultra-high strength under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Tomota, Y. . E-mail: tomota@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Suzuki, T.; Kanie, A.; Shiota, Y.; Uno, M.; Moriai, A.; Minakawa, N.; Morii, Y.

    2005-01-10

    To make clear the strengthening mechanism of heavily drawn steel wires exhibiting ultra-high strength, in situ neutron diffraction during tensile loading was performed. A ferrite steel (FK) subjected to a true strain of 6.6 and a pearlite steel (PS) subjected to 4.0 were extended on a tensile tester and (1 1 0) diffraction profiles were measured at various holding stresses. Tensile strengths of steel FK and PS are 1.7 and 3.7 GPa, respectively. The change in (1 1 0) spacing with tensile stress is reversible, i.e., elastic, close to the relevant tensile strength. A stress versus (1 1 0) lattice plane strain is linear for steel FK while evidently nonlinear at higher stresses for steel PS. In steel PS in which cementite peaks were hardly observed, the strengthening mechanism is postulated to be different from that for as-patented pearlite steels.

  11. Stress Relaxation in Tensile Deformation of 304 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Li, Jiaojiao; Ding, Wei; Zhao, Shuangjun; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Improved ductility by stress relaxation has been reported in different kinds of steels. The influence of stress relaxation and its parameters on the ductility of 304 stainless steel has not been established so far. Stress relaxation behavior during tensile tests at different strain rates is studied in 304 stainless steel. It is observed that stress relaxation can obviously increase the elongation of 304 stainless steel in all cases. The elongation improvement of interrupted tension reaches to 14.9% compared with monotonic tension at 0.05 s-1. Contradicting with the published results, stress drop during stress relaxation increases with strain at all strain rates. It is related with dislocation motion velocity variation and martensitic transformation.

  12. A magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool for quantitative analysis of strain induced cellular reorientation and actin alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademolhosseini, F.; Liu, C.-C.; Lim, C. J.; Chiao, M.

    2016-08-01

    Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells.

  13. Band gap modulation of transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 nanosheets by in-plane strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiangying; Ju, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruizhi; Guo, Chongfeng; Yong, Yongliang; Cui, Hongling; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    The electronic properties of quasi-two-dimensional honeycomb structures of MX2 nanosheets (M=Mo, W and X=S, Se) subjected to in-plane biaxial strain have been investigated using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the band gap of MX2 nanosheets can be widely tuned by applying tensile or compressive strain, and these ultrathin materials undergo a universal reversible semiconductor-metal transition at a critical strain. Compared to WX2, MoX2 need a smaller critical tensile strain for the band gap close, and MSe2 need a smaller critical compressive strain than MS2. Taking bilayer MoS2 as an example, the variation of the band structures was studied and the semiconductor-metal transition involves a slightly different physical mechanism between tensile and compressive strain. The ability to tune the band gap of MX2 nanosheets in a controlled fashion over a wide range of energy opens up the possibility for its usage in a range of application.

  14. 7 CFR 29.6040 - Strength (tensile).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.6040 Section 29.6040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6040 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco...

  15. A new crank arm based load cell, with built-in conditioning circuit and strain gages, to measure the components of the force applied by a cyclist.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Andre V; Moura, Karina O A; Favieiro, Gabriela W; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the development of a force platform based on instrumented load cells with built-in conditioning circuit and strain gages to measure and acquire the components of the force that is applied to the bike crank arm during pedaling in real conditions, and save them on a SD Card. To accomplish that, a complete new crank arm 3D solid model was developed in the SolidWorks, with dimensions equivalent to a commercial crank set and compatible with a conventional road bike, but with a compartment to support all the electronics necessary to measure 3 components of the force applied to the pedal during pedaling. After that, a 6082 T6 Aluminum Crankset based on the solid model was made and instrumented with three Wheatstone bridges each. The signals were conditioned on a printed circuit board, made on SMD technology, and acquired using a microcontroller with a DAC. Static deformation analysis showed a linearity error below 0.6% for all six channels. Dynamic analysis showed a natural frequency above 136Hz. A one-factor experiment design was performed with 5 amateur cyclists. ANOVA showed that the cyclist weight causes significant variation on the force applied to the bicycle pedal and its bilateral symmetry.

  16. Tensile Tissue Stress Affects the Orientation of Cortical Microtubules in the Epidermis of Sunflower Hypocotyl.

    PubMed

    Hejnowicz; Rusin; Rusin

    2000-03-01

    stress is removed from the epidermis by peeling, the CMTs tend to reorient toward the transverse direction, which is the direction of maximal stress in the primary component. On application of external longitudinal stress, to substitute for tissue stress, CMTs tend to reorient in the longitudinal direction. However, a relatively high rate of plastic strain is caused by the stress applied to the peel in an acid medium. This produces a less steep orientation of CMTs. It appears that the change in stress anisotropy orients the CMT in the direction in which the stress is maximal after the change, but there is also some effect of the growth rate on the orientation.

  17. A Weibull characterization for tensile fracture of multicomponent brittle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Necessary to the development and understanding of brittle fiber reinforced composites is a means to statistically describe fiber strength and strain-to-failure behavior. A statistical characterization for multicomponent brittle fibers is presented. The method, which is an extension of usual Weibull distribution procedures, statistically considers the components making up a fiber (e.g., substrate, sheath, and surface) as separate entities and taken together as in a fiber. Tensile data for silicon carbide fiber and for an experimental carbon-boron alloy fiber are evaluated in terms of the proposed multicomponent Weibull characterization.

  18. Tensile Properties of Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgret, Leslie D.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    N-vinyl caprolactam was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using a free-radical initiator in alcohol/water solution. The resulting gels were thermally-responsive in water, undergoing an approximate fivefold reversible volume shrinkage between room temperature and ca. 50 C. Tensile testing showed that the stress-strain behavior was qualitatively different in the collapsed state above the temperature-induced transition. At the higher temperature, gels were stiffer, more ductile, and showed greater time dependence. Implications for the design of gel actuators are briefly discussed.

  19. Tensile and fatigue behavior of tungsten/copper composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    Work on W/Cu unidirectional composites was initiated to study the behavior of this ductile-ductile composite system under thermomechanical fatigue and to examine the applicability of fatigue-life prediction methods for thermomechanical fatigue of this metal matrix composite. The first step was to characterize the tensile behavior of four ply, 10 vol. percent W/Cu plates at room and elevated temperatures. Fatigue tests were conducted in load control on 0 degree specimens at 260 C. The maximum cyclic stress was varied but the minimum cyclic stress was kept constant. All tests were performed in vacuum. The strain at failure increased with increasing maximum cyclic stress.

  20. Chain Ends and the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Polyethylene Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas C.; Robbins, Mark O.

    Determining the tensile yield mechanisms of oriented polymer fibers remains a challenging problem in polymer mechanics. By maximizing the alignment and crystallinity of polyethylene (PE) fibers, tensile strengths σ ~ 6 - 7 GPa have been achieved. While impressive, first-principal calculations predict carbon backbone bonds would allow strengths four times higher (σ ~ 20 GPa) before breaking. The reduction in strength is caused by crystal defects like chain ends, which allow fibers to yield by chain slip in addition to bond breaking. We use large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the tensile yield mechanism of orthorhombic PE crystals with finite chains spanning 102 -104 carbons in length. The yield stress σy saturates for long chains at ~ 6 . 3 GPa, agreeing well with experiments. Chains do not break but always yield by slip, after nucleation of 1D dislocations at chain ends. Dislocations are accurately described by a Frenkel-Kontorova model, parametrized by the mechanical properties of an ideal crystal. We compute a dislocation core size ξ = 25 . 24 Å and determine the high and low strain rate limits of σy. Our results suggest characterizing such 1D dislocations is an efficient method for predicting fiber strength. This research was performed within the Center for Materials in Extreme Dynamic Environments (CMEDE) under the Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute at Johns Hopkins University. Financial support was provided by Grant W911NF-12-2-0022.

  1. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  2. Effect of asymmetric strain relaxation on dislocation relaxation processes in heteroepitaxial semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, D.; Hull, R.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of asymmetric interfacial strain configurations upon the generation of misfit dislocation arrays in lattice mismatched epitaxy is considered. For example, elastic strain relaxation for Si1-xGex/Si(110) films is uniaxial, assuming glide on {111} planes as expected for the diamond cubic system, which leads to asymmetric strain relief. Here, we extend our previously developed relaxation model for generation of dislocation arrays in SiGe/Si, by accounting for how the different energetics of asymmetrically strained films affect the kinetics of the relaxation process. Similarly, non-polar III-nitride epitaxial films have asymmetric strain from the outset of growth due to the different c/a lattice parameter ratios. In both systems, the asymmetric strain is represented by an additional term in the misfit dislocation applied stress equation. In SiGe/Si(110), a simple elasticity analysis of the strain produced by the uniaxial array of dislocations predicts that the relaxation orthogonal to the dislocation line direction occurs at a faster rate than predicted by purely biaxial strain relief due to the contributions of the strain parallel to the dislocations. This difference is because the strain parallel to the dislocation line directions continues to resolve stress onto the misfit dislocations even as the orthogonal strain is minimized. As a result, the minimum strain energy is predicted to occur for a dislocation spacing, which produces tensile layer strain in the orthogonal direction. Such tensile strain may modify the (opto)electronic properties of a Si, Ge, or GeSi epilayer but is only predicted to occur for advanced stages of relaxation. These asymmetric derivations are applicable to any thin film system where strain is not strictly biaxial.

  3. Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens

    DOEpatents

    Liu, K.C.

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus is described for gripping a plate-type tensile specimen having generally T-shaped end regions in a dynamic tension fatigue testing apparatus comprising an annular housing having an open-ended elongated cavity therein, a plurality of hydraulic piston means supported by the housing in a spaced array about the cavity, and a specimen-supporting plate means overlying the piston means at one end of the elongated cavity and displaceable by said piston means in a longitudinal direction with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cavity, said apparatus for gripping a flat plate-type tensile specimen comprising: a pair of elongated pull rods each having oppositely disposed first and second end regions; a pair of mounting means carried by said plate means with each mounting means for pivotally attaching the first end region of each of said pull rods in a central region of said plate means for supporting said pair of elongated pull rods in a side-by-side relationship along a common longitudinal centerline within said cavity; recess means in the second end region of each of said pull rods in adjacently disposed surface regions thereof with said recess means facing one another and each adapted to receive one side of one of the generally T-shaped end regions of the plate-type tensile specimen; and load-bearing means positionable in each of said recess means and adapted to bear against a shoulder on each side of the generally T-shaped end region of the plate-type tensile specimen when a tensile loading is applied thereon.

  4. Tensile properties of Inconel 718 after low temperature neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, T. S.; Farrell, K.

    2003-05-01

    Tensile properties of Inconel 718 (IN718) have been investigated after neutron irradiation to 0.0006-1.2 dpa at 60-100 °C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The alloy was exposed in solution-annealed (SA) and precipitation-hardened (PH) conditions. Before irradiation, the yield strength of PH IN718 was about 1170 MPa, which was 3.7 times higher than that of SA IN718. In the SA condition, an almost threefold increase in yield strength was found at 1.2 dpa, but the alloy retained a positive strain-hardening capability and a uniform ductility of more than 20%. Comparisons showed that the strain-hardening behavior of the SA IN718 is similar to that of a SA 316LN austenitic stainless steel. In the PH condition, the IN718 displayed no radiation-induced hardening in yield strength and significant softening in ultimate tensile strength. The strain-hardening capability of the PH IN718 decreased with dose as the radiation-induced dissolution of precipitates occurred, which resulted in the onset of plastic instability at strains less than 1% after irradiation to 0.16 or 1.2 dpa. An analysis on plastic instability indicated that the loss of uniform ductility in PH IN718 was largely due to the reduction in strain-hardening rate, while in SA IN718 and SA 316LN stainless steel it resulted primarily from the increase of yield stress.

  5. Tunnel Magnetoresistance Sensors with Magnetostrictive Electrodes: Strain Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Rott, Karsten; Meier, Tobias; Quandt, Eckhard; Hölscher, Hendrik; Reiss, Günter; Meyners, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Magnetostrictive tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors pose a bright perspective in micro- and nano-scale strain sensing technology. The behavior of TMR sensors under mechanical stress as well as their sensitivity to the applied stress depends on the magnetization configuration of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ)s with respect to the stress axis. Here, we propose a configuration resulting in an inverse effect on the tunnel resistance by tensile and compressive stresses. Numerical simulations, based on a modified Stoner–Wohlfarth (SW) model, are performed in order to understand the magnetization reversal of the sense layer and to find out the optimum bias magnetic field required for high strain sensitivity. At a bias field of −3.2 kA/m under a 0.2×10-3 strain, gauge factors of 2294 and −311 are calculated under tensile and compressive stresses, respectively. Modeling results are investigated experimentally on a round junction with a diameter of 30±0.2μm using a four-point bending apparatus. The measured field and strain loops exhibit nearly the same trends as the calculated ones. Also, the gauge factors are in the same range. The junction exhibits gauge factors of 2150±30 and −260 for tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, under a −3.2 kA/m bias magnetic field. The agreement of the experimental and modeling results approves the proposed configuration for high sensitivity and ability to detect both tensile and compressive stresses by a single TMR sensor. PMID:27845708

  6. Scaffold metamaterial and its application as strain sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Ren, Mengxin Pi, Biao; Cai, Wei Xu, Jingjun; Wu, Yang

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, strain sensors based on planar scaffold metamaterial design are demonstrated. The optical properties of such metamaterials are studied, which are proved to be highly dependent on the deformation of the structure. Fabricating such metamaterial on compliant polymeric substrate, the geometric parameters could be tuned with external strain and hence are found to control the reflection resonance condition of the metamaterial. Such mechanical tunability provides the opportunity to realize efficient strain sensors and about 27 nm resonance wavelength shift is observed by applying as much as 37% tensile strain. Furthermore, distinct from most of the previous works, our structures are based on “intaglio” design, which could be manufactured directly by one step fabrication using focused ion beam cutting, hence makes the fabrication process much simpler.

  7. Separation of the strain components for use in strainrange partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.; Nachtigall, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Two methods are presented for separating the inelastic strain components of a complex hysteresis loop so that strainrange partitioning formulas can be applied to accurately determine cyclic life at elevated temperatures. These methods are required only if lower bounds established by strainrange partitioning concepts have been deemed inadequate in the establishment of expected lifetime. In one method, rapid loading and unloading is applied in the tensile and compressive half to isolate the plastic strain. In the second method, the creep is measured at a discrete number of points along the hysteresis loop by combining load-control tests into the general pattern of strain cycling under arbitrary temperature. Both methods are shown to give good results.

  8. Effect of Heat Treatment and Layer Orientation on the Tensile Strength of a Crystalline Rock Under Brazilian Test Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha Roy, Debanjan; Singh, T. N.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of heat treatment and the layer orientation on the tensile properties of granitic gneiss were studied under the unconfined stress condition. The tensile strength of the samples was studied using a Brazilian configuration, and the geochemical and microstructural properties were studied using the X-ray diffraction technique as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The fracture pattern and the geometrical analyses were performed using the digital photographs. The results show that both the heat treatment and layer orientation have strong control on the tensile strength, force-parallel and layer-parallel strains, and on the tensile fracture geometry. A general decrease in the tensile strength of the rock was documented with the increasing heat treatment. Although, in the heat-treated samples, X-ray diffraction study do not reveal any major change in the mineral composition, but the SEM shows the development of several micro-cracks in the grains. In the samples with different layer orientation, along with the changes in the tensile strength and layer-parallel to force-parallel strain ratio, the layer activation under shear stress is also noticed. Here, the ratio between the tensile to shear stress, acting along the layers is thought to be the major controlling factor of the tensile properties of rocks, which has many applications in mining, civil constructions, and waste disposal work.

  9. Dynamic tensile strength of lunar rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, S. N.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic tensile strength of four rocks are determined. A flat plate impact experiment is employed to generate approximately one-microsecond-duration tensile stress pulses in rock samples by superposing rarefaction waves to induce fracture. It is noted that the effect of chemical weathering and other factors has not been explicitly studied. The given tensile strengths are based on a series of experiments on each rock where determination of incipient spallation is made by terminal microscopic examination. The data are generally consistent with previous determinations, at least one of which was for a significantly chemically altered but physically coherent rock.

  10. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1982-05-28

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  11. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, Joe L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  12. Superplastic tensile ductility enhanced by grain size refinement in a zirconia-dispersed alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, K.; Suzuki, T.S.; Hiraga, K.; Sakka, Y.

    1997-12-18

    High-temperature tensile ductility in fine-grained pure alumina is limited to {approximately}20% in engineering strain owing to rapid dynamic grain growth accompanied by large strain hardening and resultant severe cavitation. Accordingly, many trials have been made to suppress the dynamic grain growth by use of an additive such as MgO or ZrO{sub 2}. The dynamic grain growth of MgO-doped alumina, however, is still active to limit the tensile ductility to {approximately}80% at 1,623--1,773 K. Although some additional improvement is possible by the codoping of CuO or NiO, the maximum tensile elongation has remained 140%. On the other hand, ZrO{sub 2}-particle dispersion is much more effective in suppressing grain growth and hence strain hardening, whereas the resultant tensile ductility stays up to 110% or less at 1,723--1,773 K. It has been attributed to the increment of flow stress caused inherently by ZrO{sub 2}-dispersion through the suppression of grain boundary sliding. Regardless of these preceding studies, the approach by ZrO{sub 2}-particle pinning has not been completed, because the initial grain sizes of alumina reached about 1 {micro}m already in earlier experiments under tension. A possibility remains to enhance the tensile ductility of ZrO{sub 2}-dispersed alumina by such a reduction in grain size as can compensate the increment of flow stress due to ZrO{sub 2}-addition. From this point of view, the present study examined the high-temperature tensile properties of a fine-grained, 10-vol%-ZrO{sub 2}-dispersed alumina prepared by colloidal processing. The results will demonstrate that large tensile elongation exceeding 500% can be obtained when the initial grain size is maintained below 0.5 {micro}m.

  13. The Effects of Defects on Tensile Properties of Cast ADC12 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Sakai, Hikoyuki

    2015-11-01

    To better understand the effects of cast defects on mechanical properties, cast aluminum alloys with various porosities were used. Porosity in the cast samples was created during the casting process, and to clearly identify the porosity effects on the mechanical properties, artificial defects (porosity-like tiny holes) were created mechanically. The tensile properties for the cast aluminum alloys appear to be attributed to the area fraction of the porosity on the fracture surface (namely, the defect rate, DR), although there were different trends because of the different stress concentrations: the ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 pct proof strength were linearly related to DR, while a non-linear correlation was detected for fracture strain. Even in Al alloys with small amounts of defects, significant reductions in the fracture strain were observed. These results were verified using tensile tests on specimens containing artificial defects. The effects of artificial defects on the tensile properties were further investigated using numerous tiny holes, created in several formations. The artificial defects (several small holes), lined up at perpendicular (90 deg) and 45 deg directions against the loading direction, made significant reductions in the tensile properties, even though only weak defect effects were observed for the 90 deg loading direction. No severe defect effects were obvious for the specimen with a tiny defect of ϕ0.1 mm, because of the lower stress concentration, compared to the microstructural effects in the cast Al alloys: the grain boundaries and the second phases. Such phenomena were clarified using tensile tests on cast samples with differently sized microstructures. There were no clear defect effects on the yield strength as the defect amount was less than 10 pct, and microstructural effects were not detected either in this case. Failure characteristics during tensile loading were revealed directly by in-situ strain observations using high

  14. Strain effects on the electronic properties in δ -doped oxide superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    You, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jun Hee; Okamoto, Satoshi; ...

    2015-02-07

    We investigated strain effects on the electronic properties of (LaTiO3)1/(SrTiO3)N superlattices using density functional theory. Under biaxial in-plane strain within the range of -5% ≤ ε// ≤ 5%, the dxy orbital electrons are highly localized at the interfaces whereas the dyz and dxz orbital electrons are more distributed in the SrTiO3 (STO) spacer layers. For STO thickness N ≥ 3 unit cells (u.c.), the dxy orbital electrons form two-dimensional (2D) electron gases (2DEGs). The quantized energy levels of the 2DEG are insensitive to the STO spacer thickness, but are strongly dependent on the applied biaxial in-plane strain. As the in-planemore » strain changes from compressive to tensile, the quantized energy levels of the dxy orbitals decrease thereby creating more states with 2D character. In contrast to the dxy orbital, the dyz and dxz orbitals always have three-dimensional (3D) transport characteristics and their energy levels increase as the strain changes from compressive to tensile. In conclusion, since the charge densities in the dxy orbital and the dyz and dxz orbitals respond to biaxial in-plane strain in an opposite way, the transport dimensionality of the majority carriers can be controlled between 2D and 3D by applying biaxial in-plane strain.« less

  15. Effect of temperature and microstructure on tensile and tensile creep properties of titanium silicon carbide in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovic, Miladin

    The ternary carbide, Ti3SiC2, combines some of the best attributes of ceramics and metals. It is stable in inert atmospheres to temperatures above 2200°C, stiff and yet is readily machinable, oxidation, fatigue and thermal shock resistant and damage tolerant. Thus, Ti3SiC 2 is good candidate material for high temperature structural application. The aim of this work was to characterize its tensile and tensile creep properties. The mechanical behavior of Ti3SiC2 is characterized by a brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition that is a function of strain rate. Its high strain rate sensitivity (≈0.50--0.6) is in the range that is more typical for superplastic materials, although it does not exhibit other attributes of superplasticity. Polycrystalline samples do not exhibit linear elastic behavior in tension even at room temperature. Room temperature loading-unloading tests result in closed hysteresis loops when the stress exceeds ≈120 MPa, suggesting that the mechanical response can be described as anelastic (viscoelastic). At high temperatures (1200°C) intense stress relaxation takes place; cycling loading-unloading tests at high temperature and low strain rates, demonstrate that the samples continue to elongate even during unloading, suggesting that Ti3SiC2 deforms viscoplastically. Tensile creep curves exhibit primary, steady state and tertiary regimes. The minimum creep rate can be represented by power law equation with a stress exponent of 1.5 for fine-grained (3--5 mum) samples, and 2 for coarse-grained (100--300 mum) ones. For both microstructures the activation energy for creep is ≈450 kJ/mol. The dependence on grain size is quite weak, implying that diffusion creep and/or creep mechanisms based on grain boundary sliding do not play a central role. Results of strain transient dip tests suggest that large internal stresses are developed during creep. Those internal stresses are believed to result in recoverable (anelastic) strains during unloading. The

  16. Magnetic engineering in 3d transition metals on phosphorene by strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaolin; Niu, Chunyao; Wang, Jianjun; Yu, Weiyang; Ren, XiaoYan; Zhu, Zhili

    2017-04-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we systematically investigate the strain effects on the adsorption energies, magnetic ordering and electronic properties of 3d transition metal (TM) atoms (from Sc to Co) adsorbed on phosphorene (P). We find that the adsorption energy of TM can be enhanced by compressive strain whereas weakened by tensile strain. Our results show that strain plays a decisive role in the magnetic moments as well as the magnetic coupling states of TM adatoms. Importantly, the transitions from antiferromagnetic (AFM) state to ferromagnetic (FM) state or to another different AFM ordering can be induced by strain effect. In addition, we observe the semiconductor to metal or half-metal transitions in some TM@P systems by applying strain. Our findings shed a new light on precisely engineering the magnetic properties and electronic properties of the TM@P systems, which will have great potential applications in spin electronics and other related fields.

  17. Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Markley, Finley W.; McCaw, William R.; Niemann, Ralph C.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample.

  18. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  19. Acoustic emission studies on welded and thermally treated AISI 304 stainless steel during tensile deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, P.; Barat, P.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Rajagopalan, C.; Raj, B.

    1997-10-15

    The present investigations are planned to study the influence of prior martensites formed due to cold treatment as 77K in AISI 304 SS welded specimens, on strain-induced martensites occurred during tensile deformation using AE technique. AE parameters like count rate and root mean square (r.m.s.) voltage have been used to characterize AE activities generated during tensile deformation process in as-welded and welded-treated samples. Frequency spectrum analysis of AE signals captured from the samples has been done to understand the dynamic behavior of the martensite phase formation. Tensile properties of these samples have also been reported. Volume fraction of the magnetic phase (martensite and delta ferrite) formed in these samples are measured before and after straining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique has been used to support the presence of delta ferrite (formed during welding) and martensite in the weld region.

  20. Reversible stress and strain limits of the critical current of practical REBCO and BSCCO wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, K.; Machiya, S.; Nishijima, G.

    2016-09-01

    Practical REBCO and BSCCO-2223 tape-shaped wires are now manufactured on an industrial scale. They are a typical composite material consisting of superconducting layer/filaments together with functional components. These functional components affect directly the stress and strain dependences of the critical current. When applying an external stress R, the critical current I c was measured. Then the external stress was reduced to R = 0 and the recovered critical current I cr was again measured. The tensile stress and strain dependences of both normalized critical currents divided by the original value, I c/I c0 and I cr/I c0 were investigated. In general I cr/I c0 recovered close to unity when the applied stress was low, but its recovering level decreased gradually with increasing applied stress. The definition of the reversible stress and strain limits was investigated and its validity was proved using the cyclic loading test. The original definition of reversible stress and strain limits of critical current relates to: (1) when releasing the applied stress and strain, the I c shall recover to the original value, and (2) when applying the cyclic stresses, the I c shall keep the original value. Here, as a practical definition for the reversible stress and strain limits, the tensile stress and strain at 99% recovery of I c have been proposed. On the other hand, it was made clear that the stress and strain at I c 95% retention are not valid for use commonly as a criterion of reversible stress and strain limits for both practical REBCO and BSCCO-2223 wires.

  1. Tensile stress acoustic constants of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, the stress acoustic constants (SACs) of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites were measured to determine the nonlinear moduli of this material. These measurements were made under compressive loading in order to obtain the sufficient number of values needed to calculate these moduli. However, because their strength in tension along fiber directions can be several times greater, most composites are used under tensile loading. Thus, it is important to characterize the nonlinear properties of these materials in tension as well. The SACs which are defined as the slope of the normalized change in ultrasonic 'natural' velocity as a function of stress were measured in a unidirectional laminate of T300/5208 graphite/epoxy. Tensile load was applied along the fiber axis with the ultrasonic waves propagating perpendicular to the fiber direction. Changes in velocity were measured using a pulsed phase locked loop ultrasonic interferometer with the nominal frequency of the ultrasonic waves being 2.25 MHz.

  2. Tensile Stress Acoustic Constants of Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, the stress acoustic constants (SAC's) of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites were measured to determine the nonlinear moduli of this material. These measurements were made under compressive loading in order to obtain the sufficient number of values needed to calculate these moduli. However, because their strength in tension along fiber directions can be several times greater, most composites are used under tensile loading. Thus, it is important to characterize the nonlinear properties of these materials in tension as well. The SAC's which are defined as the slope of the normalized change in ultrasonic "natural" velocity as a function of stress were measured in a unidirectional laminate of T300/5208 graphite/epoxy. Tensile load was applied along the fiber axis with the ultrasonic waves propagating perpendicular to the fiber direction. Changes in velocity were measured using a pulsed phase locked loop ultrasonic interferometer with the nominal frequency of the ultrasonic waves being 2.25 MHz.

  3. Biodegradation of soil-applied pesticides by selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their effects on bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Myresiotis, Charalampos K; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the influence of four PGPR strains on the degradation of five soil applied pesticides and their effects on bacterial growth. Interactions of Bacillus subtilis GB03, Bacillus subtilis FZB24, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus SE34 with two concentrations of acibenzolar-S-methyl, metribuzin, napropamide, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam in liquid culture and soil microcosm were studied. The degradation of acibenzolar-S-methyl by all PGPR tested in low and high concentration, was 5.4 and 5.7 times, respectively, faster than that in non-inoculated liquid culture medium. At the end of the 72-h liquid cultured experiments, 8-18, 9-11, 15-36 and 11-22% of metribuzin, napropamide, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam, respectively, had disappeared from PGPR inoculated medium. Under the soil microcosm experimental conditions, the half-lives of acibenzolar-S-methyl incubated in the presence of PGPR strains spiked at 1.0 and 10.0 mg kg(-1) were 10.3-16.4 and 9.2-15.9 days, respectively, markedly lower compared with >34.2 days in the control. From the rest pesticides studied degradation of propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam was enhanced in the presence of B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a and B. pumilus SE34. Acibenzolar-S-methyl, propamocarb hydrochloride and thiamethoxam significantly increased the PGPR growth. However, the stimulatory effect was related to the level of pesticide spiked.

  4. Comparison of Elevated Temperature Tensile Properties and Fatigue Behavior of Two Variants of a Woven SiC/SiC Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Brewer, David N.; Sreeramesh, Kalluri

    2005-01-01

    Tensile properties (elastic modulus, proportional limit strength, in-plane tensile strength, and strain at failure) of two variants of a woven SiC/SiC composite, manufactured during two separate time periods (9/99 and 1/01), were determined at 1038 and 1204 C by conducting tensile tests on specimens machined from plates. Continuous cycling fatigue tests (R = 0.05) and 20 cpm) were also conducted at the same two temperatures on specimens from both composites. In this study, average tensile properties, 95% confidence intervals associated with the tensile properties, and geometric mean fatigue lives of both composite materials are compared. The observed similarities and differences in the tensile properties are highlighted and an attempt is made to understand the relationship, if any, between the tensile properties and the fatigue behaviors of the two woven composites.

  5. Determining the tensile response of materials at high temperature using DIC and the Virtual Fields Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeri, Guillermo; Koohbor, Behrad; Kidane, Addis; Sutton, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    An experimental approach based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is successfully applied to predict the uniaxial stress-strain response of 304 stainless steel specimens subjected to nominally uniform temperatures ranging from room temperature to 900 °C. A portable induction heating device equipped with custom made water-cooled copper coils is used to heat the specimen. The induction heater is used in conjunction with a conventional tensile frame to enable high temperature tension experiments. A stereovision camera system equipped with appropriate band pass filters is employed to facilitate the study of full-field deformation response of the material at elevated temperatures. Using the temperature and load histories along with the full-field strain data, a Virtual Fields Method (VFM) based approach is implemented to identify constitutive parameters governing the plastic deformation of the material at high temperature conditions. Results from these experiments confirm that the proposed method can be used to measure the full field deformation of materials subjected to thermo-mechanical loading.

  6. The evolution of internal stress and dislocation during tensile deformation in a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel investigated by high-energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-12-01

    An application of high-energy wide angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the tensile deformation of 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel is presented. With tensile loading and in-situ Xray exposure, the lattice strain development of matrix was determined. The lattice strain was found to decrease with increasing temperature, and the difference in Young's modulus of six different reflections at different temperatures reveals the temperature dependence of elastic anisotropy. The mean internal stress was calculated and compared with the applied stress, showing that the strengthening factor increased with increasing temperature, indicating that the oxide nanoparticles have a good strengthening impact at high temperature. The dislocation density and character were also measured during tensile deformation. The dislocation density decreased with increasing of temperature due to the greater mobility of dislocation at high temperature. The dislocation character was determined by best-fit methods for different dislocation average contrasts with various levels of uncertainty. The results shows edge type dislocations dominate the plastic strain at room temperature (RT) and 300 C, while the screw type dislocations dominate at 600 C. The dominance of edge character in 9Cr F/M ODS steels at RT and 300 C is likely due to the pinning effect of nanoparticles for higher mobile edge dislocations when compared with screw dislocations, while the stronger screw type of dislocation structure at 600 C may be explained by the activated cross slip of screw segments.

  7. Ten deg off-axis tensile test for intralaminar shear characterization of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen for the intralaminar shear characterization of unidirectional composites. Composite mechanics, a combined-stress failure criterion, and a finite element analysis were used to determine theoretically the stress-strain variation across the specimen width and the relative stress and strain magnitudes at the 10 deg plane. Strain gages were used to measure the strain variation across the specimen width at specimen midlength and near the end tabs. Specimens from Mod-I/epoxy, T-300/epoxy, and S-glass/epoxy were used in the experimental program. It was found that the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen is suitable for intralaminar shear characterization and it is recommended that it should be considered as a possible standard test specimen for such a characterization.

  8. Comparison of procedures for the extraction of supernatants and cytotoxicity tests in Vero cells, applied to assess the toxigenic potential of Bacillus spp. and Lactobacillus spp., intended for use as probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Anicet R; Méndez, Javier; Castel, Susana; Reina, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Interest in using Bacillus strains as probiotic components of animal feeds has grown in recent years. However, some of these strains, especially those taxonomically related to the Bacillus cereus group, may have enterotoxigenic activity. Assessment of their toxigenic potential by well-established and robust protocols is required before authorizing their use in animal nutrition. Three methods of extraction and concentration of supernatants of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains (methanol extraction, ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration concentration) and three cytotoxic tests in Vero cells (WST-1, LDH and protein synthesis inhibition assays) for the assessment of the cytotoxicity activity of Lactobacillus strains (as probiotic strains in human and animal nutrition) and Bacillus toyonensis BCT-7112(T) (as animal probiotic strain in animal nutrition-Toyocerin®-) were evaluated in this study. Methanol extraction was not useful under any circumstances. The other two concentration methods (ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration) were feasible, with slightly greater sensitivity achieved by ultrafiltration. The probiotic strain B. toyonensis BCT-7112(T) proved to be a non-cytotoxic strain in all the protocols tested. However, some Lactobacillus strains showed cytotoxicity activity, regardless of the protocols applied.

  9. Interaction of Bearing and Tensile Loads on Creep Properties of Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, E G; Carlson, R L; Manning, G K

    1956-01-01

    The interaction of bearing and tensile loads on the creep behavior of joints was studied. A specimen was designed for this study which possessed some of the general features of pin and rivet joint connections and an apparatus was constructed to apply both bearing and tensile loads to the joint model. Deformation measurements were made by use of a photogrid printed on the joint model.

  10. The elevated temperature tensile properties of S-200E commercially pure beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Torres, S.G.; Hanafee, J.E.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments were performed at 300-100 C in longitudinal and transverse orientations at quasi-static strain rate 5.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}s{sup {minus}1}. Results show that the stress-strain curve is smooth, without yield points or serrations. Yield stress and ultimate tensile stress decrease monotonically with temperature. Similar strengths were measured for both orientations. Failure elongation vs temperature is complex.

  11. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierron, F.; Forquin, P.

    2012-08-01

    For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s-1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula) remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative `load cell'. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young's modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  12. Continuum model of tensile fracture of pure aluminum and D16 alloy and its application to the shock wave problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    A continuum model of tensile fracture of solid metals is formulated for the cases of pure aluminum and D16 alloy. It is verified within a wide range of strain rates using results of molecular dynamics simulations and known experimental data. The model considers the growth of spherical voids driven by plastic deformation in their vicinities. Both thermofluctuation nucleation of new voids and growth of the pre-existing ones are considered. The stress concentration areas near inclusions are taken into account in the case of alloy. The model is applied to description of the back-side spallation of metal targets exposed to the shock wave loading initiated by high-velocity impact; calculations are performed in 1D case. Results of comparison with known experimental back surface velocity histories are presented.

  13. Characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of beetles.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Wanyong; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Wang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Based on a tensile experiment and observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this study demonstrated the characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of the fresh and dry forewings of two types of beetles. The results revealed obvious differences in the tensile fracture morphologies and characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of Cybister tripunctatus Olivier and Allomyrina dichotoma. For fresh forewings of these two types of beetles, a viscous, flow-like, polymer matrix plastic deformation was observed on the fracture surfaces, with soft morphologies and many fibers being pulled out, whereas on the dry forewings, the tensile fracture surfaces were straightforward, and there were no features resembling those found on the fresh forewings. The fresh forewings exhibited a greater fracture strain than the dry forewings, which was caused by the relative slippage of hydroxyl inter-chain bonds due to the presence of water in the fibers and proteins in the fresh forewings. Our study is the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of sudden stress drops caused by the fracturing of the lower skin because the lower skin fractured before the forewings of A. dichotoma reached their ultimate tensile strength. We also investigated the reasons underlying this phenomenon. This research provides a much better understanding of the mechanical properties of beetle forewings and facilitates the correct selection of study objects for biomimetic materials and development of the corresponding applications.

  14. Grain boundary sliding measurements during tensile creep of a single-phase alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, C.R.; Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F.

    1998-06-01

    The grain boundary sliding (GBS) behavior of a single-phase (relatively coarse-grained) alumina material was studied after tensile creep experiments were performed at 1,500 C at stress levels of 20 and 35 MPa. Specimens tested at 35 MPa exhibited a number of modes of GBS, including Mode II (shear) displacements, Mode I (opening) displacements, out-of-plane sliding displacements, and in-plane grain rotation. Strains in the grain boundaries due to Mode II GBS displacements ranged from 940% to 4,400%. Average Mode II GBS displacements ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 {micro}m in samples tested for 120 and 480 min, respectively, at 35 MPa. The GBS displacements were shown to fit a Weibull distribution. Tensile creep under a 35 MPa stress yielded a GBS rate of 9.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {micro}m/s, while the 20 MPa stress resulted in a GBS rate of 2.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {micro}m/s. The average Mode II GBS displacements increased linearly with specimen strain, suggesting that GBS may play an important role in creep cavitation during tensile creep. The data also revealed that compatibility and constraint rules appear to govern GBS behavior during tensile creep. GBS behavior during compressive creep will be compared to the tensile creep GBS measurements presented.

  15. Effect of displacement rate on the tensile mechanics of pediatric cervical functional spinal units.

    PubMed

    Nuckley, David J; Hertsted, Suzanne M; Eck, Michael P; Ching, Randal P

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the effect of loading (displacement) rate on the tensile mechanics of cervical spine functional spinal units. A total of 40 isolated functional spinal units (two vertebrae and the adjoining soft tissues) from juvenile male baboons (10+/-0.6-human equivalent years old) were subjected to tensile loading spanning four orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 5000 mm/s. The stiffness, ultimate failure load, and corresponding displacement at failure were measured for each specimen and normalized by spinal geometry to examine the material properties as well as the structural properties. The tensile stiffness, failure load, normalized stiffness, and normalized failure load significantly increased (ANOVA, p<0.001) with increasing displacement rate. From the slowest to fastest loading rate, a two-fold increase in stiffness and four-fold increase in failure load were observed. The tensile failure strains (1.07+/-0.31 mm/mm strain) were not significantly correlated with loading rate (ANOVA, p=0.146). Both the functional (non-destructive stiffness and normalized stiffness) and failure mechanics of isolated functional spinal units exhibited a power-law relationship with displacement rate. Modeling efforts utilizing these rate-dependent characteristics will enhance our understanding of the tensile viscoelastic response of the spine and enable improved dynamic injury prevention schemes.

  16. Biaxial tensile testing and constitutive modeling of human supraspinatus tendon.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Peloquin, John M; Cortes, Daniel H; Kadlowec, Jennifer A; Soslowsky, Louis J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-02-01

    these errors are not due to inaccuracies in measuring the collagen fiber organization. More likely, additional strain energy terms representing fiber-fiber interactions are necessary to provide a closer approximation of the transverse stresses. Nevertheless, this approach demonstrated that the longitudinal tensile mechanics of the supraspinatus tendon are primarily dependent on the moduli, crimp, and angular distribution of its collagen fibers. These results add to the existing knowledge of structure-function relationships in fibrous musculoskeletal tissue, which is valuable for understanding the etiology of degenerative disease, developing effective tissue engineering design strategies, and predicting outcomes of tissue repair.

  17. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  18. Microstructure, fracture characteristics, and tensile properties of two tungsten heavy alloys. Final report, January 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.W.

    1995-11-01

    The influence of microstructure on fracture behavior and tensile properties was investigated for two tungsten heavy alloys (93W-4.9Ni-2.1Fe and 91W-6Ni-3Co by weight-percentage) that are suitable materiai candidates for use as kinetic energy penetrators. Both alloys were evaluated in swaged and aged conditions. For comparable levels of swaging and aging, the W-Ni-Co alloy exhibited increased tensile strength and ductility compared to the W-Ni-Fe material. The W-Ni-Co alloy had a smaller average W grain size and a larger percentage of W in the matrix. Fracture surfaces of failed uniaxial tensile specimens tested at quasi-static and low-to-medium strain rates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate a strong relationship between microstructure, fracture behavior, and tensile properties as a function of alloy composition and strain rate.

  19. Revealing extraordinary tensile plasticity in layered Ti-Al metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Fan, G. H.; Geng, L.; Cao, G. J.; Du, Y.; Wu, H.; Zhang, T. T.; Kang, H. J.; Wang, T. M.; Du, G. H.; Xie, H. L.

    2016-12-01

    Layered Ti-Al metal composite (LMC) fabricated by hot-pressing and hot-rolling process displays higher ductility than that of both components. In this paper, a combination of digital image correlation (DIC) and X-ray tomography revealed that strain delocalization and constrained crack distribution are the origin of extraordinary tensile ductility. Strain delocalization was derived from the transfer of strain partitioning between Ti and Al layer, which relieved effectively the strain localization of LMC. Furthermore, the extensive cracks of LMC were restricted in the interface due to constraint effect. Layered architecture constrained the distribution of cracks and significantly relieved the strain localization. Meanwhile, the transfer of strain partitioning and constrained crack distribution were believed to inhibit the strain localization of Ti and change the deformation mechanisms of Ti. Our finding enriches current understanding about simultaneously improving the strength and ductility by structural design.

  20. Revealing extraordinary tensile plasticity in layered Ti-Al metal composite

    PubMed Central

    Huang, M.; Fan, G. H.; Geng, L.; Cao, G. J.; Du, Y.; Wu, H.; Zhang, T. T.; Kang, H. J.; Wang, T. M.; Du, G. H.; Xie, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Layered Ti-Al metal composite (LMC) fabricated by hot-pressing and hot-rolling process displays higher ductility than that of both components. In this paper, a combination of digital image correlation (DIC) and X-ray tomography revealed that strain delocalization and constrained crack distribution are the origin of extraordinary tensile ductility. Strain delocalization was derived from the transfer of strain partitioning between Ti and Al layer, which relieved effectively the strain localization of LMC. Furthermore, the extensive cracks of LMC were restricted in the interface due to constraint effect. Layered architecture constrained the distribution of cracks and significantly relieved the strain localization. Meanwhile, the transfer of strain partitioning and constrained crack distribution were believed to inhibit the strain localization of Ti and change the deformation mechanisms of Ti. Our finding enriches current understanding about simultaneously improving the strength and ductility by structural design. PMID:27917923

  1. A novel melt stable and high tensile strength biopolymer (polyhydroxyalkanoates) from Bacillus megaterium (MTCC10086) and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Bora, Limpon; Das, Reshmi; Gohain, Dibakar

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation, we have defined a novel biopolymer from Bacillus megaterium strain with novel melt stability, high tensile strength, and elongation to break properties higher to polypropylene and similar to polyethylene the polymers available commercially. The polymer was characterized with FTIR and XRD. The percent crystalinity was found to 44.09% with tensile strength 42 (Mpa) and elongation to break (%) 142 higher than polypropylene. The polymeric properties were confirmed by differential scanning calorimeter and universal testing.

  2. Strain engineering of Dirac cones in graphyne

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gaoxue; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Ravindra; Si, Mingsu

    2014-05-26

    6,6,12-graphyne, one of the two-dimensional carbon allotropes with the rectangular lattice structure, has two kinds of non-equivalent anisotropic Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone. We show that Dirac cones can be tuned independently by the uniaxial compressive strain applied to graphyne, which induces n-type and p-type self-doping effect, by shifting the energy of the Dirac cones in the opposite directions. On the other hand, application of the tensile strain results into a transition from gapless to finite gap system for the monolayer. For the AB-stacked bilayer, the results predict tunability of Dirac-cones by in-plane strains as well as the strain applied perpendicular to the plane. The group velocities of the Dirac cones show enhancement in the resistance anisotropy for bilayer relative to the case of monolayer. Such tunable and direction-dependent electronic properties predicted for 6,6,12-graphyne make it to be competitive for the next-generation electronic devices at nanoscale.

  3. Modeling the tensile behavior of human Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G; Shaw, K M

    1997-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile stress, sigma versus strain, epsilon, data were obtained from 29 cadaveric Achilles tendons (donor ages: 36 to 100 years), at a strain rate of either 10 or 100%/s. These results were then used in modeling the elastic component of the tensile deformational behavior of this tissue. Two approaches were taken. In the first, it was shown that the following constitutive relation provided an excellent fit to the elastic section of the sigma-epsilon curve, sigma = C epsilon exp[D epsilon + F epsilon 2], with C, D and F being material constants, whose values for the present dataset were found to be C = 2.00 +/- 0.99, D = 0.089 +/- 0.087 and F = -0.0047 +/- 0.0095. The values of these coefficients were not statistically significantly affected by either donor age or test strain rate. In the second approach, the value of the modulus of elasticity of a filamentary polymer matrix composite material was computed as a function of various combinations of values of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber, the modulus of elasticity of the matrix, and angle of orientation of the principal material axes with respect to the reference coordinate axes (theta) for a fiber volume fraction of 0.6 and a material Poisson's ratio of 0.4. By comparing these results with the experimentally-obtained values of the tangent modulus of elasticity of the tendons (defined as the slope of the linear section of the post-toe zone in the sigma-epsilon plot), and assuming that the tendon may be idealized as a filamentary polymer matrix composite material, the suggestion is made that the winding angle of the fibers (collagen fibrils) in the tendon (taken to be equal to theta) is about 6 degrees.

  4. Novel approach to tensile testing of micro- and nanoscale fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E. P. S.; Lim, C. T.

    2004-08-01

    Due to the strength and size of the micro- and nanoscale fibers, larger conventional universal testing machines are not suitable in performing stretch test of such fibers. Existing microtensile testing machines are custom-made and are complex and expensive to construct. Here, a novel method of using an existing atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanoindenation system for the tensile testing of microscale or bundled nanoscale fibers is proposed. The microscale poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) fiber (˜25 μm diameter) was used as an example to illustrate this technique. The microfiber was first attached to a nanoindenter tip and the base via a custom-made holder to ensure that the microfiber was taut and vertically aligned. The force transducer of the nanoindenter was used to measure the tensile force required to stretch the microfiber. The microfiber was stretched using the stepper motor of the AFM system. The elongation of the microfiber was measured by subtracting the elongation of the transducer spring from the total elongation of the microfiber and transducer spring. A plot of the load against elongation of the microfiber was then obtained. The stress and strain of the microfiber was measured by subtracting the elongation of the transducer spring from the total elongation of the microfiber was then obtained. The stress and strain of the microfiber was obtained by dividing the load and elongation by cross-sectional area and gauge length, respectively. With this data, the mechanical behavior of the sample at small strains can be studied. This system is able to provide a high load resolution of 80 nN and displacement resolution of 0.5 nm. However, maximum load and sample elongation is limited and handling of the sample still remains a challenge.

  5. Tensile and compressive failure modes of laminated composites loaded by fatigue with different mean stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotem, Assa

    1990-01-01

    Laminated composite materials tend to fail differently under tensile or compressive load. Under tension, the material accumulates cracks and fiber fractures, while under compression, the material delaminates and buckles. Tensile-compressive fatigue may cause either of these failure modes depending on the specific damage occurring in the laminate. This damage depends on the stress ratio of the fatigue loading. Analysis of the fatigue behavior of the composite laminate under tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension-compression had led to the development of a fatigue envelope presentation of the failure behavior. This envelope indicates the specific failure mode for any stress ratio and number of loading cycles. The construction of the fatigue envelope is based on the applied stress-cycles to failure (S-N) curves of both tensile-tensile and compressive-compressive fatigue. Test results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. All-solid-state carbon nanotube torsional and tensile artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Youn Tae; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Suh, Dongseok; Lepró, Xavier; Lima, Mácio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2014-05-14

    We report electrochemically powered, all-solid-state torsional and tensile artificial yarn muscles using a spinnable carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet that provides attractive performance. Large torsional muscle stroke (53°/mm) with minor hysteresis loop was obtained for a low applied voltage (5 V) without the use of a relatively complex three-electrode electromechanical setup, liquid electrolyte, or packaging. Useful tensile muscle strokes were obtained (1.3% at 2.5 V and 0.52% at 1 V) when lifting loads that are ∼25 times heavier than can be lifted by the same diameter human skeletal muscle. Also, the tensile actuator maintained its contraction following charging and subsequent disconnection from the power supply because of its own supercapacitor property at the same time. Possible eventual applications for the individual tensile and torsional muscles are in micromechanical devices, such as for controlling valves and stirring liquids in microfluidic circuits, and in medical catheters.

  7. The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.

    1997-08-01

    The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within {+-}53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within {+-} MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa.

  8. Scanning transmission electron microscopy strain measurement from millisecond frames of a direct electron charge coupled device

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas; Ryll, Henning; Ordavo, Ivan; Ihle, Sebastian; Soltau, Heike; Strueder, Lothar; Volz, Kerstin; Zweck, Josef

    2012-11-19

    A high-speed direct electron detection system is introduced to the field of transmission electron microscopy and applied to strain measurements in semiconductor nanostructures. In particular, a focused electron probe with a diameter of 0.5 nm was scanned over a fourfold quantum layer stack with alternating compressive and tensile strain and diffracted discs have been recorded on a scintillator-free direct electron detector with a frame time of 1 ms. We show that the applied algorithms can accurately detect Bragg beam positions despite a significant point spread each 300 kV electron causes during detection on the scintillator-free camera. For millisecond exposures, we find that strain can be measured with a precision of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, enabling, e.g., strain mapping in a 100 Multiplication-Sign 100 nm{sup 2} region with 0.5 nm resolution in 40 s.

  9. Applied Stress Affecting the Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is affected by the mode of applied stress, i.e., tension, compression, or torsion. The cracking is measured in terms of initiation time to nucleate a crack or time to failure. In a simple uniaxial loading under tension or compression, it is observed that the initiation time can vary in orders of magnitude depending on the alloy and the environment. Fracture can be intergranular or transgranular or mixed mode. Factors that affect SCC are solubility of the metal into surrounding chemical solution, and diffusion rate (like hydrogen into a tensile region) of an aggressive element into the metal and liquid metallic elements in the grain boundaries. Strain hardening exponent that affects the local internal stresses and their gradients can affect the diffusion kinetics. We examine two environments (Ga and 3.5 pct NaCl) for the same alloy 7075-T651, under constant uniaxial tension and compression load. These two cases provide us application to two different governing mechanisms namely liquid metal embrittlement (7075-Ga) and hydrogen-assisted cracking (7075-NaCl). We note that, in spite of the differences in their mechanisms, both systems show similar behavior in the applied K vs crack initiation time plots. One common theme among them is the transport mechanism of a solute element to a tensile-stress region to initiate fracture.

  10. Mechanical state assessment using lamb wave technique in static tensile tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, M. V.; Shah, R. T.; Eremin, A. V.; Byakov, A. V.; Panin, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of Lamb wave ultrasonic technique for damage (or mechanical state) evaluation of AA7068T3 specimens in the course of tensile testing. Two piezoelectric transducers (PZT), one of which is used as an actuator and the other as sensor, were adhesively bonded on the specimen surface using epoxy. Two frequencies of testing signals (60 kHz and 350 kHz) were used. The set of static tensile tests were performed. The recorded signals were processed to calculate the informative parameters in order to evaluate the changes in stress-strain state of the specimens and their microstructure.

  11. Substantial tensile ductility in sputtered Zr-Ni-Al nano-sized metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Liontas, Rachel; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Yong -Wei; Mao, Wendy L.; Greer, Julia R.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate the mechanical behavior and atomic-level structure of glassy Zr-Ni-Al nano-tensile specimens with widths between 75 and 215 nm. We focus our studies on two different energy states: (1) as-sputtered and (2) sputtered then annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In-situ tensile experiments conducted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal substantial tensile ductility in some cases reaching >10% engineering plastic strains, >150% true plastic strains, and necking down to a point during tensile straining in specimens as wide as ~150 nm. We found the extent of ductility depends on both the specimen size and the annealing conditions. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), we explain the observed mechanical behavior through changes in free volume as well as short- and medium-range atomic-level order that occur upon annealing. This work demonstrates the importance of carefully choosing the metallic glass fabrication method and post-processing conditions for achieving a certain atomic-level structure and free volume within the metallic glass, which then determine the overall mechanical response. Lastly, an important implication is that sputter deposition may be a particularly promising technique for producing thin coatings of metallic glasses with significant ductility, due to the high level of disorder and excess free volume resulting from the sputtering process and to the suitability of sputtering for producing thin coatings that may exhibit enhanced size-induced ductility.

  12. Toward predicting tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets by ultrasound measurement in continuous manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sonia M; Callegari, Gerardo; Drazer, German; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2016-06-30

    An ultrasound measurement system was employed as a non-destructive method to evaluate its reliability in predicting the tensile strength of tablets and investigate the benefits of incorporating it in a continuous line, manufacturing solid dosage forms. Tablets containing lactose, acetaminophen, and magnesium stearate were manufactured continuously and in batches. The effect of two processing parameters, compaction force and level of shear strain were examined. Young's modulus and tensile strength of tablets were obtained by ultrasound and diametrical mechanical testing, respectively. It was found that as the blend was exposed to increasing levels of shear strain, the speed of sound in the tablets decreased and the tablets became both softer and mechanically weaker. Moreover, the results indicate that two separate tablet material properties (e.g., relative density and Young's modulus) are necessary in order to predict tensile strength. A strategy for hardness prediction is proposed that uses the existing models for Young's modulus and tensile strength of porous materials. Ultrasound testing was found to be very sensitive in differentiating tablets with similar formulation but produced under different processing conditions (e.g., different level of shear strain), thus, providing a fast, and non-destructive method for hardness prediction that could be incorporated to a continuous manufacturing process.

  13. Tensile properties of irradiated surveillance coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1994-06-01

    Tensile testing of austenitic steel and superalloy samples irradiated in the HMO 13 assembly was performed in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Surveillance Program. Postirradiation yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction in area of 304 stainless steel (SS), 308 SS weld, 316 SS, A286, In718, and In718 weld were determined. Results showed the strength of austenitic steels increased while the ductility decreased as a result of irradiation. Low irradiation exposure produced little property change in In718. Overall, the tensile properties of HMO 13 surveillance coupons showed a lower magnitude of irradiation-induced property change than was expected based on earlier studies. Results from these tests gave no indications of unexpectedly severe irradiation damage to FFTF components.

  14. Strain effect on electronic structures of graphene nanoribbons: A first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lian; Li, Qunxiang; Ren, Hao; Su, Haibin; Shi, Q W; Yang, Jinlong

    2008-08-21

    We report a first-principles study on the electronic structures of deformed graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Our theoretical results show that the electronic properties of zigzag GNRs are not sensitive to uniaxial strain, while the energy gap modification of armchair GNRs (AGNRs) as a function of uniaxial strain displays a nonmonotonic relationship with a zigzag pattern. The subband spacings and spatial distributions of the AGNRs can be tuned by applying an external strain. Scanning tunneling microscopy dI/dV maps can be used to characterize the nature of the strain states, compressive or tensile, of AGNRs. In addition, we find that the nearest neighbor hopping integrals between pi-orbitals of carbon atoms are responsible for energy gap modification under uniaxial strain based on our tight binding approximation simulations.

  15. An investigation on dynamic tensile properties of TiAl intermetallic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Lin, T.L.; Zhou, Y.; Xia, Y.; Law, C.C.

    1999-07-01

    Room-temperature tensile properties of polycrystalline Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb alloy with nearly lamellar (NL) microstructures were investigated at the strain rate between 10{sup {minus}5} and 1,000 s{sup {minus}1} using a self-designed Split-Hopkinson tensile bar setup with a rotating disk and conventional testing machine. It was found that tensile ductility varies within a narrow range with the strain rate while dynamic strengths ({sigma}{sup d}) of the alloy are obviously higher than static strengths ({sigma}{sup s}). There exists a linear relationship between {sigma}{sup s} and the logarithm of the strain rate (ln{dot {epsilon}}), and between {sigma}{sup d} and the strain rate itself ({dot {epsilon}}). Fractography analysis indicated that the alloy fractured in a mixed mode of predominant transgranular cleavage and minor intergranular cracking under static and dynamic strain rates. Environmental effect was excluded from the main cause for the room-temperature brittleness of the investigated alloy.

  16. Metastability and relaxation in tensile SiGe on Ge(001) virtual substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Frigerio, Jacopo; Lodari, Mario; Chrastina, Daniel Mondiali, Valeria; Isella, Giovanni; Bollani, Monica

    2014-09-21

    We systematically study the heteroepitaxy of SiGe alloys on Ge virtual substrates in order to understand strain relaxation processes and maximize the tensile strain in the SiGe layer. The degree of relaxation is measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and surface morphology is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The results are analyzed in terms of a numerical model, which considers dislocation nucleation, multiplication, thermally activated glide, and strain-dependent blocking. Relaxation is found to be sensitive to growth rate and substrate temperature as well as epilayer misfit and thickness, and growth parameters are found which allow a SiGe film with over 4 GPa of tensile stress to be obtained.

  17. Strength, Hardening, and Failure Observed by In Situ TEM Tensile Testing.

    PubMed

    Kiener, Daniel; Kaufmann, Petra; Minor, Andrew M

    2012-11-01

    We present in situ transmission electron microscope tensile tests on focused ion beam fabricated single and multiple slip oriented Cu tensile samples with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm. Both crystal orientations fail by localized shear. While failure occurs after a few percent plastic strain and limited hardening in the single slip case, the multiple slip samples exhibit extended homogenous deformation and necking due to the activation of multiple dislocation sources in conjunction with significant hardening. The hardening behavior at 1% plastic strain is even more pronounced compared to compression samples of the same orientation due to the absence of sample taper and the interface to the compression platen. Moreover, we show for the first time that the strain rate sensitivity of such FIB prepared samples is an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk Cu.

  18. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Bulashevich, Kirill; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  19. In vitro quantification of strain patterns in the craniofacial skeleton due to masseter and temporalis activities.

    PubMed

    Maloul, Asmaa; Regev, Eran; Whyne, Cari M; Beek, Marteen; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2012-09-01

    Many complications in craniofacial surgery can be attributed to a lack of characterization of facial skeletal strain patterns. This study aimed to delineate human midfacial strain patterns under uniform muscle loading. The left sides of 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric heads were dissected of all soft tissues except the temporalis and masseter muscles. Tensile forces were applied to the free mandibular ends of the muscles. Maxillary alveolar arches were used to restrain the skulls. Eight strain gauges were bonded to the surface of the midface to measure the strain under single muscle loading conditions (100 N). Maxillary strain gauges revealed a biaxial load state for both muscles. Thin antral bone experienced high maximum principal tensile strains (maximum of 685.5 με) and high minimum principal compressive strains (maximum of -722.44 με). Similar biaxial patterns of lower magnitude were measured on the zygoma (maximum of 208.59 με for maximum principal strains and -78.11 με for minimum principal strains). Results, consistent for all specimens and counter to previously accepted concepts of biomechanical behavior of the midface under masticatory muscle loading, included high strain in the thin maxillary antral wall, rotational bending through the maxilla and zygoma, and a previously underestimated contribution of the temporalis muscle. This experimental model produced repeatable strain patterns quantifying the mechanics of the facial skeleton. These new counterintuitive findings underscore the need for accurate characterization of craniofacial strain patterns to address problems in the current treatment methods and develop robust design criteria.

  20. Embedded optical fibres as strain sensors in polymer matrix fibre composites: The influence of adhesion in strain transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekroth, M.

    1994-06-01

    Optical fibers can serve as strain sensors embedded in load carrying polymer matrix fiber composites. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of chemical bonding between the optical fiber, its protective polyimide coating and the surrounding composite, in strain transfer from the composite to the optical fiber. The degree of adhesion was determined by measuring the force during debonding and pull-out of the optical fiber from the composite. Debonding occurred between the quartz fiber and the coating for both untreated and ammonia modified fibers. The PTFE coated fibers debonded between the coating and the composite. The modified fibers debonded at a lower applied load than the untreated fibers. The strain during tensile loading was measured both with conventional resistance strain gages mounted on the specimen surfaces, and optically with a Mach-Zehnder-interferometer. The optically measured strains, obtained with the untreated fiber and the modified fibers, were all in good agreement with the response from the resistance strain gages. It is concluded that the chemical bonding between the quartz fiber/coating/composite consequently has little or no influence on the strain transfer. Internal stresses (mechanical pressure and friction forces) arising from the laminate fabrication process are sufficient for strain transfer.

  1. Strain-Induced Energy Band Gap Opening in Two-Dimensional Bilayered Silicon Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Zhou, R.; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhuang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of bilayered silicon film (BiSF) under in-plane biaxial strain/stress using density functional theory (DFT). Atomic structures of the two-dimensional (2-D) silicon films are optimized by using both the local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In the absence of strain/stress, five buckled hexagonal honeycomb structures of the BiSF with triangular lattice have been obtained as local energy minima, and their structural stability has been verified. These structures present a Dirac-cone shaped energy band diagram with zero energy band gaps. Applying a tensile biaxial strain leads to a reduction of the buckling height. Atomically flat structures with zero buckling height have been observed when the AA-stacking structures are under a critical biaxial strain. Increase of the strain between 10.7% and 15.4% results in a band-gap opening with a maximum energy band gap opening of ˜0.17 eV, obtained when a 14.3% strain is applied. Energy band diagrams, electron transmission efficiency, and the charge transport property are calculated. Additionally, an asymmetric energetically favorable atomic structure of BiSF shows a non-zero band gap in the absence of strain/stress and a maximum band gap of 0.15 eV as a -1.71% compressive strain is applied. Both tensile and compressive strain/stress can lead to a band gap opening in the asymmetric structure.

  2. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  3. Acoustic emission for characterising the crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.C.; Pirskawetz, S.; Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Schmidt, W.

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the analysis of crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC) under tensile and flexural load by using acoustic emission (AE). AE is a non-destructive technique to monitor the development of structural damage due to external forces. The main objective of this research was to characterise the cracking behaviour in SHCC in direct tensile and flexural tests by using AE. A better understanding of the development of microcracks in SHCC will lead to a better understanding of pseudo strain-hardening behaviour of SHCC and its general performance. ARAMIS optical deformation analysis was also used in direct tensile tests to observe crack propagation in SHCC materials. For the direct tensile tests, SHCC specimens were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibre with three different volume percentages (1%, 1.85% and 2.5%). For the flexural test beam specimens, only a fibre dosage of 1.85% was applied. It was found that the application of AE in SHCC can be a good option to analyse the crack growth in the specimens under increasing load, the location of the cracks and most importantly the identification of matrix cracking and fibre rupture or slippage.

  4. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2014-06-28

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100–1000 m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  5. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2014-06-01

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100-1000 m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr2O3 decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  6. Dynamic yield and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M.; Frage, N.

    2014-05-01

    Fully dense alumina samples with 0.6 μm grain size were produced from alumina powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two types of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the tests of the first type the samples of 0.28 to 6-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors accelerated up to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed to study the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the SPS-processed alumina and the decay of the elastic precursor wave with propagation distance. In the second type of test the samples of ~3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated up to velocities 100-1000 m/s. These tests were aimed to study the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina. The data on tensile fracture of the alumina demonstrate a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. The data on the decay of the elastic precursor wave allows for determining the rates of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of shock-induced inelastic deformation and, thus, to derive some conclusions concerning the mechanisms responsible of the deformation.

  7. Dynamic yield and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girlitsky, Inna; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M.; Frage, N.

    2013-06-01

    Fully dense alumina samples with 0.6- μ grain size were produced from alumina powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two types of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests.. In the tests of the first type the samples of 0.28 to 6-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors accelerated up to velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed to study of the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the SPS-processed alumina and the decay of the elastic precursor wave with the propagation distance. In the second type of the tests the samples of ~ 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated up to velocities 100-1000 m/s was. These tests were aimed to the study of the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina. The data on the decay of the elastic precursor wave allow determining the rates of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced plastic deformation and, thus, to derive some conclusions concerning the mechanisms responsible of the deformation. The data on the tensile fracture of the alumina demonstrate a monotonous decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse.

  8. Tensile Fracture of Welded Polymer Interfaces: Miscibility, Entanglements, and Crazing

    DOE PAGES

    Ge, Ting; Grest, Gary S.; Robbins, Mark O.

    2014-09-26

    Large-scale molecular simulations are performed to investigate tensile failure of polymer interfaces as a function of welding time t. Changes in the tensile stress, mode of failure and interfacial fracture energy GI are correlated to changes in the interfacial entanglements as determined from Primitive Path Analysis. Bulk polymers fail through craze formation, followed by craze breakdown through chain scission. At small t welded interfaces are not strong enough to support craze formation and fail at small strains through chain pullout at the interface. Once chains have formed an average of about one entanglement across the interface, a stable craze ismore » formed throughout the sample. The failure stress of the craze rises with welding time and the mode of craze breakdown changes from chain pullout to chain scission as the interface approaches bulk strength. The interfacial fracture energy GI is calculated by coupling the simulation results to a continuum fracture mechanics model. As in experiment, GI increases as t1/2 before saturating at the average bulk fracture energy Gb. As in previous studies of shear strength, saturation coincides with the recovery of the bulk entanglement density. Before saturation, GI is proportional to the areal density of interfacial entanglements. Immiscibiltiy limits interdiffusion and thus suppresses entanglements at the interface. Even small degrees of immisciblity reduce interfacial entanglements enough that failure occurs by chain pullout and GI << Gb.« less

  9. Measuring strain using digital image correlation of second harmonic generation images.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Scott; Sterling Nesbitt, Robert; Macione, James; Kotha, Shiva

    2013-08-09

    The micromechanical environment of bone is crucial to understanding both bone fracture and mechanobiological responses of osteocytes, yet few techniques exist that are capable of measuring strains on the micrometer scale. A method for measuring micrometer level strains has been developed based on digital image correlation (DIC) of second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) images. Bovine tibias milled into thin sections were imaged using SHGM under loads of 0 and 15 MPa. Strains were measured using DIC and compared to applied strain values. First and second principal strains decreased in magnitude as the analysis region area increased from 1750 µm(2) to 60,920 µm(2), converging to 1.23 ± 0.74 and -0.745 ± 0.9816 times the applied strain respectively. A representative sample histogram revealed regions of pure tensile and compressive strain, and that strains were highly heterogeneous ranging from 8410 to -8840 microstrain for an applied 2870 microstrain. Comparison with applied strain measures suggested that analysis sizes of 1750 µm(2) and greater were measuring strains on the tissue scale, and higher resolution is required for collagen fibrillar strains. Regions of low SHGM intensity ("dark" regions) were seen which are believed to be lacunar and perilacunar regions of low collagen density. However, no significant differences in strain magnitude were present in dark regions versus regions of high signal intensity. The proposed technique is effective for strains on the size order of bone microarchitecture, and would be useful for studies into the mechanical microenvironment during loading. The technique also has potential for in vivo studies in small animal models.

  10. Chemical Origins of Permanent Set in a Peroxide Cured Filled Silicone Elastomer - Tensile and 1H NMR Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S; Deteresa, S; Shields, A; Sawvel, A; Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S

    2004-10-29

    The aging of a commercial filled siloxane polymeric composite in states of high stress and Co-60 {gamma}-radiation exposure has been studied. DC-745 is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and vinyl-methyl siloxane monomers crosslinked with a peroxide vinyl specific curing agent. It is filled with {approx}30 wt.% mixture of high and low surface area silicas. This filled material is shown to be subject to permanent set if exposed to radiation while under tensile stress. Tensile modulus measurements show that the material gets marginally softer with combined radiation exposure and tensile strain as compared to material exposed to radiation without tensile strain. In addition, the segmental dynamics as measured by both uniaxial NMR relaxometry and Multiple Quantum NMR methods indicate that the material is undergoes radiatively-induced crosslinking in the absence of tensile strain and a combination of crosslinking and strain dependent increase in dynamic order parameter for the network chains. The MQ-NMR also suggests a small change in the number of polymer chains associated with the silica filler surface. Comparison of the prediction of the relative change in crosslink density from the NMR data as well as solvent swelling data and from that predicted from the Tobolsky model suggest that degradation leads to a deviation from Gaussian chain statistics and the formation of increased numbers of elastically ineffective network chains.

  11. Characterization of macroscopic tensile strength of polycrystalline metals with two-scale finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Ikumu; Terada, Kenjiro; Neto, Eduardo Alberto de Souza; Perić, Djordje

    The objective of this contribution is to develop an elastic-plastic-damage constitutive model for crystal grain and to incorporate it with two-scale finite element analyses based on mathematical homogenization method, in order to characterize the macroscopic tensile strength of polycrystalline metals. More specifically, the constitutive model for single crystal is obtained by combining hyperelasticity, a rate-independent single crystal plasticity and a continuum damage model. The evolution equations, stress update algorithm and consistent tangent are derived within the framework of standard elastoplasticity at finite strain. By employing two-scale finite element analysis, the ductile behaviour of polycrystalline metals and corresponding tensile strength are evaluated. The importance of finite element formulation is examined by comparing performance of several finite elements and their convergence behaviour is assessed with mesh refinement. Finally, the grain size effect on yield and tensile strength is analysed in order to illustrate the versatility of the proposed two-scale model.

  12. Simple metal under tensile stress: layer-dependent herringbone reconstruction of thin potassium films on graphite

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Feng; Kulju, Sampo; Koskinen, Pekka; Akola, Jaakko; Palmer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    While understanding the properties of materials under stress is fundamentally important, designing experiments to probe the effects of large tensile stress is difficult. Here tensile stress is created in thin films of potassium (up to 4 atomic layers) by epitaxial growth on a rigid support, graphite. We find that this “simple” metal shows a long-range, periodic “herringbone” reconstruction, observed in 2- and 3- (but not 1- and 4-) layer films by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Such a pattern has never been observed in a simple metal. Density functional theory (DFT)simulations indicate that the reconstruction consists of self-aligned stripes of enhanced atom density formed to relieve the tensile strain. At the same time marked layer-dependent charging effects lead to substantial variation in the apparent STM layer heights. PMID:25959681

  13. Electrically, chemically, and photonically powered torsional and tensile actuation of hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcio D; Li, Na; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Haines, Carter S; Suh, Dongseok; Foroughi, Javad; Kim, Seon Jeong; Chen, Yongsheng; Ware, Taylor; Shin, Min Kyoon; Machado, Leonardo D; Fonseca, Alexandre F; Madden, John D W; Voit, Walter E; Galvão, Douglas S; Baughman, Ray H

    2012-11-16

    Artificial muscles are of practical interest, but few types have been commercially exploited. Typical problems include slow response, low strain and force generation, short cycle life, use of electrolytes, and low energy efficiency. We have designed guest-filled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns as electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke torsional and tensile actuation. More than a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. Electrical, chemical, or photonic excitation of hybrid yarns changes guest dimensions and generates torsional rotation and contraction of the yarn host. Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically actuate.

  14. Electrically, Chemically, and Photonically Powered Torsional and Tensile Actuation of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Márcio D.; Li, Na; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Haines, Carter S.; Suh, Dongseok; Foroughi, Javad; Kim, Seon Jeong; Chen, Yongsheng; Ware, Taylor; Shin, Min Kyoon; Machado, Leonardo D.; Fonseca, Alexandre F.; Madden, John D. W.; Voit, Walter E.; Galvão, Douglas S.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2012-11-01

    Artificial muscles are of practical interest, but few types have been commercially exploited. Typical problems include slow response, low strain and force generation, short cycle life, use of electrolytes, and low energy efficiency. We have designed guest-filled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns as electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke torsional and tensile actuation. More than a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. Electrical, chemical, or photonic excitation of hybrid yarns changes guest dimensions and generates torsional rotation and contraction of the yarn host. Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically actuate.

  15. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of Polyurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmanski, Jevan; Cady, Carl; Rae, Philip; Trujillo, Carl; Gray, G. T., III; Brown, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Polyurea was investigated under Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) loading where spherical projectiles were propelled at 440-509 m/s through an extrusion die with an area reduction of 87%. Momentum of the leading edge imposes a rapid tensile deformation on the extruding material. Polyurea is an elastomer with outstanding high-rate tensile performance of interest in the shock regime. Previous Dyn-Ten-Ext work on semi-crystalline polymers (PTFE, PCTFE) resulted in small-scale fragmentation of the polymer, and did not provide clear information on the evolution of tensile damage in those materials. The polyurea behaved very differently; the polymer first extruded a jet of apparently intact material, which then broke down via void formation and coalescence, followed by fibrillation and tearing of the material. Most of the material in the jet elastically retracted back into the die, and only a few fragments of torn material were liberated from the sample. The surface texture of all failed surfaces was rough indicating a considerable amount of energy was absorbed by sub-critical failure mechanisms. It is interesting to note that while damage nucleation appeared pervasive in the extruded jet, the samples were nevertheless recovered largely intact, with limited fragmentation.

  16. Tensile Strength of Carbon/Carbon Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Hiroshi; Aoi, Tatsuji; Kawahara, Itaru; Kogo, Yasuo; Shiota, Ichiro

    In order to identify ruling mechanisms of tensile fracture of Carbon/Carbon composites (C/Cs), tensile tests were carried out for various C/Cs as functions of the density, heat treatment temperature, and interfacial strength between fiber and matrix. Three processing routes of preformed yarn, resin char, and HIP processes were adopted to densify C/Cs. These C/Cs were finally heat-treated at temperatures from 2273K to 3300K. The interfacial strength between fiber and matrix was varied by the selection of processing routes. As a result, two ruling failure mechanisms were identified. At density lower than 1.6g/cm3, the tensile fracture was controlled by stress transfer capability from the matrix to reinforcing fibers. However, at higher density than 1.6g/cm3, tensile strength was primarily governed by the interfacial strength between the matrix and fibers. Thus the latter mechanism is nearly same as ceramic matrix composites.

  17. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of four boron nitride coated ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.; Zimmerman, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Six types of uncoated ceramic fibers were static tensile and tensile creep tested at various elevated temperatures. Three types of boron nitride coated fibers were also tested. Room temperature static tensile tests were initially performed on all fibers, at gage lengths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, to determine the magnitude of end effects from the gripping system used. Tests at one elevated temperature, at gage lengths of 8 and 10 inches, were also conducted, to determine end effects at elevated temperatures. Fiber cross sectional shapes and areas were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Creep testing was typically performed for 4 hours, in an air atmosphere.

  18. Curli mediate bacterial adhesion to fibronectin via tensile multiple bonds

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Gruber, Hermann J.; Cui, Yidan; Traxler, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Park, Sungsu; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many enteric bacteria including pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains produce curli fibers that bind to host surfaces, leading to bacterial internalization into host cells. By using a nanomechanical force-sensing approach, we obtained real-time information about the distribution of molecular bonds involved in the adhesion of curliated bacteria to fibronectin. We found that curliated E. coli and fibronectin formed dense quantized and multiple specific bonds with high tensile strength, resulting in tight bacterial binding. Nanomechanical recognition measurements revealed that approximately 10 bonds were disrupted either sequentially or simultaneously under force load. Thus the curli formation of bacterial surfaces leads to multi-bond structural components of fibrous nature, which may explain the strong mechanical binding of curliated bacteria to host cells and unveil the functions of these proteins in bacterial internalization and invasion. PMID:27652888

  19. Curli mediate bacterial adhesion to fibronectin via tensile multiple bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Gruber, Hermann J.; Cui, Yidan; Traxler, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Park, Sungsu; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Many enteric bacteria including pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains produce curli fibers that bind to host surfaces, leading to bacterial internalization into host cells. By using a nanomechanical force-sensing approach, we obtained real-time information about the distribution of molecular bonds involved in the adhesion of curliated bacteria to fibronectin. We found that curliated E. coli and fibronectin formed dense quantized and multiple specific bonds with high tensile strength, resulting in tight bacterial binding. Nanomechanical recognition measurements revealed that approximately 10 bonds were disrupted either sequentially or simultaneously under force load. Thus the curli formation of bacterial surfaces leads to multi-bond structural components of fibrous nature, which may explain the strong mechanical binding of curliated bacteria to host cells and unveil the functions of these proteins in bacterial internalization and invasion.

  20. Frequency-domain analysis of dynamically applied strain using sweep-free Brillouin time-domain analyzer and sloped-assisted FBG sensing.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, Asher; Rogawski, Dvora; Huang, Hao; Peled, Yair; Willner, Alan E; Tur, Moshe

    2012-12-10

    Fast reconstruction of the whole Brillouin gain spectrum is experimentally demonstrated using sweep-free Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (SF-BOTDA). Strain variations with the frequencies up to 400 Hz are spectrally analyzed, achieving strain sensitivity of 1 microstrain per root Hz at a sampling rate of 5.5 kHz and a spatial resolution of 4m. The results favorably compare with fiber Bragg grating sensing.

  1. Calorimetric study of the effect of linear strain on the shape memory properties of Nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchil, J.; Mahesh, K. K.; Ganesh Kumara, K.

    2001-10-01

    The effect of linear strain on the transformation behaviour of 40% cold worked Nitinol wire has been studied using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), for two heat-treat temperatures, one in which there exists a fully developed martensitic phase (M) at room temperature and another in which there exists a mixture of M-phase and intermediate R-phase at room temperature. Samples have been subjected to a linear strain in the range 0-30% at room temperature by applying tensile stress. The effect of linear strain on the transformation temperatures, the energy of transformation and the thermal width of the transformation is discussed on the basis of the orientation effect which facilitates the growth of a single variant of the martensitic phase, the internal stress effect which opposes the growth of the martensitic phase and the conversion effect which increases the size of the martensitic phase. An attempt is made to correlate the shape of the endotherm peaks with the recovery of the applied linear strain. The DSC results are compared with the observations obtained through the tensile stress-strain curves.

  2. Tensile and flexural strength of commercially pure titanium submitted to laser and tungsten inert gas welds.

    PubMed

    Atoui, Juliana Abdallah; Felipucci, Daniela Nair Borges; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio de Arruda; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the tensile and flexural strength of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds in specimens made of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) compared with laser welds. Sixty cylindrical specimens (2 mm diameter x 55 mm thick) were randomly assigned to 3 groups for each test (n=10): no welding (control), TIG welding (10 V, 36 A, 8 s) and Nd:YAG laser welding (380 V, 8 ms). The specimens were radiographed and subjected to tensile and flexural strength tests at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min using a load cell of 500 kgf applied on the welded interface or at the middle point of the non-welded specimens. Tensile strength data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, and flexural strength data by the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Non-welded specimens presented significantly higher tensile strength (control=605.84 ± 19.83) (p=0.015) and flexural strength (control=1908.75) (p=0.000) than TIG- and laser-welded ones. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the welding types for neither the tensile strength test (TIG=514.90 ± 37.76; laser=515.85 ± 62.07) nor the flexural strength test (TIG=1559.66; laser=1621.64). As far as tensile and flexural strengths are concerned, TIG was similar to laser and could be suitable to replace laser welding in implant-supported rehabilitations.

  3. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue.

  4. Modified ring stretch tensile testing of Zr-1Nb cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.B.; Majumdar, S.; Ruther, W.E.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Neimark, L.A.

    1998-03-01

    In a round robin effort between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire in France, and the Russian Research Centre-Kurchatov Institute, Argonne National Laboratory conducted 16 modified ring stretch tensile tests on unirradiated samples of zr-1Nb cladding, which is used in Russian VVER reactors. Test were conducted at two temperatures (25 and 400 C) and two strain rates (0.001 and 1 s{sup {minus}1}). At 25 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform elongation (UE), and total elongation (TE) were 201 MPa, 331 MPa, 18.2%, and 57.6%, respectively. At 400 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 109 MPa, 185 MPa, 15.4%, and 67.7%, respectively. Finally, at 400 C and 1 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 134 MPa, 189 MPa, 18.9%, and 53.4%, respectively. The high strain rate tests at room temperature were not successful. Test results proved to be very sensitive to the amount of lubrication used on the inserts; because of the large contact area between the inserts and specimen, too little lubrication leads to significantly higher strengths and lower elongations being reported. It is also important to note that only 70 to 80% of the elongation takes place in the gauge section, depending on specimen geometry. The appropriate percentage can be estimated from a simple model or can be calculated from finite-element analysis.

  5. Tensile strength of dome rocks and lavas at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian; Lamb, Oliver; Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Lava domes are inherently unstable structures, subject to intense gas flux and rapid variations in the state of stress. At shallow depths confining stresses are minimal and deformation is dilatant, occurring predominantly through tensile fractures. This fracture mode facilitates outgassing and contributes to the development of gas-and-ash activity as well as vulcanian eruptions. However, there is a paucity of tensile strength data for volcanic materials in the published literature, and we know of no paper which addresses this at high temperatures. We study the tensile strength of dome rocks collected at the Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala, over a porosity range of 3-25%. Indirect tensile (Brazilian) tests were conducted on 40-mm diameter cores, by imposing a compressive displacement rate (radial to the core) of 4 micron/s at room temperature as well as an eruptive temperature of ca. 850 °C. An acoustic monitoring system is employed to track the nucleation, propagation and coalescence of fractures leading to complete sample failure. We find that the rocks' tensile strength exhibits a nonlinear decrease with porosity. Preliminary tests at high temperature indicate that some rocks exhibit a higher tensile strength (than at room temperature); in these experiments, samples containing a higher fraction of interstitial melt revealed an additional component of viscous flow. Further experiments conducted at higher strain rates will define the brittle response of the liquid during tensile failure. The data is compared against similar datasets for volcanic rocks. We will discuss implications for shallow volcanic processes ranging from dilation bands and tuffisite formation to gas-and-ash explosions and dome structural stability.

  6. The effect of mechanical strains in soft tissues of the shoulder during load carriage.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Amir; Belzer, Noa; Shabshin, Nogah; Zeilig, Gabi; Gefen, Amit; Epstein, Yoram

    2015-11-26

    Soldiers and recreational backpackers are often required to carry heavy loads during military operations or hiking. Shoulder strain appears to be one of the limiting factors of load carriage due to skin and underlying soft tissue deformations, trapped nerves, or obstruction of blood vessels. The present study was aimed to determine relationships between backpack weights and the state of loads in the shoulder׳s inner tissues, with a special focus on the deformations in the brachial plexus. Open-MRI scans were used for developing and then verifying a three-dimensional, non-linear, large deformation, finite element model of the shoulder. Loads were applied at the strap-shoulder contact surfaces of the model by pulling the strap towards the shoulder until the desired load was reached. Increasing the strap tensile forces up to a load that represents 35kg backpack resulted in gradual increase in strains within the underlying soft tissues: the maximal tensile strain in the brachial plexus for a 25kg backpack was 12%, and while carrying 35kg, the maximal tensile strain increased to 16%. The lateral aspect of the brachial plexus was found to be more vulnerable to deformation-inflicted effects than the medial aspect. This is due to the anatomy of the clavicle that poorly shields the plexus from compressive loads applied during load carriage, while the neural tissue in the medial aspect of the shoulder is better protected by the clavicle. The newly developed model can serve as a tool to estimate soft tissue deformations in the brachial plexus for heavy backpack loads, up to 35kg. This method will allow further development of new strap structures and materials for alleviating the strains applied on the shoulder soft tissues.

  7. Tensile Anisotropy of Cu/Al Clad Metals After Prestrain Using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Liang, Jin; Guo, Xiang; Li, Lei-gang

    2013-12-01

    A dimensional deformation measurement system (XJTUDIC/VS) based on digital image correlation was employed to measure the deformation and strain field of Cu/Al clad metals made using the explosive welding technique. An extensometer with a gage length of 50 mm was used during the Q235 tensile test to verify the strain measurement accuracy of the system. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of the XJTUDIC/VS system is ≥0.5%, which is very close to that of the extensometer. The anisotropy of Cu/Al clad metals under uniaxial tension after 0, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5% prestrain was investigated. With an increase in strain, the true stress-strain curve varied at different directions in the same prestrains. The strain hardening rate, r value (changes from 0.1 to 0.9), and n value (changes from 0.25 to 0.35) all strongly depended on loading directions and prestrains. The linear relations between longitudinal strain and transverse strain were also influenced by tensile directions and prestrains. Cu/Al clad metals generally presented strong anisotropy.

  8. An "in vitro" tensile strength study on suturing technique and material.

    PubMed

    González-Barnadas, Albert; Camps-Font, Octavi; Espanya-Grifol, Dunia; España-Tost, Antoni; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2017-03-16

    Suture technique and materials are important in preventing complications like wound dehiscences. The purpose of this study was to determine the tensile strength of different suturing techniques, comparing several materials with different diameters. One hundred and sixty sutures were performed using silk, e-PTFE and two types of polyamide (monofilament and Supramid®). Ten simple, 10 horizontal mattress and 10 combinations of the two stitches were performed with the 4-0 gauge of each material. Additionally, 10 simple sutures were performed with the 5-0 gauge of each material. The maximum tensile force resisted by each suture was recorded. When 5mm of traction were applied, the polyamide monofilament resisted significantly better without untying or breaking compared with Supramid® or silk, while e-PTFE was superior to all the others. However, the force when the e-PTFE 4-0 sutures untied or broke was lower than for either type of polyamide. The combined technique withstood a significantly higher tensile force before unknotting or breaking than the simple and mattress stitches. The 5-0 gauges of silk and both types of polyamide showed lower tensile strengths than the 4-0 materials. Among the 5-0 sutures, Supramid® showed a higher tensile strength than silk. The combined suture technique possesses greater tensile strength than a simple or a horizontal mattress suture and e-PTFE 4-0 withstands more traction without untying or breaking than all the other materials, although at a lower tensile force. With the exception of e-PTFE, 4-0 sutures have greater tensile strength than 5-0 sutures.

  9. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile “non-toggle” memory.

  10. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile “non-toggle” memory. PMID:26657829

  11. Large tensile elongation behavior of Fe-14 at.% Si single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.Y.; Hanada, S.; Takasugi, T.

    1998-10-09

    A large tensile elongation reaching 180% is observed in Fe{sub 3}Si single crystal with the B2 structure at temperatures of 0.65--0.74T{sub m}, and at initial strain rates of 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}3}/s. The large tensile elongation takes place at a steadily increased flow stress with increasing strain. The mechanical parameters evaluated for a constitutive equation show that the strain rate sensitivity is as large as 0.38 and the apparent activation energy ranges from 230 to 280 kJ/mol. The deformation microstructure responsible for the large tensile elongation consists of subgrain microstructure, and indicates that glide and climb motions of the {l_angle}111{r_angle}-type dislocations are concomitantly operating. It is suggested that comparable work hardening (by the glide motion of dislocations) with the dynamic recovery (by the climb motion of dislocations) takes place, and leads to a steadily increased flow stress and favorable value of strain rate sensitivity, resulting in large plastic elongation and high fracture resistance.

  12. The effectiveness of combined gripping method in tensile testing of UHMWPE single yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. X.; Hazell, P. J.; Shankar, K.; Morozov, E. V.; Escobedo, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental study on the effectiveness of combined gripping method employed in the tensile testing of UHMWPE (Dyneema® SK75) single yarn. Seven different solutions including epoxy, acrylic, and ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesives were tested under quasi-static loadings in order to determine the most effective adhesive for bonding UHMWPE single yarn to aluminium sheets. The ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesive combined with polyolefin surface primer was found to be the best choice which could prevent yarn slippage and ensure the failure of yarn occurs in the gauge section. The single yarns were then tested at three strain rates of 3.3×10-5, 3.3×10-3, and 0.33 s-1. The tensile strength, maximum strain, and Young's modulus were determined from the measured stress-strain curves and compared with the values from literature; the results showed these tensile properties of single yarn depend on strain rate over the range tested.

  13. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  14. Determination of tensile and compressive moduli of laminae in unidirectionally reinforced laminate by flexural tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklinski, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used in engineering despite of various simplifications. One of which, that do matters in this article, is neglecting the difference between tensile and compressive moduli. Experimental tests reveal that for fibre reinforced composites tensile moduli are generally greater than compressive ones. This paper presents the results of testing the laminate composed of four unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae separated by layers of glass mat. The specimens were subjected to flexural, tensile and compressive loading in order to calculate corresponding moduli of elasticity. The results were compared using equations of Classical Beam Theory. Knowing the tensile and compressive moduli of glass mat reinforced laminae and performing flexural tests of laminate it is possible to calculate the tensile and compressive moduli of unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae. The experimental data taken into calculations correspond to linear normal strains of 0.0005 and 0.0025. The experimental data are consistent with results of calculations within acceptable margin of tolerance.

  15. Infectivity, distribution, and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae all strain (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) applied by sprinklers or boom sprayer to dry-pick cranberries.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A E; Fitzpatrick, S M; Webster, J M

    1999-06-01

    We evaluated infectivity, distribution, and persistence of commercially produced Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All strain applied through solid set sprinkler irrigation or boom sprayer to 2 dry-pick cranberry farms on peat soil in British Columbia in 1993. Most infectivity assays used Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae. When possible, larvae of the target pest, Otiorynchus sulcatas (F.) were used as assay organisms. Nematodes in almost all samples of nematode suspensions diluted from shipping containers, from spray tanks, or collected in cups after passage through application equipment were infective to G. mellonella larvae. When O. sulcatus larvae were used as assay organisms, 93% (n = 14) of assays from the spray tank and 67% (n = 12) of assays after application showed infectivity. In the spring, sprinklers delivered nematodes to only 15 of 20 sample points on the 0.2-ha plot; delivery by the boom sprayer was better but 2 of 20 points on the 0.2-ha plot received approximately twice as many nematodes as the other points. In the fall, nematode delivery by both systems was more even. However, the average number of nematodes per milliliter of sprayed water collected from the 20 samples on each farm after each application did not correspond to the rates of nematodes applied. Persistence of nematodes in the soil was encouraging, but percentage of infectivity was lower than expected. After application in the spring, assays using G. mellonella larvae showed the presence of infective nematodes in soil samples (0-5 and 5-10 cm deep) on each sampling day (0, 3, 7, and 25) after application by boom sprayer, and on days 0, 3, and 7 after application through sprinklers. In the fall, G. mellonella assays showed infective nematodes in soil samples on each sampling day (0, 3, 7, and 25) after application by boom sprayer, and on days 0, 3, 7, 35, 60, 135, and 250 after application through sprinklers. In the spring, when assays lasted 4 d, percentage of infectivity rose to a

  16. Combined effects of microtopography and cyclic strain on vascular smooth muscle cell orientation.

    PubMed

    Houtchens, Graham R; Foster, Michael D; Desai, Tejal A; Morgan, Elise F; Wong, Joyce Y

    2008-01-01

    Cellular alignment studies have shown that cell orientation has a large effect on the expression and behavior of cells. Cyclic strain and substrate microtopography have each been shown to regulate cellular alignment. This study examined the combined effects of these two stimuli on the alignment of bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Cells were cultured on substrates with microgrooves of varying widths oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of an applied cyclic tensile strain. We found that microgrooves oriented parallel to the direction of the applied strain limited the orientation response of VSMCs to the mechanical stimulus, while grooves perpendicular to the applied strain enhanced cellular alignment. Further, the extent to which parallel grooves limited cell alignment was found to be dependent on the groove width. It was found that for both a small (15microm) and a large (70microm) groove width, cells were better able to reorient in response to the applied strain than for an intermediate groove width (40microm). This study indicates that microtopographical cues modulate the orientation response of VSMCs to cyclic strain. The results suggest that there is a range of microgroove dimensions that is most effective at maintaining the orientation of the cells in the presence of an opposing stimulus induced by cyclic strain.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons under both external strain and electric field, studied by first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ting; Dong, Jinming; Zhou, Jian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-08-14

    The electronic and magnetic properties of armchair edge MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (MoS{sub 2}-ANRs) underboth the external strain and transverse electric field (E{sub t}) have been systematically investigated by using the first-principles calculations. It is found that: (1) If no electric field is applied, an interesting structural phase transition would appear under a large tensile strain, leading to a new phase MoS{sub 2}-A'NR, and inducing a big jump peak of the band gap in the transition region. But, the band gap response to compressive strains is much different from that to tensile strain, showing no the structural phase transition. (2) Under the small tensile strains (<10%), the combined E{sub t} and tensile strain give rise to a positive superposition (resonant) effect on the band gap reduction at low E{sub t} (<3 V/nm), and oppositely a negative superposition (antiresonant) one at high E{sub t} (>4 V/nm). On the other hand, the external compressive strains have always presented the resonant effect on the band gap reduction, induced by the electric field. (3) After the structural phase transition, an external large tensile strain could greatly reduce the critical field E{sub tc} causing the band gap closure, and make the system become a ferromagnetic (FM) metal at a relative low E{sub t} (e.g., <4 V/nm), which is very helpful for its promising applications in nano-mechanical spintronics devices. (4) At high E{sub t} (>10 V/nm), the magnetic moments of both the MoS{sub 2}-ANR and MoS{sub 2}-A'NR in their FM states could be enhanced greatly by a tensile strain. Our numerical results of effectively tuning physical properties of MoS{sub 2}-ANRs by combined external strain and electric field may open their new potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  18. Tensile properties of craniofacial tendons in the mature and aged zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rishita R.; Nerurkar, Nandan L.; Wang, Calvin; Galloway, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio is a powerful model for the study of development, regenerative biology, and human disease. However, the analysis of load-bearing tissues such as tendons and ligaments has been limited in this system. This is largely due to technical limitations that preclude accurate measurement of their mechanical properties. Here, we present a custom tensile testing system that applies nano-Newton scale forces to zebrafish tendons as small as 1 mm in length. Tendon properties were remarkably similar to mammalian tendons, including stress-strain nonlinearity and a linear modulus (515±152 MPa) that aligned closely with mammalian data. Additionally, a simple exponential constitutive law used to describe tendon mechanics was successfully fit to zebrafish tendons; the associated material constants agreed with literature values for mammalian tendons. Finally, mature and aged zebrafish comparisons revealed a significant decline in mechanical function with age. Based on the exponential constitutive model, age related changes were primarily caused by a reduction in nonlinearity (e.g. changes in collagen crimp or fiber recruitment). These findings demonstrate the utility of zebrafish as a model to study tendon biomechanics in health and disease. Moreover, these findings suggest that tendon mechanical behavior is highly conserved across vertebrates. PMID:25665155

  19. Tensile properties of craniofacial tendons in the mature and aged zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rishita R; Nerurkar, Nandan L; Wang, Calvin C; Galloway, Jenna L

    2015-06-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio is a powerful model for the study of development, regenerative biology, and human disease. However, the analysis of load-bearing tissues such as tendons and ligaments has been limited in this system. This is largely due to technical limitations that preclude accurate measurement of their mechanical properties. Here, we present a custom tensile testing system that applies nano-Newton scale forces to zebrafish tendons as small as 1 mm in length. Tendon properties were remarkably similar to mammalian tendons, including stress-strain nonlinearity and a linear modulus (515 ± 152 MPa) that aligned closely with mammalian data. Additionally, a simple exponential constitutive law used to describe tendon mechanics was successfully fit to zebrafish tendons; the associated material constants agreed with literature values for mammalian tendons. Finally, mature and aged zebrafish comparisons revealed a significant decline in mechanical function with age. Based on the exponential constitutive model, age-related changes were primarily caused by a reduction in nonlinearity (e.g., changes in collagen crimp or fiber recruitment). These findings demonstrate the utility of zebrafish as a model to study tendon biomechanics in health and disease. Moreover, these findings suggest that tendon mechanical behavior is highly conserved across vertebrates.

  20. Strain-mediated electric-field control of exchange bias in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. Z.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Yan, W.; Reeve, R.; Zhang, X. H.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The electric-field (E-field) controlled exchange bias (EB) in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3 (BFO)/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure has been investigated under different tensile strain states. The in-plane tensile strain of the BFO film is changed from +0.52% to +0.43% as a result of external E-field applied to the PMN-PT substrate. An obvious change of EB by the control of non-volatile strain has been observed. A magnetization reversal driven by E-field has been observed in the absence of magnetic field. Our results indicate that a reversible non-volatile E-field control of a ferromagnetic layer through strain modulated multiferroic BFO could be achieved at room temperature.

  1. Strain-mediated electric-field control of exchange bias in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Wu, S Z; Miao, J; Xu, X G; Yan, W; Reeve, R; Zhang, X H; Jiang, Y

    2015-03-10

    The electric-field (E-field) controlled exchange bias (EB) in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3 (BFO)/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure has been investigated under different tensile strain states. The in-plane tensile strain of the BFO film is changed from +0.52% to +0.43% as a result of external E-field applied to the PMN-PT substrate. An obvious change of EB by the control of non-volatile strain has been observed. A magnetization reversal driven by E-field has been observed in the absence of magnetic field. Our results indicate that a reversible non-volatile E-field control of a ferromagnetic layer through strain modulated multiferroic BFO could be achieved at room temperature.

  2. Strain-mediated electric-field control of exchange bias in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S. Z.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Yan, W.; Reeve, R.; Zhang, X. H.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The electric-field (E-field) controlled exchange bias (EB) in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3 (BFO)/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure has been investigated under different tensile strain states. The in-plane tensile strain of the BFO film is changed from +0.52% to +0.43% as a result of external E-field applied to the PMN-PT substrate. An obvious change of EB by the control of non-volatile strain has been observed. A magnetization reversal driven by E-field has been observed in the absence of magnetic field. Our results indicate that a reversible non-volatile E-field control of a ferromagnetic layer through strain modulated multiferroic BFO could be achieved at room temperature. PMID:25752272

  3. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  4. An Evaluation Method for Tensile Characteristics of Cu/Sn IMCs Using Miniature Composite Solder Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohguchi, Ken-ichi; Kurosawa, Kengo

    2016-06-01

    In design of electronic packages, finite-element method (FEM) analysis for evaluating the strength and reliability of solder joints should be conducted with consideration of the presence of Cu/Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) generated at the interface between solder and copper wiring. To conduct such analysis accurately, the deformation characteristics of Cu/Sn IMCs must be clarified by conducting tensile tests. This paper describes a method to evaluate tensile characteristics of Cu/Sn IMCs. The method employs a composite specimen with first outer layer of Cu, second layer of Cu/Sn IMCs, and core of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder. The specimen is made by a method in which a copper-plated solder specimen is heat treated at 453 K to generate Cu/Sn IMCs between the solder and copper. Tensile tests were conducted using the composite specimen. After the tests, the fracture appearance and characteristics of the stress-strain relations of the specimens were investigated. Based on the results, a numerical method based on the rule of mixtures (ROM) is proposed to estimate the stress-strain relation of Cu/Sn IMCs under tensile loading.

  5. Tensile properties of vanadium alloys irradiated at 390{degrees}C in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Tsai, H.C.; Nowicki, L.J.

    1997-08-01

    Vanadium alloys were irradiated in Li-bonded stainless steel capsules to {approx}390{degrees}C in the EBR-II X-530 experiment. This report presents results of postirradiation tests of tensile properties of two large-scale (100 and 500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-Ti and laboratory (15-30 kg) heats of boron-doped V-4Cr-4Ti, V-8Cr-6Ti, V-5Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys. Tensile specimens, divided into two groups, were irradiated in two different capsules under nominally similar conditions. The 500-kg heat (No. 832665) and the 100-kg heat (VX-8) of V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated in one of the subcapsules exhibited complete loss of work-hardening capability, which was manifested by very low uniform plastic strain. In contrast, the 100-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated in another subcapsule exhibited good tensile properties (uniform plastic strain 2.8-4.0%). A laboratory heat of V-3Ti-1Si irradiated in the latter subcapsule also exhibited good tensile properties. These results indicate that work-hardening capability at low irradiation temperatures varies significantly from heat to heat and is influenced by nominally small differences in irradiation conditions.

  6. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  7. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  8. Tensile properties of a ZnS nanowire determined with a nano-manipulator and force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hoon-Sik; Nahm, Seung Hoon; Lee, Hak Joo; Kim, Jung Han; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2012-08-01

    Tensile tests of an individual ZnS nanowire with a cubic structure were performed with a nano-manipulator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To perform the tensile test of ZnS nanowires, a mechanical testing system was installed in the SEM. A nano-manipulator was set up in the SEM, and a cantilever force sensor was mounted on the nano-manipulator. The force sensor could be controlled with the nano-manipulator. The ZnS nanowires were dispersed on the transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid; then, the ends of the ZnS nanowires were welded to the TEM grid and the tip of force sensor by exposing them to the E-beam of the SEM. The tensile tests of the ZnS nanowires were performed by controlling the nano-manipulator in the SEM. The load response during the tensile tests was obtained with a force sensor. The strain-stress curve was obtained from the tensile load-displacement curve after the tensile test. The tensile strengths for nanowires 1, 2, and 3 were 364.7 ± 5.2, 146.2 ± 5.2, and 234.4 ± 5.2 MPa, respectively, and the elastic moduli for nanowires 1, 2, and 3 were 39 ± 5.2, 33.4 ± 5.2, and 37.4 ± 5.2 GPa, respectively.

  9. Effect of in-plane magnetic field and applied strain in quantum spin Hall systems: Application to InAs/GaSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lun-Hui; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of quantized spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb quantum wells [Du, Knez, Sullivan, and Du, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 096802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.096802], we theoretically study the effects of in-plane magnetic field and strain effect to the quantization of charge conductance by using Landauer-B ütikker formalism. Our theory predicts a robustness of the conductance quantization against the in-plane magnetic field up to a very high field of 20 T. We use a disordered hopping term to model the strain and show that the strain may help the quantization of the conductance. Relevance to the experiments will be discussed.

  10. Lifetimes of fiber composites under sustained tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Sherry, R. J.; Chiao, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the test techniques which have been used to apply sustained uniaxial tensile loading to fiber/epoxy composites. The fiber types used include S-glass, aramid, graphite, and beryllium wire. The applied load vs lifetime data for four composite materials are presented in graphs. Attention is given to a statistical analysis of data, a performance comparison of various composites, the age effect on the strength of composites, the applicability of the lifetime data to complex composites, and aspects of accelerated test method development. It is found that the lifetime of a composite under a sustained load varies widely. Depending on the composite system, the minimum life typically differs from the maximum life by a factor of 100 to 1000. It is in this connection recommended that a use of average life data should be avoided in serious design calculations.

  11. Powder flow studies III: tensile strength, consolidation ratio, flow rate, and capsule-filling-weight variation relationships.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Z T; Yang, I C

    1981-08-01

    The tensile strength of consolidated powder beds was studied by applying a series of loads to the surface of the powder beds in a tensile tester. The results were plotted as tensile strength versus consolidation pressure. The linearity of these plots suggests a direct relationship between tensile strength and consolidation pressure. The following plots gave linear relationships: (1) tensile strength versus consolidation ratio, (b) tensile strength versus coefficient of variation of the filled weight of the capsules, and (c) logarithm of the tensile strength versus logarithm of the flow rate. These results suggest a direct relationship between tensile strength and consolidation ratio and their usefulness in studying powder flow. The physical significance of the empirical equation used in consolidation studies was explored. A comparison of the empirical equation with a theoretically derived equation, under certain assumptions, suggests that the consolidation ratio is a function of the ratio of the initial volume to the net volume and a function of the coefficient of Rankine. The coefficient of Rankine is a function of the angle of internal friction in the static powder bed.

  12. Note: investigation on the influences of gripping methods on elastic modulus by a miniature tensile device and in situ verification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z C; Zhao, H W; Wang, K T; Zhou, X Q; Hu, X L; Lu, S; Cheng, H B

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, by gripping the specimen on various positions, including the gripping section, stress concentration transition section, and gauge length section, theoretical analysis on the influences of gripping methods on tensile elastic modulus calculation was investigated with a group of equations. Then, an image-based displacement measurement system was implemented, and the experimental verification via in situ tensile testing was carried out to verify the feasibility of the theoretical analysis by a miniature tensile device integrated with a metallographic microscope. The stress-strain curves of 2026 aluminum alloy were also obtained by gripping the specimens on various positions to illustrate the influences of gripping methods. The influence of gripping methods on elongation measurement was also investigated. This paper showed a modular calculation method of elastic modulus for the tensile testing of typical plate specimens.

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Deformation Due to Ball Indentation and Evaluation of Tensile Properties of Tempered P92 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbadikar, Dipika R.; Ballal, A. R.; Peshwe, D. R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Ball indentation (BI) technique has been effectively used to evaluate the tensile properties with minimal volume of material. In the present investigation, BI test carried out on P92 steel (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W), using 0.76 mm diameter silicon nitride ball indenter was modeled using finite element (FE) method and analyzed. The effect of test temperature [300 K and 923 K (27 °C and 650 °C)], tempering temperature [1013 K, 1033 K, and 1053 K (740 °C, 760 °C, and 780 °C)], and coefficient of friction of steel (0.0 to 0.5) on the tensile strength and material pile-up was investigated. The stress and strain distributions underneath the indenter and along the top elements of the model have been studied to understand the deformation behavior. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increase in tempering and test temperatures. The increased pile-up around the indentation was attributed to the decrease in strain hardening exponent ( n) with increase in the test temperature. The pile-up height determined from profilometry studies and FE analysis as well as the load depth curve from BI and FE analysis was in agreement. The maximum strain location below the indentation changes with the test temperature. Stress-strain curves obtained by conventional tensile, BI test, and representative stress-strain concepts of FE model were found exactly matching.

  14. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  15. Designing tensile ductility in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Baran; Schroers, Jan

    2013-07-01

    Effectiveness of a second phase in metallic glass heterostructures to improve mechanical properties varies widely. Unfortunately, methods to fabricate such heterostructures like foams and composites do not allow controlled variation of structural features. Here we report a novel strategy, which allows us to vary heterostructural features independently, thereby enabling a systematic and quantitative study. Our approach reveals the optimal microstructural architecture for metallic glass heterostructures to achieve tensile ductility. Critical design aspect is a soft second phase, which is most effective when spacing between the second phase assumes the critical crack length of the metallic glass. This spacing should coincide with the second phase’s size, and beyond, the specific second phase morphology of the heterostructure is crucial. These toughening strategies are only effective in samples that are large compared with the spacing of the second phase. The identified design aspects provide guidance in designing tensile ductility into metallic glasses.

  16. Silphenylene elastomers have high thermal stability and tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two polymeric silphenylene ethers, when cured by reactions with ethyl silicates and metal salts at room temperature, form elastomers having excellent thermal stability and tensile properties. The highest tensile strength obtained in a reinforced elastomer was 2800 psi.

  17. A constitutive model of porous SMAs considering tensile-compressive asymmetry behaviors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingfei; Dui, Guansuo; Xie, Benming; Xue, Lijun

    2014-04-01

    A constitutive model of the macroscopic behaviors of porous shape memory alloys (SMA) is developed in this work. A yield function for porous SMAs considering both the effect of hydrostatic stress and the tensile-compressive asymmetry is proposed. Combining the constitutive model of dense SMAs and the macroscale and microscale analysis, the evolution equation for the overall transformation strain is then derived. Examples for the response of both dense SMA and porous Ni-Ti SMA subjected to uniaxial tension and compression loads are supplied. Good agreement between the numerical prediction results and the published experimental data is observed. Numerical result shows that the yielding stresses, loop width and length, strain-hardening behaviors of porous SMAs under pure tensile and pure compressive are different. Importantly, the transformation initiation stress is much closer to the experiment result than simulated by Zhao et al. (2005).

  18. Tensile strength of Al matrix with nanoscale Cu, Ti and Mg inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelko, V. V.; Mayer, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Molecular-dynamic investigations of Al+Cu, Al+Ti and Al+Mg nanocomposite strength under high-rate uniaxial tension were carried out in this work. We consider two different mechanisms of reduction of the tensile strength of a material with inclusions in comparison with a pure material of matrix. The first mechanism is connected with a stress concentration in matrix near a stiff and strong inclusion (Ti, Cu); in this case, the fracture occurs inside the matrix and does not touch the inclusion. The second mechanism acts in the case of a soft and weak inclusion (Mg); the fracture begins inside the inclusion and thereafter propagates into the matrix. The tensile strength of the systems is determined at varied strain rates (in the range from 0.1/ns to 30/ns at the temperature 300 K) and varied temperatures (in the range from 300 K to 900 K at the strain rate 1/ns).

  19. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.

    1997-08-01

    The tensile for all irradiated vanadium alloy samples and several unirradiated vanadium alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and revised, as necessary. The review and revision are based on re-analyzing the original load-displacement strip-chart recording using a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. No significant difference has been found between the newly-revised and previously-reported values of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, by correctly subtracting the non-gauge-length displacement and linear gauge-length displacement from the total cross-head displacement, the uniform elongation (UE) of the gauge length decreases by 4-9% strain and the total elongation (TE) of the gauge length decreases by 1-7% strain. These differences are more significant for lower-ductility irradiated alloys than for higher-ductility alloys.

  20. Dynamic-tensile-extrusion of polyurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmanski, Jevan; Cady, Carl; Rae, Philip; Trujillo, Carl P.; Gray, George Thompson, III; Brown, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Polyurea was investigated under Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) loading where spherical projectiles were propelled at 440 to 509 ms-1 through a conical extrusion die with an area reduction of 87%. Momentum of the leading edge imposes a rapid tensile deformation on the extruded jet of material. Polyurea is an elastomer with outstanding high-rate tensile performance of interest in the shock regime. Previous Dyn-Ten-Ext work on semi-crystalline fluoropolymers (PTFE, PCTFE) elucidated irregular deformation and profuse stochastic-based damage and failure mechanisms, but with limited insight into damage inception or progression in those polymers. The polyurea behaved very differently; the polymer first extruded a jet of apparently intact material, which then broke down via void coalescence, followed by fibrillation and tearing of the material. Most of the material in the jet elastically retracted back into the die, and only a few unique fragments were formed. The surface texture of all failed surfaces was found to be tortuous and covered with drawn hair-like filaments, implying a considerable amount of energy was absorbed during damage progression.

  1. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression.

  2. MISSE 6 Polymer Film Tensile Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Sechkar, Edward; Kline, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) was flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. The polymers selected are those commonly used for spacecraft thermal control and those under consideration for use in spacecraft applications such as sunshields, solar sails, and inflatable and deployable structures. The dog-bone shaped samples of polymers that were flown were exposed on both the side of the MISSE 6 Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that was facing into the ram direction (receiving atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ionizing radiation, and thermal cycling) and the wake facing side (which was supposed to have experienced predominantly the same environmental effects except for atomic oxygen which was present due to reorientation of the International Space Station). A few of the tensile samples were coated with vapor deposited aluminum on the back and wired to determine the point in the flight when the tensile sample broke as recorded by a change in voltage that was stored on battery powered data loggers for post flight retrieval and analysis. The data returned on the data loggers was not usable. However, post retrieval observation and analysis of the samples was performed. This paper describes the preliminary analysis and observations of the polymers exposed on the MISSE 6 PFTE.

  3. Tuning Magnetism and Electronic Phase Transitions by Strain and Electric Field in Zigzag MoS2 Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liangzhi; Tang, Chun; Zhang, Yi; Heine, Thomas; Chen, Changfeng; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2012-10-18

    Effective modulation of physical properties via external control may open various potential nanoelectronic applications of single-layer MoS2 nanoribbons (MoS2NRs). We show by first-principles calculations that the magnetic and electronic properties of zigzag MoS2NRs exhibit sensitive response to applied strain and electric field. Tensile strain in the zigzag direction produces reversible modulation of magnetic moments and electronic phase transitions among metallic, half-metallic, and semiconducting states, which stem from the energy-level shifts induced by an internal electric polarization and the competing covalent/ionic interactions. A simultaneously applied electric field further enhances or suppresses the strain-induced modulations depending on the direction of the electric field relative to the internal polarization. These findings suggest a robust and efficient approach to modulating the properties of MoS2NRs by a combination of strain engineering and electric field tuning.

  4. Coupling between the spinal cord and cervical vertebral column under tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Ching, Randal P

    2013-02-22

    Current neck injury criteria are based on structural failure of the spinal (vertebral) column without consideration of injury to the spinal cord. Since one of the primary functions of the vertebral column is to protect the cord, it stands to reason that a more refined measure of neck injury threshold would be the onset of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the relationship between axial strains in the cervical vertebral column and the spinal cord using an in vitro primate model (n=10) under continuous tensile loading. Mean failure loads occurred at 1951.5±396N with failure strains in the vertebral column of 16±5% at the level of failure. Average tensile strains in the spinal cord at failure were 11±5% resulting in a mean coupling ratio of 0.54±0.17 between C1 and C7. The level of peak strain measured in the spinal cord did not always occur at the location of vertebral column failure. Spinal cord strains were less than spine strains and coupling ratios were not significantly different along the length of the spine. The largest coupling ratio was measured in the atlanto-occipital joint whereas the smallest coupling ratio occurred at the adjacent C1-C2 joint.

  5. Strain Compensation in Single ZnSe/CdSe Quantum Wells: Analytical Model and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Riedl, Thomas; Neumann, Elmar; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lindner, Jörg K N; Pawlis, Alexander

    2017-03-08

    The lattice mismatch between CdSe and ZnSe is known to limit the thickness of ZnSe/CdSe quantum wells on GaAs (001) substrates to about 2-3 monolayers. We demonstrate that this thickness can be enhanced significantly by using In0.12Ga0.88As pseudo substrates, which generate alternating tensile and compressive strains in the ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe layers resulting in an efficient strain compensation. This method enables to design CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells with CdSe thicknesses ranging from 1 to 6 monolayers, covering the whole visible spectrum. The strain compensation effect is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and supported by molecular statics simulations. The model approach with the supporting experimental measurements is sufficiently general to be also applied to other highly mismatched material combinations for the design of advanced strained heterostructures.

  6. Strain effect on the Néel temperature of SrTcO3 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Lan; Dai, Cheng-Min; Chen, Gao-Yuan; Chen, Da; Zang, Tao-Cheng; Ge, Li-Juan; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximation with on-site Coulomb corrections (GGA+U) method is used to investigate the effect of biaxial strain on the Néel temperature of SrTcO3. A series of hypothetical strains on SrTcO3 are considered to simulate its being applied in SrTcO3-based devices. It is found that a tensile strain will decrease TN, while a compressive strain less than 6.6% will increase TN. At a compressive strain between 5.5% and 6.7%, a highest TN which is about 26.6% higher than that of the bulk material can be obtained. The higher TN can be experimentally achieved by growing SrTcO3 on the common substrate STO/LSAT/NGO/LAO. Our work provides a theoretical basis for the application of high-TN SrTcO3 in small devices.

  7. Strain distribution in the intervertebral disc under unconfined compression and tension load by the optimized digital image correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Tai-Yong; Yang, Xiu-Ping; Li, Kun; Gao, Li-Lan; Zhang, Chun-Qiu; Guo, Yue-Hong

    2014-05-01

    The unconfined compression and tension experiments of the intervertebral disc were conducted by applying an optimized digital image correlation technique, and the internal strain distribution was analysed for the disc. It was found that the axial strain values of different positions increased obviously with the increase in loads, while inner annulus fibrosus and posterior annulus fibrosus experienced higher axial strains than the outer annulus fibrosus and anterior annulus fibrosus. Deep annulus fibrosus exhibited higher compressive and tensile axial strains than superficial annulus fibrosus for the anterior region, while there was an opposite result for the posterior region. It was noted that all samples demonstrated a nonlinear stress-strain profile in the process of deforming, and an elastic region was shown once the sample was deformed beyond its toe region.

  8. Tensile and electrical properties of Al-Si alloys under combined torsion-tension deformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Tawfick H.; Saadalah, Fardos A.; Bishay, Isis K.

    The relation between tensile strain DL/L0 and the relative change in resistance DR/R0 caused by torsion-tension deformation for Al-Si samples pre-annealed at different temperatures (room temperature up to 773 K) was studied. The empirical relation DL/L0 = kDR/R0 was found, where k is a constant depending on the silicon content and its distribution in the matrix.

  9. Finite element analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC): validation of experimental tensile capacity of dog-bone specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Mashfiqul; Chowdhury, Md. Arman; Sayeed, Md. Abu; Hossain, Elsha Al; Ahmed, Sheikh Saleh; Siddique, Ashfia

    2014-09-01

    Finite element analyses are conducted to model the tensile capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). For this purpose dog-bone specimens are casted and tested under direct and uniaxial tension. Two types of aggregates (brick and stone) are used to cast the SFRC and plain concrete. The fiber volume ratio is maintained 1.5 %. Total 8 numbers of dog-bone specimens are made and tested in a 1000-kN capacity digital universal testing machine (UTM). The strain data are gathered employing digital image correlation technique from high-definition images and high-speed video clips. Then, the strain data are synthesized with the load data obtained from the load cell of the UTM. The tensile capacity enhancement is found 182-253 % compared to control specimen to brick SFRC and in case of stone SFRC the enhancement is 157-268 %. Fibers are found to enhance the tensile capacity as well as ductile properties of concrete that ensures to prevent sudden brittle failure. The dog-bone specimens are modeled in the ANSYS 10.0 finite element platform and analyzed to model the tensile capacity of brick and stone SFRC. The SOLID65 element is used to model the SFRC as well as plain concretes by optimizing the Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and stress-strain relationships and also failure pattern as well as failure locations. This research provides information of the tensile capacity enhancement of SFRC made of both brick and stone which will be helpful for the construction industry of Bangladesh to introduce this engineering material in earthquake design. Last of all, the finite element outputs are found to hold good agreement with the experimental tensile capacity which validates the FE modeling.

  10. Enhancing the mass sensitivity of graphene nanoresonators via nonlinear oscillations: the effective strain mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon

    2012-11-30

    We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the enhancement of the mass sensitivity and resonant frequency of graphene nanomechanical resonators that is achieved by driving them into the nonlinear oscillation regime. The mass sensitivity as measured by the resonant frequency shift is found to triple if the actuation energy is about 2.5 times the initial kinetic energy of the nanoresonator. The mechanism underlying the enhanced mass sensitivity is found to be the effective strain that is induced in the nanoresonator due to the nonlinear oscillations, where we obtain an analytic relationship between the induced effective strain and the actuation energy that is applied to the graphene nanoresonator. An important implication of this work is that there is no need for experimentalists to apply tensile strain to the resonators before actuation in order to enhance the mass sensitivity. Instead, enhanced mass sensitivity can be obtained by the far simpler technique of actuating nonlinear oscillations of an existing graphene nanoresonator.

  11. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section 230.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  12. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section 230.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  13. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section 230.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  14. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section 230.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  15. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section 230.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  16. Lifetimes of fiber composites under sustained tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Sherry, R. J.; Chiao, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to summarize lifetime data on several fiber/epoxy composite materials subjected to sustained uniaxial tensile loading, to report preliminary results of an accelerated test method for predicting the life of simple composites, and to describe related work in progress on pressure vessels and other filament-wound structures. The lifetime performance of the tested composites was compared by plotting the percent of ultimate strength (applied fiber stress normalized with respect to fiber failure stress in a composite) versus lifetime. In terms of performance in long-term tensile applications, the tested composites are ranked in the following order: graphite/epoxy, Be wire/epoxy, Aramid/epoxy, and S-glass/epoxy. The accelerated test using temperature and stress to simulate the passage of time proves to be encouraging, at least in the case of the Aramid/epoxy composite. The potential of a statistical analysis based on Weibull distribution analyses or a power law relationship is demonstrated.

  17. Analysis on dynamic tensile extrusion behavior of UFG OFHC Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Park, Leeju; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Seok Bong; Lee, Chong Soo

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE) tests with the strain rate order of ~105 s-1 were conducted on coarse grained (CG) Cu and ultrafine grained (UFG) Cu. ECAP of 16 passes with route Bc was employed to fabricate UFG Cu. DTE tests were carried out by launching the sphere samples to the conical extrusion die at a speed of ~475 m/sec in a vacuumed gas gun system. UFG Cu was fragmented into 3 pieces and showed a DTE elongation of ~340%. CG Cu exhibited a larger DTE elongation of ~490% with fragmentation of 4 pieces. During DTE tests, dynamic recrystallization occurred in UFG Cu, but not in CG Cu. In order to examine the DTE behavior of CG Cu and UFG Cu under very high strain rates, a numerical analysis was undertaken by using a commercial finite element code (LS-DYNA 2D axis-symmetric model) with the Johnson - Cook model. The numerical analysis correctly predicted fragmentation and DTE elongation of CG Cu. But, the experimental DTE elongation of UFG Cu was much smaller than that predicted by the numerical analysis. This difference is discussed in terms of microstructural evolution of UFG Cu during DTE tests.

  18. Osmotically driven tensile stress in collagen-based mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Bertinetti, Luca; Masic, Admir; Schuetz, Roman; Barbetta, Aurelio; Seidt, Britta; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals and its primary role is to serve as mechanical support in many extracellular matrices such as those of bones, tendons, skin or blood vessels. Water is an integral part of the collagen structure, but its role is still poorly understood, though it is well-known that the mechanical properties of collagen depend on hydration. Recently, it was shown that the conformation of the collagen triple helix changes upon water removal, leading to a contraction of the molecule with considerable forces. Here we investigate the influence of mineralization on this effect by studying bone and turkey leg tendon (TLT) as model systems. Indeed, TLT partially mineralizes so that well-aligned collagen with various mineral contents can be found in the same tendon. We show that water removal leads to collagen contraction in all cases generating tensile stresses up to 80MPa. Moreover, this contraction of collagen puts mineral particles under compression leading to strains of around 1%, which implies localized compressive loads in mineral of up to 800MPa. This suggests that collagen dehydration upon mineralization is at the origin of the compressive pre-strains commonly observed in bone mineral.

  19. Micromechanical Modeling for Tensile Behaviour of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Ceramic - Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The stress-strain curves of fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs) exhibit obvious non-linear behaviour under tensile loading. The occurrence of multiple damage mechanisms, i.e., matrix multicracking, fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers fracture, is the mainly reason for the non-linear characteristic. The micromechanics approach has been developed to predict the tensile stress-strain curves of unidirectional, cross-ply and woven CMCs. The shear-lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite. The damage models were used to determine the evolution of micro damage parameters, i.e., matrix crack spacing, interface debonded length and broken fibers fraction. By combining the shear-lag model with damage models and considering the effect of transverse multicracking in the 90° plies or transverse yarns in cross-ply or woven CMCs, the tensile stress-strain curves of unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D and 2.5D woven CMCs have been predicted. The results agreed with experimental data.

  20. Influence of thermal residual stresses on the elastic phase-strain

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, N.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    The development of elastic lattice phase strains in a 15 vol. pct TiC particulate reinforced 2219-T6 Al composite was modeled as a function of tensile uniaxial loading by finite element method (FEM). In the relationship of applied stress vs. elastic lattice phase strain, the slopes vary with the applied load even before the macroscopic yielding. The slopes for the phase-strain perpendicular to loading follow nonmonotonic changes with loading, while, in the direction parallel to loading, the slopes change monotonically with the applied load. In this investigation, we have demonstrated via FEM that thermal residual stresses from thermal expansion mismatch between phases affect initiation of matrix plasticity. And the differences in the matrix plasticity initiation influence the internal stress distribution. The changes in the slope are dictated by the internal stress transfer between phases. FEM models with and without thermal history show significant differences in the response of elastic strain component, a mechanics equivalent of the lattice elastic strain. Agreement with experiment can only be obtained by including the thermal history. From a simple elasto-plastic spring model we are able to demonstrate that, with matrix plasticity propagating as predicted by FEM, the elastic strain component responds similarly to the more rigorous numerical predictions, suggesting that the morphology of elastic strain evolution is dictated by the development of matrix plasticity.

  1. Strain sensitivity and superconducting properties of Nb3Sn from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marzi, G.; Morici, L.; Muzzi, L.; della Corte, A.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.

    2013-04-01

    Using calculations from first principles based on density-functional theory we have studied the strain sensitivity of the A15 superconductor Nb3Sn. The Nb3Sn lattice cell was deformed in the same way as observed experimentally on multifilamentary, technological wires subject to loads applied along their axes. The phonon dispersion curves and electronic band structures along different high-symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone were calculated, at different levels of applied strain, ɛ, on both the compressive and the tensile side. Starting from the calculated averaged phonon frequencies and electron-phonon coupling, the superconducting characteristic critical temperature of the material, Tc, has been calculated by means of the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula. As a result, the characteristic bell-shaped Tc versus ɛ curve, with a maximum at zero intrinsic strain, and with a slight asymmetry between the tensile and compressive sides, has been obtained. These first-principle calculations thus show that the strain sensitivity of Nb3Sn has a microscopic and intrinsic origin, originating from shifts in the Nb3Sn critical surface. In addition, our computations show that variations of the superconducting properties of this compound are correlated to stress-induced changes in both the phononic and electronic properties. Finally, the strain function describing the strain sensitivity of Nb3Sn has been extracted from the computed Tc(ɛ) curve, and compared to experimental data from multifilamentary, composite wires. Both curves show the expected bell-shaped behavior, but the strain sensitivity of the wire is enhanced with respect to the theoretical predictions for bulk, perfectly binary and stoichiometric Nb3Sn. An understanding of the origin of this difference might open potential pathways towards improvement of the strain tolerance in such systems.

  2. Applying phylogenomics to understand the emergence of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains causing severe human disease in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Philip M.; Byrne, Lisa; Perry, Neil T.; Petrovska, Liljana; Ellis, Richard; Allison, Lesley; Hanson, Mary; Holmes, Anne; Gunn, George J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Grant, Kathie A.; Gally, David L.; Wain, John; Jenkins, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a recently emerged zoonotic pathogen with considerable morbidity. Since the emergence of this serotype in the 1980s, research has focussed on unravelling the evolutionary events from the E. coli O55:H7 ancestor to the contemporaneous globally dispersed strains observed today. In this study, the genomes of over 1000 isolates from both human clinical cases and cattle, spanning the history of STEC O157:H7 in the UK, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the ancestry, key acquisition events and global context of the strains. Dated phylogenies estimated the time to evolution of the most recent common ancestor of the current circulating global clone to be 175 years ago. This event was followed by rapid diversification. We show the acquisition of specific virulence determinates has occurred relatively recently and coincides with its recent detection in the human population. We used clinical outcome data from 493 cases of STEC O157:H7 to assess the relative risk of severe disease including haemolytic uraemic syndrome from each of the defined clades in the population and show the dramatic effect Shiga toxin repertoire has on virulence. We describe two strain replacement events that have occurred in the cattle population in the UK over the last 30 years, one resulting in a highly virulent strain that has accounted for the majority of clinical cases in the UK over the last decade. There is a need to understand the selection pressures maintaining Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophages in the ruminant reservoir and the study affirms the requirement for close surveillance of this pathogen in both ruminant and human populations.

  3. Microstructure-Tensile Properties Correlation for the Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Zeng, Weidong; Sun, Yu; Han, Yuanfei; Zhao, Yongqing; Guo, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Finding the quantitative microstructure-tensile properties correlations is the key to achieve performance optimization for various materials. However, it is extremely difficult due to their non-linear and highly interactive interrelations. In the present investigation, the lamellar microstructure features-tensile properties correlations of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are studied using an error back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN-BP) model. Forty-eight thermomechanical treatments were conducted to prepare the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different lamellar microstructure features. In the proposed model, the input variables are microstructure features including the α platelet thickness, colony size, and β grain size, which were extracted using Image Pro Plus software. The output variables are the tensile properties, including ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area. Fourteen hidden-layer neurons which can make ANN-BP model present the most excellent performance were applied. The training results show that all the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values are within 6%, which means that the trained ANN-BP model is capable of providing precise prediction of the tensile properties for Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Based on the corresponding relations between the tensile properties predicted by ANN-BP model and the lamellar microstructure features, it can be found that the yield strength decreases with increasing α platelet thickness continuously. However, the α platelet thickness exerts influence on the elongation in a more complicated way. In addition, for a given α platelet thickness, the yield strength and the elongation both increase with decreasing β grain size and colony size. In general, the β grain size and colony size play a more important role in affecting the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the α platelet thickness.

  4. A novel platform for in situ investigation of cells and tissues under mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W W; Kural, M H; Saif, T A

    2010-08-01

    The mechanical micro-environment influences cellular responses such as migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Cells are subjected to mechanical stretching in vivo, e.g., epithelial cells during embryogenesis. Current methodologies do not allow high-resolution in situ observation of cells and tissues under applied strain, which may reveal intracellular dynamics and the origin of cell mechanosensitivity. A novel polydimethylsiloxane substrate was developed, capable of applying tensile and compressive strain (up to 45%) to cells and tissues while allowing in situ observation with high-resolution optics. The strain field of the substrate was characterized experimentally using digital image correlation, and the deformation was modeled by the finite element method, using a Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive relation. The substrate strain was found to be uniform for >95% of the substrate area. As a demonstration of the system, mechanical strain was applied to single fibroblasts transfected with GFP-actin and whole transgenic Drosophila embryos expressing GFP in all neurons during live imaging. Three observations of biological responses due to applied strain are reported: (1) dynamic rotation of intact actin stress fibers in fibroblasts; (2) lamellipodia activity and actin polymerization in fibroblasts; (3) active axonal contraction in Drosophila embryo motor neurons. The novel platform may serve as an important tool in studying the mechanoresponse of cells and tissues, including whole embryos.

  5. Hodographic approach to predicting inelastic strain at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovits, A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of continuous and discontinuous changes in strain rate on the relationship among strain rate, strain, and stress is described. Data from Udimet 700 in tension at 925 C were used in order to relate cyclic tensile creep to the monotonic properties of the material by means of the hodograph. The nature of modifications caused to the hodograph by discontinuous variation of the strain rate was determined from tests. Reloading at discontinuous strain rate caused reactivation of primary creep. A simple method, based on monotonic material properties, is proposed for predicting cyclic tensile creep response. Preliminary results of cyclic tests agree with predicted response.

  6. Tensile Fracture of Welded Polymer Interfaces: Miscibility, Entanglements, and Crazing

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Ting; Grest, Gary S.; Robbins, Mark O.

    2014-09-26

    Large-scale molecular simulations are performed to investigate tensile failure of polymer interfaces as a function of welding time t. Changes in the tensile stress, mode of failure and interfacial fracture energy GI are correlated to changes in the interfacial entanglements as determined from Primitive Path Analysis. Bulk polymers fail through craze formation, followed by craze breakdown through chain scission. At small t welded interfaces are not strong enough to support craze formation and fail at small strains through chain pullout at the interface. Once chains have formed an average of about one entanglement across the interface, a stable craze is formed throughout the sample. The failure stress of the craze rises with welding time and the mode of craze breakdown changes from chain pullout to chain scission as the interface approaches bulk strength. The interfacial fracture energy GI is calculated by coupling the simulation results to a continuum fracture mechanics model. As in experiment, GI increases as t1/2 before saturating at the average bulk fracture energy Gb. As in previous studies of shear strength, saturation coincides with the recovery of the bulk entanglement density. Before saturation, GI is proportional to the areal density of interfacial entanglements. Immiscibiltiy limits interdiffusion and thus suppresses entanglements at the interface. Even small degrees of immisciblity reduce interfacial entanglements enough that failure occurs by chain pullout and GI << Gb.

  7. Elevated-temperature tensile properties of three heats of commercially heat-treated Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.; Booker, B.L.P.

    1980-03-01

    Three heats of commercially heat-treated alloy 718 were tensile tested over the temperature range from room temperature to 816{degree}C and at nominal strain rates from 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}/s. We examined data for yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction in area and also inspected tensile stress-strain behavior. Yield and ultimate tensile strengths for commercially heat-treated alloy 718 decrease very gradually with temperature from room temperature up to about 600{degree}C for a strain rate of 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/s or to about 700{degree}C for a strain rate of 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/s. Above these temperatures the strength drops off fairly rapidly. Reduction in area and total elongation data show minimum around 700{degree}C, with each ductility measure falling to 10% or less at the minimum. This minimum is more pranced and occurs at lower temperatures as strain rate decreases. Up to about 600{degree}C the ductility is typically around 30%. As the temperature reaches 816{degree}C the ductility again increases to perhaps 60%. The uniform elongation (plastic strain at peak load) decreases only slightly with temperature to about 500{degree}C then drops off rapidly and monotonically with temperature, reaching values less than 1% at 816{degree}C. At the highest test temperatures the load maximum may result, not from necking of the specimen, but from overaging of the precipitation-hardened microstructure. Stress-strain curves showed serrated deformations in the temperature range from 316 to 649{degree}C, although they occur only for the faster strain rates at the supper end of this temperature range. The serrations can be quite large, involving load drops of perhaps 40 to 80 MPa. The serrations typically begin within the first 2% of deformation and continue until fracture, although exceptions were noted. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effect of ultrafine grain on tensile behaviour and corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel was obtained by cold rolling and annealing. The tensile properties were investigated at room temperature. Comparing with coarse grained stainless steel, ultrafine grained sample showed higher strength and plasticity. In addition, grain size changed deformation orientation. The strain induced α'-martensite was observed in coarse grained 2205 duplex stainless steel with large strain. However, the grain refinement inhibited the transformation of α'-martensite;nevertheless, more deformation twins improved the strength and plasticity of ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel. In addition, the grain refinement improved corrosion resistance of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in sodium chloride solution.

  9. Investigation on thermoformability of PLA by rheological and hot tensile tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, Emilia; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Scarfato, Paola; Di Maio, Luciano; Incarnato, Loredana

    2012-07-01

    In this work the correlation between the thermoformability of different grades of polylactide acid (PLA 4032D, PLA 4042D and PLA 2003D) and their mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties was explored. In particular, hot tensile tests, at different stretching temperatures and crosshead speeds, were performed in order to identify an optimum windows of temperature and strain rate for improved thermoforming performance. The properties measured from the creep experiments were correlated with the propensity of PLA sheet to sag, while the unrecovered strains by the creep recovery tests were associated to mold replication attitude of the materials investigated.

  10. Tensile properties and deformation mechanisms of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckmeyer, A.; Praud, M.; Fournier, B.; Malaplate, J.; Garnier, J.; Béchade, J. L.; Tournié, I.; Tancray, A.; Bougault, A.; Bonnaillie, P.

    2010-10-01

    The search for a new cladding material is part of the research studies carried out at CEA to develop a sodium-cooled fast reactor meeting the expectations of the Generation IV International Forum. In this study, the tensile properties of a ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by hot extrusion at CEA have been evaluated. They prove the studied alloy to be as resistant as and more ductile than the other nano-reinforced alloys of literature. The effects of the strain rate and temperature on the total plastic strain of the material remind of diffusion phenomena. Intergranular damage and intergranular decohesion are clearly highlighted.

  11. Mechanical characterization of polymers and composites with a servohydraulic high-speed tensile tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béguelin, Ph.; Barbezat, M.; Kausch, H. H.

    1991-12-01

    This study is concerned with the measurement of the mechanical behaviour of polymers and composites at intermediate strain rates. It illustrates with two examples, the application of a high speed servohydraulic testing machine and a newly designed optical extensometer. In the first part of the study, the dynamic nature of high speed tensile testing with servohydraulic apparatus is discussed, and a damping technique is proposed. In the second part, this technique has been applied to the measurement of the tensile properties of annealed and unannealed neat PEEK at strain rates between 3 × 10^{-2} and 2,4 × 10^2 s^{-1}. Both materials show increased yield stress and drawing stress with increasing strain rate. However, annealed specimens have been shown to exhibit superior mechanical properties. In the third part, mode I delamination tests have been performed on unidirectional IM6/PEEK composites at nominal strain rates between 1 × 10^{-6} and 8 × 10^{-1} s^{-1}. At the higher velocities the analysis is performed by means of FFT filtering. A moderate reduction in interlaminar fracture toughness was found with increasing loading rate. Cette étude aborde la mesure des propriétés mécaniques des polymères et composites soumis à des vitesses de déformation moyennes. Elle illustre au travers de deux exemples l'utilisation d'une machine d'essais servo-hydraulique à grande vitesse. Elle présente également un capteur optique d'extensométrie de conception nouvelle. Dans la première partie de l'étude, la nature vibratoire des essais de traction à vitesse élevée réalisés sur une machine servo-hydraulique est discutée, et une technique d'amortissement est proposée. Dans une deuxième partie, cette technique est appliquée à l'étude des propriétés en traction du PEEK non recuit et recuit dans le domaine des vitesses de déformation de 3 × 10^{-2} à 2,4 × 10^2 s^{-1}. Les résultats montrent un accroissement systématique de la contrainte au seuil

  12. Dynamic tensile deformation and fracture of a highly particle-filled composite using SHPB and high-speed DIC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, B.; Huang, F.

    2012-08-01

    In this work, various tensile tests, including Brazilian disc test (BDT), flattened Brazilian disc (FBD) test and semi-circular bending (SCB) test, were carried out on a highly particle-filled composite by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). With the consideration of low strength and low wave impedance of the materials, a quartz crystal transducer was embedded in SHPB to measure the loading forces. A high-speed camera was used to capture the deformation and fracture process of materials. Digital image correlation (DIC) method was used to process these digital images to obtain the dynamic deformation information. Based on the measured strain fields, the crack growth path was determined and the failure mechanism of samples was analyzed. Combining SHPB and DIC method, the indirect tensile stress strain plots of disc samples were obtained, and the dynamic fracture toughness of materials was measured using both FBD and SCB tests. The results show that the tensile failure strength and fracture toughness increases with the increase of strain rates, exhibiting strain rate dependence. The high-speed DIC method combined with SHPB is effective to study the dynamic tensile behaviour of brittle materials with low strengths.

  13. Modeling of Nonlinear Mechanical Behavior for 3D Needled C/C-SiC Composites Under Tensile Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junbo; Fang, Guodong; Chen, Zhen; Liang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper established a macroscopic constitutive model to describe the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of 3D needled C/C-SiC composites under tensile load. Extensive on- and off-axis tensile tests were performed to investigate the macroscopic mechanical behavior and damage characteristics of the composites. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the material was mainly induced by matrix tensile cracking and fiber/matrix debonding. Permanent deformations and secant modulus degradation were observed in cyclic loading-unloading tests. The nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the material could be described macroscopically by plasticity deformation and stiffness degradation. In the proposed model, we employed a plasticity theory with associated plastic flow rule to describe the evolution of plastic strains. A novel damage variable was also introduced to characterize the stiffness degradation of the material. The damage evolution law was derived from the statistical distribution of material strength. Parameters of the proposed model can be determined from off-axis tensile tests. Stress-strain curves predicted by this model showed reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  14. Remote, Noncontact Strain Sensing by Laser Diffraction Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Marc R.

    2001-01-01

    A system was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for continually monitoring, in real time, the in-plane strain tensor in opaque solids during high-temperature, long-term mechanical testing. The simple, noncontacting, strain-sensing methodology should also be suitable for measurement in hostile environments. This procedure has obvious advantages over traditional, mechanical, contacting techniques, and it is easier to interpret than moir and speckle interferometric approaches. A two-dimensional metallic grid of micrometer dimensions is applied to a metallographically prepared gauge section on the surface of a tensile test specimen by a standard photolithographic process. The grid on the fixtured specimen is interrogated by an He-Ne laser, and the resulting diffraction pattern is projected backwards onto a translucent screen. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is used to image the first-order diffraction peaks from the translucent screen. A schematic representation of the system is shown in the figure.

  15. Evaluation of Dynamic Stress-Strain Relations of Ti-Alloys and Al-Alloys Based on the Thermally Activated Process Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Kinya

    Since titanium and aluminum alloys are the most promising structural materials for the high velocity vehicles, the impact tensile strength of the materials is presently investigated. Three kinds of aging treatments on the beta-titanium alloy and two on the 6061 aluminum alloy were performed, and the tensile deformation behaviors were identified in the wide range of the temperature and the strain rate. The stress-strain relations of the titanium alloy significantly depend on the temperature and the strain rate investigated. Thermally activated process concept was applied to explain the experimental results, and the stress-strain relations at high strain rates were well understood with taking account of adiabatic heating effect. In the case of the aluminum alloy, the temperature and the strain rate effects are significant only in the low temperature range. Both for the alloys investigated, the stress-strain curves depend on the microstructures, while the temperature and the strain rate effects are almost independent of the different aging treatments.

  16. Self-Repairing Polymer Optical Fiber Strain Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Jun

    This research develops a self-repairing polymer optical fiber strain sensor for structural health monitoring applications where the sensor network must survive under extreme conditions. Inspired by recent research in self-healing material systems, this dissertation demonstrates a self-repairing strain sensor waveguide, created by self-writing in a photopolymerizable resin system. In an initial configuration, the waveguide sensor was fabricated between two multi-mode (MM) optical fibers via ultraviolet (UV) lightwaves in the UV curable resin and operated as a strain sensor by interrogation of the infrared (IR) power transmission through the waveguide. After failure of the sensor occurred due to loading, the waveguide re-bridged the gap between the two optical fibers through the UV resin. The response of the waveguide sensors was sensitive to the applied strain and repeatable during multiple loading cycles with low observed hysteresis, however was not always monotonic. The strain response of the original sensor and the self-repaired sensor showed similar behaviors. Packaging the sensor in a polymer capillary improved the performance of the sensor by removing previous "no-response" zones. The resulting sensor output was monotonic throughout the measurement range. The hysteresis in the sensor behavior between multiple loading cycles was also significantly reduced. However, a jump in sensor output voltage was observed after the sensor self-repair process, which presents challenges for calibration of the sensor. The sensor configuration was modified to a Fabry-Perot interferometer to improve the sensor response. The measurable strain range was extended through multiple sensor self-repairs, and strain measurements were demonstrated up to 150% applied tensile strain. A hybrid sensor was fabricated by splicing a short segment of MM optical fiber to the input single-mode (SM) optical fiber. The hybrid sensor provided the high quality of waveguide fabrication previously

  17. Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Markley, F.W.; McCaw, W.R.; Niemann, R.C.

    1992-04-21

    An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample. 7 figs.

  18. PaR Tensile Truss for Nuclear Decontamination and Decommissioning - 12467

    SciTech Connect

    Doebler, Gary R.

    2012-07-01

    Remote robotics and manipulators are commonly used in nuclear decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) processes. D and D robots are often deployed using rigid telescoping masts in order to apply and counteract side loads. However, for very long vertical reaches (15 meters or longer) and high lift capacities, a telescopic is usually not practical due to the large cross section and weight required to make the mast stiff and resist seismic forces. For those long vertical travel applications, PaR Systems has recently developed the Tensile Truss, a rigid, hoist-driven 'structure' that employs six independent wire rope hoists to achieve long vertical reaches. Like a mast, the Tensile Truss is typically attached to a bridge-mounted trolley and is used as a platform for robotic manipulators and other remotely operated tools. For suspended, rigid deployment of D and D tools with very long vertical reaches, the Tensile Truss can be a better alternative than a telescoping mast. Masts have length limitations that can make them impractical or unworkable as lengths increase. The Tensile Truss also has the added benefits of increased safety, ease of decontamination, superior stiffness and ability to withstand excessive side loading. A Tensile Truss system is currently being considered for D and D operations and spent fuel recovery at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. This system will deploy interchangeable tools such as underwater hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic shears and crushers, grippers and fuel grapples. (authors)

  19. Acceleration of tensile strength of incisions treated with EGF and TGF-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G L; Curtsinger, L J; White, M; Mitchell, R O; Pietsch, J; Nordquist, R; von Fraunhofer, A; Schultz, G S

    1988-01-01

    The ability of surgeons to accelerate wound healing through pharmacologic intervention is limited. The effects of locally applied, biosynthetic human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on tensile strength of experimental incisions were investigated. A single dose of EGF in saline failed to increase tensile strength over controls. Thus, EGF was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes, which prolonged the exposure of incisions to EGF (p less than 0.001). A single dose of EGF in multilamellar liposomes produced a 200% increase in wound tensile strength over controls between 7 and 14 days (p less than 0.05). Light and electron microscopy of the wounds revealed increased collagen formation and fibroblast proliferation. A single dose of TGB-beta in a collagen vehicle stimulated a 51% increase in wound tensile strength at 9 days (p less than 0.01). We conclude that addition of EGF and TGF-beta in appropriate vehicles stimulates early transient increases in wound tensile strength in normal rats. PMID:3264140

  20. Ultraviolet-induced irreversible tensile actuation of diacetylene/nylon microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Choi, Changsoon; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Photomechanically irreversible tensile-actuated diacetylene-embedding nylon 6/6 microfibers were investigated. 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomer, which have conventionally provided a visual color change by temperature and photo-driven stimuli, was embedded in nylon 6/6 microfibers by wet spinning. By ultraviolet (UV) (254 nm) exposure, we observed irreversible tensile actuation (contraction) of linear (untwisted) and helical (twisted) structural microfibers. The tensile contraction of twisted nylon 6/6-PCDA microfiber containing10 mM PCDA was reached to ˜2% at 60 °C. Such irreversible tensile contraction can be promoted by volume contraction of PCDA monomers during UV exposure along with irregular structural deformation containing gauche conformation with increasing temperature. The kinetics of tensile contraction with temperature and time were shown by the Arrhenius plots. The activation energies were 34.3-35.7 kJ mol-1 as increasing the concentration of PCDA, implies that the nylon 6/6-PCDA microfibers could be applied to show time-temperature integrated device.

  1. Active Tensile Modulus of an Epithelial Monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Romaric; Bazellières, Elsa; Pérez-González, Carlos; Uroz, Marina; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    A general trait of cell monolayers is their ability to exert contractile stresses on their surroundings. The scaling laws that link such contractile stresses with the size and geometry of constituent cells remain largely unknown. In this Letter, we show that the active tension of an epithelial monolayer scales linearly with the size of the constituent cells, a surprisingly simple relationship. The slope of this relationship defines an active tensile modulus, which depends on the concentration of myosin and spans more than 2 orders of magnitude across cell types and molecular perturbations.

  2. Stochastic models for the tensile strength, fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phoenix, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    The time-to-failure of a single fiber is modeled as a functional of the fiber load history and reasonable forms for this functional are proposed. Earlier models by Daniels and Coleman are shown to be special cases of the proposed model and apparent disparities in their behavior are discussed. Techniques are presented for determining analytically the asymptotic distributions of the tensile strength and time-to-failure for bundles of a large number of fibers. For smaller bundles, exact results are far too cumbersome to be of use so that efficient Monte Carlo simulation procedures are proposed.

  3. Tensile Fabrics Enhance Architecture Around the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Using a remarkable fabric originally developed to protect Apollo astronauts, Birdair Inc. of Amherst, New York, has crafted highly durable, safe, environmentally friendly, and architecturally stunning tensile membrane roofs for over 900 landmark structures around the world. Travelers in airports, sports fans at stadiums, and shoppers in malls have all experienced the benefits of the Teflon-coated fiberglass fabric that has enabled Birdair to grow from a small company established in its founder?s kitchen in 1955 to a multimillion-dollar specialty contractor today.

  4. Method and device for tensile testing of cable bundles

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Lawrence M; Ardelean, Emil V; Goodding, James C; Babuska, Vit

    2012-10-16

    A standard tensile test device is improved to accurately measure the mechanical properties of stranded cables, ropes, and other composite structures wherein a witness is attached to the top and bottom mounting blocks holding the cable under test. The witness is comprised of two parts: a top and a bottom rod of similar diameter with the bottom rod having a smaller diameter stem on its upper end and the top rod having a hollow opening in its lower end into which the stem fits forming a witness joint. A small gap is present between the top rod and the larger diameter portion of the bottom rod. A standard extensometer is attached to the top and bottom rods of the witness spanning this small witness gap. When a force is applied to separate the mounting blocks, the gap in the witness expands the same length that the entire test specimen is stretched.

  5. Strain-rate sensitivity of foam materials: A numerical study using 3D image-based finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongle; Li, Q. M.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    Realistic simulations are increasingly demanded to clarify the dynamic behaviour of foam materials, because, on one hand, the significant variability (e.g. 20% scatter band) of foam properties and the lack of reliable dynamic test methods for foams bring particular difficulty to accurately evaluate the strain-rate sensitivity in experiments; while on the other hand numerical models based on idealised cell structures (e.g. Kelvin and Voronoi) may not be sufficiently representative to capture the actual structural effect. To overcome these limitations, the strain-rate sensitivity of the compressive and tensile properties of closed-cell aluminium Alporas foam is investigated in this study by means of meso-scale realistic finite element (FE) simulations. The FE modelling method based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) image is introduced first, as well as its applications to foam materials. Then the compression and tension of Alporas foam at a wide variety of applied nominal strain-rates are simulated using FE model constructed from the actual cell geometry obtained from the CT image. The stain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength (collapse stress) and tensile strength (0.2% offset yield point) are evaluated when considering different cell-wall material properties. The numerical results show that the rate dependence of cell-wall material is the main cause of the strain-rate hardening of the compressive and tensile strengths at low and intermediate strain-rates. When the strain-rate is sufficiently high, shock compression is initiated, which significantly enhances the stress at the loading end and has complicated effect on the stress at the supporting end. The plastic tensile wave effect is evident at high strain-rates, but shock tension cannot develop in Alporas foam due to the softening associated with single fracture process zone occurring in tensile response. In all cases the micro inertia of individual cell walls subjected to localised deformation is found to

  6. A study on a rigid body boundary layer interface force model for stress calculation and stress strain behaviour of nanoscale uniaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Huang, Jen-Ching

    2004-11-01

    A rigid body boundary layer interface force (RIF) model for stress calculation on the nanoscale is proposed in this paper for calculating stress based on molecular dynamics. The RIF model is used to study the stress-stain behaviour when nanoscale single crystal copper is under uniaxial tension, and is used for 15 tensile simulations each with different strain rate. The stress-strain curve established from simulation was first converted into a true stress-strain curve; a regression analysis was then applied in order to find the flow curve. From simulation results, it is found that the strain rate has large influence on both K and n values of the flow curve. At low strain rate (less than 1 × 1012 s-1), both K and n values decrease with the increase of strain rate. When the strain rate exceeds 1 × 1012 s-1, the strain rate against the K and n values of the flow curve approaches a constant. Flow curve equations considering the influence of strain rate are derived; both complete and simplified forms of flow curve equations are also derived. It is observed that the lower the strain rates, the higher the fluctuations of the stress-strain curve. Furthermore, the increase of strain rate resulting in a smoother stress-strain curve is also found.

  7. Strain-age cracking in Rene 41 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.; Thompson, E. G.

    1969-01-01

    Weldability test determines the effects of material and process variables on the occurrence of strain-age cracking, and demonstrates effective and practical means for its reduction. Studies consist of tensile, impact, and stress-rupture tests.

  8. Tensile Properties of Medium Mn Steel with a Bimodal UFG α + γ and Coarse δ-Ferrite Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seonjong; Shin, Sunmi; Kwon, Minhyeok; Lee, Kyooyoung; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2017-04-01

    While the tensile strength and elongation obtained for medium Mn steel would appear to make it a candidate material in applications which require formable ultra-high strength materials, many secondary aspects of the microstructure-properties relationships have not yet been given enough attention. In this contribution, the microstructural and tensile properties of medium Mn steel with a bimodal microstructure consisting of an ultra-fine grained ferrite + austenite constituent and coarse-grained delta-ferrite are therefore reviewed in detail. The tensile properties of ultra-fine-grained intercritically annealed medium Mn steel reveal a complex dependence on the intercritical annealing temperature. This dependence is related to the influence of the intercritical annealing temperature on the activation of the plasticity-enhancing mechanisms in the microstructure. The kinetics of deformation twinning and strain-induced transformation in the ultra-fine grained austenite play a prominent role in determining the strain hardening of medium Mn steel. While excellent strength-ductility combinations are obtained when deformation twinning and strain-induced transformation occur gradually and in sequence, large elongations are also observed when strain-induced transformation plasticity is not activated. In addition, the localization of plastic flow is observed to occur in samples after intercritical annealing at intermediate temperatures, suggesting that both strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity are influenced by the properties of the ultra-fine-grained austenite.

  9. Tensile and stress-rupture behavior of hafnium carbide dispersed molybdenum and tungsten base alloy wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Titran, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile strain rate sensitivity and the stress-rupture strength of Mo-base and W-base alloy wires, 380 microns in diameter, were determined over the temperature range from 1200 K to 1600 K. Three molybdenum alloy wires; Mo + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC), Mo + 25w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+25W) and Mo + 45w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+45W), and a W + 0.4w/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) tungsten alloy wire were evaluated. The tensile strength of all wires studied was found to have a positive strain rate sensitivity. The strain rate dependency increased with increasing temperature and is associated with grain broadening of the initial fibrous structures. The hafnium carbide dispersed W-base and Mo-base alloys have superior tensile and stress-rupture properties than those without HfC. On a density compensated basis the MoHfC wires exhibit superior tensile and stress-rupture strengths to the WHfC wires up to approximately 1400 K. Addition of tungsten in the Mo-alloy wires was found to increase the long-term stress rupture strength at temperatures above 1400 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength and ductility advantage of the HfC dispersed alloy wires is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  10. Correlation of microstructure, tensile properties and hole expansion ratio in cold rolled advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrazas, Oscar R.

    The demand for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with higher strengths is increasing in the automotive industry. While there have been major improvements recently in the trade-off between ductility and strength, sheared-edge formability of AHSS remains a critical issue. AHSS sheets exhibit cracking during stamping and forming operations below the predictions of forming limits. It has become important to understand the correlation between microstructure and sheared edge formability. The present work investigates the effects of shearing conditions, microstructure, and tensile properties on sheared edge formability. Seven commercially produced steels with tensile strengths of 1000 +/- 100 MPa were evaluated: five dual-phase (DP) steels with different compositions and varying microstructural features, one trip aided bainitic ferrite (TBF) steel, and one press-hardened steel tempered to a tensile strength within the desired range. It was found that sheared edge formability is influenced by the martensite in DP steels. Quantitative stereology measurements provided results that showed martensite size and distribution affect hole expansion ratio (HER). The overall trend is that HER increases with more evenly dispersed martensite throughout the microstructure. This microstructure involves a combination of martensite size, contiguity, mean free distance, and number of colonies per unit area. Additionally, shear face characterization showed that the fracture and burr region affect HER. The HER decreases with increasing size of fracture and burr region. With a larger fracture and burr region more defects and/or micro-cracks will be present on the shear surface. This larger fracture region on the shear face facilitates cracking in sheared edge formability. Finally, the sheared edge formability is directly correlated to true fracture strain (TFS). The true fracture strain from tensile samples correlates to the HER values. HER increases with increasing true fracture strain.

  11. Substantial tensile ductility in sputtered Zr-Ni-Al nano-sized metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Liontas, Rachel; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; ...

    2016-08-04

    We investigate the mechanical behavior and atomic-level structure of glassy Zr-Ni-Al nano-tensile specimens with widths between 75 and 215 nm. We focus our studies on two different energy states: (1) as-sputtered and (2) sputtered then annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In-situ tensile experiments conducted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal substantial tensile ductility in some cases reaching >10% engineering plastic strains, >150% true plastic strains, and necking down to a point during tensile straining in specimens as wide as ~150 nm. We found the extent of ductility depends on both the specimen size and the annealing conditions.more » Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), we explain the observed mechanical behavior through changes in free volume as well as short- and medium-range atomic-level order that occur upon annealing. This work demonstrates the importance of carefully choosing the metallic glass fabrication method and post-processing conditions for achieving a certain atomic-level structure and free volume within the metallic glass, which then determine the overall mechanical response. Lastly, an important implication is that sputter deposition may be a particularly promising technique for producing thin coatings of metallic glasses with significant ductility, due to the high level of disorder and excess free volume resulting from the sputtering process and to the suitability of sputtering for producing thin coatings that may exhibit enhanced size-induced ductility.« less

  12. Tensile behavior of glass/ceramic composite materials at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Jacobs, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the tensile behavior of high-temperature composite materials containing continuous Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforcement and glass and glass/ceramic matrices. The longitudinal properties of these materials can approach theoretical expectations for brittle matrix composites, failing at a strength and ultimate strain level consistent with those of the fibers. The brittle, high-modulus matrices result in a nonlinear stress-strain curve due to the onset of stable matrix cracking at 10 to 30 percent of the fiber strain to failure, and at strains below this range in off-axis plies. Current fibers and matrices can provide attractive properties well above 1000 C, but composites experience embrittlement in oxidizing atmospheres at 800 to 1000 C due to oxidation of a carbon interface reaction layer.The oxidation effect greatly increases the interface bond strength, causing composite embrittlement.

  13. Austenite Stability Effects on Tensile Behavior of Manganese-Enriched-Austenite Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, P. J.; de Moor, E.; Merwin, M. J.; Clausen, B.; Speer, J. G.; Matlock, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Manganese enrichment of austenite during prolonged intercritical annealing was used to produce a family of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with varying retained austenite contents. Cold-rolled 0.1C-7.1Mn steel was annealed at incremental temperatures between 848 K and 948 K (575 °C and 675 °C) for 1 week to enrich austenite in manganese. The resulting microstructures are comprised of varying fractions of intercritical ferrite, martensite, and retained austenite. Tensile behavior is dependent on annealing temperature and ranged from a low strain-hardening "flat" curve to high strength and ductility conditions that display positive strain hardening over a range of strain levels. The mechanical stability of austenite was measured using in-situ neutron diffraction and was shown to depend significantly on annealing temperature. Variations in austenite stability between annealing conditions help explain the observed strain hardening behaviors.

  14. An In-Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of the Bonding between MnS Inclusions and the Matrix during Tensile Deformation of Hot-Rolled Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. B.; Temmel, C.; Karlsson, B.; Ingesten, N.-G.

    2007-05-01

    The bonding between manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions and the surrounding steel matrix was investigated by in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at room temperature. Tests were carried out for two different orientations of the inclusions with respect to the loading axis. The orientation was created during a hot cross rolling operation of the test material. Straining was performed along both longitudinal (L) and short transverse (S) directions. The investigation showed that the bond between the MnS inclusions and the matrix is weak. This was particularly seen in the S test direction where the sulfides, lying perpendicular to the load axis, delaminated from the matrix at very low applied stresses. The MnS inclusions in longitudinal tests instead fractured at high stress levels close to the yield stress.

  15. Subtask 12E2: Effect of oxidation on tensile behavior of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the oxygen uptake of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure in the exposure environment, (b) examine the microstructural characteristics of oxide scales and oxygen entrapped at the grain boundaries in the substrate alloy, (c) evaluate the influence of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloy at room and elevated temperatures, (d) evaluate oxidation kinetics of the alloy with aluminum-enriched surface layers, and (e) determine the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile behavior of the alloy. Oxidation studies were conducted on V-5Cr-5Ti alloy specimens at 500{degrees}C in an air environment. The oxidation rates calculated from measurements of thermogravimetric testing are 10, 17, and 25 {mu}m/y at 400, 450 and 500{degrees}C, respectively. Uniaxial tensile specimens were oxidized for several time periods in air at 500{degrees}C and subsequently tensile-tested at 500{degrees}C in air. The hardened layer in each of these oxidized specimens was confined to 75 gm after 1000 h exposure at 500{degrees}C. The influence of the 1000-h oxidation is to increase the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy by {approx}10% while decreasing the tensile rupture strain from 0.23 to 0.14. 4 figs.

  16. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  17. Tensile Properties of the Deep Transverse Metatarsal Ligament in Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Abdalbary, Sahar Ahmed; Elshaarawy, Ehab A.A.; Khalid, Bahaa E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The deep transverse metatarsal ligament (DTML) connects the neighboring 2 metatarsal heads and is one of the stabilizers connecting the lateral sesamoid and second metatarsal head. In this study, we aimed to determine the tensile properties of the DTML in normal specimens and to compare these results with hallux valgus specimens. We hypothesized that the tensile properties of the DTML would be different between the 2 groups of specimens. The DTML in the first interspace was dissected from 12 fresh frozen human cadaveric specimens. Six cadavers had bilateral hallux valgus and the other 6 cadavers had normal feet. The initial length (L0) and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML were measured using a digital caliper, and tensile tests with load failure were performed using a material testing machine. There were significant between-groups differences in the initial length (L0) P = 0.009 and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML P = 0.007. There were also significant between-groups differences for maximum force (N) P = 0.004, maximum distance (mm) P = 0.005, maximum stress (N/mm2) P = 0.003, and maximum strain (%) P = 0.006. The DTML is an anatomical structure for which the tensile properties differ in hallux valgus. PMID:26937914

  18. Tensile behavior of tungsten and tungsten-alloy wires from 1300 to 1600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hee, Man Yun

    1988-01-01

    The tensile behavior of a 200-micrometer-diameter tungsten lamp (218CS-W), tungsten + 1.0 atomic percent (a/o) thoria (ST300-W), and tungsten + 0.4 a/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) wires was determined over the temperature range 1300 t0 1600 K at strain rates of 3.3 X 10 to the -2 to 3.3 X 10 to the -5/sec. Although most tests were conducted on as-drawn materials, one series of tests was undertaken on ST300-W wires in four different conditions: as-drawn and vacuum-annealed at 1535 K for 1 hr, with and without electroplating. Whereas heat treatment had no effect on tensile properties, electropolishing significantly increased both the proportional limit and ductility, but not the ultimate tensile strength. Comparison of the behavior of the three alloys indicates that the HfC-dispersed material possesses superior tensile properties. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength/ductility advantage of WHfC is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  19. Residue levels, persistence and effectiveness of imazalil against a resistant strain of penicillium digitatum when applied in combination with heat and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Green and blue molds, respectively caused by Penicillium digitatum Sacc., and P. italicum Wehmer, are the most important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit Postharvest management of these pathogens is mainly based on the application of thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil (IMZ) fungicides. However, their intensive and prolonged use has led to the selection of TBZ- IMZ-resistant strains of these pathogens and to a reduction of TBZ and IMZ effectiveness to control postharvest decay. However, while TBZ may become completely ineffective against TBZ-resistant strains of P. digitatum, reduction of IMZ efficacy is only partial, and an effective control of decay can still be achieved by increasing its concentration, heating the treatment-solution and/or combining IMZ with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) or other food additives or natural salts. In this study, 'Desiderio' and 'Nova' mandarins were inoculated with spores of a sensitive strain of P. digitatum to IMZ and TBZ (PDs) or with a strain of P. digitatum with double resistance to both fungicides (PDr) and immersed in IMZ or TBZ emulsions at increasing concentrations up to 1000 mg/L or in IMZ (25, 200 or 400 mg/L), SBC (0.5, 1 or 2%) or IMZ + SBC emulsions either at 20 or 40 degrees C. IMZ was superior to TBZ to control decay of 'Desiderio' mandarins incited by PDs and was also effective to control decay in fruit inoculated with PDr, while TBZ even at the highest rate was completely ineffective. In 'Desiderio' mandarins inoculated with PDs, a complete control of decay was achieved with 25 mg/L IMZ but in fruit inoculated with PDr, 25 mg/L IMZ were ineffective to control decay despite in combination with SBC at 2% a synergistic effect was detected. In contrast, a good control of decay was achieved with 400 mg/L IMZ. In 'Nova' mandarins after 1 week of incubation at 20 degrees C decay incidence in fruit dipped in 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C or 200 mg/L IMZ at 40 degrees C was almost completely inhibited, while the addition of SBC at

  20. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.